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Journal of Vision

Anna C Geuzebroek, Albert V van den Berg
Visual processing of scenes in the first tens of milliseconds relies on global image summary statistics rather than localized processing. Although natural scenes typically involve our entire visual field, scenes are usually presented experimentally at limited eccentricity. Receptive-field size increases with foveal eccentricity while increasingly pooling activity from local receptive fields. Here, we asked to what extent an observer's performance on a scene-gist perception task depends on the contents of the scene as well as on the eccentricity of the scene...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Vanessa Harrar, William Le Trung, Anton Malienko, Aarlenne Zein Khan
Video-based eye trackers have enabled major advancements in our understanding of eye movements through their ease of use and their non-invasiveness. One necessity to obtain accurate eye recordings using video-based trackers is calibration. The aim of the current study was to determine the feasibility and reliability of alternative calibration methods for scenarios in which the standard visual-calibration is not possible. Fourteen participants were tested using the EyeLink 1000 Plus video-based eye tracker, and each completed the following 5-point calibration methods: 1) standard visual-target calibration, 2) described calibration where participants were provided with verbal instructions about where to direct their eyes (without vision of the screen), 3) proprioceptive calibration where participants were asked to look at their hidden finger, 4) replacement calibration, where the visual calibration was performed by 3 different people; the calibrators were temporary substitutes for the participants...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Wakana Hata, Isamu Motoyoshi
It is well known that prolonged observation of a high-contrast stimulus alters the perception of a subsequent test stimulus. Previous studies of perceived contrast shifts only reported perceived contrast reductions. Here, we used successive presentations of test and reference stimuli and found that perceived contrast was reduced if tests had a lower contrast than adaptors but was significantly enhanced when tests had a higher contrast than adaptors. Such bidirectional contrast aftereffects were not observed for single adaptor flashes but became increasingly pronounced for repeated adaptor presentations, thereby suggesting that the aftereffect is a consequence of adaptation rather than of attentional cuing or temporal repulsion...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Matt J Dunn, Simon K Rushton
Difficulties with walking are often reported following brain damage that causes a lateralized loss of awareness on one side. Whether lateralized loss of awareness has a direct causal impact on walking is unknown. A review of the literature on visually guided walking suggests several reasons why a lateralized loss of visual awareness might be expected to lead to difficulties walking. Here, we isolated and examined the effect of lateralized vision loss on walking behavior in real and virtual environments. Healthy young participants walked to a target placed within a real room, in a virtual corridor, or on a virtual ground plane...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Marie L Smith, Daniel Grühn, Ann Bevitt, Mark Ellis, Oana Ciripan, Susan Scrimgeour, Michael Papasavva, Louise Ewing
Older adults tend to perform more poorly than younger adults on emotional expression identification tasks. The goal of the present study was to test a processing mechanism that might explain these differences in emotion recognition-specifically, age-related variation in the utilization of specific visual cues. Seventeen younger and 17 older adults completed a reverse-correlation emotion categorization task (Bubbles paradigm), consisting of a large number of trials in each of which only part of the visual information used to convey an emotional facial expression was revealed to participants...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
William McIlhagga, Kathy T Mullen
Edge detection plays an important role in human vision, and although it is clear that there are luminance edge detectors, it is not known whether there are chromatic edge detectors as well. We showed observers a horizontal edge blurred by a Gaussian filter (with widths of σ = 0.1125, 0.225, or 0.45°) embedded in blurred Brown noise. Observers had to choose which of two stimuli contained the edge. Brown noise was used in preference to white noise to reveal localized edge detectors. Edges and noise were defined by either luminance or chromatic contrast (isoluminant L/M and S-cone opponent)...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Selam W Habtegiorgis, Katharina Rifai, Markus Lappe, Siegfried Wahl
Adaptation to changes in the environment allows the visual system to achieve optimal perception in a continuously changing visual world. One particular example regarding recurrently encountered changes in everyday vision is geometrical distortions of the environment when wearing spectacles for vision correction, e.g., image shear by skew geometric distortions in progressive additional lenses. For optimal visual performance, it would be beneficial if the visual system uses previous history of recurrent distortions and learns to adapt fast when they are reapplied, yet this has not been systematically shown...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Fang Hou, Yukai Zhao, Luis Andres Lesmes, Peter Bex, Deyue Yu, Zhong-Lin Lu
Reading is a fundamental skill that can be significantly affected by visual disabilities. Reading performance, which typically is measured as reading speed with a reading chart, is a key endpoint for quantifying normal or abnormal vision. Despite its importance for clinical vision, existing reading tests for vision are time consuming and difficult to administer. Here, we propose a Bayesian adaptive method, the qReading method, for automated assessment of the reading speed versus print size function. We implemented the qReading method with a word/nonword lexical decision task and validated the method with computer simulations and a psychophysical experiment...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Anne-Raphaëlle Richoz, Junpeng Lao, Olivier Pascalis, Roberto Caldara
The effective transmission and decoding of dynamic facial expressions of emotion is omnipresent and critical for adapted social interactions in everyday life. Thus, common intuition would suggest an advantage for dynamic facial expression recognition (FER) over the static snapshots routinely used in most experiments. However, although many studies reported an advantage in the recognition of dynamic over static expressions in clinical populations, results obtained from healthy participants are contrasted. To clarify this issue, we conducted a large cross-sectional study to investigate FER across the life span in order to determine if age is a critical factor to account for such discrepancies...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Anton Malienko, Vanessa Harrar, Aarlenne Z Khan
Previous studies have shown that eye and arm movements tend to be intrinsically coupled in their behavior. There is, however, no consensus on whether planning of eye and arm movements is based on shared or independent representations. One way to gain insight into these processes is to compare how exogenous attentional modulation influences the temporal and spatial characteristics of the eye and the arm during single or combined movements. Thirteen participants (M = 22.8 years old, SD = 1.5) performed single or combined movements to an eccentric target...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Jonas Sin-Heng Lau, Timothy F Brady
