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Traffic Injury Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340317/opportunities-for-crash-and-injury-reduction-a-multi-harm-approach-for-crash-data-analysis
#1
Ann Mallory, Allison Kender, Kevin Moorhouse
OBJECTIVE: A multi-harm approach for analyzing crash and injury data was developed for the ultimate purpose of getting a richer picture of motor vehicle crash outcomes identifying research opportunities in crash safety. METHODS: Methods were illustrated using a retrospective analysis of 69,597 occupant cases from NASS CDS (National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System) from 2005 to 2015. Occupant cases were analyzed by frequency and severity of outcome: fatality, injury by AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale), number of cases, attributable fatality, disability, and injury costs...
March 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340303/epidemiology-and-patterns-of-facial-fractures-due-to-road-traffic-accidents-in-taiwan-a-15%C3%A2-years-retrospective-study
#2
Cheng-San Yang, Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen, Yung-Cheng Yang, Li-Chung Huang, How-Ran Guo, Hsin-Yi Yang
OBJECTIVE: The facial region is a commonly fractured site, but the etiology varies widely by country and geographic region. To date, there are no population-based studies of facial fractures in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with facial fracture and registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan between 1997 and 2011. The epidemiological characteristics of this cohort were analyzed, including the etiology, fracture site, associated injuries, and sex and age distributions...
March 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332869/perceived-enjoyment-concentration-intention-and-speed-violation-behavior-using-flow-theory-and-theory-of-planned-behavior
#3
Charles Atombo, Chaozhong Wu, Hui Zhang, Tina D Wemegah
OBJECTIVE: Road accidents are an important public health concern and speeding is a major contributor. Although, flow theory (FLT) is a valid model for understanding behavior, currently the nature of the roles and interplay, of FLT constructs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework when attempting to explain the determinants of motivations for intention to speed and speeding behavior of car drivers is not yet known. The study aims to synthesize TPB and FLT in explaining drivers of advanced vehicles intention to speed and speed violation behavior and evaluate factors which are critical for explaining intention and behavior...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332867/age-related-changes-in-thoracic-skeletal-geometry-of-elderly-females
#4
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
OBJECTIVE: Both females and the elderly have been identified as vulnerable populations with increased injury and mortality risk in multiple crash scenarios. Particularly in frontal impacts, older females show higher risk to the chest and thorax than their younger or male counterparts. Thoracic geometry plays a role in this increase, and this study aims to quantify key parts of that geometry in a way that can directly inform human body models that incorporate the concept of person age...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332863/male-and-female-worldsid-and-post-mortem-human-subject-responses-in-full-scale-vehicle-tests
#5
Narayan Yoganandan, John Humm, Frank Pintar, Heather Rhule, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Jim Stricklin, Rodney Rudd, Matthew Craig
Structured ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. METHODS: Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the United States Side impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332855/occupant-to-occupant-contact-injury-in-motor-vehicle-crashes
#6
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
OBJECTIVE: This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk of occupant-to-occupant contact injury by crash type and occupant age. It focused on rear impacts because of a recent Senate inquiry. METHODS: 1994-2013 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the effects of occupant-to-occupant contact on the risk of serious-to-fatal injury (AIS 3+) by crash type and age group. NASS-CDS in-depth cases were analyzed to identify crash circumstances for AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury in rear crashes...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326809/identifying-factors-affecting-the-safety-of-mid-block-bicycle-lanes-considering-mixed-two-wheeled-traffic-flow
#7
Lu Bai, Ching-Yao Chan, Pan Liu, Chengcheng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Electric bikes (e-bikes) were one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past two decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns on urban transport system. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate the cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when they were riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of two-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter style electric bicycles (SSEBs) and regular bicycles (RBs)...
March 22, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323449/the-relative-importance-of-real-time-in-cab-and-external-feedback-in-managing-fatigue-in-real-world-commercial-transport-operations
#8
Michael Fitzharris, Sara Liu, Amanda N Stephens, Michael G Lenné
OBJECTIVE: Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This paper has three objectives: 1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck driving operations, 2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and 3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24 monitoring and feedback to employers...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323447/injury-mitigation-estimates-for-an-intersection-driver-assistance-system-in-straight-crossing-path-crashes-in-the-u-s
#9
John M Scanlon, Rini Sherony, Hampton C Gabler
OBJECTIVE: Accounting for one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the U.S., intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (MAIS3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323444/evaluating-driver-drowsiness-countermeasures
#10
John G Gaspar, Timothy L Brown, Chris W Schwarz, John D Lee, Julie Kang, James S Higgins
Objective Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and non-fatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This paper describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323442/an-investigation-of-human-body-model-morphing-for-the-assessment-of-abdomen-responses-to-impact-against-a-population-of-test-subjects
#11
Philippe Beillas, Fabien Berthet
OBJECTIVE: Human Body Models have the potential to better describe the human anatomy and variability than dummies. However, datasets available to verify the human response to impact are typically limited in numbers, and they are not size or gender specific. The objective of the study was to investigate the use of model morphing methodologies within that context. METHODS: In the current study, a simple human model scaling methodology was developed to morph two detailed human models (Global Human Body Model Consortium models 50(th) male, M50 and 5(th) female F05) to the dimensions of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) used in published literature...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323434/development-of-potential-methods-for-testing-congestion-control-algorithm-implemented-in-vehicle-to-vehicle-communications
#12
Chung-Jen Hsu, Joshua Fikentscher, Robert Kreeb
Objective A channel congestion problem might occur when the traffic density increases since the number of basic safety messages carried on the communication channel also increases in vehicle-to-vehicle communications. A remedy algorithm proposed in SAE J2945/1 is designed to address the channel congestion issue by decreasing transmission frequency and radiated power. This study is to develop potential test procedures for evaluating or validating the congestion control algorithm. Methods Simulations of a reference unit transmitting at a higher frequency are implemented to emulate a number of Onboard Equipment (OBE) transmitting at the normal interval of 100 milliseconds (10 Hz)...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318313/proposal-of-a-calculation-method-to-determine-the-structural-components-contribution-on-the-deceleration-of-a-passenger-compartment-based-on-the-energy-derivative-method
#13
Kei Nagasaka, Koji Mizuno, Daisuke Ito, Naoya Saida
OBJECTIVE: In car crashes, the passenger compartment deceleration influences the occupant loading significantly. Hence, it is important to consider how each structural component deforms in order to control the passenger compartment deceleration. In frontal impact tests, the passenger compartment deceleration depends on the energy absorption property of the front structures. However, at this point in time there are few papers describing the component's quantitative contributions on the passenger compartment deceleration...
