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Traffic Injury Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118033/emergency-braking-is-affected-by-the-use-of-cruise-control
#1
Yves Jammes, Michel Behr, Maxime Llari, Sarah Bonicel, Jean Paul Weber, Stephane Berdah
OBJECTIVE: We compared the differences in the braking response to vehicle collision between an active human emergency braking (Control condition) and a cruise control (CC) or an adaptive cruise control (ACC). METHODS: In eleven male subjects, aged from 22 to 67 years, we measured the active emergency braking response during manual driving using the accelerator pedal (Control condition) or in condition mimicking a CC or ACC. In both conditions, we measured the brake reaction time (BRT), the delay to produce the peak braking force (PBD), the total emergency braking response (BRT + PBD), and the peak braking force (PBF)...
January 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118026/literature-review-on-risky-driving-videos-on-youtube-unknown-effects-and-areas-for-concern
#2
Evelyn Vingilis, Zümrüt Yıldırım-Yenier, Larissa Vingilis-Jaremko, Christine Wickens, Jane Seeley, Judy Fleiter, Daniel H Grushka
OBJECTIVE: Entry of terms reflective of extreme risky driving behaviours into the YouTube website yields millions of videos. The majority of the top 20 highly subscribed automotive YouTube websites are focused on high performance vehicles, high speed and often risky driving. Moreover, young men are the heaviest users of online video sharing sites, overall streaming more videos and watching them longer than any other group. The purpose of the paper is to review the literature on YouTube videos and risky driving...
January 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112983/head-injuries-tbi-to-adults-and-children-in-motor-vehicle-crashes
#3
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau, Likang Xu, Mark Faul
PURPOSE: This is a descriptive study. It determined the annual, national incidence of head injuries (TBI) to adults and children in motor-vehicle crashes. It evaluated NASS-CDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System) for exposure and incidence of various head injuries in towaway crashes. It evaluated three health databases for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths due to TBI in motor-vehicle occupants. METHODS: Four databases were evaluated using 1997-2010 data on adult (15+ years old) and child (0-14 years old) occupants in motor-vehicle crashes: 1) NASS-CDS estimated the annual incidence of various head injuries and outcomes in towaway crashes, 2) NHAMCS (National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) estimated ED visits for TBI, 3) NHDS (National Hospital Discharge Survey) estimated hospitalizations for TBI and 4) NVSS (National Vital Statistics System) estimated TBI deaths...
January 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112978/calling-texting-and-searching-information-while-riding-a-motorcycle-a-study-of-university-students-in-vietnam
#4
Long T Truong, Chris De Gruyter, Hang T T Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of calling, texting, and searching information while riding a motorcycle among university students and the influences of sociodemographic characteristics, social norms, and risk perceptions on these behaviours. METHODS: Students at two university campuses in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the two largest cities of Vietnam, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Data collection was conducted during March and May 2016...
January 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112561/probabilistic-risk-assessment-for-pedestrian-vehicle-collision-considering-uncertainties-of-pedestrian-mobility
#5
Zhi Huang, Xiangyi Liu, Xiaolin Song, Yin He
OBJECTIVES: The uncertainties of pedestrian mobility are important factors affecting the accuracy and robustness of an active pedestrian protection system. This study is to provide the means for probabilistic risk evaluation of pedestrian-vehicle collision by counting the uncertainties in pedestrian motion. METHOD: The pedestrian is modeled by the first-order Markov model to characterize the stochastic properties in mobility according to the field experiments of pedestrians crossing uncontrolled road...
January 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112544/roadside-survey-on-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-drivers-in-the-arctic-county-of-finnmark-norway
#6
Ragnhild E G Jamt, Hallvard Gjerde, Per T Normann, Stig T Bogstrand
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of alcohol and potentially impairing drugs among the general driving population in Finnmark and to compare the prevalence among Norwegian, Russian and other foreign drivers by analyzing samples of oral fluid. METHODS: In collaboration with local police, drivers were selected for a voluntary and anonymous study using a multistage cluster sampling procedure (selection of roads, time intervals, and drivers within each interval) from September 2014 to October 2015...
