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Journal of Vision

Emily C Gelfand, Gregory D Horwitz
Rhesus monkeys are a valuable model for studies of primate visual contrast sensitivity. Their visual systems are similar to that of humans, and they can be trained to perform detection tasks at threshold during neurophysiological recording. However, the stimulus dependence of rhesus monkey contrast sensitivity has not been well characterized. Temporal frequency, color, and retinal eccentricity affect the contrast sensitivity of humans in reasonably well-understood ways. To ask whether these factors affect monkey sensitivity similarly, we measured detection thresholds of two monkeys using a two-alternative, forced-choice task and compared them to thresholds of two human subjects who performed the same task...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Ingo Fruend, Elee Stalker
Humans are remarkably well tuned to the statistical properties of natural images. However, quantitative characterization of processing within the domain of natural images has been difficult because most parametric manipulations of a natural image make that image appear less natural. We used generative adversarial networks (GANs) to constrain parametric manipulations to remain within an approximation of the manifold of natural images. In the first experiment, seven observers decided which one of two synthetic perturbed images matched a synthetic unperturbed comparison image...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Brian P Schmidt, Alexandra E Boehm, Katharina G Foote, Austin Roorda
Organisms are faced with the challenge of making inferences about the physical world from incomplete incoming sensory information. One strategy to combat ambiguity in this process is to combine new information with prior experiences. We investigated the strategy of combining these information sources in color vision. Single cones in human subjects were stimulated and the associated percepts were recorded. Subjects rated each flash for brightness, hue, and saturation. Brightness ratings were proportional to stimulus intensity...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Alice C Chadwick, George Cox, Hannah E Smithson, Robert W Kentridge
Is perception of translucence based on estimations of scattering and absorption of light or on statistical pseudocues associated with familiar materials? We compared perceptual performance with real and computer-generated stimuli. Real stimuli were glasses of milky tea. Milk predominantly scatters light and tea absorbs it, but since the tea absorbs less as the milk concentration increases, the effects of milkiness and strength on scattering and absorption are not independent. Conversely, computer-generated stimuli were glasses of "milky tea" in which absorption and scattering were independently manipulated...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Fuensanta A Vera-Diaz, Peter J Bex, Adriana Ferreira, Anna Kosovicheva
Our ability to utilize binocular visual information depends on the visibility of the retinal images in each eye, which varies with both their spatial and temporal frequency content. Although the effects of spatial information on binocular function have been established, the effects of temporal frequency on binocularity are less well understood. These factors may also vary with refractive error if spatiotemporal sensitivity is affected by structural changes during the emmetropization process that may differentially affect distinct ganglion cells...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Brad C Motter
Saccadic momentum refers to the increased probability of making a saccade in a forward direction relative to the previous saccade. During visual search and free viewing conditions saccadic probability falls in a gradient from forward to backward directions. It has been considered to reflect an oculomotor bias for a continuing motor plan. Here we report that a saccadic momentum gradient is observed in nonhuman primate behavior and in the visual responses of cortical area V4 neurons during a conjunction style visual search task...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Nienke B Debats, Herbert Heuer
Spatial proximity enhances the sensory integration of exafferent position information, likely because it indicates whether the information comes from a single physical source. Does spatial proximity also affect the integration of position information regarding an action (here a hand movement) with that of its visual effect (here a cursor motion), that is, when the sensory information comes from physically distinct objects? In this study, participants made out-and-back hand movements whereby the outward movements were accompanied by corresponding cursor motions on a monitor...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Jean-Bernard Damasse, Laurent U Perrinet, Laurent Madelain, Anna Montagnini
When predictive information about target motion is available, anticipatory smooth pursuit eye movements (aSPEM) are consistently generated before target appearance, thereby reducing the typical sensorimotor delay between target motion onset and foveation. By manipulating the probability for target motion direction, we were able to bias the direction and mean velocity of aSPEM. This suggests that motion-direction expectancy has a strong effect on the initiation of anticipatory movements. To further understand the nature of anticipatory smooth eye movements, we investigated different effects of reinforcement on aSPEM...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Ksander N de Winkel, Max Kurtz, Heinrich H B├╝lthoff
Visual heading estimation is subject to periodic patterns of constant (bias) and variable (noise) error. The nature of the errors, however, appears to differ between studies, showing underestimation in some, but overestimation in others. We investigated whether field of view (FOV), the availability of binocular disparity cues, motion profile, and visual scene layout can account for error characteristics, with a potential mediating effect of vection. Twenty participants (12 females) reported heading and rated vection for visual horizontal motion stimuli with headings ranging the full circle, while we systematically varied the above factors...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Mengyuan Gong, Taosheng Liu
A visual feature associated with reward can capture attention when it is neither physically salient nor task relevant. Although such findings suggest that reward acts similarly as physical salience, it is unknown whether reward works independently or interactively with physical salience to modulate attentional priority. Here, we first trained participants to associate two motion directions with high and low reward. During the test, we presented superimposed but perceptually separable stimuli that consisted of coherently and randomly moving dot fields, while manipulating the physical salience (low vs...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Fan Zhang, Huib de Ridder, Sylvia C Pont
