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Traffic Injury Prevention

Kristina Stojmenova, Jaka Sodnik
OBJECTIVES: There are three standardized versions of the Detection-response task (DRT), two using visual stimuli (remote DRT and head-mounted DRT) and one using tactile stimuli. In this paper, we present a study, which proposes and validates a type of auditory signal to be used as DRT stimulus and evaluate the proposed auditory version of this method by comparing it with the standardized visual and tactile version. METHODS: This was a within-subject design study with 24 participants performed in a driving simulator...
February 20, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Merissa A Yellman, Marissa A Rodriguez, Maria Isabel Colunga, Mary A McCoy, Shelli Stephens-Stidham, L Steven Brown, Gregory R Istre
Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of one-year, multi-faceted, school-based programs aimed at increasing booster seat use among urban children 4-7 years of age in economically-disadvantaged areas. Methods During four consecutive school years, 2011-2015, the Give Kids a Boost (GKB) program was implemented in a total of 8 schools with similar demographics in Dallas County. Observational surveys were conducted at project schools before project implementation (P0), 1-4 weeks after the completion of project implementation (P1), and 4-5 months later (P2)...
February 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Alessandro Scattina, Fuhao Mo, Catherine Masson, Massimiliano Avalle, Pierre Jean Arnoux
OBJECTIVE: The work aims at investigating the influence of some front-end design parameters of a passenger vehicle on the behavior and damage occurring in the human lower limbs while impacted in an accident. METHODS: The analysis is carried out by means of finite element analysis using a generic car model for the vehicle and the Lower Limbs Model for Safety (LLMS) for the purpose of pedestrian safety. Considering the pedestrian standardized impact procedure (as in the 2003/12/EC Directive) a parametric analysis, through a DOE plan, was done...
January 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
T L Bunn, S Slavova, M Chandler, N Hanner, M Singleton
OBJECTIVE: Traffic incidents occurring on roadways require the coordinated effort of multiple responder and recovery entities including communications, law enforcement, fire and rescue, emergency medical services, hazardous materials, transportation agencies, and towing and recovery. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify and characterize transportation incident management (TIM) - related occupational fatalities; 2) assess concordance of surveillance data sources in identifying TIM occupations, driver vs...
January 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Wade A Baker, Mostafiz R Chowdhury, Costin Untaroiu
OBJECTIVE: A novel anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representative of the 50th percentile male soldier is being developed to predict injuries to a vehicle occupant during an under-body blast (UBB). The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the ATD lower limb outfitted with a military combat boot. Secondly, to insert the validated lower-limb into a model of the full ATD and simulate vertical loading experiments. METHODS: A Belleville desert combat boot model was assigned contacts and material properties based on previous experiments...
January 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kirsten Wiese Simonsen, Kristian Linnet, Brian Schou Rasmussen
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of psychoactive drugs and alcohol in drivers under suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol in 2015 and 2016 in the eastern part of Denmark. The trends in the number of traffic cases sent for drug analysis since 2000 and alcohol analysis since 2011 are also discussed. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers suspected of being under the influence of alcohol and/or medication and/or illicit drugs in 2015 and 2016 were investigated as requested by the police...
January 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Luke Gaylor, Mirko Junge, Sylvester Abanteriba
OBJECTIVE: Thoracic side airbags (tSAB) were integrated into the vehicle fleet to attenuate and distribute forces on the occupant's chest and abdomen, dissipate the impact energy, and move the occupant away from the intruding structure, all of which reduce the risk of injury. The research piece investigates and evaluates the safety performance of the airbag unit by cross-correlating data from a controlled collision environment with field data. METHOD: We focus exclusively on vehicle-vehicle lateral impacts from the NHTSA's Vehicle Crash Test Database and NASS-CDS database, which are replicated in the controlled environment by the (crabbed) barrier impact...
January 23, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Keshia M Pollack, Amy R Knowlton, Janice V Bowie, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVE: Understanding pedestrian injury trends at the local level is essential for program planning and allocation of funds for urban planning and improvement. Because we hypothesize that local injury trends differ from national trends in significant and meaningful ways, we investigated city-wide pedestrian injury trends to assess injury risk among nationally-identified risk groups, as well as identify risk groups and locations specific to Baltimore City. METHODS: Pedestrian injury data, obtained from the Baltimore City Fire Department, were gathered through EMS records collected from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
January 17, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Nicholas J Ward, William Schell, Tara Kelley-Baker, Jay Otto, Kari Finley
OBJECTIVES: This study explored a theoretical model to assess the influence of culture on willingness and intention to drive under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). This model is expected to guide the design of strategies to change future DUIC behavior in road users. METHODS: This study used a survey methodology to obtain a nationally representative sample (n = 941) from the AmeriSpeak® Panel. Survey items were designed to measure aspects of a proposed definition of traffic safety culture and a predictive model of its relationship to DUIC...