January 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107050/evaluation-of-a-responsible-beverage-service-and-enforcement-program-effects-on-bar-patron-intoxication-and-potential-impaired-driving-by-young-adults
#7
James C Fell, Deborah A Fisher, Jie Yao, A Scott McKnight
OBJECTIVE: Studies of alcohol-related harm (violence, injury, illness) suggest that the most significant risk factors are the amount of alcohol consumed and whether obviously intoxicated patrons continue to be served. This study's objective was to investigate the effects of a responsible beverage service (RBS)/enhanced alcohol enforcement intervention on bars, bar patrons, and impaired driving. METHOD: Two communities-Monroe County, NY, and Cleveland, OH-participated in a demonstration program and evaluation...
January 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107033/drinking-and-driving-and-perceptions-of-arrest-risk-among-california-drivers-relationships-with-dui-arrests-in-their-city-of-residence
#8
Kara E MacLeod, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, William A Satariano, Tara Kelley-Baker, John H Lacey, David R Ragland
OBJECTIVE: Addressing drinking and driving remains a challenge in the U.S. The present study aims to provide feedback on DUI in California by assessing if drinking and driving behavior is associated with the DUI arrest rates in the city in which the driver lives; if this is through perceptions that one can get arrested for this behavior; and if this differed by those drivers who would be most affected by deterrence efforts (those most likely to drink outside the home). METHODS: This study consisted of a 2012 roadside survey of 1,147 weekend nighttime drivers in California...
January 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102701/the-effect-of-pre-crash-velocity-reduction-on-occupant-response-using-a-human-body-finite-element-model
#9
B Guleyupoglu, J Schap, K D Kusano, F S Gayzik
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an ATD to evaluate the effect of simulated pre-crash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads and computed injury criteria in four commonly-injured body regions. METHODS: The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid-III 50(th) percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced three point belt and driver airbag...
January 19, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095035/validation-of-a-parametric-finite-element-human-femur-model
#10
Katelyn F Klein, Jingwen Hu, Matthew P Reed, Lawrence W Schneider, Jonathan D Rupp
Objective Finite element (FE) models with geometry and material properties that are parametric with subject descriptors, such as age and body shape/size, are being developed to incorporate population variability into crash simulations. However, the validation methods currently being used with these parametric models do not assess whether model predictions are reasonable in the space over which the model is intended to be used. This study presents a parametric model of the femur and applies a unique validation paradigm to this parametric femur model that characterizes whether model predictions reproduce experimentally observed trends...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095034/self-reported-driving-under-the-influence-of-alcohol-and-cannabis-among-ontario-students-associations-with-graduated-licensing-risk-taking-and-substance-abuse
#11
Steven Cook, Danielle Shank, Tara Bruno, Nigel E Turner, Robert E Mann
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the patterns of self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) among licenced Ontario students in 2009, and examines their associations with graduated licencing, risk taking, and substance use problems for understanding DUIA and DUIC behaviours. Ontario's graduated licencing system requires new drivers to hold a G1 license for a minimum of 8 months, and a G2 licence for a minimum of 12 months before a full and unrestricted G license can be obtained...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095033/detection-of-the-toughest-pedestrian-injury-risk-as-a-smooth-function-of-age
#12
Tobias Niebuhr, Mirko Junge
OBJECTIVE: While it is common to regard age-specific groups (e.g. children, adults, elderly), smooth trends conditional on the age are mainly ignored in the literature. The present study examines the pedestrian injury risk in full-frontal pedestrian to passenger car accidents and incorporates the age -besides the collision speed and the injury severity- as a plug-in parameter. METHODS: Recent work introduced a model for pedestrian injury risk functions using explicit formulae with easily interpretable model parameters...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095031/the-role-of-drug-and-alcohol-use-and-the-risk-of-motor-vehicle-crashes-in-shiraz-iran-2014-a-case-crossover-study
#13
Narges Khanjani, Masoomeh Mousavi, Amirreza Dehghanian, Yunes Jahani, Hamid Souri
BACKGROUND: Traffic accidents and traffic-related injuries and mortality have become a major public health concern over the current years in Iran. This study aimed to examine the role of drug and alcohol use in motor vehicle accidents in Iran. METHODS: This case-crossover study was conducted on 441 drivers who survived from a road traffic crash and were taken to the emergency department of Shahid Rajaee trauma hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran. Data were collected using checklists which included demographic characteristics and drug and alcohol use prior to driving...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095026/self-regulation-of-driving-speed-among-distracted-drivers-an-application-of-driver-behavioural-adaptation-theory
