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Traffic Injury Prevention

Yueru Xu, Zhirui Ye, Yuan Wang, Chao Wang, Cuicui Sun
OBJECTIVES: This paper focuses on the effect of road lighting on road safety at accesses and tries to quantitatively analyze the relationship between road lighting and road safety. METHODS: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied in this study. This method is one of the most popular machine-learning methods in recent years and does not require any pre-defined assumptions. This method was applied using field data collected from ten road segments in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China...
May 18, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Liu Yang, Xiaomeng Li, Wei Guan, H Michael Zhang, Lingling Fan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of traffic density on drivers' lane change and overtaking maneuvers. The differences between drivers' left and right lane-changing/overtaking maneuvers were also investigated. METHOD: A driving simulator experiment was conducted and 24 participants took part in this experiment. Based on the driving simulation data, lane change frequency, time duration, average speed and acceleration were extracted as key variables of lane change maneuvers; overtaking frequency, overtaking duration, initial overtaking distance and headway, instantaneous speed and acceleration before overtaking were analyzed as the key overtaking variables...
May 14, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jaeyoung Lee, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai, Ling Wang
OBJECTIVE: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) play a vital role in the post-crash effort to reduce fatalities by providing first aid treatment and transportation to medical facilities. This study aims to analyze the time required for crash reporting and EMS arrival in fatal traffic crashes and to explore the effects of EMS time on the traffic injury severity. METHODS: The time required for EMS reporting, arrival, and transport to hospital were calculated by location type and roadway functional classification using 2016 FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) data...
April 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
M Kit Delgado, Catherine C McDonald, Flaura K Winston, Scott D Halpern, Alison M Buttenheim, Claudia Setubal, Yanlan Huang, Kathryn A Saulsgiver, Yi-Ching Lee
OBJECTIVE: The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes toward novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. METHODS: Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey...
April 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Richard Atta Boateng, Valerian Kwigizile, Jun-Seok Oh
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the safety impacts of pedestrian countdown signals (PCSs) with and without pushbuttons based on pedestrian crashes and pedestrian injuries in Michigan. METHODOLOGY: This study used 10 years of intersection data-5 years before PCSs were installed and 5 years after they were installed-along with a comparison group, to evaluate the crash impacts of PCSs; at 107 intersections the PCS had a pushbutton and at 96 it did not. At these intersections, and at their comparison sites (where no PCS was installed), crash data (from 2004 to 2016) were examined, along with traffic and geometric characteristics, population, education, and poverty level data...
April 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Timothy L McMurry, Gerald S Poplin, Greg Shaw, Matthew B Panzer
OBJECTIVE: Highly automated vehicle occupants will all be passengers and may be free to ride while in postures for which existing occupant safety systems such as seat belts and airbags were not originally designed. These occupants could therefore face increased risk of injury when a crash occurs. Given that current vehicles are capable of supporting a variety of occupant postures outside of the normal design position, such as reclined or turned passengers, an evaluation of current field data was performed to better understand the risks of being out of position...
April 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kei Nagasaka, Koji Mizuno, Robert Thomson
OBJECTIVE: For occupant protection, it is important to understand how a car's deceleration time history in crashes can be designed using efficient of energy absorption by a car body's structure. In a previous paper, the authors proposed an energy derivative method to determine each structural component's contribution to the longitudinal deceleration of a car passenger compartment in crashes. In this study, this method was extended to 2 dimensions in order to analyze various crash test conditions...
March 26, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sjaan Koppel, Amanda N Stephens, Kristie L Young, Phuong Hua, Richard Chambers, Craig Hassed
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviors, mindfulness, and self-reported crashes and infringements. METHODS: Three hundred and eighteen participants (M = 46.0 years, SD = 13.7 years; female: 81.8%) completed an online survey that assessed aberrant driving behaviors, mindfulness (including regular mindfulness meditation [MM]), and self-reported crashes and infringements during the past 2 years. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviors and mindfulness simultaneously, as well as with participants' age and estimated kilometers driven over the past year...
March 26, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Weihua Zhang, Zhe Hu, Zhongxiang Feng, Changxi Ma, Kun Wang, Xuxin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Driving speed is a major concern for driving safety under reduced visibility conditions. Many factors affect speed selection in low visibility, but few studies have been conducted examining drivers' characteristics, particularly in China. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between drivers' demographic information, driving ability, and speed choice in low-visibility conditions using a sample of Chinese drivers. METHODS: A self-designed driving ability scale was used to assess driving ability in reduced visibility conditions...
July 4, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Eric R Teoh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of 3 crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. METHODS: Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-2015 were classified by type, with consideration of the functionality of 3 classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technologies: frontal crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection...
