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Traffic Injury Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901591/driving-restrictions-post-stroke-physicians-compliance-with-regulations
#1
Selina Mårdh, Pamela Mårdh, Anna Anund
Objective Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on the individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are regulations on driving cessation post-stroke. The information on driving cessation should be given to all patients and noted in the journal. The present study sought to find out physician's compliance to driving regulations post-stroke as well as follow-up and gender aspects...
November 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893288/analyzing-injury-severity-of-bus-passengers-with-different-movements
#2
Duo Li, Yifei Zhao, Qiang Bai, Bei Zhou, Hongbiao Ling
OBJECTIVE: Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high because of large passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This paper presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893283/driver-speed-selection-on-high-speed-two-lane-highways-comparing-speed-profiles-between-uniform-and-differential-speed-limits
#3
Brendan J Russo, Peter T Savolainen, Timothy J Gates, Jonathan J Kay, Sterling Frazier
OBJECTIVE: Although a considerable amount of prior research has investigated the impacts of speed limits on traffic safety and operations, much of this research, and nearly all of the research related to differential speed limits, has been specific to limited access freeways. The unique safety and operational issues on highways without access control creates difficulty relating the conclusions from prior freeway-related speed limit research to two-lane highways, particularly research on differential limits due to passing limitations and subsequent queuing...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893281/the-effects-of-drug-and-alcohol-consumption-on-driver-injury-severities-in-single-vehicle-crashes
#4
Ali Behnood, Fred L Mannering
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that alcohol and drugs influence driving behavior by affecting the central nervous system, awareness, vision, and perception/reaction times, but the resulting effect driver-injuries in car crashes is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting the injury severities of unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers Method: The current paper applies a random parameters logit model to study the differences in injury severities among unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824504/repeatability-study-of-replicate-crash-tests-a-signal-analysis-approach
#5
Jeremy Seppi, Jacek Toczyski, Jeff R Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
OBJECTIVE: To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. METHODS: Test data from DRoTS tests, Deceleration Rollover Sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, Small Overlap Impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability...
November 8, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808553/representativity-and-univocity-of-traffic-signs-and-their-effect-on-trajectory-movement-in-a-driving-simulation-task-warning-signs
#6
Jose Luis Vilchez
Objective The effect of traffic signs in the motor behavior of drivers is not completely understood yet. Knowing about how humans process the meaning of signs (not just by learning but instinctively) will improve reaction time and decision making when traveling. The economic, social and psychological consequences of car accidents are well-known. Every single effort orientated to the solution of this social problem is welcome. Methods This study sounds out which traffic signs are more ergonomic for participants, from a cognitive point of view, and determines, at the same time, which is their effect in participants' movement trajectory in a driving-simulation task: the tracking task...
November 3, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764546/the-psychological-impact-of-traffic-injuries-sustained-in-a-road-crash-by-bicyclists-a-prospective-study
#7
A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763776/can-variations-in-visual-behavior-measures-be-good-predictors-of-driver-sleepiness-a-real-driving-test-study
#8
Yonggang Wang, Mengyang Xin, Han Bai, Yangdong Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between variations in visual behavior measures and subjective sleepiness levels across age groups over time to determine a quantitative method of measuring drivers' sleepiness levels. METHOD: A total of 128 volunteer drivers in four age groups were asked to finish 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h continuous driving tasks on expressways, during which the driver's fixation, saccade and blink measures were recorded by an eye-tracking system and the subjective sleepiness level was measured through the Stanford Sleepiness Scale...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763774/modelling-faults-among-e-bike-related-fatal-crashes-in-china
#9
Chen Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Jinxin Xia, Zhendong Qian
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to model fault in e-bike fatal crashes in a county-level city in China. METHOD: Three-year crash data are retrieved from the crash reports (2012-2014) from the Taixing Police Department. A mixed logit models is introduced to explore significant factors associated with fault assignment, as well as accounting for similarity among fault assignment and heterogeneity within unobserved variables. RESULTS: The modeling results indicate some interesting new findings...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753508/characteristics-and-clinical-outcomes-of-head-injured-cyclists-with-and-without-helmets-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-taiwan-a-15%C3%A2-year-study
#10
Chia-Ying Kuo, Hung-Yi Chiou, Jia-Wei Lin, Shin-Han Tsai, Mau-Roung Lin, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Chien-Min Lin, Shu-Fen Chu, Tsan-Hon Liou, Wen-Ta Chiu
Objective Bicycle riding is increasingly popular in Taiwan, but the number of cyclists injured and cyclists' death rate are both increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the different characteristics and clinical outcomes of traffic-accident related head injuries to cyclists in urban and rural areas. Methods Records of 812 patients (533 urban and 279 rural) admitted to 27 hospitals in Taipei City and Hualien County as the result of a traumatic head injury while bicycling between 1998 and 2013 were retrieved for study...
