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Journal of Vision

Endel Põder
There are different opinions about the roles of local interactions and central processing capacity in visual search. This study attempts to clarify the problem using a new version of relevant set cueing. A central precue indicates two symmetrical segments (that may contain a target object) within a circular array of objects presented briefly around the fixation point. The number of objects in the relevant segments, and density of objects in the array were varied independently. Three types of search experiments were run: (a) search for a simple visual feature (color, size, and orientation); (b) conjunctions of simple features; and (c) spatial configuration of simple features (rotated Ts)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Panqu Wang, Garrison W Cottrell
What are the roles of central and peripheral vision in human scene recognition? Larson and Loschky (2009) showed that peripheral vision contributes more than central vision in obtaining maximum scene recognition accuracy. However, central vision is more efficient for scene recognition than peripheral, based on the amount of visual area needed for accurate recognition. In this study, we model and explain the results of Larson and Loschky (2009) using a neurocomputational modeling approach. We show that the advantage of peripheral vision in scene recognition, as well as the efficiency advantage for central vision, can be replicated using state-of-the-art deep neural network models...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Masataka Sawayama, Shin'ya Nishida, Mikio Shinya
We are surrounded by many textures with fine dense structures, such as human hair and fabrics, whose individual elements are often finer than the spatial resolution limit of the visual system or that of a digitized image. Here we show that human observers have an ability to visually estimate subresolution fineness of those textures. We carried out a psychophysical experiment to show that observers could correctly discriminate differences in the fineness of hair-like dense line textures even when the thinnest line element was much finer than the resolution limit of the eye or that of the display...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Sae Kaneko, Stuart Anstis, Ichiro Kuriki
Kaneko and Murakami (2012) demonstrated that simultaneous contrast for brightness and color (chromatic saturation) were enhanced by flashing the stimulus very briefly (10 ms). Here we examined whether this effect of duration generalized to other visual features. Tilt illusion and simultaneous hue contrast were both shown to be much stronger with a stimulus duration of 10 ms compared with 500 ms. The similar temporal dynamics for simultaneous contrast across visual features suggest common underlying principles...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Rosemary Le, Nathan Witthoft, Michal Ben-Shachar, Brian Wandell
Skilled reading requires rapidly recognizing letters and word forms; people learn this skill best for words presented in the central visual field. Measurements over the last decade have shown that when children learn to read, responses within ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOT) become increasingly selective to word forms. We call these regions the VOT reading circuitry (VOTRC). The portion of the visual field that evokes a response in the VOTRC is called the field of view (FOV). We measured the FOV of the VOTRC and found that it is a small subset of the entire field of view available to the human visual system...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Pascal Wallisch
There has been considerable interest in a stimulus ("the dress") that yields starkly divergent subjective color percepts between observers. It has been proposed that individual differences in the subjective interpretation of this stimulus are due to the different assumptions that individuals make about how the dress was illuminated. In this study, we address this possible explanation empirically by reporting on data from ∼13,000 observers who were surveyed online. We show that assumptions about the illumination of the dress-i...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Andrea F Frielink-Loing, Arno Koning, Rob van Lier
This study investigated the relative contributions of overt and covert attention on the apparent anticipatory nature of attention in two experiments, using two different object tracking tasks, both combined with a probe detection task. In Experiment 1, we investigated the distribution of attention for overtly and covertly tracked targets separately at low tracking load using a single-object tracking task (one target, one distractor). We found anisotropic distributions of probe detection rates for both overtly tracked and covertly tracked targets, with highest detection rates at locations ahead of the target's movement...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Roger W Strong, George A Alvarez
Cognitive training has become a billion-dollar industry with the promise that exercising a cognitive faculty (e.g., attention) on simple "brain games" will lead to improvements on any task relying on the same faculty. Although this logic seems sound, it assumes performance improves on training tasks because attention's capacity has been enhanced. Alternatively, training may result in attentional expertise-an enhancement of the ability to deploy attention to particular content-such that improvement on training tasks is specific to the features of the training context...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Françoise Vitu, Soazig Casteau, Hossein Adeli, Gregory J Zelinsky, Eric Castet
Saccades quite systematically undershoot a peripheral visual target by about 10% of its eccentricity while becoming more variable, mainly in amplitude, as the target becomes more peripheral. This undershoot phenomenon has been interpreted as the strategic adjustment of saccadic gain downstream of the superior colliculus (SC), where saccades are programmed. Here, we investigated whether the eccentricity-related increase in saccades' hypometria and imprecision might not instead result from overrepresentation of space closer to the fovea in the SC and visual-cortical areas...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Christiane B Wiebel, Guillermo Aguilar, Marianne Maertens
