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Traffic Injury Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#1
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613096/emergency-department-visits-by-pediatric-patients-sustained-as-a-passenger-on-a-motorcycle
#2
Allison Tadros, Stephanie Owen, Shelley M Hoffman, Stephen M Davis, Melinda J Sharon
OBJECTIVE: Currently only five out of the fifty states in the United States (U.S.) have laws restricting the age of passengers permitted to ride on a motorcycle. This study sought to characterize the visits by patients under the age of 16 to US emergency departments (ED) for injuries sustained as a passenger on a motorcycle. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) for the years 2006 to 2011...
June 14, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605251/influence-of-pedestrians-age-and-gender-types-on-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-pedestrian-crashes
#3
Alireza Toran Pour, Sara Moridpour, Richard Tay, Abbas Rajabifard
OBJECTIVES: Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes in the world and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become one of the significant traffic safety issues in the world. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrians' age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot-times...
June 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594247/differences-in-the-kinematics-of-booster-seated-pediatric-occupants-using-two-different-car-seats
#4
O Juste-Lorente, M Maza, A I Lorente, F J Lopez-Valdes
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of forward-facing Child Restraint Systems (CRS) mounted on two different seats. METHODS: Two different ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device) sizes (P3 and P6), using the same child restraint system (a non-ISOFIX high-back booster seat) were exposed to the ECE R44 regulatory deceleration pulse in a deceleration sled. Two different seats (seat A, seat B) were used. Three repetitions per ATD and mounting seat were done, resulting in a total of 12 sled crashes...
June 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594238/on-the-selection-of-stimulus-for-the-auditory-variant-of-the-detection-response-task-method-for-driving-experiments
#5
Kristina Stojmenova, Franco Policardi, Jaka Sodnik
OBJECTIVES: The Detection Response Task (DRT) is a method for measuring attentional effects of secondary tasks on a driver's cognitive load by measuring response times and hit rates to different types of stimuli as indirect indicators of increased cognitive load. ISO 17488 (2016) standard only provides guidelines for the technical implementation and measurement methods for the visual and tactile versions (use of visual and tactile stimuli) of the DRT method. This paper presents a study with the goal of finding the most appropriate auditory stimulus for the implementation of an auditory version of the DRT method...
June 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581829/features-of-fatal-injuries-in-older-cyclists-in-vehicle-bicycle-accidents-in-japan
#6
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Masahito Hitosugi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. METHODS: This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions in which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan...
June 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557669/pedestrian-fatality-and-impact-speed-squared-cloglog-modeling-from-french-national-data
#7
Jean-Louis Martin, Dan Wu
OBJECTIVE: The present study estimates pedestrians' risk of death according to the impact speed when hit by a passenger car in a frontal collision. METHODS: Data were coded for all fatal crashes in France in 2011 and for a random sample of 1/20(th) of all road injuries for the same year, and weighted to take account of police under-reporting of mild injury. A cloglog model was used to optimize risk adjustment for high collision speeds. The fit of the model on the data was also improved by using the square of the impact speed, which best matches the energy dissipated in the collision...
May 30, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557622/efficacy-of-seat-mounted-thoracic-side-airbags-in-the-german-vehicle-fleet
#8
Luke Gaylor, Mirko Junge, Sylvester Abanteriba
OBJECTIVE: Thoracic side airbags (tSABs) deploy within close proximity to the occupant. Their primary purpose is to provide a protective cushion between the occupant and the intruding door. To date various field studies investigating their injury mitigation has been limited and contradicting. The research develops efficacy estimations associated for the seat mounted tSAB in their ability to mitigate injury risk from the German collision environment. METHODS: A matched cohort study using GIDAS data was implemented and aims to investigate the efficacy of seat mounted tSAB units in preventing thoracic injury...
May 30, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548584/the-sex-disparity-in-risky-driving-a-survey-of-colombian-young-drivers
#9
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
OBJECTIVE: The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognised as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has also been recognised as a pervasive young driver problem. Whilst progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilisation and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates...
May 26, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548581/modeling-crash-injury-severity-by-road-feature-to-improve-safety
#10
Praveena Penmetsa, Srinivas S Pulugurtha
Structured Abstract Objective: The objective of this research is two-fold; a) to model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency, and, b) to model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature. METHOD: Crash data from 2011 to 2013 was obtained from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the state of North Carolina. Twenty-three different road features were considered, analyzed and compared with each other as well as no road feature...