March 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318305/on-demand-driver-vigilance-enhancement-without-explicit-drowsiness-detection-further-analysis-of-the-pilot-study-results
#14
R Michael Van Auken, Brad K Hagoski, Dean P Chiang, Shane Chang
OBJECTIVE: A new active safety concept that engages the driver's psychosensory pain-processing mechanism to automatically trigger vigilance enhancement on-demand was proposed in Chang ( 2012 ). This concept is based on the hypothesis that a human's pain threshold will decline as he/she becomes drowsy, consequently triggering the vigilance enhancer. The objective of this pilot study was to develop methods to test this hypothesis, the results of which could lead to further refinement of the hypothesis and methods, with the ultimate goal of developing new active safety concepts that exploit the driver's endogenous psychosensory pain-processing mechanisms...
March 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296466/road-accident-fatality-risks-for-vulnerable-versus-protected-road-users-in-northern-ghana
#15
James Damsere-Derry, Gavan Palk, Mark King
Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic which claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low and middle income countries. The unfavourable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in Northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users...
March 15, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296431/does-unbelted-safety-requirement-affect-protection-for-belted-occupants
#16
Jingwen Hu, Kathleen D Klinich, Miriam A Manary, Carol A C Flannagan, Prabha Narayanaswamy, Matthew P Reed, Margaret Andreen, Mark Neal, Chin-Hsu Lin
OBJECTIVE: Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seatbelt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses...
March 15, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339302/driver-trust-in-five-driver-assistance-technologies-following-real-world-use-in-four-production-vehicles
#17
David G Kidd, Jessica B Cicchino, Ian J Reagan, Laura B Kerfoot
OBJECTIVES: Information about drivers' experiences with driver assistance technologies in real driving conditions is sparse. This study characterized driver interactions with forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, active lane keeping, side-view assist, and lane departure warning systems following real-world use. METHODS: Fifty-four Insurance Institute for Highway Safety employees participated and drove a 2016 Toyota Prius, 2016 Honda Civic, 2017 Audi Q7, or 2016 Infiniti QX60 for up to several weeks...
March 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118033/emergency-braking-is-affected-by-the-use-of-cruise-control
#18
Yves Jammes, Michel Behr, Maxime Llari, Sarah Bonicel, Jean Paul Weber, Stephane Berdah
OBJECTIVE: We compared the differences in the braking response to vehicle collision between an active human emergency braking (control condition) and cruise control (CC) or adaptive cruise control (ACC). METHODS: In 11 male subjects, age 22 to 67 years, we measured the active emergency braking response during manual driving using the accelerator pedal (control condition) or in condition mimicking CC or ACC. In both conditions, we measured the brake reaction time (BRT), delay to produce the peak braking force (PBD), total emergency braking response (BRT + PBD), and peak braking force (PBF)...
January 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118026/literature-review-on-risky-driving-videos-on-youtube-unknown-effects-and-areas-for-concern
#19
Evelyn Vingilis, Zümrüt Yildirim-Yenier, Larissa Vingilis-Jaremko, Christine Wickens, Jane Seeley, Judy Fleiter, Daniel H Grushka
OBJECTIVE: Entry of terms reflective of extreme risky driving behaviors into the YouTube website yields millions of videos. The majority of the top 20 highly subscribed automotive YouTube websites are focused on high-performance vehicles, high speed, and often risky driving. Moreover, young men are the heaviest users of online video sharing sites, overall streaming more videos, and watching them longer than any other group. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on YouTube videos and risky driving...
January 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112983/head-injuries-tbi-to-adults-and-children-in-motor-vehicle-crashes
#20
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau, Likang Xu, Mark Faul
PURPOSE: This is a descriptive study. It determined the annual, national incidence of head injuries (TBI) to adults and children in motor-vehicle crashes. It evaluated NASS-CDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System) for exposure and incidence of various head injuries in towaway crashes. It evaluated three health databases for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths due to TBI in motor-vehicle occupants. METHODS: Four databases were evaluated using 1997-2010 data on adult (15+ years old) and child (0-14 years old) occupants in motor-vehicle crashes: 1) NASS-CDS estimated the annual incidence of various head injuries and outcomes in towaway crashes, 2) NHAMCS (National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) estimated ED visits for TBI, 3) NHDS (National Hospital Discharge Survey) estimated hospitalizations for TBI and 4) NVSS (National Vital Statistics System) estimated TBI deaths...
January 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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