People can quickly and accurately compute not only the mean size of a set of items but also the size variability of the items. However, it remains unknown how these statistics are estimated. Here we show that neither parallel access to all items nor random subsampling of just a few items is sufficient to explain participants' estimations of size variability. In three experiments, we had participants compare two arrays of circles with different variability in their sizes. In the first two experiments, we manipulated the congruency of the range and variance of the arrays...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Tal Yatziv, Yoav Kessler
Over the last couple of decades, a vast amount of research has been dedicated to understanding the nature and the architecture of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the mechanism by which currently relevant visual information is maintained. According to discrete-capacity models, VSTM is constrained by a limited number of discrete representations held simultaneously. In contrast, shared-resource models regard VSTM as limited in resources, which can be distributed flexibly between varying numbers of representations; and a new interference model posits that capacity is limited by interference among items...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Steven A Cholewiak, Gordon D Love, Martin S Banks
Blur occurs naturally when the eye is focused at one distance and an object is presented at another distance. Computer-graphics engineers and vision scientists often wish to create display images that reproduce such depth-dependent blur, but their methods are incorrect for that purpose. They take into account the scene geometry, pupil size, and focal distances, but do not properly take into account the optical aberrations of the human eye. We developed a method that, by incorporating the viewer's optics, yields displayed images that produce retinal images close to the ones that occur in natural viewing...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Dimitris Voudouris, Jeroen B J Smeets, Katja Fiehler, Eli Brenner
People have often been reported to look near their index finger's contact point when grasping. They have only been reported to look near the thumb's contact point when grasping an opaque object at eye height with a horizontal grip-thus when the region near the index finger's contact point is occluded. To examine to what extent being able to see the digits' final trajectories influences where people look, we compared gaze when reaching to grasp a glass of water or milk that was placed at eye or hip height. Participants grasped the glass and poured its contents into another glass on their left...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Eric S Seemiller, Nicholas L Port, T Rowan Candy
The relationship between gaze stability, retinal image quality, and visual perception is complex. Gaze instability related to pathology in adults can cause a reduction in visual acuity (e.g., Chung, LaFrance, & Bedell, 2011). Conversely, poor retinal image quality and spatial vision may be a contributing factor to gaze instability (e.g., Ukwade & Bedell, 1993). Though much is known about the immaturities in spatial vision of human infants, little is currently understood about their gaze stability. To characterize the gaze stability of young infants, adult participants and 4- to 10-week-old infants were shown a dynamic random-noise stimulus for 30-s intervals while their eye positions were recorded binocularly...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Hiroyuki Tsuda, Jun Saiki
Glossiness is a surface property of material that is useful for recognizing objects and spaces. For glossiness to be effective across situations, our visual system must be unaffected by viewing contexts, such as lighting conditions. Although glossiness perception has constancy across changes in illumination, whether visual working memory also realizes glossiness constancy is not known. To address this issue, participants were presented with photo-realistic computer-generated images of spherical objects and asked to match the appearance of reference and test stimuli in relation to two dimensions of glossiness (contrast and sharpness)...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Nathan Witthoft, Long Sha, Jonathan Winawer, Roozbeh Kiani
Perceptual systems adapt to their inputs. As a result, prolonged exposure to particular stimuli alters judgments about subsequent stimuli. This phenomenon is commonly assumed to be sensory in origin. Changes in the decision-making process, however, may also be a component of adaptation. Here, we quantify sensory and decision-making contributions to adaptation in a facial expression paradigm. As expected, exposure to happy or sad expressions shifts the psychometric function toward the adaptor. More surprisingly, response times show both an overall decline and an asymmetry, with faster responses opposite the adapting category, implicating a substantial change in the decision-making process...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
John Wilder, Ingo Fruend, James H Elder
Classification image analysis is a powerful technique for elucidating linear detection and discrimination mechanisms, but it has primarily been applied to contrast detection. Here we report a novel classification image methodology for identifying linear mechanisms underlying shape discrimination. Although prior attempts to apply classification image methods to shape perception have been confined to simple radial shapes, the method proposed here can be applied to general 2-D (planar) shapes of arbitrary complexity, including natural shapes...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Robbe L T Goris, Corey M Ziemba, J Anthony Movshon, Eero P Simoncelli
Sensory neurons represent stimulus information with sequences of action potentials that differ across repeated measurements. This variability limits the information that can be extracted from momentary observations of a neuron's response. It is often assumed that integrating responses over time mitigates this limitation. However, temporal response correlations can reduce the benefits of temporal integration. We examined responses of individual orientation-selective neurons in the primary visual cortex of two macaque monkeys performing an orientation-discrimination task...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Anna X Luo, Guomei Zhou
Ensemble perception, the extraction of a statistical summary of multiple instances of a feature, enables efficient processing of information. Here we investigated whether ensemble representations can be formed for facial attractiveness, a socially important complex feature. After verifying that our face stimuli produced by geometric morphing represented a valid continuum of attractiveness (Experiment 1), we asked participants to compare the average attractiveness of four faces with a single probe face. Whether the four faces were homogeneous or heterogeneous resulted in highly similar performance levels, suggesting the visual system could extract an ensemble representation of the attractiveness of a heterogeneous group of faces...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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