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Journal of Vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196375/adding-temporally-localized-noise-can-enhance-the-contribution-of-target-knowledge-on-contrast-detection
#1
Daphné Silvestre, Patrick Cavanagh, Angelo Arleo, Rémy Allard
External noise paradigms are widely used to characterize sensitivity by comparing the effect of a variable on contrast threshold when it is limited by internal versus external noise. A basic assumption of external noise paradigms is that the processing properties are the same in low and high noise. However, recent studies (e.g., Allard & Cavanagh, 2011; Allard & Faubert, 2014b) suggest that this assumption could be violated when using spatiotemporally localized noise (i.e., appearing simultaneously and at the same location as the target) but not when using spatiotemporally extended noise (i...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196374/the-visual-white-matter-the-application-of-diffusion-mri-and-fiber-tractography-to-vision-science
#2
Ariel Rokem, Hiromasa Takemura, Andrew S Bock, K Suzanne Scherf, Marlene Behrmann, Brian A Wandell, Ione Fine, Holly Bridge, Franco Pestilli
Visual neuroscience has traditionally focused much of its attention on understanding the response properties of single neurons or neuronal ensembles. The visual white matter and the long-range neuronal connections it supports are fundamental in establishing such neuronal response properties and visual function. This review article provides an introduction to measurements and methods to study the human visual white matter using diffusion MRI. These methods allow us to measure the microstructural and macrostructural properties of the white matter in living human individuals; they allow us to trace long-range connections between neurons in different parts of the visual system and to measure the biophysical properties of these connections...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166325/corrections
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152553/the-effect-of-aberrations-on-objectively-assessed-image-quality-and-depth-of-focus
#4
Antonio J Del Águila-Carrasco, Scott A Read, Robert Montés-Micó, D Robert Iskander
The effects of aberrations on image quality and the objectively assessed depth of focus (DoF) were studied. Aberrometry data from 80 young subjects with a range of refractive errors was used for computing the visual Strehl ratio based on the optical transfer function (VSOTF), and then, through-focus simulations were performed in order to calculate the objective DoF (using two different relative thresholds of 50% and 80%; and two different pupil diameters) and the image quality (the peak VSOTF). Both lower order astigmatism and higher order aberration (HOA) terms up to the fifth radial order were considered...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146253/the-most-reasonable-explanation-of-the-dress-implicit-assumptions-about-illumination
#5
Christoph Witzel, Chris Racey, J Kevin O'Regan
Millions of Internet users around the world challenged science by asking why a certain photo of a dress led different observers to have surprisingly different judgments about the color of the dress. The reason this particular photo produces so diverse a variety of judgments presumably is that the photo allows a variety of interpretations about the illumination of the dress. The most obvious explanation from color science should be that observers have different implicit assumptions about the illumination in the photo...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141877/evolved-navigation-illusion-provides-universal-human-perception-measure
#6
Russell E Jackson, Jule Gómez de García
The ability to replicate an experiment across any scientific discipline rests on the assumption that different experimenters are capable of perceiving the same methods and outcomes. However, the large individual differences in experimenters' visual perception undermine this tenet of the scientific process. Further, common devices for measuring similarity in perceptual capacity do not replicate across human groups. Here, we used evolved navigation theory to predict a universal way to measure human perceptual capacity via a distance illusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141876/face-perception-develops-similarly-across-viewpoint-in-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Jacalyn Guy, Claudine Habak, Hugh R Wilson, Laurent Mottron, Armando Bertone
Atypical face perception has been associated with the socio-communicative difficulties that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Growing evidence, however, suggests that a widespread impairment in face perception is not as common as once thought. One important issue arising with the interpretation of this literature is the relationship between face processing and a more general perceptual tendency to focus on local rather than global information. Previous work has demonstrated that when discriminating faces presented from the same view, older adolescents and adults with ASD perform similarly to typically developing individuals...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141875/differences-in-illumination-estimation-in-thedress
#8
Matteo Toscani, Karl R Gegenfurtner, Katja Doerschner
We investigated whether people who report different colors for #thedress do so because they have different assumptions about the illumination in #thedress scene. We introduced a spherical illumination probe (Koenderink, Pont, van Doorn, Kappers, & Todd, 2007) into the original photograph, placed in fore-, or background of the scene and-for each location-let observers manipulate the probe's chromaticity, intensity and the direction of the illumination. Their task was to adjust the probe such that it would appear as a white sphere in the scene...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135347/comparing-sensitivity-estimates-from-mlds-and-forced-choice-methods-in-a-slant-from-texture-experiment
#9
Guillermo Aguilar, Felix A Wichmann, Marianne Maertens
Maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS) is a method for the estimation of perceptual scales based on the judgment of differences in stimulus appearance (Maloney & Yang, 2003). MLDS has recently also been used to estimate near-threshold discrimination performance (Devinck & Knoblauch, 2012). Using MLDS as a psychophysical method for sensitivity estimation is potentially appealing, because MLDS has been reported to need less data than forced-choice procedures, and particularly naive observers report to prefer suprathreshold comparisons to JND-style threshold tasks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129420/rapid-and-selective-updating-of-the-target-template-in-visual-search
#10
Li Z Sha, Roger W Remington, Yuhong V Jiang
Frequent target stimuli are detected more rapidly than infrequent ones. Here, we examined whether the frequency effect reflected durable attentional biases toward frequent target features, and whether the effect was confined to featural properties that defined the target. Participants searched for two specific target colors among distractors of heterogeneous colors and reported the line orientation of the target. The target was more often in one specific feature (e.g., a specific color or a specific orientation) than another in a training phase...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129419/the-influence-of-distractors-on-express-saccades
