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Traffic Injury Prevention

Yahya Almarhabi, Abdulrahman I Mufti, Adel D Almaymuni, Talib Abdurahman, Ghamri Abdulaziz, Ahmed A Alghamdi, Abdel Moniem Mukhtar
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, trauma is a major health problem and road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the primary killer of young men in Saudi Arabia. The aim of our study was to estimate the extent of driving under the influence of an abused substance in Saudi Arabia and to explore the associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional survey conducted between May and September 2016 at Al-Amal hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a referral center for addiction. We included all patients who were admitted for additional education and rehabilitation and had no psychotic symptoms...
July 24, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
D Favretto, S Visentin, G Stocchero, S Vogliardi, R Snenghi, M Montisci
OBJECTIVE: To present the prevalence and concentrations of drugs in blood samples of drivers involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) and to discuss the effects of adopting different concentration cut-off values proposed or applied in other European countries on the number of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) offences. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers involved in RTA in the Padova province, from 2014 to 2017, were analysed for the presence of alcohol and drugs...
July 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Steven Cook, Angela Boak, Hayley A Hamilton, Robert E Mann, Heather E Manson, Christine M Wickens
OBJECTIVE: Texting while driving (TWD) has a deleterious impact on driving performance, and may pose a significant challenge to traffic safety. This challenge may be particularly relevant for young and inexperienced drivers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of writing text messages or emails while driving during the past twelve months. METHOD: This study analyzed a subpopulation of 1,133 licensed students 16 years of age or older from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (OSDUHS), a population-based survey of students in Ontario, Canada...
July 16, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Anne T McCartt, William A Leaf, Charles M Farmer
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of changes to Washington state's alcohol ignition interlock laws: moving issuance of interlock orders from the courts to the driver licensing department (July 2003); extending the interlock order requirement to all persons convicted of DUI (June 2004); allowing an interlock in lieu of an administrative driver's license suspension (January 2009); and requiring proof of interlock installation to reinstate the driver's license (January 2011). METHOD: Trends in conviction types, interlock installation rates, and 2-year cumulative recidivism rates were examined for first-time and repeat offenders with convictions stemming from DUI arrests during 1999-2012...
July 16, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Xin Ye, James P Gaewsky, Derek A Jones, Logan E Miller, Joel D Stitzel, Ashley A Weaver
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to reconstruct 11 motor vehicle crashes (six with thoracolumbar fractures and five without thoracolumbar fractures), and analyze the fracture mechanism, fracture predictors, and associated parameters affecting thoracolumbar spine response. METHODS: Eleven frontal crashes were reconstructed with a finite element simplified vehicle model (SVM). The SVM was tuned to each case vehicle and the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was scaled and positioned in a baseline configuration to mimic the documented pre-crash driver posture...
July 16, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Naruyuki Hosokawa
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of wearing a bicycle helmet using an adult headform in terms of the head injury criterion (HIC) when the frontal and lateral parts of the helmet impact a vehicle body, and also when the frontal part of the helmet impacts the road surface. METHODS: The adult headform was made to impact the hood, windscreen, roof top, and roof side rail of a vehicle body at an impact velocity of 35 km/h, which is a common head-to-vehicle impact velocity in real-world cyclist-vehicle collisions, in which the vehicle impacts the cyclist at 40 km/h...
July 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Norma Hubele, Kathryn Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to use historical crash data to evaluate the potential benefits of both high and low speed Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) with Forward Collision Warning (FCW) systems. METHODS: Crash data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) databases were categorized to classify crashes by the speed environment, as well as to identify cases where Forward Collision Warning (FCW) systems would be applicable...
July 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Aubrey Ashie, Andrew Wilhelm, Daniel Carney, Thomas DiPasquale, Chelsea Bush
OBJECTIVE: The motorcyclist demographic is shifting to a larger proportion of riders over the age of 40. We sought to identify differences in orthopedic injury distribution and severity between three age cohorts, and identify independent factors that contribute to fractures following a motorcycle collision (MCC). METHODS: A trauma registry at a Level I trauma center was queried for motorcycle-related orthopedic injuries between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014...
July 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Lu Wang, Chuanhua Yu, Yunquan Zhang, Lisha Luo, Ganshen Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the characteristics and burdens of road traffic injuries (RTIs) from the three perspectives of time, space and population in China and predicted traffic fatalities using two models. METHODS: By extracting data from the China Statistical Yearbooks and GBD 2015 (Global Health Data Exchange), we described the change in the time trend of traffic crashes and economic losses associated with the rate of motorization in China from 1996 to 2015, analyzed the geographical distribution of these events by GIS, and evaluated the age-, sex- and cause-specific death rate, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate, the years of life lost (YLL) rate and the years lost due to disability (YLD) rate lost from RTIs from 1990 to 2015...
July 3, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jason B Fice, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Gunter P Siegmund
OBJECTIVE: A rotated head posture at the time of a rear-end impact is associated with a higher risk of acute and chronic whiplash injury. The objective of this study was to quantify the amplitude and duration of rotated head postures observed in drivers during naturalistic driving. METHODS: Twenty volunteers (14 males: 36 ± 12 years, 6 females: 27 ± 5 years) drove a 2010 Subaru Impreza on public roads while their 3D head angular position relative to the car was recorded using inertial measurement units...
