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Journal of Vision

Jerrold Jeyachandra, Yoongoo Nam, YoungWook Kim, Gunnar Blohm, Aarlenne Z Khan
Transsaccadic memory is a process by which remembered object information is updated across a saccade. To date, studies on transsaccadic memory have used simple stimuli-that is, a single dot or feature of an object. It remains unknown how transsaccadic memory occurs for more realistic, complex objects with multiple features. An object's location is a central feature for transsaccadic updating, as it is spatially variant, but other features such as size are spatially invariant. How these spatially variant and invariant features of an object are remembered and updated across saccades is not well understood...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Yingchen He, MiYoung Kwon, Gordon E Legge
The visual span refers to the number of adjacent characters that can be recognized in a single glance. It is viewed as a sensory bottleneck in reading for both normal and clinical populations. In peripheral vision, the visual span for English characters can be enlarged after training with a letter-recognition task. Here, we examined the transfer of training from Korean to English characters for a group of bilingual Korean native speakers. In the pre- and posttests, we measured visual spans for Korean characters and English letters...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Julius Orlowski, Ohad Ben-Shahar, Hermann Wagner
How do we find what we are looking for? A target can be in plain view, but it may be detected only after extensive search. During a search we make directed attentional deployments like saccades to segment the scene until we detect the target. Depending on difficulty, the search may be fast with few attentional deployments or slow with many, shorter deployments. Here we study visual search in barn owls by tracking their overt attentional deployments-that is, their head movements-with a camera. We conducted a low-contrast feature search, a high-contrast orientation conjunction search, and a low-contrast orientation conjunction search, each with set sizes varying from 16 to 64 items...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Yan Huang, Lixia He, Wenbo Wang, Qianli Meng, Tiangang Zhou, Lin Chen
Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur on an object level without a close spatiotemporal proximity of target and mask. An influential account for OSM is "object updating," which espouses that OSM occurs when the target is updated by the mask as they share a single object representation. However, it is unclear what attribute determines whether the mask shares the same object representation as the target. We hypothesize that topological property determines whether a new object representation is built, and hence topological perception modulates object-level masking...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Mackenzie A Sunday, Woo-Yeol Lee, Isabel Gauthier
The presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in a test suggests bias that could disadvantage members of a certain group. Previous work with tests of visual learning abilities found significant DIF related to age groups in a car test (Lee, Cho, McGugin, Van Gulick, & Gauthier, 2015), but not in a face test (Cho et al., 2015). The presence of age DIF is a threat to the validity of the test even for studies where aging is not of interest. Here, we assessed whether this pattern of age DIF for cars and not faces would also apply to new tests targeting the same abilities with a new matching task that uses two studied items per trial...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Hui Wang, Gordon E Legge
Visual blur is a common problem that causes difficulty in pattern recognition for normally sighted people under degraded viewing conditions (e.g., near the acuity limit, when defocused, or in fog) and also for people with impaired vision. For reliable identification, the spatial frequency content of an object needs to extend up to or exceed a minimum value in units of cycles per object, referred to as the critical spatial frequency. In this study, we investigated the critical spatial frequency for alphabet and Chinese characters, and examined the effect of pattern complexity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Karlijn Woutersen, Leslie Guadron, Albert V van den Berg, F Nienke Boonstra, Thomas Theelen, Jeroen Goossens
The useful-field-of-view (UFOV) test measures the amount of information someone can extract from a visual scene in one glance. Its scores show relatively strong relationships with everyday activities. The UFOV test consists of three computer tests, suggested to measure processing speed and central vision, divided attention, and selective attention. However, other functions seem to be involved as well. In order to investigate the contribution of these suggested and other perceptual and cognitive functions, we performed a meta-analysis of 116 Pearson's correlation coefficients between UFOV scores and other test scores reported in 18 peer-reviewed articles...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Hongsup Shin, Qijia Zou, Wei Ji Ma
We used a delayed-estimation paradigm to characterize the joint effects of set size (one, two, four, or six) and delay duration (1, 2, 3, or 6 s) on visual working memory for orientation. We conducted two experiments: one with delay durations blocked, another with delay durations interleaved. As dependent variables, we examined four model-free metrics of dispersion as well as precision estimates in four simple models. We tested for effects of delay time using analyses of variance, linear regressions, and nested model comparisons...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Aenne A Brielmann, Lauren Vale, Denis G Pelli
Over time, how does beauty develop and decay? Common sense suggests that beauty is intensely felt only after prolonged experience of the object. Here, we present one of various stimuli for a variable duration (1-30 s), measure the observers' pleasure over time, and, finally, ask whether they felt beauty. On each trial, participants (N = 21) either see an image that they had chosen as "movingly beautiful," see an image with prerated valence, or suck a candy. During the stimulus and a further 60 s, participants rate pleasure continuously using a custom touchscreen web app, EmotionTracker...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Hang Zeng, Sylvia Kreutzer, Gereon R Fink, Ralph Weidner
