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Traffic Injury Prevention

A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yonggang Wang, Mengyang Xin, Han Bai, Yangdong Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between variations in visual behavior measures and subjective sleepiness levels across age groups over time to determine a quantitative method of measuring drivers' sleepiness levels. METHOD: A total of 128 volunteer drivers in four age groups were asked to finish 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h continuous driving tasks on expressways, during which the driver's fixation, saccade and blink measures were recorded by an eye-tracking system and the subjective sleepiness level was measured through the Stanford Sleepiness Scale...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Chen Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Jinxin Xia, Zhendong Qian
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to model fault in e-bike fatal crashes in a county-level city in China. METHOD: Three-year crash data are retrieved from the crash reports (2012-2014) from the Taixing Police Department. A mixed logit models is introduced to explore significant factors associated with fault assignment, as well as accounting for similarity among fault assignment and heterogeneity within unobserved variables. RESULTS: The modeling results indicate some interesting new findings...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Chia-Ying Kuo, Hung-Yi Chiou, Jia-Wei Lin, Shin-Han Tsai, Mau-Roung Lin, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Chien-Min Lin, Shu-Fen Chu, Tsan-Hon Liou, Wen-Ta Chiu
Objective Bicycle riding is increasingly popular in Taiwan, but the number of cyclists injured and cyclists' death rate are both increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the different characteristics and clinical outcomes of traffic-accident related head injuries to cyclists in urban and rural areas. Methods Records of 812 patients (533 urban and 279 rural) admitted to 27 hospitals in Taipei City and Hualien County as the result of a traumatic head injury while bicycling between 1998 and 2013 were retrieved for study...
October 18, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Anne T McCartt, Wen Hu
OBJECTIVES: During the past two decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle-weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. METHODS: Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013...
October 18, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jessica B Cicchino, David S Zuby
OBJECTIVE: Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. METHODS: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U...
October 14, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Gudrun Høiseth, Linn Engeset Austdal, Elisabeth Wiik, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Jørg Mørland
Objective Elderly drivers are somewhat more likely to be involved in car crashes than middle aged drivers, but less likely to be involved than the younger drivers. This study aimed to assess the extent of drug use in elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers, with respect to which drugs were detected and at which concentrations. Methods Blood samples from elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers from February 1(st) 2012 to May 22(th) 2013 were identified from the database at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and were retrospectively analyzed for a broad repertoire of drugs relevant for impairment...
October 14, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sara Ferreira, Marco Amorim, Antonio Couto
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, named the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Bamini Gopinath, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Ian A Harris, Michael Nicholas, Petrina Casey, Fiona Blyth, Christopher G Maher, Ian D Cameron
OBJECTIVES: A better understanding of the long-term factors that independently predict poorer quality of life following mild to moderate musculoskeletal injuries is needed. We aimed to establish the predictors of quality of life (including, socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and pre-injury factors), 24 months after a non-catastrophic road-traffic injury. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 252 participants with mild/ moderate injury sustained in a road traffic crash, had quality of life measured 24 months following baseline survey...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jwo-Leun Lee, Tzu-Chun Chen, Hung-Chang Huang, Ray-Jade Chen
BACKGROUND: Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. METHODS: A clinical data set comprising 2,868 trauma patients was analysed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical centre in Central Taiwan...
October 7, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mohammad Fararouei, Zahra Sedaghat, Sayed Javad Sadat, Gholamhossein Shahraki
OBJECTIVE: It is estimated that road traffic accidents are globally responsible for approximately 1.2 million deaths and 20 to 50 million injuries. About 70% of traffic incidences (TIs) occur in the developing countries and among countries with high TI rates, Iran is the first. The aim of this study was to measure the association between being responsible for a traffic accident and some vehicle, human and environmental related factors in Yasuj; a city with high incidence of road traffic injuries and deaths in the country...
October 7, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mikko Malmivuo, Juha Luoma, Markus Porthin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tyres based on fatal road accidents. METHODS: The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. RESULTS: Comparing the proportions of winter tyre type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tyre type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tyres reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%...