May 26, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534715/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-related-to-child-safety-restraint-in-citizens-of-shenzhen-municipality-china-and-the-associations-between-these-factors
#11
Shengyuan Liu, Haibin Zhou, Jianping Ma, Changyi Wang, Zhongwei Chen, Sihan Chen, Yingzhou Yang, Xiaoli Liu, Ji Peng, Leilei Duan, Xiao Deng
Objective-A child safety restraint (CSR) is an effective measure to reduce the risk of child injury from traffic collisions. This study aims to explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding CSR in a Chinese population. Methods-A cross-sectional survey regarding CSR use was conducted from April to May 2014 in Shenzhen Municipality. Respondents were parents who had at least one child 0 to 6 years of age and simultaneously owned a car. These parents provided a self-report of demographic characteristics as well as information about their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors toward CSR use...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534647/considering-built-environment-and-spatial-correlation-in-modelling-pedestrian-injury-severity
#12
Carlo G Prato, Sigal Kaplan, Alexandre Patrier, Thomas K Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about built environment and exposure at the crash locations...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534644/a-spectral-power-analysis-of-driving-behavior-changes-during-the-transition-from-non-distraction-to-distraction
#13
Yuan Wang, Shan Bao, Wenjun Du, Zhirui Ye, James R Sayer
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigated and compared frequency-domain and time-domain characteristics of drivers' behavior before and after the start of distracted driving. METHOD: Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied for the frequency domain analysis to explore drivers' behavior pattern changes between non-distracted (pre-starting of visual-manual task) and distracted (post-starting of visual-manual task) driving periods...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524731/german-taxi-drivers-experience-and-expression-of-driving-anger-are-the-driving-anger-scale-and-the-driving-anger-expression-inventory-valid-measures
#14
Stefan Brandenburg, Michael Oehl, Kristin Seigies
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was twofold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers as these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to non-professional drivers in different countries. Secondly, we wanted to examine possible differences in driving anger experience and expression between professional German taxi drivers and non-professional German drivers...
May 19, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494162/are-automatic-systems-the-future-of-motorcycle-safety-a-novel-methodology-to-prioritize-potential-safety-solutions-based-on-their-projected-effectiveness
#15
Gustavo Gil, Giovanni Savino, Simone Piantini, Niccolò Baldanzini, Riender Happee, Marco Pierini
OBJECTIVE: Motorcycle riders are involved in significantly more crashes per kilometer driven than passenger car drivers. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of motorcycle safety systems lags far behind that of passenger cars. This research addresses the identification of the most effective motorcycle safety solutions in the context of different countries. METHODS: A Knowledge-Based system of Motorcycle Safety (KBMS) was developed to assess the potential for various safety solutions to mitigate or avoid motorcycle crashes...
May 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481682/acute-impairing-effects-of-morphine-related-to-driving-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-studies-to-define-blood-morphine-concentrations-related-to-impairment-in-opioid-na%C3%A3-ve-subjects
#16
Maren Cecilie Strand, Marianne Arnestad, Bente Fjeld, Jørg Mørland
OBJECTIVE: To look for dose- and concentration-effect relationships in experimental studies on single-dose administration of morphine on traffic relevant behavioral tests by a systematic literature review, and possibly to see if a dose/concentration could be defined, below which few or no tests would be affected. METHODS: Searches for corresponding literature were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, throughout March of 2016. The search strategy consisted of words colligated to cognitive- and psychomotor functions of relevance to driving, in relation to morphine administration...
May 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463528/understanding-the-context-of-alcohol-impaired-driving-for-fatal-crash-involved-drivers-a-descriptive-case-analysis
#17
Lisa Wundersitz, Simon Raftery
OBJECTIVE: To understand the social context and circumstances surrounding alcohol impaired driving prior to fatal crash involvement for drivers with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC ≥0.05g/100 ml or 0.00g/100 ml for restricted licence holders). METHODS: Coroner's case reports investigating fatal crashes in South Australia over a three year period (2008-2010) were examined. The personal and crash characteristics of drivers with an illegal BAC were compared with those who had a legal BAC...
May 2, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459283/impact-of-improving-vehicle-front-design-on-the-burden-of-pedestrian-injuries-in-germany-usa-and-india
#18
Dane Moran, Dipan Bose, Kavi Bhalla
OBJECTIVE: European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and two countries, (USA, and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. METHODS: We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and non-fatal injuries in each country in 2013...
May 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453311/provisional-drivers-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-displaying-p-plates
#19
Lyndel Bates, Bridie Scott-Parker, Millie Darvell, Barry Watson
OBJECTIVE: P plates (or decals) identify a driver's licence status to other road users. They are a compulsory part of the graduated driver licensing system in Queensland, Australia for drivers on a P1 (Provisional 1) or P2 (Provisional 2) licence. This study explored the perceptions of young drivers regarding the display of P plates (decals) in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: In this study, 226 young drivers with a provisional (intermediate/restricted) licence completed a 30 minute online survey between October 2013 and June 2014...
April 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448753/road-traffic-injury-in-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-systematic-review-and-summary-of-observational-studies
#20
João Ricardo N Vissoci, Daniel J Shogilev, Elizabeth Krebs, Luciano de Andrade, Igor Fiorese Vieira, Nicole Toomey, Adelia Portero Batilana, Michael Haglund, Catherine A Staton
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a systematic review of hospital based studies, the proportion of road traffic injuries and fatalities in SSA. METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines we searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Africa-Wide Information, Global Health, and Web of Science. Articles were eligible if they measured proportion of RTIs in SSA by using hospital based studies. In addition, a reference and citation analysis was conducted as well as a data quality assessment...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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