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Journal of Vision

Tom Alexander de Graaf, Raymond van Ee, Dennis Croonenberg, Peter Christiaan Klink, Alexander Thomas Sack
Various paradigms can make visual stimuli disappear from awareness, but they often involve stimuli that are either relatively weak, competing with other salient inputs, and/or presented for a prolonged period of time. Here we explore a phenomenon that involves controlled perceptual disappearance of a peripheral visual stimulus without these limitations. It occurs when one eye's stimulus is abruptly removed during a binocular rivalry situation. This manipulation renders the remaining stimulus, which is still being presented to the other eye, invisible for up to several seconds...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Gaoxing Mei, Xue Dong, Min Bao
The visual environment changes at multiple timescales. It has been recently demonstrated that visual adaptation is composed of multiple mechanisms operating at differing timescales to accommodate the environmental changes. However, whether multiple adaptation mechanisms correspond to different stages of visual processing remains unclear. To address this issue, in the current study, we compared the timescales of adaptation between the stages of early and mid-level visual processing by tracking the decay of the curvature aftereffect after adaptation to either a compound stimulus or a component stimulus...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Mariel Roberts, Rachel Cymerman, R Theodore Smith, Lynne Kiorpes, Marisa Carrasco
Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention-the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements-to the same degree as neurotypical observers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Christian P Janssen, Preeti Verghese
We report a method to train individuals with central field loss due to macular degeneration to improve the efficiency of visual search. Our method requires participants to make a same/different judgment on two simple silhouettes. One silhouette is presented in an area that falls within the binocular scotoma while they are fixating the center of the screen with their preferred retinal locus (PRL); the other silhouette is presented diametrically opposite within the intact visual field. Over the course of 480 trials (approximately 6 hr), we gradually reduced the amount of time that participants have to make a saccade and judge the similarity of stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Ye Xia, Allison Yamanashi Leib, David Whitney
The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Kun Qian, Hiroyuki Mitsudo
In this study, we report a new visual shape illusion, the eggs illusion, in which circular disks located at the midpoints between adjacent grid intersections are perceived as being deformed to ellipses. In Experiment 1, we examined the eggs illusion by using a matching method and found that grid luminance and patch size play a critical role in producing the illusory deformation. In Experiment 2, we employed several types of elliptic or circular patches to examine the conditions in which the illusory deformation was cancelled or weakened...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Joseph L Sanguinetti, Mary A Peterson
Traditional theories of vision assume that object segregation occurs before access to object memories. Yet, behavioral evidence shows that familiar configuration is a prior for segregation, and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate these memories are accessed rapidly. A behavioral index of the speed of access is lacking, however. Here we asked how quickly behavior is influenced by object memories that are accessed in the course of object segregation. We investigated whether access to object memories on the groundside of a border can slow behavior during a rapid categorization task...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Alexander Priamikov, Maria Fronius, Bertram Shi, Jochen Triesch
We introduce OpenEyeSim, a detailed three-dimensional biomechanical model of the human extraocular eye muscles including a visualization of a virtual environment. The main purpose of OpenEyeSim is to serve as a platform for developing models of the joint learning of visual representations and eye-movement control in the perception-action cycle. The architecture and dynamic muscle properties are based on measurements of the human oculomotor system. We show that our model can reproduce different types of eye movements...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Natela Shanidze, Saeideh Ghahghaei, Preeti Verghese
In this study, we address the question of whether a target is foveated during smooth pursuit. Specifically, we examine whether smooth pursuit eye movements land near the center-of-mass of the target, as is the case for saccades. To that end, we instructed eight untrained, healthy participants to follow moving targets, presented monocularly in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Stimuli moved either in a modified step-ramp (smooth pursuit), or made a single step (saccade), stepping 6° from the center. Targets were ring-shaped and either 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Jocelyn L Sy, Andrew J Tomarken, Vaama Patel, Randolph Blake
Binocular rivalry occurs when markedly different inputs to the two eyes initiate alternations in perceptual dominance between the two eyes' views. A link between individual differences in perceptual dynamics of rivalry and concentrations of GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, has highlighted binocular rivalry as a potential tool to investigate inhibitory processes in the brain. The present experiment investigated whether previously reported fluctuations of GABA concentrations in a healthy menstrual cycle (Epperson et al...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Matteo Toscani, Suncica Zdravkovic, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Lightness perception has mainly been studied with static scenes so far. This study presents four experiments investigating lightness perception under dynamic illumination conditions. We asked participants for lightness matches of a virtual three-dimensional target moving through a light field while their eye movements were recorded. We found that the target appeared differently, depending on the direction of motion in the light field and its precise position in the light field. Lightness was also strongly affected by the choice of fixation positions with the spatiotemporal image sequence...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Linnéa Larsson, Marcus Nyström, Håkan Ardö, Kalle Åström, Martin Stridh
