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Journal of Vision

Aries Arditi
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and International Code Council (ICC) standards for accessible buildings and facilities affect design and construction of all new and renovated buildings throughout the United States, and form the basis for compliance with the ADA. While these standards may result in acceptable accessibility for people who are fully blind, they fall far short of what they could and should accomplish for those with low vision. In this article I critique the standards, detailing their lack of evidence base and other shortcomings...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jens H Christiansen, Anthony D D'Antona, Steven K Shevell
Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Masataka Sawayama, Edward H Adelson, Shin'ya Nishida
Color vision provides humans and animals with the abilities to discriminate colors based on the wavelength composition of light and to determine the location and identity of objects of interest in cluttered scenes (e.g., ripe fruit among foliage). However, we argue that color vision can inform us about much more than color alone. Since a trichromatic image carries more information about the optical properties of a scene than a monochromatic image does, color can help us recognize complex material qualities...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Laila Hugrass, Jana Slavikova, Melissa Horvat, Alaa Al Musawi, David Crewther
"The dress" has provoked intensive commentary among psychophysicists, especially in relation to color vision. Researchers have shown that manipulating illuminance cues can influence the perceived colors of the dress. Here we investigate whether illusory shifts in brightness can shift color perception of the dress. Drifting achromatic gratings with fast off and fast on shading profiles are known to give an illusion of brightening or darkening, respectively. We superimposed rotating sawtooth gratings on a series of dress images that morphed from extreme white/gold through to blue/black...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Oliver W Layton, Brett R Fajen
Cortical area MSTd contains cells sensitive to the radial expansion and contraction motion patterns experienced during forward and backward self-motion. We investigated the open question of whether populations of MSTd cells tuned to expansion and contraction interact through recurrent connectivity, which may play important roles in postural control and resolving heading in dynamic environments. We used a neural model of MSTd to generate predictions about the consequences of different types of interactions among MSTd expansion and contraction cells for heading signals produced in the case of self-motion in the presence of a retreating object-a stimulus that recruits both expansion and contraction MSTd cell populations...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Ian M Erkelens, William R Bobier
Horizontal vergence eye movements are controlled by two processes, phasic and slow-tonic. Slow-tonic responses are hypothesized to be stimulated by the faster, pulse-step neural output of the phasic system. This suggests that the general behavior of each system should be similar; however, this relationship has yet to be investigated directly. We characterize the relationship between phasic and tonic vergence by quantifying directional asymmetries in the response properties of each mechanism to the same disparity amplitudes...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Guido Maiello, Lenna Walker, Peter J Bex, Fuensanta A Vera-Diaz
We evaluated the ability of emmetropic and myopic observers to detect and discriminate blur across the retina under monocular or binocular viewing conditions. We recruited 39 young (23-30 years) healthy adults (n = 19 myopes) with best-corrected visual acuity 0.0 LogMAR (20/20) or better in each eye and no binocular or accommodative dysfunction. Monocular and binocular blur discrimination thresholds were measured as a function of pedestal blur using naturalistic stimuli with an adaptive 4AFC procedure. Stimuli were presented in a 46° diameter window at 40 cm...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Yih-Shiuan Lin, Pao-Chou Cho, Chien-Chung Chen
A Glass pattern consists of randomly distributed dot pairs, or dipoles, whose orientation is determined by a geometric transform that defines the global percept for this pattern. The perception of Glass patterns involves a local process to associate paired dots into dipoles and a global process to group the dipoles into a global structure. We used a variant of Glass patterns consisting of tripoles instead of dipoles to estimate the effect of luminance contrast on the global form percept. In each tripole, an anchor dot and two context dots formed the vertices of an equilateral triangle with the anchor dot pointing toward the center of the display...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Richard Johnston, Nicola J Pitchford, Neil W Roach, Timothy Ledgeway
A characteristic set of eye movements and fixations are made during reading, so the position of words on the retinae is constantly being updated. Effective decoding of print requires this temporal stream of visual information to be segmented or parsed into its constituent units (e.g., letters or words). Poor readers' difficulties with word recognition could arise at the point of segmenting time-varying visual information, but the mechanisms underlying this process are little understood. Here, we used random-dot displays to explore the effects of reading ability on temporal segmentation...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Endel Põder
There are different opinions about the roles of local interactions and central processing capacity in visual search. This study attempts to clarify the problem using a new version of relevant set cueing. A central precue indicates two symmetrical segments (that may contain a target object) within a circular array of objects presented briefly around the fixation point. The number of objects in the relevant segments, and density of objects in the array were varied independently. Three types of search experiments were run: (a) search for a simple visual feature (color, size, and orientation); (b) conjunctions of simple features; and (c) spatial configuration of simple features (rotated Ts)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Panqu Wang, Garrison W Cottrell
