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Traffic Injury Prevention

M Kit Delgado, Catherine C McDonald, Flaura K Winston, Scott D Halpern, Alison M Buttenheim, Claudia Setubal, Yanlan Huang, Kathryn A Saulsgiver, Yi-Ching Lee
OBJECTIVE: The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. METHODS: Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey...
April 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Richard Atta Boateng, Valerian Kwigizile, Jun-Seok Oh
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the safety impacts of PCSs with and without pushbuttons based on pedestrian crashes and pedestrian injuries in Michigan. METHODOLOGY: This study used ten years of intersection data: five years before PCSs were installed and five years after they were installed, along with a comparison group, to evaluate the crash impacts of PCSs: at 107 intersections the PCS had a pushbutton and at 96 it did not. At these intersections, and at their comparison sites (where no PCS was installed), crash data (from 2004-2016) were examined, along with traffic and geometric characteristics, population, education and poverty levels data...
April 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Timothy L McMurry, Gerald S Poplin, Greg Shaw, Matthew B Panzer
OBJECTIVE: Highly automated vehicle occupants will all be passengers, and may be free to ride while in postures for which existing occupant safety systems such as seat belts and air bags were not originally designed. These occupants could therefore face increased risk of injury when a crash occurs. Given that current vehicles are capable of supporting a variety of occupant postures outside of the normal design position, such as reclined or turned passengers, an evaluation of current field data was performed to better understand the risks of being out-of-position...
April 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Weihua Zhang, Zhe Hu, Zhongxiang Feng, Changxi Ma, Kun Wang, Xuxin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Driving speed is a major concern for driving safety under reduced visibility conditions. Many factors affect speed selection in low visibility, but few studies have been conducted examining drivers' characteristics, particularly in China. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between drivers' demographic information, driving ability and speed choice in low visibility conditions using a sample of Chinese drivers. METHODS: A self-designed driving ability scale was used to assess driving ability in reduced visibility conditions...
April 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Eric R Teoh
OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of three crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. METHODS: Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-15 were classified by type, with consideration to the functionality of three classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technology: front crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection...
April 6, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kei Nagasaka, Koji Mizuno, Robert Thomson
OBJECTIVE: For occupant protection, it is important to understand how a car's deceleration-time history in crashes can be designed using efficient of energy absorption by a car body's structure. In a previous paper, the authors proposed an energy derivative method to determine each structural component's contribution on the longitudinal deceleration of a car passenger compartment in crashes. In this study, this method was extended to two dimensions in order to analyze various crash test conditions...
March 26, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sjaan Koppel, Amanda N Stephens, Kristie L Young, Phuong Hua, Richard Chambers, Craig Hassed
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviours, mindfulness and self-reported crashes and infringements. METHODS: Three hundred and eighteen participants (M = 46.0 years, SD = 13.7 years; Female: 81.8%) completed an online survey that assessed aberrant driving behaviours, mindfulness (including regular mindfulness meditation [MM]) and self-reported crashes and infringements across the past two years. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to examine the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviours and mindfulness simultaneously, as well as with participants' age and estimated kilometres driven over the past year...
March 26, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jonathan Davis, Carri Casteel, Cara Hamann, Corinne Peek-Asa
OBJECTIVE: After the age of 65 the number of motor vehicle crashes per mile driven increases. Traffic-related charges issued by law enforcement can help identify drivers who are at a higher risk of having a crash. This study examines the relationship between motor vehicle crashes and traffic-related charges among older adult drivers. METHODS: Iowa Department of Transportat crash data from 2011-2012 were linked with Iowa Court Information System data for moving violations that occurred during 2009-2012 for drivers over the age of 50...
March 20, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
PURPOSE: This is a descriptive study of the incidence and risk for severe injury in a single impact and multi-impact crashes by belt use and crash type using NASS-CDS. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS was used to determine the distribution of crashes by the number of impacts and severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to >15 year old non-ejected drivers by seatbelt use in 1997+ MY vehicles. It compares the risk for severe injury in a single impact and in crashes involving two, three or four+ impacts in the collision with focus on a frontal crash followed by other impacts...
March 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Farah Averill, Thomas G Brown, Robyn D Robertson, Angeline Tchomgang, Djamal Berbiche, Louise Nadeau, Marie Claude Ouimet
OBJECTIVES: In a pilot randomised controlled trial of contingency management (CM) and transdermal alcohol monitoring (TAM) with driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders, perceptions regarding the acceptability of a TAM device, recruitment issues, and the impact of CM and TAM on alcohol use over a six-week period were evaluated. The results aimed to inform the design of future trials and programs involving CM and TAM for DWI remediation. METHODS: TAM devices were affixed to 37 voluntary, community-recruited male DWI offenders with problem alcohol use...