An increasing number of researchers record binocular eye-tracking signals from participants viewing moving stimuli, but the majority of event-detection algorithms are monocular and do not consider smooth pursuit movements. The purposes of the present study are to develop an algorithm that discriminates between fixations and smooth pursuit movements in binocular eye-tracking signals and to evaluate its performance using an automated video-based strategy. The proposed algorithm uses a clustering approach that takes both spatial and temporal aspects of the binocular eye-tracking signal into account, and is evaluated using a novel video-based evaluation strategy based on automatically detected moving objects in the video stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Noga Pinchuk-Yacobi, Ron Dekel, Dov Sagi
The tilt aftereffect (TAE) is traditionally regarded as a consequence of orientation-selective sensory adaptation, a low-level stimulus-driven process. Adaptation has been recently suggested to be the outcome of predictive coding. Here, we tested whether the TAE is modulated by predictability, and specifically, whether TAE depends on the congruency of adapted and expected orientations. Observers were presented with successive pairs of oriented Gabor patches. Pairs were arranged in blocks, forming two conditions with the orientation of the second pair member either predictable or not...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Gloria Luo-Li, David Alais, Alan W Freeman
Orientation sensitivity depends on the cortical convergence of on- and off-center subcortical neurons. Off-center inputs are faster and stronger than their on-center counterparts: How does this asymmetry affect orientation discrimination? We tackled this question psychophysically with grating stimuli that either increased or decreased luminance. The gratings were of low contrast in order to avoid the complicating influences of nonlinearities such as response saturation, masking, and aftereffects. Gratings were presented in either of two locations, and subjects indicated the perceived location...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Ross Goutcher
To perceive multiple overlapping surfaces in the same location of the visual field (transparency), the visual system must determine which surface elements belong together, and should be integrated, and which should be kept apart. Spatial relations between surfaces, such as depth order, must also be determined. This article details two experiments examining the interaction of motion direction and disparity cues on the perception of depth order and surface segmentation in transparency. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with random-dot stereograms, where transparent planes were defined by differences in motion direction and disparity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Alina Liberman, Kathy Zhang, David Whitney
Object identities somehow appear stable and continuous over time despite eye movements, disruptions in visibility, and constantly changing visual input. Recent results have demonstrated that the perception of orientation, numerosity, and facial identity is systematically biased (i.e., pulled) toward visual input from the recent past. The spatial region over which current orientations or face identities are pulled by previous orientations or identities, respectively, is known as the continuity field, which is temporally tuned over the past several seconds (Fischer & Whitney, 2014)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Steven M Thurman, Pinakin Gunvant Davey, Kaydee Lynn McCray, Violeta Paronian, Aaron R Seitz
Contrast sensitivity (CS) is widely used as a measure of visual function in both basic research and clinical evaluation. There is conflicting evidence on the extent to which measuring the full contrast sensitivity function (CSF) offers more functionally relevant information than a single measurement from an optotype CS test, such as the Pelli-Robson chart. Here we examine the relationship between functional CSF parameters and other measures of visual function, and establish a framework for predicting individual CSFs with effectively a zero-parameter model that shifts a standard-shaped template CSF horizontally and vertically according to independent measurements of high contrast acuity and letter CS, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Daniel H Baker, Milena Kaestner, André D Gouws
Studying binocular vision requires precise control over the stimuli presented to the left and right eyes. A popular technique is to segregate signals either temporally (frame interleaving), spectrally (using colored filters), or through light polarization. None of these segregation methods achieves perfect isolation, and so a degree of crosstalk is usually apparent, in which signals intended for one eye are faintly visible to the other eye. Previous studies have reported crosstalk values mostly for consumer-grade systems...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Trafton Drew, Cary Stohart
How is feature-based attention distributed when engaged in a challenging attentional task? Thanks to formative electrophysiological and psychophysical work, we know a great deal about the spatial distribution of attention, but much less is known about how feature-based attention is allocated. In a large-scale online study, we investigated the distribution of attention to color space using a sustained inattentional blindness task. In order to query what parts of color space were being attended or inhibited, we varied the color of an unexpected stimulus on the final trial...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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