October 18, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753503/effects-of-vehicle-power-on-passenger-vehicle-speeds
#11
Anne T McCartt, Wen Hu
OBJECTIVES: During the past two decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle-weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. METHODS: Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013...
October 18, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740863/prevalence-of-driver-physical-factors-leading-to-unintentional-lane-departure-crashes
#12
Jessica B Cicchino, David S Zuby
OBJECTIVE: Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. METHODS: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U...
October 14, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740861/prevalence-and-concentrations-of-drugs-in-elderly-suspected-drugged-drivers
#13
Gudrun Høiseth, Linn Engeset Austdal, Elisabeth Wiik, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Jørg Mørland
Objective Elderly drivers are somewhat more likely to be involved in car crashes than middle aged drivers, but less likely to be involved than the younger drivers. This study aimed to assess the extent of drug use in elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers, with respect to which drugs were detected and at which concentrations. Methods Blood samples from elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers from February 1(st) 2012 to May 22(th) 2013 were identified from the database at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and were retrospectively analyzed for a broad repertoire of drugs relevant for impairment...
October 14, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736159/risk-factors-affecting-injury-severity-determined-by-the-mais-score
#14
Sara Ferreira, Marco Amorim, Antonio Couto
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, named the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736156/health-related-quality-of-life-24%C3%A2-months-after-sustaining-a-minor-musculoskeletal-injury-in-a-road-traffic-crash-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Bamini Gopinath, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Ian A Harris, Michael Nicholas, Petrina Casey, Fiona Blyth, Christopher G Maher, Ian D Cameron
OBJECTIVES: A better understanding of the long-term factors that independently predict poorer quality of life following mild to moderate musculoskeletal injuries is needed. We aimed to establish the predictors of quality of life (including, socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and pre-injury factors), 24 months after a non-catastrophic road-traffic injury. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 252 participants with mild/ moderate injury sustained in a road traffic crash, had quality of life measured 24 months following baseline survey...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715312/how-motorcycle-helmets-affect-trauma-mortality-clinical-and-policy-implications
#16
Jwo-Leun Lee, Tzu-Chun Chen, Hung-Chang Huang, Ray-Jade Chen
BACKGROUND: Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. METHODS: A clinical data set comprising 2,868 trauma patients was analysed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical centre in Central Taiwan...
October 7, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715286/risk-factors-for-being-at-fault-driver-a-case-control-study
#17
Mohammad Fararouei, Zahra Sedaghat, Sayed Javad Sadat, Gholamhossein Shahraki
OBJECTIVE: It is estimated that road traffic accidents are globally responsible for approximately 1.2 million deaths and 20 to 50 million injuries. About 70% of traffic incidences (TIs) occur in the developing countries and among countries with high TI rates, Iran is the first. The aim of this study was to measure the association between being responsible for a traffic accident and some vehicle, human and environmental related factors in Yasuj; a city with high incidence of road traffic injuries and deaths in the country...
October 7, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700192/studded-and-unstudded-winter-tyres-in-fatal-road-accidents-in-finland
#18
Mikko Malmivuo, Juha Luoma, Markus Porthin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tyres based on fatal road accidents. METHODS: The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. RESULTS: Comparing the proportions of winter tyre type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tyre type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tyres reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%...
October 4, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690191/personality-of-young-drivers-in-oman-relationship-to-risky-driving-behaviors-and-crash-involvement-among-sultan-qaboos-university-students
#19
Mohammed Al Azri, Hamed Al Reesi, Samir Al-Adawi, Abdullah Al Maniri, James Freeman
OBJECTIVE: Drivers' behaviors such as violations and errors have been demonstrated to predict crash involvement among young Omani drivers. However, there is a dearth of studies linking risky driving behaviors to the personality of young drivers. The aim of the present study was to assess such traits within a sample of young Omani drivers (as measured through the behavioral inhibition system, BIS, and the behavioral activation system, BAS) and determine links with aberrant driving behaviors and self-reported crash involvement...
September 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657363/analyzing-pedestrian-crash-injury-severity-under-different-weather-conditions
#20
Duo Li, Prakash Ranjitkar, Yifei Zhao, Hui Yi, Soroush Rashidi
OBJECTIVE: Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users due to the lack of mass, speed, and protection, compared against other types of road users. Adverse weather conditions may reduce road friction and visibility, and thus increase crash risk. There is limited evidence and a considerable discrepancy about impacts of weather conditions on injury severity in the literature. This paper investigated factors affecting pedestrian injury severity level under different weather conditions based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain...
September 22, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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