October 4, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mohammed Al Azri, Hamed Al Reesi, Samir Al-Adawi, Abdullah Al Maniri, James Freeman
OBJECTIVE: Drivers' behaviors such as violations and errors have been demonstrated to predict crash involvement among young Omani drivers. However, there is a dearth of studies linking risky driving behaviors to the personality of young drivers. The aim of the present study was to assess such traits within a sample of young Omani drivers (as measured through the behavioral inhibition system, BIS, and the behavioral activation system, BAS) and determine links with aberrant driving behaviors and self-reported crash involvement...
September 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Duo Li, Prakash Ranjitkar, Yifei Zhao, Hui Yi, Soroush Rashidi
OBJECTIVE: Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users due to the lack of mass, speed, and protection, compared against other types of road users. Adverse weather conditions may reduce road friction and visibility, and thus increase crash risk. There is limited evidence and a considerable discrepancy about impacts of weather conditions on injury severity in the literature. This paper investigated factors affecting pedestrian injury severity level under different weather conditions based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain...
September 22, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
J C F de Winter, C M Gorter, W J Schakel, B van Arem
OBJECTIVE: Adaptive cruise control, a technology that allows for automated car following, is becoming increasingly prevalent. Previous surveys have shown that drivers generally regard ACC as pleasant, but that they have to intervene when the ACC reaches its operational limits. The former research has been mostly concerned with specific car brands, and does not fully reflect the diversity of ACC types in traffic today. The objective of the present research was to establish the determinants of pleasure in using ACC...
September 22, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kang Jiang, Feiyang Ling, Zhongxiang Feng, Kun Wang, Lei Guo
OBJECTIVE: As the prevalence of mobile phone use has increased globally, experts have verified the effects of mobile phone distraction on traffic safety. However, the psychological factors underlying pedestrians' decision to use their mobile phone while crossing the street have received little attention. METHODS: The present study employed the theory of planned behavior to investigate the psychological factors that influence pedestrians' intentions to use a mobile phone while crossing the street...
September 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Willian Augusto de Melo, Ana Carolina Jacinto Alarcão, Analice Paula Rocha de Oliveira, Sandra Marisa Pelloso, Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of non-fatal traffic accidents regarding age. METHODS: A retrospective, transversal and analytical study was carried out in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil based on data from Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito ("Police Occurrence Bulletins") (BOATs). Following probability sampling, the sociodemographic aspects, logistics, environmental conditions and time of occurrence of 418 cases of accidents...
September 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Simon Sternlund, Johan Strandroth, Matteo Rizzi, Anders Lie, Claes Tingvall
Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle Lane Departure Warning (LDW) and Lane Keeping Aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. Methods The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA sensitive and non-sensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year and technical equipment i.e. low speed Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS)...
September 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Bruno Gonçalves Schröder E Souza, Tiago Evangelista de Melo, Tales Pereira Lisboa, Marcos Bastos Miranda, Thiago Gonçalves Schroder E Souza, Valdeci Manoel de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: to obtain information about the current knowledge and habits of parents who transport children in cars in Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional survey was conducted using specifically designed self-responded questionnaires, to parents of children attending a private pediatric office in town in southwest Brazil. Data was collected about children's age, gender, height and weight, possession of automobile children's restraint systems (CRS), its type, frequency and adequacy of use, reasons for not possessing or not using the devices...
September 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Dafne Piersma, Dick de Waard, Ragnhild J Davidse, Jolieke de Groot, Michelle J A Doumen, Ruud A Bredewoud, René Claesen, Afina W Lemstra, Philip Scheltens, Annemiek Vermeeren, Rudolf Ponds, Frans Verhey, Wiebo H Brouwer, Oliver Tucha
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus yet on how to determine which patients with cognitive impairment are able to drive a car safely and which are not. Recently, a strategy was composed for the assessment of fitness to drive, consisting of clinical interviews, a neuropsychological assessment, and driving simulator rides, which was compared with the outcome of an expert evaluation of an on-road driving assessment. A selection of tests and parameters of the new approach revealed a predictive accuracy of 97...
September 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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