One central problem in perception research is to understand how internal experiences are linked to physical variables. Most commonly, this relationship is measured using the method of adjustment, but this has two shortcomings: The perceptual scales that relate physical and perceptual variables are not measured directly, and the method often requires perceptual comparisons between viewing conditions. To overcome these problems, we measured perceptual scales of surface lightness using maximum likelihood difference scaling, asking observers only to compare the lightness of surfaces presented in the same context...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Tao Liu, Larry N Thibos
In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
J Edwin Dickinson, Sarah K Morgan, Matthew F Tang, David R Badcock
Size and aspect ratio are ecologically important visual attributes. Relative size confers depth, and aspect ratio is a size-invariant cue to object identity. The mechanisms of their analyses by the visual system are uncertain. In a series of three psychophysical experiments we show that adaptation causes perceptual repulsion in these properties. Experiment 1 shows that adaptation to a square causes a subsequently viewed smaller (larger) test square to appear smaller (larger) still. Experiment 2 reveals that a test rectangle with an aspect ratio (height/width) of two appears more slender after adaptation to rectangles with aspect ratios less than two, while the same test stimulus appears more squat after adaptation to a rectangle with an aspect ratio greater than two...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Janette Atkinson
Research in the Visual Development Unit on "dorsal stream vulnerability' (DSV) arose from research in two somewhat different areas. In the first, using cortical milestones for local and global processing from our neurobiological model, we identified cerebral visual impairment in infants in the first year of life. In the second, using photo/videorefraction in population refractive screening programs, we showed that infant spectacle wear could reduce the incidence of strabismus and amblyopia, but many preschool children, who had been significantly hyperopic earlier, showed visuo-motor and attentional deficits...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Janette Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Christine M Gamble, Joo-Hyun Song
In everyday behavior, two of the most common visually guided actions-eye and hand movements-can be performed independently, but are often synergistically coupled. In this study, we examine whether the same visual representation is used for different stages of saccades and pointing, namely movement preparation and execution, and whether this usage is consistent between independent and naturalistic coordinated eye and hand movements. To address these questions, we used the Ponzo illusion to dissociate the perceived and physical sizes of visual targets and measured the effects on movement preparation and execution for independent and coordinated saccades and pointing...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Laura Dugué, Alice M Xue, Marisa Carrasco
Feature and conjunction searches are widely used to study attentional deployment. However, the spatiotemporal behavior of attention integration in these tasks remains under debate. Are multiple search stimuli processed in parallel or sequentially? Does sampling of visual information and attentional deployment differ between these two types of search? If so, how? We used an innovative methodology to estimate the distribution of attention on a single-trial basis for feature and conjunction searches. Observers performed feature- and conjunction-search tasks...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Christian Quaia, Lance M Optican, Bruce G Cumming
At least under some conditions, plaid stimuli are processed by combining information first extracted in orientation and scale-selective channels. The rules that govern this combination across channels are only partially understood. Although the available data suggests that only components having similar spatial frequency and contrast are combined, the extent to which this holds has not been firmly established. To address this question, we measured, in human subjects, the short-latency reflexive vergence eye movements induced by stereo plaids in which spatial frequency and contrast of the components are independently varied...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Vivian M Ciaramitaro, Hiu Mei Chow, Luke G Eglington
We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Nicolas Davidenko, Nathan H Heller, Yeram Cheong, Jacob Smith
We report a novel phenomenon in which long sequences of random dot arrays refreshing at 2.5 Hz lead to persistent illusory percepts of coherent apparent motion. We term this effect illusory apparent motion (IAM). To quantify this illusion, we devised a persistence task in which observers are primed with a particular motion pattern and must indicate when the motion pattern ends. In Experiment 1 (N = 119), we induced translational apparent motion patterns and show that both drifting motion (e.g., up-up-up-up) and rebounding motion (e...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Filipp Schmidt, Vivian C Paulun, Jan Jaap R van Assen, Roland W Fleming
Visually inferring the stiffness of objects is important for many tasks but is challenging because, unlike optical properties (e.g., gloss), mechanical properties do not directly affect image values. Stiffness must be inferred either (a) by recognizing materials and recalling their properties (associative approach) or (b) from shape and motion cues when the material is deformed (estimation approach). Here, we investigated interactions between these two inference types. Participants viewed renderings of unfamiliar shapes with 28 materials (e...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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