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Journal of Vision

Odelia Schwartz, Luis Gonzalo Sanchez Giraldo
Central to behavior and cognition is the way that sensory stimuli are represented in neural systems. The distributions over such stimuli enjoy rich structure; however, how the brain captures and exploits these regularities is unclear. Here, we consider different sources of perhaps the most prevalent form of structure, namely hierarchies, in one of its most prevalent cases, namely the representation of images. We review experimental approaches across a range of subfields, spanning inference, memory recall, and visual adaptation, to investigate how these constrain hierarchical representations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Shira Tkacz-Domb, Yaffa Yeshurun
Recently, we demonstrated temporal crowding with normal observers: Target identification was impaired when it was surrounded by other stimuli in time, even when the interstimuli intervals (ISIs) were relatively long. Here, we examined whether temporal and spatial uncertainties play a critical role in the emergence of temporal crowding. We presented a sequence of three letters to the same peripheral location, right or left of fixation, separated by varying ISI (106-459 ms). One of these letters was the target, and the observers indicated its orientation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
April M Schweinhart, Patrick Shafto, Edward A Essock
Anisotropies in visual perception have often been presumed to reflect an evolutionary adaptation to an environment with a particular anisotropy. Here, we adapt observers to globally-atypical environments presented in virtual reality to assess the malleability of this well-known perceptual anisotropy. Results showed that the typical bias in orientation perception was in fact altered as a result of recent experience. Application of Bayesian modeling indicates that these global changes of the recently-viewed environment implicate a Bayesian prior matched to the recently experienced environment...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Erica L Dixon, Arthur G Shapiro
The color-changing dress is a 2015 Internet phenomenon in which the colors in a picture of a dress are reported as blue-black by some observers and white-gold by others. The standard explanation is that observers make different inferences about the lighting (is the dress in shadow or bright yellow light?); based on these inferences, observers make a best guess about the reflectance of the dress. The assumption underlying this explanation is that reflectance is the key to color constancy because reflectance alone remains invariant under changes in lighting conditions...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Pietro Scatturin, Giovanni Galfano
Microsaccades are tiny eye movements that individuals perform unconsciously during fixation. Despite that the nature and the functions of microsaccades are still lively debated, recent evidence has shown an association between these micro eye movements and higher order cognitive processes. Here, in two experiments, we specifically focused on working memory and addressed whether differential memory load could be reflected in a modulation of microsaccade dynamics. In Experiment 1, participants memorized a numerical sequence composed of either two (low-load condition) or five digits (high-load condition), appearing at fixation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Nadine Kloth, Charlotte Pugh, Gillian Rhodes
Gaze direction is a dynamic social signal that provides real-time insight into another person's focus of attention. Gaze adaptation induces aftereffects in the perception of gaze in subsequent faces, typically biasing it away from the adapted direction. Previous studies found that such gaze direction aftereffects persist for about 7 min when repeatedly tested immediately after adaptation, but can survive at least 24 hr when there is no testing immediately after adaptation. These findings suggest that exposure to test faces after adaptation might affect the persistence of gaze direction aftereffects more than the passing of time...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Heather Sheridan, Eyal M Reingold
To explore the perceptual component of chess expertise, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players during a chess-related visual search task that tested anecdotal reports that a key differentiator of chess skill is the ability to visualize the complex moves of the knight piece. Specifically, chess players viewed an array of four minimized chessboards, and they rapidly searched for the target board that allowed a knight piece to reach a target square in three moves. On each trial, there was only one target board (i...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jesse S Husk, Deyue Yu
Patients with central vision loss must rely on their peripheral vision for reading. Unfortunately, limitations of peripheral vision, such as crowding, pose significant challenges to letter recognition. As a result, there is a need for developing effective training methods for improving crowded letter recognition in the periphery. Several studies have shown that extensive practice with letter stimuli is beneficial to peripheral letter recognition. Here, we explore stimulus-related factors that might influence the effectiveness of peripheral letter recognition training...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jay A Edelman, Alexa M Mieses, Kira Konnova, David Shiu
Express saccades (ES) are the most reflexive saccadic eye movements, with very short reaction times of 70-110 ms. It is likely that ES have the shortest saccade reaction times (SRTs) possible given the known physiological and anatomical delays present in sensory and motor systems. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that a vector displacement of ES to spatially extended stimuli can be influenced by spatial cognition. Edelman, Kristjansson, and Nakayama (2007) found that when two horizontally separated visual stimuli appear at a random location, the spatial vector, but not the reaction time, of human ES is strongly influenced by an instruction to make a saccade to one side (either left or right) of a visual stimulus array...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Ichiro Kuriki, Ryan Lange, Yumiko Muto, Angela M Brown, Kazuho Fukuda, Rumi Tokunaga, Delwin T Lindsey, Keiji Uchikawa, Satoshi Shioiri
Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Sabrina Hansmann-Roth, Sylvia C Pont, Pascal Mamassian
The material property of glossiness, which is attributed to many objects in our daily life, is physically independent of the objects' color. However, perceived glossiness can change with the contrast between the highlight and the area around the specular highlight. Hitherto, experiments mainly investigated gloss on unicolored surfaces. It is well known that the context in which a surface is embedded can influence its perceived lightness. Here we investigated whether similar contextual effects exist also for gloss perception by presenting single surfaces containing two different colors...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Kathryn Koehler, Miguel P Eckstein
Scene context is known to facilitate object recognition and guide visual search, but little work has focused on isolating image-based cues and evaluating their contributions to eye movement guidance and search performance. Here, we explore three types of contextual cues (a co-occurring object, the configuration of other objects, and the superordinate category of background elements) and assess their joint contributions to search performance in the framework of cue-combination and the temporal unfolding of their extraction...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Alexandra C Schmid, Barton L Anderson
Lightness judgments of targets embedded in a homogeneous surround exhibit abrupt steps in perceived lightness at points at which the targets transition from being increments to decrements. This "crispening effect" and the general difficulty of matching low-contrast targets embedded in homogeneous surrounds suggest that a second perceptual dimension in addition to lightness may contribute to the appearance of test patches in these displays. The present study explicitly tested whether two dimensions (lightness and transmittance) could lead to more satisfactory matches than lightness alone in an asymmetric matching task...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
We recently demonstrated that observers are capable of encoding not only summary statistics, such as mean and variance of stimulus ensembles, but also the shape of the ensembles. Here, for the first time, we show the learning dynamics of this process, investigate the possible priors for the distribution shape, and demonstrate that observers are able to learn more complex distributions, such as bimodal ones. We used speeding and slowing of response times between trials (intertrial priming) in visual search for an oddly oriented line to assess internal models of distractor distributions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jielei Emma Zhu, Wei Ji Ma
Vertical line segments tend to be perceived as longer than horizontal ones of the same length, but this may in part be due to configuration effects. To minimize such effects, we used isolated line segments in a two-interval, forced choice paradigm, not limiting ourselves to horizontal and vertical. We fitted psychometric curves using a Bayesian method that assumes that, for a given subject, the lapse rate is the same across all conditions. The closer a line segment's orientation was to vertical, the longer it was perceived to be...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Gordon E Legge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Mahalakshmi Ramamurthy, Erik Blaser
High performance in well-practiced, everyday tasks-driving, sports, gaming-suggests a kind of procedural attention that can allocate processing resources to behaviorally relevant information in an unsupervised manner. Here we show that training can lead to a new, automatic attentional selection rule that operates in the absence of bottom-up, salience-driven triggers and willful top-down selection. Taking advantage of the fact that attention modulates motion aftereffects, observers were presented with a bivectorial display with overlapping, iso-salient red and green dot fields moving to the right and left, respectively, while distracted by a demanding auditory two-back memory task...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jordan W Lass, Patrick J Bennett, Mary A Peterson, Allison B Sekuler
We examined age-related differences in figure-ground perception by exploring the effect of age on Convexity Context Effects (CCE; Peterson & Salvagio, 2008). Experiment 1, using Peterson and Salvagio's procedure and black and white stimuli consisting of 2 to 8 alternating concave and convex regions, established that older adults exhibited reduced CCEs compared to younger adults. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this age difference was found at various stimulus durations and sizes. Experiment 4 compared CCEs obtained with achromatic stimuli, in which the alternating convex and concave regions were each all black or all white, and chromatic stimuli in which the concave regions were homogeneous in color but the convex regions varied in color...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Dongho Kim, Savannah Lokey, Sam Ling
Our state of arousal fluctuates from moment to moment-fluctuations that can have profound impacts on behavior. Arousal has been proposed to play a powerful, widespread role in the brain, influencing processes as far ranging as perception, memory, learning, and decision making. Although arousal clearly plays a critical role in modulating behavior, the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the modulatory role of arousal on one of the cornerstones of visual perception: contrast perception...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Sivalogeswaran Ratnasingam, Barton L Anderson
The perceived color of a uniform image patch depends not only on the spectral content of the light that reaches the eye but also on its context. One of the most extensively studied forms of context dependence is a simultaneous contrast display: a center-surround display containing a homogeneous target embedded in a homogenous surround. A number of models have been proposed to account for the chromatic transformations of targets induced by such surrounds, but they were typically derived in the restricted context of experiments using achromatic targets with surrounds that varied along the cardinal axes of color space...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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