To better understand the interactions between material perception and light perception, we further developed our material probe MatMix 1.0 into MixIM 1.0, which allows optical mixing of canonical lighting modes. We selected three canonical lighting modes (ambient, focus, and brilliance) and created scenes to represent the three illuminations. Together with four canonical material modes (matte, velvety, specular, glittery), this resulted in 12 basis images (the "bird set"). These images were optically mixed in our probing method...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Xim Cerda-Company, Xavier Otazu, Nilai Sallent, C Alejandro Parraga
The color appearance of a surface depends on the color of its surroundings (inducers). When the perceived color shifts towards that of the surroundings, the effect is called "color assimilation" and when it shifts away from the surroundings it is called "color contrast." There is also evidence that the phenomenon depends on the spatial configuration of the inducer, e.g., uniform surrounds tend to induce color contrast and striped surrounds tend to induce color assimilation. However, previous work found that striped surrounds under certain conditions do not induce color assimilation but induce color contrast (or do not induce anything at all), suggesting that luminance differences and high spatial frequencies could be key factors in color assimilation...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Moritz Feil, Meinrad Abegg, Mathias Abegg
The temporal relation of competing visual stimuli may determine the corresponding oculomotor response. In this study we systematically varied the temporal coincidence of two conflicting stimuli and investigated saccades that were elicited from such stimuli. We varied the time of presentation of two identical spatially separated stimuli between 0 and +165 ms and measured the amplitude of the saccade elicited by these stimuli using infrared eye tracking. In the first experiment, all stimuli were shown for 36 ms only...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Ian Donovan, Marisa Carrasco
Covert attention and perceptual learning enhance perceptual performance. The relation between these two mechanisms is largely unknown. Previously, we showed that manipulating involuntary, exogenous spatial attention during training improved performance at trained and untrained locations, thus overcoming the typical location specificity. Notably, attention-induced transfer only occurred for high stimulus contrasts, at the upper asymptote of the psychometric function (i.e., via response gain). Here, we investigated whether and how voluntary, endogenous attention, the top-down and goal-based type of covert visual attention, influences perceptual learning...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Suzon Ajasse, Ryad B Benosman, Jean Lorenceau
The optic quality of the eyes is, at least in part, determined by pupil size. Large pupils let more light enter the eyes, but degrade the point spread function, and thus the spatial resolution that can be achieved (Campbell & Gregory, 1960). In natural conditions, the pupil is mainly driven by the luminance (and possibly the color and contrast) at the gazed location, but is also modulated by attention and cognitive factors. Whether changes in eyes' optics related to pupil size modulation by luminance and attention impacts visual processing was assessed in two experiments...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Daehyun Ryu, Songjoo Oh
When a ball on a pool table moves to hit another ball, people feel the causal impression between the two balls: The first ball causes the second ball's motion, which is known as the launching effect. Previous research has shown that the causal impression becomes stronger when the two balls have a similar direction of movement. Here, we tested whether this good continuation influenced perception of the contact time between the causal object and the effect object. A variant of Michotte's visual collision event was used as a stimulus, consisting of two competing cause objects and one effect object...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Robert G Alexander, Gregory J Zelinsky
Objects often appear with some amount of occlusion. We fill in missing information using local shape features even before attending to those objects-a process called amodal completion. Here we explore the possibility that knowledge about common realistic objects can be used to "restore" missing information even in cases where amodal completion is not expected. We systematically varied whether visual search targets were occluded or not, both at preview and in search displays. Button-press responses were longest when the preview was unoccluded and the target was occluded in the search display...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Kiley J Seymour, Timo Stein, Colin W G Clifford, Philipp Sterzer
Neural responses to visual stimuli are modulated by spatial and temporal context. For example, in primary visual cortex (V1), responses to an oriented target stimulus will be suppressed when embedded within an oriented surround stimulus. This suppression is orientation-specific, with the largest suppression observed when stimuli in the neuron's classical receptive field and surround are of similar orientation. In human psychological experiments, the tilt illusion and tilt aftereffect demonstrate an effect of context on perceived orientation of a target stimulus...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Laura Mikula, Marilyn Jacob, Trang Tran, Laure Pisella, Aarlenne Z Khan
The premotor theory of attention and the visual attention model make different predictions about the temporal and spatial allocation of presaccadic attentional facilitation. The current experiment investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of presaccadic attentional facilitation during pro- and antisaccade planning; we investigated whether attention shifts only to the saccade goal location or to the target location or elsewhere, and when. Participants performed a dual-task paradigm with blocks of either anti- or prosaccades and also discriminated symbols appearing at different locations before saccade onset (measure of attentional allocation)...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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