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Traffic Injury Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699848/impact-of-helmet-use-on-traumatic-brain-injury-from-road-traffic-accidents-in-cambodia
#1
Saksham Gupta, Katherine Klaric, Nang Sam, Vuthy Din, Tina Juschkewitz, Vycheth Iv, Mark G Shrime, Kee B Park
OBJECTIVE: Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. METHODS: The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression...
July 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696780/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-toe-board-energy-absorbing-material-for-foot-ankle-and-lower-leg-injury-reduction
#2
John P Patalak, Joel D Stitzel
OBJECTIVE: Since 2000 numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNR), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging...
July 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696779/the-impact-of-retail-beverage-service-training-and-social-host-laws-on-adolescents-dui-rates-in-san-diego-co-california
#3
Michael Scherer, Eduardo Romano, Susan Caldwell, Eileen Taylor
INTRODUCTION: Driving under the influence (DUI) citations are still a serious concern among drivers aged 16-20 years and have been shown to be related to increased risk of fatal and non-fatal crashes. A battery of laws and policies has been enacted to address this concern. While numerous studies have evaluated these policies, there is still a need for comprehensive policy evaluations that take into account a variety of contextual factors. Previous effort by this research team examined the impact of 20 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA)-21 laws in the state of California, as they impacted alcohol-related crash rates among drivers under 21 years of age while at the same time accounting for alcohol and gas taxes, unemployment rates, sex distribution among drivers, and sobriety checkpoints...
July 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696773/rail-height-effects-on-safety-performance-of-midwest-guardrail-system
#4
Mojdeh Asadollahi Pajouh, Ramen D Julin, Cody S Stolle, John D Reid, Ronald K Faller
OBJECTIVE: Guardrail heights play a crucial role in the way that errant vehicles interact with roadside barriers. Low rail heights increase the propensity of vehicle rollover and override, while excessively-tall rails promote underride. Further, rail mounting heights and post embedment depths may be altered by variations in roadside terrain. An increased guardrail height may be desirable to accommodate construction tolerances, soil erosion, frost heave, and future roadway overlays. This study aimed to investigate and identify a maximum safe installation height for the Midwest Guardrail System, which would be robust and remain crashworthy before and after pavement overlays...
July 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678610/occupant-responses-in-conventional-and-abts-seats-in-high-speed-rear-sled-tests
#5
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau, Roger Burnett, Priya Prasad
OBJECTIVE: This study compared biomechanical responses of a normally seated Hybrid III dummy on conventional and ABTS (all belts to seat) seats in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests. It determined the difference in performance with modern (≥2000 MY) seats compared to older (<2000 MY) seats and ABTS seats. METHODS: The seats were fixed in a sled buck subjected to a 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled test. The pulse was a 15 g double-peak acceleration with 150 ms duration...
July 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658590/factors-associated-with-prehospital-death-among-traffic-accident-patients-in-osaka-city-japan-a-population-based-study
#6
Yusuke Katayama, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Kosuke Kiyohara, Taku Iwami, Takashi Kawamura, Sumito Hayashida, Hiroshi Ogura, Takeshi Shimazu
OBJECTIVE: Although it is important to assess the factors associated with traffic accident fatalities to decrease them as a matter of public health, such factors have not been fully identified. METHODS: Using a large-scale dataset of ambulance records in Osaka City, Japan, we retrospectively analyzed all traffic accident patients transported to hospitals by emergency medical service personnel from 2013 to 2014. In this study, prehospital death was defined as that occurring at the scene or in the emergency department immediately after hospital arrival...
June 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657420/driver-and-front-passenger-injury-in-frontal-crashes-update-on-the-effect-of-unbelted-rear-occupants
#7
Chantal S Parenteau, David C Viano
PURPOSE: This is a study of the influence of an unbelted rear occupant on the risk for severe injury to the front-seat occupant ahead of them in frontal crashes. It provides an update to earlier studies. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the risk for severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to belted drivers and front passengers in frontal crashes by the presence of a belted or unbelted passenger seated directly behind them or without a rear passenger. Frontal crashes were identified with GAD1 = 'F' without rollover (rollover ≤ 0)...
June 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657352/wrong-way-driving-crashes-a-multiple-correspondence-approach-to-identify-contributing-factors
#8
Mohammad Jalayer, Mahdi Pour-Rouholamin, Huaguo Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Wrong-way driving (WWD) crashes result in 1.34 fatalities per fatal crash, while for other non-WWD fatal crashes this number drops to 1.10. As such, further in-depth investigation of WWD crashes is necessary. The objective of this study is twofold: to identify the characteristics that best describe WWD crashes and to verify the factors associated with WWD occurrence. METHODS: We collected and analyzed fifteen years of crash data from the states of Illinois and Alabama...
June 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#9
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613096/emergency-department-visits-by-pediatric-patients-sustained-as-a-passenger-on-a-motorcycle
#10
Allison Tadros, Stephanie Owen, Shelley M Hoffman, Stephen M Davis, Melinda J Sharon
OBJECTIVE: Currently only five out of the fifty states in the United States (U.S.) have laws restricting the age of passengers permitted to ride on a motorcycle. This study sought to characterize the visits by patients under the age of 16 to US emergency departments (ED) for injuries sustained as a passenger on a motorcycle. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) for the years 2006 to 2011...