Size adaptation describes the tendency of the visual system to adjust neural responsiveness of size representations after prolonged exposure to particular stimulations. A larger (or smaller) adaptor stimulus influences the perceived size of a similar test stimulus shown subsequently. Size adaptation may emerge on various processing levels. Functional representations of the adaptor to which the upcoming stimulus is adapted may be coded early in the visual system mainly reflecting retinal size. Alternatively, size adaptation may involve higher order processes that take into account additional information such as an object's estimated distance from the observer, hence reflecting perceived size...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Justin Duncan, Frédéric Gosselin, Charlène Cobarro, Gabrielle Dugas, Caroline Blais, Daniel Fiset
Horizontal information was recently suggested to be crucial for face identification. In the present paper, we expand on this finding and investigate the role of orientations for all the basic facial expressions and neutrality. To this end, we developed orientation bubbles to quantify utilization of the orientation spectrum by the visual system in a facial expression categorization task. We first validated the procedure in Experiment 1 with a simple plaid-detection task. In Experiment 2, we used orientation bubbles to reveal the diagnostic-i...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Guido Marco Cicchini, Kyriaki Mikellidou, David Burr
There is good evidence that biological perceptual systems exploit the temporal continuity in the world: When asked to reproduce or rate sequentially presented stimuli (varying in almost any dimension), subjects typically err toward the previous stimulus, exhibiting so-called "serial dependence." At this stage it is unclear whether the serial dependence results from averaging within the perceptual system, or at later stages. Here we demonstrate that strong serial dependencies occur within both perceptual and decision processes, with very little contribution from the response...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Baptiste Caziot, Benjamin T Backus, Esther Lin
Surface orientation is an important visual primitive that can be estimated from monocular or binocular (stereoscopic) signals. Changes in motor planning occur within about 200 ms after either type of signal is perturbed, but the time it takes for apparent (perceived) slant to develop from stereoscopic cues is not known. Apparent slant sometimes develops very slowly (Gillam, Chambers, & Russo, 1988; van Ee & Erkelens, 1996). However, these long durations could reflect the time it takes for the visual system to resolve conflicts between slant cues that inevitably specify different slants in laboratory displays (Allison & Howard, 2000)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Carmen Pons, Reece Mazade, Jianzhong Jin, Mitchell W Dul, Qasim Zaidi, Jose-Manuel Alonso
Artists and astronomers noticed centuries ago that humans perceive dark features in an image differently from light ones; however, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these dark/light asymmetries remained unknown. Based on computational modeling of neuronal responses, we have previously proposed that such perceptual dark/light asymmetries originate from a luminance/response saturation within the ON retinal pathway. Consistent with this prediction, here we show that stimulus conditions that increase ON luminance/response saturation (e...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Shuhang Wang, Russell L Woods, Francisco M Costela, Gang Luo
Gaze-contingent displays have been widely used in vision research and virtual reality applications. Due to data transmission, image processing, and display preparation, the time delay between the eye tracker and the monitor update may lead to a misalignment between the eye position and the image manipulation during eye movements. We propose a method to reduce the misalignment using a Taylor series to predict the saccadic eye movement. The proposed method was evaluated using two large datasets including 219,335 human saccades (collected with an EyeLink 1000 system, 95% range from 1° to 32°) and 21,844 monkey saccades (collected with a scleral search coil, 95% range from 1° to 9°)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Maria J Barraza-Bernal, Katharina Rifai, Siegfried Wahl
Subjects develop a preferred retinal locus of fixation (PRL) under simulation of central scotoma. If systematic relocations are applied to the stimulus position, PRLs manifest at a location in favor of the stimulus relocation. The present study investigates whether the induced PRL is transferred to important visual tasks in daily life, namely pursuit eye movements, signage reading, and text reading. Fifteen subjects with normal sight participated in the study. To develop a PRL, all subjects underwent a scotoma simulation in a prior study, where five subjects were trained to develop the PRL in the left hemifield, five different subjects on the right hemifield, and the remaining five subjects could naturally chose the PRL location...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Sung Jun Joo
The response of V1 neurons to a stimulus placed inside the classical receptive field can be modulated by stimuli presented outside the classical receptive field. However, the specific nature of these contextual modulations is unknown. Both enhancement and suppression have been observed as well as variability across measurement methodologies. To assess whether the contextual effect is facilitative or suppressive, we measured neural responses to an oriented Gabor stimulus ("target") in three conditions: in isolation, with two Gabor flankers that were the same orientation as the target, and with two flankers that were orthogonal to the target orientation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Takahiro Kawabe, Shin'ya Nishida
The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Aaron Kurosu, Alexander Todorov
How do people share impressions of novel objects, and is this even possible? We tested whether the shape of novel 3-D objects can lead to similar impressions across people. To do this, we introduced a technique for manipulating highly complex shapes and measured four types of evaluative impressions (approachable, dangerous, beautiful, likable). Because relatively little is understood regarding how people form impressions of novel objects, we first sought to confirm the reliability of this behavior by examining how similar impressions are for an individual asked to re-evaluate the stimuli (i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Elio M Santos, Eileen Kowler
Anticipatory smooth eye movements (ASEM; smooth eye movements in the direction of anticipated target motion) are elicited by cues that signal the direction of future target motion with high levels of certainty. Natural cues, however, rarely convey information with perfect certainty, and responses to uncertainty provide insights about how predictive behaviors are generated. Subjects smoothly pursued targets that moved to the right or left with varying cued probabilities. ASEM strength in a given direction increased with the probability level...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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