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Traffic Injury Prevention

Xin Ye, James P Gaewsky, Derek A Jones, Logan E Miller, Joel D Stitzel, Ashley A Weaver
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to reconstruct 11 motor vehicle crashes (6 with thoracolumbar fractures and 5 without thoracolumbar fractures) and analyze the fracture mechanism, fracture predictors, and associated parameters affecting thoracolumbar spine response. METHODS: Eleven frontal crashes were reconstructed with a finite element simplified vehicle model (SVM). The SVM was tuned to each case vehicle and the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Ver. 4.01 was scaled and positioned in a baseline configuration to mimic the documented precrash driver posture...
October 10, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Milou Jacobs, Ellen P Hart, Yuri Mejia Miranda, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Joop M A van Gerven, Raymund A C Roos
OBJECTIVE: In clinical practice, patients with Huntington's disease (HD) often decide to solely drive in their own familiar neighborhoods and not on a motorway or in an unknown area. The aim of the study was to identify differences in driving performance between HD gene carriers and healthy individuals in simulated urban and motorway environments. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 87 participants (28 premanifest HD, 30 manifest HD, 29 controls). All participants were active drivers and were assessed using a driving simulator, a driving history questionnaire, and the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale...
October 1, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Lu Wang, Chuanhua Yu, Yunquan Zhang, Lisha Luo, Ganshen Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the characteristics and burdens of road traffic injuries (RTIs) from the 3 perspectives of time, space, and population in China and predicted traffic fatalities using 2 models. METHODS: By extracting data from the China Statistical Yearbooks and GBD 2015 (Global Health Data Exchange), we described the change in the time trend of traffic crashes and economic losses associated with the rate of motorization in China from 1996 to 2015; analyzed the geographical distribution of these events by geographic information system; and evaluated the age-, sex-, and cause-specific death rate, disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate, years of life lost (YLL) rate, and years lost due to disability (YLD) rate lost from RTIs from 1990 to 2015...
October 1, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yubing Zheng, Yang Ma, Lixin Guo, Jianchuan Cheng, Yunlong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Illegal parking in emergency lanes (paved highway shoulders) is becoming a serious road safety issue in China. The aim of this study was to (1) examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) extended with descriptive norms, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking, and invulnerability in predicting Chinese drivers' intentions toward illegal emergency lane parking; (2) investigate whether respondents' demographic characteristics would impact their views toward the behavior and predictive patterns of intentions; and (3) identify significant predictors of intentions...
October 1, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Rachel E Richardson, Timothy L McMurry, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason R Kerrigan
OBJECTIVE: Recreational off-highway vehicle (ROHV) crashes are of concern because sales of these vehicles have been growing rapidly and because newer vehicles tend to have significantly greater performance than older models. We evaluated the available data to understand trends in ROHV crashes and the factors that contributed to serious injury. METHODS: We combined information from (1) the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), (2) a database compiled by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and (3) a vehicle sales database...
September 27, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Steven Cook, Angela Boak, Hayley A Hamilton, Robert E Mann, Heather E Manson, Christine M Wickens
OBJECTIVE: Texting while driving (TWD) has a deleterious impact on driving performance and may pose a significant challenge to traffic safety. This challenge may be particularly relevant for young and inexperienced drivers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of writing text messages or emails while driving during the past 12 months. METHOD: This study analyzed a subpopulation of 1,133 licensed students 16 years of age or older from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (OSDUHS), a population-based survey of students in Ontario, Canada...
September 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Norma Hubele, Kathryn Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to use historical crash data to evaluate the potential benefits of both high- and low-speed automatic emergency braking (AEB) with forward collision warning (FCW) systems. METHODS: Crash data from the NHTSA's NASS-General Estimates System (GES) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) databases were categorized to classify crashes by the speed environment, as well as to identify cases where FCW systems would be applicable...
September 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jessica B Cicchino
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of blind spot monitoring systems in preventing police-reported lane-change crashes. METHODS: Poisson regression was used to compare crash involvement rates per insured vehicle year in police-reported lane-change crashes in 26 U.S. states during 2009-2015 between vehicles with blind spot monitoring and the same vehicle models without the optional system, controlling for other factors that can affect crash risk...
September 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Håvard Furuhaugen, Ragnhild E G Jamt, Galina Nilsson, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to study the use of alcohol and drugs among the general driving population in the southeastern part of Norway and to compare the findings with the results from a similar roadside survey in 2008-2009. METHODS: A roadside survey of drivers of cars, vans, motorcycles, and mopeds was performed from April 2016 to April 2017 in collaboration with the Mobile Police Service. Oral fluid was collected using the Quantisal device and analyzed for alcohol, illicit drugs, and psychoactive medicinal drugs...
September 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jessica H Mirman, Brianne Roche, Ann Higgins-D'Alessandro
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to extend the current literature on school climate that is focused on understanding how teacher, administrator, and student perceptions about driving-focused aspects of the social, educational, and institutional climate of schools can affect students' achievement, behavior, and adjustment toward the development of the concept of a school safe driving climate (SSDC) and initiate the development of tools and processes for assessing SSDC. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used to develop an initial version of a survey-based measure of SSDC that involved self-report surveys (students) and in-depth interviews (teachers)...