What are the roles of central and peripheral vision in human scene recognition? Larson and Loschky (2009) showed that peripheral vision contributes more than central vision in obtaining maximum scene recognition accuracy. However, central vision is more efficient for scene recognition than peripheral, based on the amount of visual area needed for accurate recognition. In this study, we model and explain the results of Larson and Loschky (2009) using a neurocomputational modeling approach. We show that the advantage of peripheral vision in scene recognition, as well as the efficiency advantage for central vision, can be replicated using state-of-the-art deep neural network models...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Masataka Sawayama, Shin'ya Nishida, Mikio Shinya
We are surrounded by many textures with fine dense structures, such as human hair and fabrics, whose individual elements are often finer than the spatial resolution limit of the visual system or that of a digitized image. Here we show that human observers have an ability to visually estimate subresolution fineness of those textures. We carried out a psychophysical experiment to show that observers could correctly discriminate differences in the fineness of hair-like dense line textures even when the thinnest line element was much finer than the resolution limit of the eye or that of the display...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Sae Kaneko, Stuart Anstis, Ichiro Kuriki
Kaneko and Murakami (2012) demonstrated that simultaneous contrast for brightness and color (chromatic saturation) were enhanced by flashing the stimulus very briefly (10 ms). Here we examined whether this effect of duration generalized to other visual features. Tilt illusion and simultaneous hue contrast were both shown to be much stronger with a stimulus duration of 10 ms compared with 500 ms. The similar temporal dynamics for simultaneous contrast across visual features suggest common underlying principles...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Rosemary Le, Nathan Witthoft, Michal Ben-Shachar, Brian Wandell
Skilled reading requires rapidly recognizing letters and word forms; people learn this skill best for words presented in the central visual field. Measurements over the last decade have shown that when children learn to read, responses within ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOT) become increasingly selective to word forms. We call these regions the VOT reading circuitry (VOTRC). The portion of the visual field that evokes a response in the VOTRC is called the field of view (FOV). We measured the FOV of the VOTRC and found that it is a small subset of the entire field of view available to the human visual system...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Pascal Wallisch
There has been considerable interest in a stimulus ("the dress") that yields starkly divergent subjective color percepts between observers. It has been proposed that individual differences in the subjective interpretation of this stimulus are due to the different assumptions that individuals make about how the dress was illuminated. In this study, we address this possible explanation empirically by reporting on data from ∼13,000 observers who were surveyed online. We show that assumptions about the illumination of the dress-i...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Andrea F Frielink-Loing, Arno Koning, Rob van Lier
This study investigated the relative contributions of overt and covert attention on the apparent anticipatory nature of attention in two experiments, using two different object tracking tasks, both combined with a probe detection task. In Experiment 1, we investigated the distribution of attention for overtly and covertly tracked targets separately at low tracking load using a single-object tracking task (one target, one distractor). We found anisotropic distributions of probe detection rates for both overtly tracked and covertly tracked targets, with highest detection rates at locations ahead of the target's movement...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Roger W Strong, George A Alvarez
Cognitive training has become a billion-dollar industry with the promise that exercising a cognitive faculty (e.g., attention) on simple "brain games" will lead to improvements on any task relying on the same faculty. Although this logic seems sound, it assumes performance improves on training tasks because attention's capacity has been enhanced. Alternatively, training may result in attentional expertise-an enhancement of the ability to deploy attention to particular content-such that improvement on training tasks is specific to the features of the training context...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Françoise Vitu, Soazig Casteau, Hossein Adeli, Gregory J Zelinsky, Eric Castet
Saccades quite systematically undershoot a peripheral visual target by about 10% of its eccentricity while becoming more variable, mainly in amplitude, as the target becomes more peripheral. This undershoot phenomenon has been interpreted as the strategic adjustment of saccadic gain downstream of the superior colliculus (SC), where saccades are programmed. Here, we investigated whether the eccentricity-related increase in saccades' hypometria and imprecision might not instead result from overrepresentation of space closer to the fovea in the SC and visual-cortical areas...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Christiane B Wiebel, Guillermo Aguilar, Marianne Maertens
One central problem in perception research is to understand how internal experiences are linked to physical variables. Most commonly, this relationship is measured using the method of adjustment, but this has two shortcomings: The perceptual scales that relate physical and perceptual variables are not measured directly, and the method often requires perceptual comparisons between viewing conditions. To overcome these problems, we measured perceptual scales of surface lightness using maximum likelihood difference scaling, asking observers only to compare the lightness of surfaces presented in the same context...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Tao Liu, Larry N Thibos
In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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