March 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
J Matthew Webster, Megan F Dickson, Michele Staton
OBJECTIVE: Although driving under the influence (DUI) arrests occur at higher rates in rural areas and previous studies have shown more extensive drug use histories, little is known about how this relates to the prevalence and frequency of drugged driving. The present study examined drug use and drugged driving patterns among a sample of rural DUI offenders. METHODS: Convicted, rural DUI offenders (N = 118) completed a one-time, confidential research interview focused on drug use and drugged driving...
March 14, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Huipeng Chen, David Poulard, Jason Forman, Jeff Crandall, Matthew B Panzer
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluating the biofidelity of pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) using post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) is a challenge as differences in anthropometry between PMHS and PFEM could limit a model's capability to accurately capture cadaveric responses. Geometrical personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match the specific PMHS anthropometry which could alleviate this issue. In this study, the THUMS PFEM (v4.01) was compared to the cadaveric response in vehicle-pedestrian impacts using geometrically personalized models...
March 14, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Nino Andricevic, Mirko Junge, Jonas Krampe
OBJECTIVE: Construction of Injury risk functions (IRF) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of non-oblique frontal crashes from the same dataset. METHOD: Crashes of modern vehicles from the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the post-crash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash...
March 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Tristan Monchal, Amina Ndiaye, Blandine Gadegbeku, Etienne Javouhey, Olivier Monneuse
Objective Road traffic accidents (RTA) are the first cause of abdominopelvic injuries (API). The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and severity of API due to traffic accidents in a large French trauma registry and to identify risk factors for API. Methods All victims from the French Rhône registry of victims of RTA were analyzed from 1996 to 2013. This registry contained data that were issued over a 20-year period from 245 medical departments, from prehospital care until re-adaptation, and forensic medicine departments...
March 6, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau, Roger Burnett
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed thoracic and lumbar spine responses with "in position" and OOP (out-of-position) seated dummies in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests with conventional and ABTS (all belts to seat) seats. Occupant kinematics and spinal responses were determined with modern (≥2000 MY), older (<2000 MY) and ABTS seats. METHODS: The seats were fixed in a sled buck subjected to a 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled test. The pulse was a 15 g double-peak acceleration with 150 ms duration...
March 1, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kalsi Juhani, Selander Tuomas, Tervo Timo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between annual alcohol consumption per capita/alcohol price index and the number of alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle accidents (AFMVAs). We were particularly interested in whether a tax reduction in 2004 increased the number of alcohol-related accidents. METHOD: The data consisted of all fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVAs) during the years 2000-2016 obtained from a database maintained by the Finnish Crash Data Institute (OTI)...
February 27, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kristina Stojmenova, Jaka Sodnik
OBJECTIVES: There are three standardized versions of the Detection-response task (DRT), two using visual stimuli (remote DRT and head-mounted DRT) and one using tactile stimuli. In this paper, we present a study, which proposes and validates a type of auditory signal to be used as DRT stimulus and evaluate the proposed auditory version of this method by comparing it with the standardized visual and tactile version. METHODS: This was a within-subject design study with 24 participants performed in a driving simulator...
February 20, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Merissa A Yellman, Marissa A Rodriguez, Maria Isabel Colunga, Mary A McCoy, Shelli Stephens-Stidham, L Steven Brown, Gregory R Istre
Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of one-year, multi-faceted, school-based programs aimed at increasing booster seat use among urban children 4-7 years of age in economically-disadvantaged areas. Methods During four consecutive school years, 2011-2015, the Give Kids a Boost (GKB) program was implemented in a total of 8 schools with similar demographics in Dallas County. Observational surveys were conducted at project schools before project implementation (P0), 1-4 weeks after the completion of project implementation (P1), and 4-5 months later (P2)...
February 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Alessandro Scattina, Fuhao Mo, Catherine Masson, Massimiliano Avalle, Pierre Jean Arnoux
OBJECTIVE: The work aims at investigating the influence of some front-end design parameters of a passenger vehicle on the behavior and damage occurring in the human lower limbs while impacted in an accident. METHODS: The analysis is carried out by means of finite element analysis using a generic car model for the vehicle and the Lower Limbs Model for Safety (LLMS) for the purpose of pedestrian safety. Considering the pedestrian standardized impact procedure (as in the 2003/12/EC Directive) a parametric analysis, through a DOE plan, was done...
January 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
T L Bunn, S Slavova, M Chandler, N Hanner, M Singleton
OBJECTIVE: Traffic incidents occurring on roadways require the coordinated effort of multiple responder and recovery entities including communications, law enforcement, fire and rescue, emergency medical services, hazardous materials, transportation agencies, and towing and recovery. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify and characterize transportation incident management (TIM) - related occupational fatalities; 2) assess concordance of surveillance data sources in identifying TIM occupations, driver vs...
January 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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