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Traffic Injury Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812374/an-evaluation-scheme-for-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-intersection-movement-assist-ima-on-improving-traffic-safety
#1
Kun-Feng Wu, Nashir Ardiansyah, Wei-Jyun Ye
OBJECTIVE: Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) has been recognized as one of the prominent countermeasures to reduce angle crashes at intersections, which constitute 22 percent of total crashes in the US. Utilizing vehicle-based sensors, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2░V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, IMA offers extended vision to provide early warning for an imminent crash. However, most of IMA related research implements their methods and strategies only in simulations, test tracks, or driving simulator studies that have quite a few assumptions and limitations, and hence the effectiveness evaluations reported may not be transferable or comparable...
August 16, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771038/classification-of-driving-workload-affected-by-highway-alignment-conditions-based-on-classification-and-regression-tree-algorithm
#2
Jiangbi Hu, Ronghua Wang
OBJECTIVE: Guaranteeing a safe and comfortable driving workload can contribute to reducing traffic injuries. In order to provide safe and comfortable threshold values, this study attempted to classify driving workload from the aspects of human factors mainly affected by highway geometric conditions, and to determine the thresholds of different workload classifications. This paper stated a hypothesis that the values of driver workload change within a certain range. METHODS: Driving workload scales were stated based on a comprehensive literature review...
August 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759268/relationship-between-neuropsychological-tests-and-driver-s-licence-renewal-tests-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Dolors Badenes, Maite Garolera, Laura Casas, Juan Carlos Cejudo, Silvia Zaragoza, Noemi Calzado, Miquel Aguilar
Objective To determine whether the standard Spanish driving test (ASDE test) was able to identify patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at risk of unsafe driving, and to examine the relationship between the ASDE test and the UFOV as well as with a battery of neuropsychological tests in PD drivers. Methods Thirty-seven PD patients and 33 controls matched by age and education level were included in an observational study. All participants were active drivers and PD patients underwent study procedures after taking the medication in the "on" period...
July 31, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758801/using-medico-legal-data-to-investigate-fatal-older-road-user-crash-circumstances-and-risk-factors
#4
Sjaan Koppel, Lyndal Bugeja, Daisy Smith, Ashne Lamb, Jeremy Dwyer, Michael Fitzharris, Stuart Newstead, Angelo D'Elia, Judith Charlton
OBJECTIVE: This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. METHOD: The Coroners' Court of Victoria (CCOV)'s Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014...
July 31, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758794/helmet-retention-system-types-as-a-risk-factor-to-properly-attach-the-chin-strap
#5
C A Freitas, A M Furtado, R R Petterle, S K Pimentel, F H Carvalho
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the incorrect use of a helmet retention system (loose or open) and how often this happens. METHODS: This was an observational transversal study conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. Trained observers positioned at traffic lights collected information about the helmet fixation mode, the helmet model (full-face, open-face, modular, half) and the helmet retention system model (micrometric, double-D, fast-release)...
July 31, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750169/ticketing-aggressive-cars-and-trucks-tact-how-does-it-work-on-city-streets
#6
Russell Telford, Lawrence J Cook, Lenora M Olson
Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of modifying the TACT program, originally designed to work on state highways, within a metropolitan area to reduce unsafe interactions and their related crashes between drivers of large trucks and passenger vehicles. Methods Using crash data, the driving behaviors most commonly associated with large truck and passenger vehicle crashes were identified. A public awareness campaign using media messaging and increased law enforcement was created targeting these associated behaviors...
July 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738168/role-of-age-and-injury-mechanism-in-cervical-spine-injury-tolerance-under-head-contact-loading
#7
Narayan Yoganandan, Sajal Chirvi, Liming Voo, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of age on cervical spine tolerance to injury from head contact loading using survival analysis. METHODS: This study analyzed data from previously conducted experiments using Post Mortem Human Subject specimens (PMHS). Group A tests used the upright intact head-cervical column experimental model. The inferior end of the specimen was fixed, head was balanced by a mechanical system, and natural lordosis was removed. Specimens were placed on a testing device via a load cell...
July 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738161/belted-driver-fatalities-time-of-death-and-risk-by-injury-severity
#8
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
PURPOSE: This study is a descriptive study of the fatality risk by injury severity and time of death for lap-shoulder belted drivers without ejection in modern vehicles. It also determined the body region for severe injuries experienced by the belted drivers using the most recent federal crash data. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was evaluated for fatally-injured lap-shoulder belted drivers without ejection in light vehicles of 1997+ model year (MY). The severity of injuries sustained by the belted drivers was assessed by MAIS and individual injuries by AIS and body region...
July 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737957/investigating-factors-influencing-pedestrian-injury-severity-at-intersections
#9
Zhuanglin Ma, Xi Lu, Steven I-Jy Chien, Dawei Hu
OBJECTIVE: Vehicle crashes which involved pedestrian at intersections have been reported occasionally. The injury severity of pedestrians in these crashes seems significantly related to driver and pedestrian attributes, vehicle characteristics, and the geometry of intersections. Identifying factors associated with pedestrian injury severity (PIS) is critical for reducing crashes and improving safety. For developing the proposed probit models, drivers who involved crashes are classified into three groups: young drivers (16 ≤ age ≤ 24); middle-aged drivers (25 ≤ age ≤ 64); older drivers (age ≥ 65)...
