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Journal of Vision

Ilona M Bloem, Sam Ling
Orientation perception is not comparable across all orientations-a phenomenon commonly referred to as the oblique effect. Here, we first assessed the interaction between stimulus contrast and the oblique effect. Specifically, we examined whether the impairment in behavioral performance for oblique versus cardinal orientations is best explained by a contrast or a response gain modulation of the contrast psychometric function. Results revealed a robust oblique effect, whereby asymptotic performance for oblique orientations was substantially lower than for cardinal orientations, which we interpret as the result of multiplicative attenuation of contrast responses for oblique orientations...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Trafton Drew, Sage E P Boettcher, Jeremy M Wolfe
Suppose you go to the supermarket with a shopping list of 10 items held in memory. Your shopping expedition can be seen as a combination of visual search and memory search. This is known as "hybrid search." There is a growing interest in understanding how hybrid search tasks are accomplished. We used eye tracking to examine how manipulating the number of possible targets (the memory set size [MSS]) changes how observers (Os) search. We found that dwell time on each distractor increased with MSS, suggesting a memory search was being executed each time a new distractor was fixated...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Florian Kattner, Aaron Cochrane, C Shawn Green
The majority of theoretical models of learning consider learning to be a continuous function of experience. However, most perceptual learning studies use thresholds estimated by fitting psychometric functions to independent blocks, sometimes then fitting a parametric function to these block-wise estimated thresholds. Critically, such approaches tend to violate the basic principle that learning is continuous through time (e.g., by aggregating trials into large "blocks" for analysis that each assume stationarity, then fitting learning functions to these aggregated blocks)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Deepna Devkar, Anthony A Wright, Wei Ji Ma
Since sensory measurements are noisy, an observer is rarely certain about the identity of a stimulus. In visual perception tasks, observers generally take their uncertainty about a stimulus into account when doing so helps task performance. Whether the same holds in visual working memory tasks is largely unknown. Ten human and two monkey subjects localized a single change in orientation between a sample display containing three ellipses and a test display containing two ellipses. To manipulate uncertainty, we varied the reliability of orientation information by making each ellipse more or less elongated (two levels); reliability was independent across the stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Eric Castet, Marine Descamps, Ambre Denis-Noël, Pascale Colé
It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Eugenie Roudaia, Jocelyn Faubert
The current study examined the role of temporal resolution of attention in the decline in multiple object tracking abilities with healthy aging. The temporal resolution of attention is known to limit attentional tracking of one and multiple targets (Holcombe & Chen, 2013). Here, we examined whether aging is associated with a lower temporal resolution of attention when tracking one target, the efficiency of splitting attention across multiple targets, or both. Stimuli comprised three concentric rings containing five or 10 equally spaced dots...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Matteo Toscani, Karl R Gegenfurtner, Matteo Valsecchi
Peripheral viewing is characterized by poor resolution and distortions as compared to central viewing; nevertheless, when we move our gaze around, the visual scene does not appear to change. One possible mechanism leading to perceptual uniformity would be that peripheral appearance is extrapolated based on foveal information. Here we investigate foveal-to-peripheral extrapolation in the case of the perceived brightness of an object's surface. While fixating a spot on the rendered object, observers were asked to adjust the brightness of a disc to match a peripherally viewed target area on the surface of the same object...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Yelda Semizer, Melchi M Michel
Uncertainty regarding the position of the search target is a fundamental component of visual search. However, due to perceptual limitations of the human visual system, this uncertainty can arise from intrinsic, as well as extrinsic, sources. The current study sought to characterize the role of intrinsic position uncertainty (IPU) in overt visual search and to determine whether it significantly limits human search performance. After completing a preliminary detection experiment to characterize sensitivity as a function of visual field position, observers completed a search task that required localizing a Gabor target within a field of synthetic luminance noise...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Rakibul Hasan, Ramesh Srinivasan, Emily D Grossman
Performance in detection tasks can be improved by directing attention to task-relevant features. In this study, we evaluate the direction tuning of selective attention to motion features when observers detect point-light biological motion in noise. Feature-based attention strategy is assessed by capitalizing on the sensitivity of unattended steady-state visual-evoked potential (SSVEP) to the spreading of feature-based attention to unattended regions of space. Participants monitored for the presence of a point-light walker embedded in uniform dynamic noise in the center of the screen...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Carlo Campagnoli, Sholei Croom, Fulvio Domini
Binocular vision is widely recognized as the most reliable source of 3D information within the peripersonal space, where grasping takes place. Since grasping is normally successful, it is often assumed that stereovision for action is accurate. This claim contradicts psychophysical studies showing that observers cannot estimate the 3D properties of an object veridically from binocular information. In two experiments, we compared a front-to-back grasp with a perceptual depth estimation task and found that in both conditions participants consistently relied on the same distorted 3D representation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Mirella Telles Salgueiro Barboni, Balázs Vince Nagy, Cristiane Maria Gomes Martins, Daniela Maria Oliveria Bonci, Einat Hauzman, Avinash Aher, Tina I Tsai, Jan Kremers, Dora Fix Ventura
