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Journal of Vision

Marta Suárez-Pinilla, Anil K Seth, Warrick Roseboom
The recent history of perceptual experience has been shown to influence subsequent perception. Classically, this dependence on perceptual history has been examined in sensory-adaptation paradigms, wherein prolonged exposure to a particular stimulus (e.g., a vertically oriented grating) produces changes in perception of subsequently presented stimuli (e.g., the tilt aftereffect). More recently, several studies have investigated the influence of shorter perceptual exposure with effects, referred to as serial dependence, being described for a variety of low- and high-level perceptual dimensions...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Vision
Michael Jigo, Marisa Carrasco
Endogenous and exogenous visuospatial attention both alter spatial resolution, but they operate via distinct mechanisms. In texture segmentation tasks, exogenous attention inflexibly increases resolution even when detrimental for the task at hand and does so by modulating second-order processing. Endogenous attention is more flexible and modulates resolution to benefit performance according to task demands, but it is unknown whether it also operates at the second-order level. To answer this question, we measured performance on a second-order texture segmentation task while independently manipulating endogenous and exogenous attention...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Vision
Jan W Brascamp, Mark W Becker, David Z Hambrick
Simultaneously showing an observer two incompatible displays, one to each eye, causes binocular rivalry, during which the observer regularly switches between perceiving one eye's display and perceiving the other. Observers differ in the rate of this perceptual cycle, and these individual differences have been reported to correlate with differences in the perceptual switch rate for other bistable perception phenomena. Identifying which psychological or neural factors explain this variability can help clarify the mechanisms underlying binocular rivalry and of bistable perception generally...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Vision
Kristjan Kalm, Dennis Norris
Human bias towards more recent events is a common and well-studied phenomenon. Recent studies in visual perception have shown that this recency bias persists even when past events contain no information about the future. Reasons for this suboptimal behavior are not well understood and the internal model that leads people to exhibit recency bias is unknown. Here we use a well-known orientation estimation task to frame the human recency bias in terms of incremental Bayesian inference. We show that the only Bayesian model capable of explaining the recency bias relies on a weighted mixture of past states...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Vision
Michael Puntiroli, Dirk Kerzel, Sabine Born
In the time leading up to a saccade, the saccade target is perceptually enhanced compared to other objects in the visual field. This enhancement is attributed to a shift of spatial attention toward the target. We examined whether the presence of visual objects is critical for the perceptual enhancement at the saccade target to occur. We hypothesized that attention may need an object to focus on in order to be effective. We conducted four experiments using a dual-task design, where participants performed eye movements either to a location demarked by a placeholder or to an empty screen location where no object was displayed...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Nicolas Deravet, Gunnar Blohm, Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Philippe Lefèvre
Oculomotor behaviors integrate sensory and prior information to overcome sensory-motor delays and noise. After much debate about this process, reliability-based integration has recently been proposed and several models of smooth pursuit now include recurrent Bayesian integration or Kalman filtering. However, there is a lack of behavioral evidence in humans supporting these theoretical predictions. Here, we independently manipulated the reliability of visual and prior information in a smooth pursuit task. Our results show that both smooth pursuit eye velocity and catch-up saccade amplitude were modulated by visual and prior information reliability...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Norma V Graham, S Sabina Wolfson
Previous work on the straddle effect in contrast perception (Foley, 2011; Graham & Wolfson, 2007; Wolfson & Graham, 2007, 2009) has used visual patterns and observer tasks of the type known as spatially second-order. After adaptation of about 1 s to a grid of Gabor patches all at one contrast, a second-order test pattern composed of two different test contrasts can be easy or difficult to perceive correctly. When the two test contrasts are both a bit less (or both a bit greater) than the adapt contrast, observers perform very well...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Anna Heuer, Anna Schubö
Visual working memory contents can be selectively weighted according to differences in their task-relevance. In the present study, we examined the influence of two more indirect selection biases established by a concurrent task or learned reward associations: action relevance and motivational value. In three experiments, memory performance was assessed with the same color change detection task. Potential action relevance and motivational value were each determined by a specific feature of the memory items (location or shape, respectively) and manipulated orthogonally...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Marcel Lucassen, Marc Lambooij, Dragan Sekulovski, Ingrid Vogels
We measured and modeled visibility thresholds of spatial chromatic sine-wave gratings at isoluminance. In two experiments we manipulated the base color, direction of chromatic modulation, spatial frequency, the number of cycles in the grating, and grating orientation. In Experiment 1 (18 participants) we studied four chromatic modulation directions around three base colors, for spatial frequencies 0.15-5 cycles/deg. Results show that the location, size and orientation of fitted ellipses through the observer-averaged thresholds varied with spatial frequency and base color...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Wenyan Bi, Peiran Jin, Hendrikje Nienborg, Bei Xiao
Humans can visually estimate the mechanical properties of deformable objects (e.g., cloth stiffness). While much of the recent work on material perception has focused on static image cues (e.g., textures and shape), little is known about whether humans can integrate information over time to make a judgment. Here we investigated the effect of spatiotemporal information across multiple frames (multiframe motion) on estimating the bending stiffness of cloth. Using high-fidelity cloth animations, we first examined how the perceived bending stiffness changed as a function of the physical bending stiffness defined in the simulation model...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Ana Radonjic, Xiaomao Ding, Avery Krieger, Stacey Aston, Anya C Hurlbert, David H Brainard