July 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699848/impact-of-helmet-use-on-traumatic-brain-injury-from-road-traffic-accidents-in-cambodia
#10
Saksham Gupta, Katherine Klaric, Nang Sam, Vuthy Din, Tina Juschkewitz, Vycheth Iv, Mark G Shrime, Kee B Park
OBJECTIVE: Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. METHODS: The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression...
July 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696780/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-toe-board-energy-absorbing-material-for-foot-ankle-and-lower-leg-injury-reduction
#11
John P Patalak, Joel D Stitzel
OBJECTIVE: Since 2000 numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNR), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging...
July 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696779/the-impact-of-retail-beverage-service-training-and-social-host-laws-on-adolescents-dui-rates-in-san-diego-co-california
#12
Michael Scherer, Eduardo Romano, Susan Caldwell, Eileen Taylor
INTRODUCTION: Driving under the influence (DUI) citations are still a serious concern among drivers aged 16-20 years and have been shown to be related to increased risk of fatal and non-fatal crashes. A battery of laws and policies has been enacted to address this concern. While numerous studies have evaluated these policies, there is still a need for comprehensive policy evaluations that take into account a variety of contextual factors. Previous effort by this research team examined the impact of 20 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA)-21 laws in the state of California, as they impacted alcohol-related crash rates among drivers under 21 years of age while at the same time accounting for alcohol and gas taxes, unemployment rates, sex distribution among drivers, and sobriety checkpoints...
July 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696773/rail-height-effects-on-safety-performance-of-midwest-guardrail-system
#13
Mojdeh Asadollahi Pajouh, Ramen D Julin, Cody S Stolle, John D Reid, Ronald K Faller
OBJECTIVE: Guardrail heights play a crucial role in the way that errant vehicles interact with roadside barriers. Low rail heights increase the propensity of vehicle rollover and override, while excessively-tall rails promote underride. Further, rail mounting heights and post embedment depths may be altered by variations in roadside terrain. An increased guardrail height may be desirable to accommodate construction tolerances, soil erosion, frost heave, and future roadway overlays. This study aimed to investigate and identify a maximum safe installation height for the Midwest Guardrail System, which would be robust and remain crashworthy before and after pavement overlays...
July 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678610/occupant-responses-in-conventional-and-abts-seats-in-high-speed-rear-sled-tests
#14
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau, Roger Burnett, Priya Prasad
OBJECTIVE: This study compared biomechanical responses of a normally seated Hybrid III dummy on conventional and ABTS (all belts to seat) seats in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests. It determined the difference in performance with modern (≥2000 MY) seats compared to older (<2000 MY) seats and ABTS seats. METHODS: The seats were fixed in a sled buck subjected to a 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled test. The pulse was a 15 g double-peak acceleration with 150 ms duration...
July 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658590/factors-associated-with-prehospital-death-among-traffic-accident-patients-in-osaka-city-japan-a-population-based-study
#15
Yusuke Katayama, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Kosuke Kiyohara, Taku Iwami, Takashi Kawamura, Sumito Hayashida, Hiroshi Ogura, Takeshi Shimazu
OBJECTIVE: Although it is important to assess the factors associated with traffic accident fatalities to decrease them as a matter of public health, such factors have not been fully identified. METHODS: Using a large-scale dataset of ambulance records in Osaka City, Japan, we retrospectively analyzed all traffic accident patients transported to hospitals by emergency medical service personnel from 2013 to 2014. In this study, prehospital death was defined as that occurring at the scene or in the emergency department immediately after hospital arrival...
June 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657420/driver-and-front-passenger-injury-in-frontal-crashes-update-on-the-effect-of-unbelted-rear-occupants
#16
Chantal S Parenteau, David C Viano
PURPOSE: This is a study of the influence of an unbelted rear occupant on the risk for severe injury to the front-seat occupant ahead of them in frontal crashes. It provides an update to earlier studies. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the risk for severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to belted drivers and front passengers in frontal crashes by the presence of a belted or unbelted passenger seated directly behind them or without a rear passenger. Frontal crashes were identified with GAD1 = 'F' without rollover (rollover ≤ 0)...
June 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657352/wrong-way-driving-crashes-a-multiple-correspondence-approach-to-identify-contributing-factors
#17
Mohammad Jalayer, Mahdi Pour-Rouholamin, Huaguo Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Wrong-way driving (WWD) crashes result in 1.34 fatalities per fatal crash, while for other non-WWD fatal crashes this number drops to 1.10. As such, further in-depth investigation of WWD crashes is necessary. The objective of this study is twofold: to identify the characteristics that best describe WWD crashes and to verify the factors associated with WWD occurrence. METHODS: We collected and analyzed fifteen years of crash data from the states of Illinois and Alabama...
June 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#18
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613096/emergency-department-visits-by-pediatric-patients-sustained-as-a-passenger-on-a-motorcycle
#19
Allison Tadros, Stephanie Owen, Shelley M Hoffman, Stephen M Davis, Melinda J Sharon
OBJECTIVE: Currently only five out of the fifty states in the United States (U.S.) have laws restricting the age of passengers permitted to ride on a motorcycle. This study sought to characterize the visits by patients under the age of 16 to US emergency departments (ED) for injuries sustained as a passenger on a motorcycle. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) for the years 2006 to 2011...
June 14, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605251/influence-of-pedestrians-age-and-gender-types-on-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-pedestrian-crashes
#20
Alireza Toran Pour, Sara Moridpour, Richard Tay, Abbas Rajabifard
OBJECTIVES: Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes in the world and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become one of the significant traffic safety issues in the world. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrians' age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot-times...
June 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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