#11
Jessica Heeman, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Jan Theeuwes
It is well known that regular target-driven saccades are affected by the presence of close and remote distractors. Distractors close to the target affect the saccade landing position (known as the global effect), while remote distractors prolong saccade latencies to the target (known as the remote-distractor effect). Little is known about whether a different population of saccades known as express saccades (saccades with very short latencies between 80 and 130 ms) is similarly affected by close and remote distractors, as these saccades are considered to be the result of advanced preparation of an oculomotor program toward the target...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129418/using-binocular-rivalry-to-tag-foreground-sounds-towards-an-objective-visual-measure-for-auditory-multistability
#12
Wolfgang Einhäuser, Sabine Thomassen, Alexandra Bendixen
In binocular rivalry, paradigms have been proposed for unobtrusive moment-by-moment readout of observers' perceptual experience ("no-report paradigms"). Here, we take a first step to extend this concept to auditory multistability. Observers continuously reported which of two concurrent tone sequences they perceived in the foreground: high-pitch (1008 Hz) or low-pitch (400 Hz) tones. Interstimulus intervals were either fixed per sequence (Experiments 1 and 2) or random with tones alternating (Experiment 3). A horizontally drifting grating was presented to each eye; to induce binocular rivalry, gratings had distinct colors and motion directions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129417/perceptual-quality-prediction-on-authentically-distorted-images-using-a-bag-of-features-approach
#13
Deepti Ghadiyaram, Alan C Bovik
Current top-performing blind perceptual image quality prediction models are generally trained on legacy databases of human quality opinion scores on synthetically distorted images. Therefore, they learn image features that effectively predict human visual quality judgments of inauthentic and usually isolated (single) distortions. However, real-world images usually contain complex composite mixtures of multiple distortions. We study the perceptually relevant natural scene statistics of such authentically distorted images in different color spaces and transform domains...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129416/object-crowding-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Julian M Wallace, Susana T L Chung, Bosco S Tjan
Crowding, the phenomenon of impeded object identification due to clutter, is believed to be a key limiting factor of form vision in the peripheral visual field. The present study provides a characterization of object crowding in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) measured at the participants' respective preferred retinal loci with binocular viewing. Crowding was also measured in young and age-matched controls at the same retinal locations, using a fixation-contingent display paradigm to allow unlimited stimulus duration...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129415/motion-coherence-and-direction-discrimination-in-healthy-aging
#15
Karin S Pilz, Louisa Miller, Hannah C Agnew
Perceptual functions change with age, particularly motion perception. With regard to healthy aging, previous studies mostly measured motion coherence thresholds for coarse motion direction discrimination along cardinal axes of motion. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the ability to discriminate between small angular differences in motion directions, which allows for a more specific assessment of age-related decline and its underlying mechanisms. We first assessed older (>60 years) and younger (<30 years) participants' ability to discriminate coarse horizontal (left/right) and vertical (up/down) motion at 100% coherence and a stimulus duration of 400 ms...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129414/benefits-of-retinal-image-motion-at-the-limits-of-spatial-vision
#16
Kavitha Ratnam, Niklas Domdei, Wolf M Harmening, Austin Roorda
Even during fixation, our eyes are constantly in motion, creating an ever-changing signal in each photoreceptor. Neuronal processes can exploit such transient signals to serve spatial vision, but it is not known how our finest visual acuity-one that we use for deciphering small letters or identifying distant faces and objects-is maintained when confronted with such change. We used an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope to precisely control the spatiotemporal input on a photoreceptor scale in human observers during a visual discrimination task under conditions with habitual, cancelled or otherwise manipulated retinal image motion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129413/do-twins-share-the-same-dress-code-quantifying-relative-genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-subjective-perceptions-of-the-dress-in-a-classical-twin-study
#17
Omar A Mahroo, Katie M Williams, Ibtesham T Hossain, Ekaterina Yonova-Doing, Diana Kozareva, Ammar Yusuf, Ibrahim Sheriff, Mohamed Oomerjee, Talha Soorma, Christopher J Hammond
The phenomenon of contrasting color perceptions of "the dress" photograph has gained scientific interest. The mechanism underlying why individuals differ is yet to be fully explained. We use the powerful twin model design to ascertain the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors on perception variation. A sample of 466 twins from the British TwinsUK registry were invited to report what color they saw in a standard image of the dress in standard illumination. The mean age of the participants was 49...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114502/what-is-new-in-perceptual-learning
#18
Michael H Herzog, Aline F Cretenoud, Lukasz Grzeczkowski
What is new in perceptual learning? In the early days of research, specificity was the hallmark of perceptual learning; that is, improvements following training were limited to the trained stimulus features. For example, training with a stimulus improves performance for this stimulus but not for the same stimulus when rotated by 90° (Ball & Sekuler, 1987; Spang, Grimsen, Herzog, & Fahle, 2010). Because of this specificity, learning was thought to be mediated by neural changes at the early stages of vision...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114501/control-of-gaze-while-walking-task-structure-reward-and-uncertainty
#19
Matthew H Tong, Oran Zohar, Mary M Hayhoe
While it is universally acknowledged that both bottom up and top down factors contribute to allocation of gaze, we currently have limited understanding of how top-down factors determine gaze choices in the context of ongoing natural behavior. One purely top-down model by Sprague, Ballard, and Robinson (2007) suggests that natural behaviors can be understood in terms of simple component behaviors, or modules, that are executed according to their reward value, with gaze targets chosen in order to reduce uncertainty about the particular world state needed to execute those behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114500/corrections
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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