June 26, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Robert B Voas, Jie Yao, Michael Scherer, Eduardo Romano, John Lacey
OBJECTIVE: There are two primary methods for establishing relative risk: case-control studies where crash and matched control data are collected separately, and responsibility analysis, which exploits a single existing crash database by using non-responsible drivers as an "induced exposure" control group (which is less expensive and therefore more feasible for examining the large number of substances that can impact driving behavior). Though both approaches are scientifically sound and methodologically valid, each approach has its own inherent obstacles to overcome...
June 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Rusdi Rusli, Mazharul Haque, Mohammad Saifuzzaman, Mark King
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes along mountainous highways may lead to injuries and fatalities more often than highways on plain topography; however, research focusing on the injury outcome of such crashes is relatively scant. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the likelihood that traffic crashes along rural mountainous highways result in injuries. METHOD: This study proposes a combination of decision tree and logistic regression techniques to model crash severity (injury vs non-injury), as the combined approach allows the specification of nonlinearities and interactions in addition to main effects...
June 22, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Allison L Schmidt, Maria A Ortiz-Paparoni, Jay K Shridharani, Roger W Nightingale, Cameron R Bass
The Hybrid III (HIII) dummy is one of the most widely used anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in the world, and researchers have found a variety of uses for it outside of its original purpose as an automotive crash test dummy. These expanded roles have introduced situations outside the dummy's original design parameters, where a number of tests must be run in relatively rapid succession or where it may not be possible to control the temperature of the test environment. OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ryan J Martin, Melissa J Cox, Beth H Chaney, Adam P Knowlden
OBJECTIVE: Hazardous drinking is associated with other risky behaviors and negative health-related outcomes. This study examined co-variation between hazardous drinking scores and the following risky driving behaviors: falling asleep while driving, texting (receiving and sending) while driving, and driving after consuming alcohol. METHODS: The participants in this study were a sample of undergraduate students (N = 1,298) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, Southeastern university in Spring 2016 and completed an online health survey that assessed hazardous drinking, falling asleep while driving, texting while driving, and driving after consuming alcohol...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Amy Jewett, Alexis B Peterson, Erin K Sauber-Schatz
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol or drug impaired driving can cause motor vehicle crashes, injuries, and death. Estimates of drug impaired driving are difficult to obtain. This study explores self-reported prevalence of and factors associated with alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and impaired driving among adults aged 21 years and older in the U.S. METHODS: Self-reported data from 3,383 adults in the 2015 Fall ConsumerStyles survey were analyzed. Respondents were asked about alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and driving while impaired in the last 30 days...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jessica B Cicchino
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of blind spot monitoring systems in preventing police-reported lane-change crashes. METHODS: Poisson regression was used to compare crash involvement rates per insured vehicle year in police-reported lane-change crashes in 26 U.S. states during 2009-2015 between vehicles with blind spot monitoring and the same vehicle models without the optional system, controlling for other factors that can affect crash risk. RESULTS: Crash involvement rates in lane-change crashes were 14% lower (95% confidence limits -24% to -2%) among vehicles with blind spot monitoring than those without...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Bryan Pomares, Jonathan Hooshmand, Matthew Cushing, Gillian Hotz
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the BikeSafe on-bicycle curriculum affects children's bicycle safety knowledge and collect cross-sectional data on cycling beliefs and attitudes. METHODS: The University of Miami's BikeSafe program collected surveys from 286 participants, ages 7-15, in 10 Miami-Dade County Parks, Recreation, and Open Spaces summer camps from June to August 2015. Pre- and post-knowledge assessments were analyzed for 83 intervention group and 57 control group participants...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
PURPOSE: This study investigated trends in severe injury and ejection in rollover crashes involving lap-shoulder belted drivers and right-front passengers. It was conducted because of changes in 2009 to consumer information programs and regulations related to rollover protection. The data is presented by model year (MY) of the vehicle in groups from 1995-2016. NASS-CDS cases with 2010-16 MY vehicles were also evaluated to determine the crash circumstances and causes for severe injury of belted occupants in vehicles with a high strength-to-weight (SWR) roof, curtain and side airbags and other safety improvements...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Igor Radun, Hanna Watling, Jenni Radun, Jyrki Kaistinen, Jake Olivier
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that young men are the riskiest group of all drivers, while men in general more often drive under the influence of alcohol. However, potentially oversimplified representations such as a "young male problem" and "drunk driving as a male problem" can influence action and reinforce existing attitudes by selectively directing attention to stereotypically consistent behavior. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis of possible bias towards young male drivers in the context of drunk driving...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Håvard Furuhaugen, Ragnhild E G Jamt, Galina Nilsson, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVE: To study the use of alcohol and drugs among the general driving population in the south-eastern part of Norway and to compare the findings with the results from a similar roadside survey in 2008-9. METHODS: A roadside survey of drivers of cars, vans, motorcycles and mopeds was performed from April 2016 to April 2017 in collaboration with the Mobile Police Service. Oral fluid was collected using the Quantisal device and analysed for alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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