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Journal of Vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919101/the-risk-of-pedestrian-collisions-with-peripheral-visual-field-loss
#1
Eli Peli, Henry Apfelbaum, Eliot L Berson, Robert B Goldstein
Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919100/viewpoint-oscillation-improves-the-perception-of-distance-travelled-based-on-optic-flow
#2
Martin Bossard, Cédric Goulon, Daniel R Mestre
When static observers are presented with a visual simulation of forward self-motion, they generally misestimate distance travelled relative to a previously seen distant target: It has been suggested that this finding can be accounted for by a "leaky path integration" model. In the present study, using a similar experimental procedure, this result was confirmed. It was also established that combining the translational optical flow with simulated head oscillations (similar to those during natural walking) improved the subjects' perception of the distance travelled in comparison with a purely translational flow...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919099/look-before-you-seek-preview-adds-a-fixed-benefit-to-all-searches
#3
Sricharan Sunder, S P Arun
Knowing in advance what to look for speeds up search, but how this knowledge guides search is poorly understood. The little available evidence suggests that previewing the target produces larger reductions in search times for harder searches. To investigate this issue further, we performed seven experiments in which subjects searched for an oddball target after previewing the target, distracter, or an unrelated square. Consistent with previous studies, harder searches showed bigger reductions in search time for an informative preview...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918786/corrections
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918785/the-timecourse-of-expression-aftereffects
#5
Nichola Burton, Linda Jeffery, Jack Bonner, Gillian Rhodes
Adaptation to facial expressions produces aftereffects that bias perception of subsequent expressions away from the adaptor. Studying the temporal dynamics of an aftereffect can help us to understand the neural processes that underlie perception, and how they change with experience. Little is known about the temporal dynamics of the expression aftereffect. We conducted two experiments to measure the timecourse of this aftereffect. In Experiment 1 we examined how the size of the aftereffect varies with changes in the duration of the adaptor and test stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903008/brightness-in-human-rod-vision-depends-on-slow-neural-adaptation-to-quantum-statistics-of-light
#6
Michael E Rudd, Fred Rieke
In human rod-mediated vision, threshold for small, brief flashes rises in proportion to the square root of adapting luminance at all but the lowest and highest adapting intensities. A classical signal detection theory from Rose (1942, 1948) and de Vries (1943) attributed this rise to the perceptual masking of weak flashes by Poisson fluctuations in photon absorptions from the adapting field. However, previous work by Brown and Rudd (1998) demonstrated that the square-root law also holds for suprathreshold brightness judgments, a finding that supports an alternative explanation of the square-root sensitivity changes as a consequence of physiological adaptation (i...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903007/corrections
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903006/corrections
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903005/vanishing-point-attracts-gaze-in-free-viewing-and-visual-search-tasks
#9
Ali Borji, Mengyang Feng, Huchuan Lu
Several structural scene cues such as gist, layout, horizontal line, openness, and depth have been shown to guide scene perception (e.g., Oliva & Torralba, 2001); Ross & Oliva, 2009). Here, to investigate whether vanishing point (VP) plays a significant role in gaze guidance, we ran two experiments. In the first one, we recorded fixations of 10 observers (six male, four female; mean age 22; SD = 0.84) freely viewing 532 images, out of which 319 had a VP (shuffled presentation; each image for 4 s). We found that the average number of fixations at a local region (80 × 80 pixels) centered at the VP is significantly higher than the average fixations at random locations (t test; n = 319; p < 0...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903004/corrections
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902829/perceptual-interaction-of-local-motion-signals
#11
Eyal I Nitzany, Maren E Loe, Stephanie E Palmer, Jonathan D Victor
Motion signals are a rich source of information used in many everyday tasks, such as segregation of objects from background and navigation. Motion analysis by biological systems is generally considered to consist of two stages: extraction of local motion signals followed by spatial integration. Studies using synthetic stimuli show that there are many kinds and subtypes of local motion signals. When presented in isolation, these stimuli elicit behavioral and neurophysiological responses in a wide range of species, from insects to mammals...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902828/spontaneous-eyeblinks-during-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression-are-associated-with-increased-detection-times