June 14, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605251/influence-of-pedestrians-age-and-gender-types-on-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-pedestrian-crashes
#11
Alireza Toran Pour, Sara Moridpour, Richard Tay, Abbas Rajabifard
OBJECTIVES: Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes in the world and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become one of the significant traffic safety issues in the world. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrians' age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot-times...
June 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594247/differences-in-the-kinematics-of-booster-seated-pediatric-occupants-using-two-different-car-seats
#12
O Juste-Lorente, M Maza, A I Lorente, F J Lopez-Valdes
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of forward-facing Child Restraint Systems (CRS) mounted on two different seats. METHODS: Two different ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device) sizes (P3 and P6), using the same child restraint system (a non-ISOFIX high-back booster seat) were exposed to the ECE R44 regulatory deceleration pulse in a deceleration sled. Two different seats (seat A, seat B) were used. Three repetitions per ATD and mounting seat were done, resulting in a total of 12 sled crashes...
June 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594238/on-the-selection-of-stimulus-for-the-auditory-variant-of-the-detection-response-task-method-for-driving-experiments
#13
Kristina Stojmenova, Franco Policardi, Jaka Sodnik
OBJECTIVES: The Detection Response Task (DRT) is a method for measuring attentional effects of secondary tasks on a driver's cognitive load by measuring response times and hit rates to different types of stimuli as indirect indicators of increased cognitive load. ISO 17488 (2016) standard only provides guidelines for the technical implementation and measurement methods for the visual and tactile versions (use of visual and tactile stimuli) of the DRT method. This paper presents a study with the goal of finding the most appropriate auditory stimulus for the implementation of an auditory version of the DRT method...
June 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581829/features-of-fatal-injuries-in-older-cyclists-in-vehicle-bicycle-accidents-in-japan
#14
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Masahito Hitosugi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. METHODS: This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions in which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan...
June 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557669/pedestrian-fatality-and-impact-speed-squared-cloglog-modeling-from-french-national-data
#15
Jean-Louis Martin, Dan Wu
OBJECTIVE: The present study estimates pedestrians' risk of death according to the impact speed when hit by a passenger car in a frontal collision. METHODS: Data were coded for all fatal crashes in France in 2011 and for a random sample of 1/20(th) of all road injuries for the same year, and weighted to take account of police under-reporting of mild injury. A cloglog model was used to optimize risk adjustment for high collision speeds. The fit of the model on the data was also improved by using the square of the impact speed, which best matches the energy dissipated in the collision...
May 30, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557622/efficacy-of-seat-mounted-thoracic-side-airbags-in-the-german-vehicle-fleet
#16
Luke Gaylor, Mirko Junge, Sylvester Abanteriba
OBJECTIVE: Thoracic side airbags (tSABs) deploy within close proximity to the occupant. Their primary purpose is to provide a protective cushion between the occupant and the intruding door. To date various field studies investigating their injury mitigation has been limited and contradicting. The research develops efficacy estimations associated for the seat mounted tSAB in their ability to mitigate injury risk from the German collision environment. METHODS: A matched cohort study using GIDAS data was implemented and aims to investigate the efficacy of seat mounted tSAB units in preventing thoracic injury...
May 30, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548584/the-sex-disparity-in-risky-driving-a-survey-of-colombian-young-drivers
#17
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
OBJECTIVE: The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognised as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has also been recognised as a pervasive young driver problem. Whilst progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilisation and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates...
May 26, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548581/modeling-crash-injury-severity-by-road-feature-to-improve-safety
#18
Praveena Penmetsa, Srinivas S Pulugurtha
Structured Abstract Objective: The objective of this research is two-fold; a) to model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency, and, b) to model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature. METHOD: Crash data from 2011 to 2013 was obtained from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the state of North Carolina. Twenty-three different road features were considered, analyzed and compared with each other as well as no road feature...
May 26, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534715/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-related-to-child-safety-restraint-in-citizens-of-shenzhen-municipality-china-and-the-associations-between-these-factors
#19
Shengyuan Liu, Haibin Zhou, Jianping Ma, Changyi Wang, Zhongwei Chen, Sihan Chen, Yingzhou Yang, Xiaoli Liu, Ji Peng, Leilei Duan, Xiao Deng
Objective-A child safety restraint (CSR) is an effective measure to reduce the risk of child injury from traffic collisions. This study aims to explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding CSR in a Chinese population. Methods-A cross-sectional survey regarding CSR use was conducted from April to May 2014 in Shenzhen Municipality. Respondents were parents who had at least one child 0 to 6 years of age and simultaneously owned a car. These parents provided a self-report of demographic characteristics as well as information about their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors toward CSR use...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534647/considering-built-environment-and-spatial-correlation-in-modelling-pedestrian-injury-severity
#20
Carlo G Prato, Sigal Kaplan, Alexandre Patrier, Thomas K Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about built environment and exposure at the crash locations...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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