September 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Željko Šarić, Xuecai Xu, Li Duan, Darko Babić
OBJECTIVE: This study intended to investigate the interactions between accident rate and traffic signs on state roads located in Croatia and accommodate the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. Data from 130 state roads between 2012 and 2016 were collected from Traffic Accident Database System maintained by the Republic of Croatia's Ministry of the Interior. METHODS: To address the heterogeneity, a panel quantile regression model was proposed, in which a quantile regression model offers a more complete view and a highly comprehensive analysis of the relationship between accident rate and traffic signs, and the panel data model accommodates the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors...
September 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jaeyoung Lee, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai, Ling Wang
OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) play a vital role in the postcrash effort to reduce fatalities by providing first aid treatment and transportation to medical facilities. This study aims to analyze the time required for crash reporting and EMS arrival in fatal traffic crashes and to explore the effects of EMS time on the traffic injury severity. METHODS: The time required for EMS reporting, arrival, and transport to hospital was calculated by location type and roadway functional classification using 2016 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data...
September 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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September 20, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Allison L Schmidt, Maria A Ortiz-Paparoni, Jay K Shridharani, Roger W Nightingale, Cameron R Bass
The Hybrid III (HIII) dummy is one of the most widely used anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in the world, and researchers have found a variety of uses for it outside of its original purpose as an automotive crash test dummy. These expanded roles have introduced situations outside the dummy's original design parameters, where a number of tests must be run in relatively rapid succession or where it may not be possible to control the temperature of the test environment. OBJECTIVE: This study has 2 aims...
September 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Igor Radun, Hanna Watling, Jenni Radun, Jyrki Kaistinen, Jake Olivier
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that young men are the riskiest group of all drivers, and men in general more often drive under the influence of alcohol. However, potentially oversimplified representations such as a "young male problem" and "drunk driving as a male problem" can influence action and reinforce existing attitudes by selectively directing attention to stereotypically consistent behavior. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis of possible bias toward young male drivers in the context of drunk driving...
September 7, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ryan J Martin, Melissa J Cox, Beth H Chaney, Adam P Knowlden
OBJECTIVE: Hazardous drinking is associated with other risky behaviors and negative health-related outcomes. This study examined covariation between hazardous drinking scores and the following risky driving behaviors: Falling asleep while driving, texting (receiving and sending) while driving, and driving after consuming alcohol. METHODS: The participants in this study were a sample of undergraduate students (N = 1,298) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large Southeastern university in spring 2016 and completed an online health survey that assessed hazardous drinking, falling asleep while driving, texting while driving, and driving after consuming alcohol...
August 29, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yahya Almarhabi, Abdulrahman I Mufti, Adel D Almaymuni, Talib Abdurahman, Ghamri Abdulaziz, Ahmed A Alghamdi, Abdel Moniem Mukhtar
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, trauma is a major health problem and road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the primary killer of young men in Saudi Arabia. The aim of our study was to estimate the extent of driving under the influence of an abused substance in Saudi Arabia and to explore the associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional survey conducted between May and September 2016 at Al-Amal hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a referral center for addiction. We included all patients who were admitted for additional education and rehabilitation and had no psychotic symptoms...
July 24, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
D Favretto, S Visentin, G Stocchero, S Vogliardi, R Snenghi, M Montisci
OBJECTIVE: To present the prevalence and concentrations of drugs in blood samples of drivers involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) and to discuss the effects of adopting different concentration cut-off values proposed or applied in other European countries on the number of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) offences. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers involved in RTA in the Padova province, from 2014 to 2017, were analysed for the presence of alcohol and drugs...
July 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Anne T McCartt, William A Leaf, Charles M Farmer
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of changes to Washington state's alcohol ignition interlock laws: moving issuance of interlock orders from the courts to the driver licensing department (July 2003); extending the interlock order requirement to all persons convicted of DUI (June 2004); allowing an interlock in lieu of an administrative driver's license suspension (January 2009); and requiring proof of interlock installation to reinstate the driver's license (January 2011). METHOD: Trends in conviction types, interlock installation rates, and 2-year cumulative recidivism rates were examined for first-time and repeat offenders with convictions stemming from DUI arrests during 1999-2012...
July 16, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Naruyuki Hosokawa
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of wearing a bicycle helmet using an adult headform in terms of the head injury criterion (HIC) when the frontal and lateral parts of the helmet impact a vehicle body, and also when the frontal part of the helmet impacts the road surface. METHODS: The adult headform was made to impact the hood, windscreen, roof top, and roof side rail of a vehicle body at an impact velocity of 35 km/h, which is a common head-to-vehicle impact velocity in real-world cyclist-vehicle collisions, in which the vehicle impacts the cyclist at 40 km/h...
July 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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