July 4, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
J Matthew Webster, Megan F Dickson, Michele Staton
OBJECTIVE: Although driving under the influence (DUI) arrests occur at higher rates in rural areas and previous studies have shown more extensive drug use histories, little is known about how this relates to the prevalence and frequency of drugged driving. The present study examined drug use and drugged driving patterns among a sample of rural DUI offenders. METHODS: Convicted rural DUI offenders (N = 118) completed a one-time, confidential research interview focused on drug use and drugged driving...
July 4, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Merissa A Yellman, Marissa A Rodriguez, Maria Isabel Colunga, Mary A McCoy, Shelli Stephens-Stidham, L Steven Brown, Gregory R Istre
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of 1-year multifaceted school-based programs aimed at increasing booster seat use among urban children 4-7 years of age in economically disadvantaged areas. METHODS: During 4 consecutive school years, 2011-2015, the Give Kids a Boost (GKB) program was implemented in a total of 8 schools with similar demographics in Dallas County. Observational surveys were conducted at project schools before project implementation (P0 ), 1-4 weeks after the completion of project implementation (P1 ), and 4-5 months later (P2 )...
May 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
T L Bunn, S Slavova, M Chandler, N Hanner, M Singleton
OBJECTIVE: Traffic incidents occurring on roadways require the coordinated effort of multiple responder and recovery entities, including communications, law enforcement, fire and rescue, emergency medical services, hazardous materials, transportation agencies, and towing and recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and characterize transportation incident management (TIM)-related occupational fatalities; (2) assess concordance of surveillance data sources in identifying TIM occupations, driver vs...
May 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Dary D Fiorentino, Brian D Martin
BACKGROUND: On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) proposed that states lower the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) illegal limit from 0.08 to 0.05 g/dL (also referred to as the 0.08 law and the 0.05 limit, respectively). In March 2017, this recommendation was signed into law in the State of Utah. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey is to investigate perceptions regarding enforcement of the 0.05 g/dL BAC limit. METHOD: Opinions of law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and defense attorneys were obtained through a series of questionnaires and focus groups...
May 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ioana Koglbauer, Jürgen Holzinger, Arno Eichberger, Cornelia Lex
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Current automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction; for example, on snowy roads. Because winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm...
April 3, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Karisa K Harland, Ronald Bedford, Hongqian Wu, Marizen Ramirez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol impairment in crashes involving farm equipment on public roadways and the effect of alcohol impairment on the odds of crash injury or fatality. METHODS: On-road farm equipment crashes were collected from 4 Great Plains state departments of transportation during 2005-2010. Alcohol impairment was defined as an involved driver having blood alcohol content of ≥0.08 g/100 ml or a finding of alcohol impairment as a driver contributing circumstance recorded on the police crash report...
April 3, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Alexander Maistros, William H Schneider
OBJECTIVE: The annual rate of impaired driving crashes in the United States has remained nearly constant over the last decade. While engineers, educators, enforcement, and emergency response personnel have worked diligently in their combined efforts to reduce the loss of life, there is still significant progress to be made. One area of recent interest is the use of data driven enforcement. The basis for data driven enforcement is the use of statistical clustering to identify geographic areas that represent the location of problem identification for various criminal or traffic offenses...
April 3, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Samantha L Schoell, Ashley A Weaver, Jennifer W Talton, Ryan T Barnard, Gretchen Baker, Joel D Stitzel, Mark R Zonfrillo
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of the severity of injury should account for both mortality and disability. The objective of this study was to develop a disability metric for thoracic injuries in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and compare the functional outcomes between the pediatric and adult populations. METHODS: Disability risk (DR) was quantified using Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores within the National Trauma Data Bank for the most frequently occurring Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2-5 thoracic injuries...
April 3, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Marjorie Lee White, J Lynn Zinkan, Geni Smith, Dawn Taylor Peterson, Amber Q Youngblood, Ashley Dodd, Walter Parker, Samuel Strachan, Peter Sloane, Nancy Tofil
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the benefits of adding high-fidelity simulation to a teenage trauma prevention program to decrease recidivism rates and encourage teens to discuss actionable steps toward safe driving. METHODS: A simulated pediatric trauma scenario was integrated into an established trauma prevention program. Participants were recruited because they were court-ordered to attend this program after misdemeanor convictions for moving violations. The teenage participants viewed this simulation from the emergency medical services (EMS) handoff to complete trauma care...
April 3, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mary L Smiley, C Raymond Bingham, Peter D Jacobson, Michelle L Macy
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to accomplish the following objectives: to (1) calculate the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained across 8 criteria of increasing restrictiveness; (2) examine agreement between age- and size-based appropriateness criteria; (3) assess for changes in the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained by the 8 criteria between 2011 (shortly after updates to U.S. guidelines) and 2015. METHODS: Data from 2 cross-sectional surveys of 928 parents of children younger than 12 years old (n = 591 in 2011, n = 337 in 2015) were analyzed in 2017...
April 3, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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