January 16, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Xujun Zhang, Yaming Yang, Jie Yang, Jie Hu, Yang Li, Ming Wu, Lorann Stallones, Henry Xiang
Objective Electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of electric bike/moped -related road traffic injuries among electric bike/moped riders in southern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to interview 3,151 electric bike/moped riders in southern China. Electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries that occurred from July 2014 to June 2015 were investigated...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Dary D Fiorentino, Brian D Martin
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background: On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board ("NTSB") proposed that states lower the blood alcohol concentration ("BAC") illegal limit from .08 g/dL to .05 g/dL (also referred to as the ".08 law" and "the .05 limit," respectively). In March of 2017, this recommendation was signed into law in the State of Utah. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey is to investigate perceptions regarding enforcement of the .05 g/dL BAC limit. METHOD: Opinions of law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and defense attorneys were obtained through a series of questionnaires and focus groups...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Abigail Simons, Karin Koekemoer, Ashley van Niekerk, Rajen Govender
Objective The risk of pedestrian injury is compounded for children living in low-income communities due to factors such as poor road and pedestrian infrastructure, reliance on walking as a means of transport, and compromised supervision. Parents play an important role in child pedestrian safety. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of child pedestrian variables on parental discomfort with regard to letting their child walk to and from school and on the frequency of adult supervision...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sam D Doecke, Craig N Kloeden, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock
Objective To provide empirical evidence for 'safe' speed limits that will meet the objectives of the Safe System by examining the relationship between speed limit and injury severity for different crash types, using police-reported crash data. Method Police reported crashes from two Australian jurisdictions were used to calculate a fatal crash rate by speed limit and crash type. Example 'safe' speed limits were defined using threshold risk levels. Results A positive exponential relationship between speed limit and fatality rate was found...
January 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Dary D Fiorentino
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background: Two of the three standardized field sobriety tests that US law enforcement uses at roadside checks have a postural equilibrium component to them. Those tests have been validated to detect impairment caused by blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of .08 g/dL or above. Many medical and traffic safety associations support a lower limit, and one state, Utah, has passed a law to lower the limit to .05 g/dL. Many studies have examined the effects of alcohol on postural control (of which postural equilibrium is a component), with a consensus emerging that impairment is usually found at BACs greater than ...
January 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Julie A Bing, Amanda M Agnew, John H Bolte
Objective Analyze booster and rear vehicle seat dimensions to identify the most frequent compatibility problems. Methods Measurements were collected from 40 high-back and backless boosters, and 95 left rear and center rear row seating positions in 50 modern vehicles. Dimensions were compared for 3800 booster/vehicle seat combinations. For validation and estimation of tolerance and correction factors, 72 booster installations were physically completed and compared with measurement-based compatibility predictions...
December 22, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yikai Chen, Kai Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Qin Shi, Jie He, Peiqing Li, Ting Shi
OBJECTIVES: To overcome the limitations of previous highway alignment safety evaluation methods, this paper presents a highway alignment safety evaluation method based on fault tree analysis (FTA) and the characteristics of vehicle safety boundaries, within the framework of dynamic modeling of the "driver-vehicle-road" system. METHODS: Approaches for categorizing the vehicle failure modes while driving on highways and the corresponding safety boundaries were comprehensively investigated based on vehicle system dynamics theory...
December 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sun Han Son, Sang Ho Oh, Si Hyun Kang, Don-Kyu Kim, Kyung Mook Seo, Shi-Uk Lee, Sang Yoon Lee
OBJECTIVE: Although identification of factors that influence helmet use during bicycle riding is necessary for the selection of groups that require safe cycling education, limited baseline data are available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the rate of helmet use and the demographic factors that were independently associated with helmet use among Korean bicycle riders. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used public data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2013 and 2014...
December 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Evelyn Vingilis, Linda L Pederson, Jane Seeley, Anca R Ialomiteanu, Christine M Wickens, Roberta Ferrence, Robert E Mann
OBJECTIVE: Although most research on drugs and driving has focused on the use of alcohol and cannabis, research that has been conducted on cigarette smoking and collisions has found that smokers have an increased collision involvement. Studies dating from 1967 through 2013 have shown a crude relative risk of about 1.5 among smokers compared to nonsmokers. In Canada, the association between smoking and collisions has not been recently investigated. Studies that have examined the association between smoking and collisions often did not control for all confounding factors, such as alcohol use and driving exposure, which have been associated with increased collision rates...
December 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kenneth H Beck, James C Fell, Timothy J Kerns
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol impaired driving is a significant factor in fatal and serious injury producing crashes in the United States and many other countries. In 2013, the State of Maryland implemented an anti- driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement program, called the State Police Impaired Driving Reduction Effort (SPIDRE). This enforcement effort consisted of a select team of seven police officers from the Maryland State Police who engaged in high intensity DUI enforcement. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the impact of the SPIDRE program on impaired driving crashes, DUI arrests, DUI adjudicative outcomes, and public perceptions of DUI enforcement...
December 18, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ioana Koglbauer, Jürgen Holzinger, Arno Eichberger, Cornelia Lex
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction, and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Currently automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction, e.g. on snowy roads. Since winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm...
December 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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