#14
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Md Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Simon Washington
OBJECTIVE: The adaptive behaviour of mobile phone distracted drivers has been a topic of much discussion in the recent literature. Both simulator and naturalistic studies suggests that distracted drivers generally select lower driving speeds; however, speed adaptation is not observed among all drivers, and the mechanisms of speed selection are not well understood. The aim of this research was to apply a driver behavioural adaptation model to investigate the speed adaptation of mobile phone distracted drivers...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095025/the-influence-of-personal-protection-equipment-occupant-body-size-and-restraint-system-on-the-frontal-impact-responses-of-hybrid-iii-atds-in-tactical-vehicles
#15
Lauren Wood Zaseck, Nichole Ritchie Orton, Rebekah Gruber, Jonathan Rupp, Risa Scherer, Matthew Reed, Jingwen Hu
OBJECTIVE: Although advanced restraint systems, such as seatbelt pretensioners, and load limiters, can provide improved occupant protection in crashes, such technologies are currently not utilized in military vehicles. The design and use of military vehicles presents unique challenges to occupant safety - including differences in compartment geometry and occupant clothing and gear - that make direct application of optimal civilian restraint systems to military vehicles inappropriate. For military vehicle environments, finite element (FE) modeling can be used to assess various configurations of restraint systems and determine the optimal configuration that minimizes injury risk to the occupant...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055233/assessment-of-patients-medical-fitness-to-drive-by-primary-care-physicians-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Ghassan A Alkharboush, Faisal A Al Rashed, Ahmed H Saleem, Ibrahim S Alnajashi, Aljohara S Almeneessier, Awad H Olaish, Junaid A Bhatti, Ahmed S BaHammam
OBJECTIVES: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a significant health burden in Saudi Arabia. The literature has consistently indicated that chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, and neurodevelopmental disorders, increase the risk of MVCs. Therefore, assessment of driver fitness by primary care physicians (PCPs) remains a major health intervention that might reduce MVCs. We studied the practices of PCPs in assessing medical fitness-to-drive in at-risk patients...
January 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055229/airbag-deployment-related-eye-injuries
#17
Tapio Antero Koisaari, Tiina Leivo, Ahmad Sahraravand, Anna-Kaisa Haavisto, Pekka Sulander, Timo M T Tervo
OBJECTIVE We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using two different data sets. METHODS The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams (RAIT) was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-12 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from 1...
January 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936937/driving-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-role-of-depressive-symptoms
#18
Ion N Beratis, Nikos Andronas, Dionysia Kontaxopoulou, Stella Fragkiadaki, Dimosthenis Pavlou, John Papatriantafyllou, Alexandra Economou, George Yannis, Sokratis G Papageorgiou
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with MCI (Age: Mean = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (Age: Mean = 65...
December 12, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936912/a-parametric-model-of-child-body-shape-in-seated-postures
#19
Byoung-Keon D Park, Sheila Ebert, Matthew P Reed
OBJECTIVE: The shape of the current physical and computational surrogates of children used for restraint system assessments are based largely on standard anthropometric dimensions. These scalar dimensions provide valuable information on the overall size of the individual, but do not provide good guidance on shape or posture. This study introduced development of a parametric model, which statistically predicts individual child body shapes in seated postures with a few given parameters...
December 12, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922270/examining-motor-vehicle-crash-involvement-and-readiness-to-change-on-drinking-and-driving-behaviors-among-injured-emergency-department-patients
#20
Janette Baird, Eunice Yang, Valerie Strezsak, Michael J Mello
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of motor vehicle crash (MVC) involvement and readiness to change drinking and driving behaviors on subsequent driving and drinking behaviors among injured emergency department (ED) patients who use alcohol at harmful levels. METHODS: A secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial of injured ED patients who screened positive for harmful alcohol use, who at recruitment reported driving in the past 12 months and received at least one of the intended intervention sessions (brief behavioral intervention versus attention placebo control [N = 407])...
December 6, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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