L and M cones send their signals to the cortex using two chromatic (parvocellular and blue-yellow koniocellular) and one luminance (magnocellular) pathways. These pathways contain ON and OFF subpathways that respond to excitation increments and decrements respectively. Here, we report on visually evoked potentials (VEP) recordings that reflect L- and M-cone driven increment (LI and MI) and decrement (LD and MD) activity. VEP recordings were performed on 12 trichromats and four dichromats (two protanopes and two deuteranopes)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Zongpeng Sun, Aleksandra Smilgin, Marc Junker, Peter W Dicke, Peter Thier
Scrutiny of the visual environment requires saccades that shift gaze to objects of interest. In case the object should be moving, smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) try to keep the image of the object within the confines of the fovea in order to ensure sufficient time for its analysis. Both saccades and SPEM can be adaptively changed by the experience of insufficiencies, compromising the precision of saccades or the minimization of object image slip in the case of SPEM. As both forms of adaptation rely on the cerebellar oculomotor vermis (OMV), most probably deploying a shared neuronal machinery, one might expect that the adaptation of one type of eye movement should affect the kinematics of the other...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Robert J Green, J Edwin Dickinson, David R Badcock
Previously, researchers have used circular contours with sinusoidal deformations of the radius (radial frequency [RF] patterns) to investigate the underlying processing involved in simple shape perception. On finding that the rapid improvement in sensitivity to deformation as more cycles of modulation were added was greater than expected from probability summation across sets of local independent detectors, they concluded that global integration of contour information was occurring. More recently, this conclusion has been questioned by researchers using a method of calculating probability summation derived from signal detection theory (Baldwin, Schmidtmann, Kingdom, & Hess, 2016)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Joseph Florey, Steven C Dakin, Isabelle Mareschal
Observers are able to extract summary statistics from groups of faces, such as their mean emotion or identity. This can be done for faces presented simultaneously and also from sequences of faces presented at a fixed location. Equivalent noise analysis, which estimates an observer's internal noise (the uncertainty in judging a single element) and effective sample size (ESS; the effective number of elements being used to judge the average), reveals what limits an observer's averaging performance. It has recently been shown that observers have lower ESSs and higher internal noise for judging the mean gaze direction of a group of spatially distributed faces compared to the mean head direction of the same faces...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Steffen Klingenhoefer, Bart Krekelberg
Primates use frequent, rapid eye movements to sample their visual environment. This is a fruitful strategy to make the best use of the highly sensitive foveal part of the retina, but it requires neural mechanisms to bind the rapidly changing visual input into a single, stable percept. Studies investigating these neural mechanisms have typically assumed that perisaccadic perception in nonhuman primates matches that of humans. We tested this assumption by performing identical experiments in human and nonhuman primates...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jonathan A Patrick, Neil W Roach, Paul V McGraw
Improvements in foveal acuity for moving targets have been interpreted as evidence for the ability of the visual system to combine information over space and time, in order to reconstruct the image at a higher resolution (super-resolution). Here, we directly test whether this occurs in the peripheral visual field and discuss its potential for improving functional capacity in ocular disease. The effect of motion on visual acuity was first compared under conditions in which performance was limited either by natural undersampling in the retinal periphery or by the presence of overlaid masks with opaque elements to simulate retinal loss...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Hongsup Shin, Wei Ji Ma
A central question in the study of visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been whether its basic units are objects or features. Most studies addressing this question have used change detection tasks in which the feature value before the change is highly discriminable from the feature value after the change. This approach assumes that memory noise is negligible, which recent work has shown not to be the case. Here, we investigate VSTM for orientation and color within a noisy-memory framework, using change localization with a variable magnitude of change...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Luise Gootjes-Dreesbach, Lyndsey C Pickup, Andrew W Fitzgibbon, Andrew Glennerster
There is good evidence that simple animals, such as bees, use view-based strategies to return to a familiar location, whereas humans might use a 3-D reconstruction to achieve the same goal. Assuming some noise in the storage and retrieval process, these two types of strategy give rise to different patterns of predicted errors in homing. We describe an experiment that can help distinguish between these models. Participants wore a head-mounted display to carry out a homing task in immersive virtual reality. They viewed three long, thin, vertical poles and had to remember where they were in relation to the poles before being transported (virtually) to a new location in the scene from where they had to walk back to the original location...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Weiwei Dai, Ivan Selesnick, John-Ross Rizzo, Janet Rucker, Todd Hudson
The Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter is widely used to smooth and differentiate time series, especially biomedical data. However, time series that exhibit abrupt departures from their typical trends, such as sharp waves or steps, which are of physiological interest, tend to be oversmoothed by the SG filter. Hence, the SG filter tends to systematically underestimate physiological parameters in certain situations. This article proposes a generalization of the SG filter to more accurately track abrupt deviations in time series, leading to more accurate parameter estimates (e...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Kedarnath P Vilankar, David J Field
In this article, we explore two forms of selectivity in sensory neurons. The first we call classic selectivity, referring to the stimulus that optimally stimulates a neuron. If a neuron is linear, then this stimulus can be determined by measuring the response to an orthonormal basis set (the receptive field). The second type of selectivity we call hyperselectivity; it is either implicitly or explicitly a component of several models including sparse coding, gain control, and some linear-nonlinear models. Hyperselectivity is unrelated to the stimulus that maximizes the response...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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