Previous studies have shown that humans can discriminate spectral changes in illumination and that this sensitivity depends both on the chromatic direction of the illumination change and on the ensemble of surfaces in the scene. These studies, however, always used stimulus scenes with a fixed surface-reflectance layout. Here we compared illumination discrimination for scenes in which the surface reflectance layout remains fixed (fixed-surfaces condition) to those in which surface reflectances were shuffled randomly across scenes, but with the mean scene reflectance held approximately constant (shuffled-surfaces condition)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Rebecca J Sharman, Sebastian Gregersen, Elena Gheorghiu
Recent studies have suggested that temporal dynamics rather than symmetrical motion-direction contribute to mirror-symmetry perception. Here we investigate temporal aspects of symmetry perception and implicitly, its temporal flexibility and limitations, by examining how symmetrical pattern elements are combined over time. Stimuli were dynamic dot-patterns consisting of either an on-going alternation of two images (sustained stimulus presentation) or just two images each presented once (transient stimulus presentation) containing different amounts of symmetry about the vertical axis...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Frederick A A Kingdom, Ben J Jennings, Mark A Georgeson
Patterns in the two eyes' views that are not identical in hue or contrast often elicit an impression of luster, providing a cue for discriminating them from perfectly matched patterns. Here we ask whether the mechanism for detecting interocular differences (IDs) is adaptable. Our stimuli were horizontally oriented multispatial-frequency grating patterns that could be subject to varying degrees of ID through the introduction of interocular phase differences in the grating components. Subjects adapted to patterns that were either correlated, uncorrelated, monocular (one eye only), or anticorrelated...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Mehmet N Agaoglu, Christy K Sheehy, Pavan Tiruveedhula, Austin Roorda, Susana T L Chung
Human eyes are never stable, even during attempts of maintaining gaze on a visual target. Considering transient response characteristics of retinal ganglion cells, a certain amount of motion of the eyes is required to efficiently encode information and to prevent neural adaptation. However, excessive motion of the eyes leads to insufficient exposure to the stimuli, which creates blur and reduces visual acuity. Normal miniature eye movements fall in between these extremes, but it is unclear if they are optimally tuned for seeing fine spatial details...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Mark Wexler
When ambiguous visual stimuli are presented continuously, they often lead to oscillations between usually two perceptions. Because of these oscillations, it has been thought that the underlying neural dynamics also arises from a binary or two-state system. Contradicting the binary assumption, it has been shown recently that the perception of some ambiguous stimuli is governed by continuously varying internal states, measured as biases that differ considerably from one observer to the next and that can also evolve over time (Wexler, Duyck, & Mamassian, 2015)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Robert J Green, J Edwin Dickinson, David R Badcock
Scenery and complex objects can be reduced to a combination of shapes, so it is pertinent to examine if the integration of information found occurring around simple contours also occurs across them. Baldwin, Schmidtmann, Kingdom, and Hess (2016) investigated this idea using radial frequency (RF) patterns, distributing information around a single contour or across four contours. However, their use of a restricted number of locations for this information may have influenced their results (see Green, Dickinson, & Badcock, 2017)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Robert J Green, J Edwin Dickinson, David R Badcock
Within a natural scene it is not uncommon for an object's shape to be revealed over time. We investigated whether the same integration of shape information that happens around a fully visible contour also happens when that information is distributed over time. In a two-interval forced-choice task, observers discriminated between a radial frequency (RF) pattern and a circle that were revealed either using an implicit slit or traced out by a dot's motion; and a line and a modulated line that were either contour-defined or motion-defined...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Rudolf Burggraaf, Jos N van der Geest, Maarten A Frens, Ignace T C Hooge
We studied changes in visual-search performance and behavior during adolescence. Search performance was analyzed in terms of reaction time and response accuracy. Search behavior was analyzed in terms of the objects fixated and the duration of these fixations. A large group of adolescents (N = 140; age: 12-19 years; 47% female, 53% male) participated in a visual-search experiment in which their eye movements were recorded with an eye tracker. The experiment consisted of 144 trials (50% with a target present), and participants had to decide whether a target was present...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Mark Vergeer, Juraj Mesik, Yihwa Baek, Kelton Wilmerding, Stephen A Engel
Exposure to oriented luminance contrast patterns causes a reduction in visual sensitivity specifically for the adapter orientation. This orientation selectivity is probably the most studied aspect of contrast adaptation, but it has rarely been measured with steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs), despite their becoming one of the more popular methods of human neuroscience. Here, we measured orientation selective adaptation by presenting a plaid stimulus of which the horizontal and vertical grating reversed contrast at different temporal frequencies, while recording EEG signals from occipital visual areas...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Khushbu Y Patel, Anudhi P Munasinghe, Richard F Murray
Lightness constancy is the ability to perceive surface reflectance correctly despite substantial changes in lighting intensity. A classic view is that lightness constancy is the result of a "discounting" of lighting intensity, and this continues to be a prominent view today. Logvinenko and Maloney (2006) have proposed an alternative approach to understanding lightness constancy, in which observers do not make explicit estimates of reflectance, and lightness constancy is instead based on a perceptual similarity metric that depends on both the reflectance and the illuminance of surfaces viewed under different lighting conditions...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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