#12
Filip Van Opstal, Esther De Loof, Tom Verguts, Axel Cleeremans
An eyeblink has a clear effect on low-level information processing because it temporarily occludes all visual information. Recent evidence suggests that eyeblinks can also modulate higher level processes (e.g., attentional resources), and vice versa. Despite these putative effects on different levels of information processing, eyeblinks are typically neglected in vision and in consciousness research. The main aim of this study was to investigate the timing and the effect of eyeblinks in an increasingly popular paradigm in consciousness research, namely breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893895/corrections
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893894/face-exploration-dynamics-differentiate-men-and-women
#14
Antoine Coutrot, Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
The human face is central to our everyday social interactions. Recent studies have shown that while gazing at faces, each one of us has a particular eye-scanning pattern, highly stable across time. Although variables such as culture or personality have been shown to modulate gaze behavior, we still don't know what shapes these idiosyncrasies. Moreover, most previous observations rely on static analyses of small-sized eye-position data sets averaged across time. Here, we probe the temporal dynamics of gaze to explore what information can be extracted about the observers and what is being observed...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846639/intermittent-regime-of-brain-activity-at-the-early-bias-guided-stage-of-perceptual-learning
#15
Andrey R Nikolaev, Sergei Gepshtein, Cees van Leeuwen
Perceptual learning improves visual performance. Among the plausible mechanisms of learning, reduction of perceptual bias has been studied the least. Perceptual bias may compensate for lack of stimulus information, but excessive reliance on bias diminishes visual discriminability. We investigated the time course of bias in a perceptual grouping task and studied the associated cortical dynamics in spontaneous and evoked EEG. Participants reported the perceived orientation of dot groupings in ambiguous dot lattices...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846342/erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846341/avoiding-monocular-artifacts-in-clinical-stereotests-presented-on-column-interleaved-digital-stereoscopic-displays
#17
Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza, Kathleen Vancleef, Jenny C A Read
New forms of stereoscopic 3-D technology offer vision scientists new opportunities for research, but also come with distinct problems. Here we consider autostereo displays where the two eyes' images are spatially interleaved in alternating columns of pixels and no glasses or special optics are required. Column-interleaved displays produce an excellent stereoscopic effect, but subtle changes in the angle of view can increase cross talk or even interchange the left and right eyes' images. This creates several challenges to the presentation of cyclopean stereograms (containing structure which is only detectable by binocular vision)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846340/contributions-of-gaze-centered-and-object-centered-coding-in-a-double-step-saccade-task
#18
Anouk J de Brouwer, W Pieter Medendorp, Jeroen B J Smeets
The position of a saccade target can be encoded in gaze-centered coordinates, that is, relative to the current gaze position, or in object-centered coordinates, that is, relative to an object in the environment. We tested the role of gaze-centered and object-centered coding in a double-step saccade task involving the Brentano version of the Müller-Lyer illusion. The two visual targets were presented either sequentially, requiring gaze-centered coding of the second saccade target, or simultaneously, thereby providing additional object-centered information about the location of the second target relative to the first...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832271/corrections
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832270/transverse-chromatic-aberration-across-the-visual-field-of-the-human-eye
#20
Simon Winter, Ramkumar Sabesan, Pavan Tiruveedhula, Claudio Privitera, Peter Unsbo, Linda Lundström, Austin Roorda
The purpose of this study was to measure the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) across the visual field of the human eye objectively. TCA was measured at horizontal and vertical field angles out to ±15° from foveal fixation in the right eye of four subjects. Interleaved retinal images were taken at wavelengths 543 nm and 842 nm in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). To obtain true measures of the human eye's TCA, the contributions of the AOSLO system's TCA were measured using an on-axis aligned model eye and subtracted from the ocular data...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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