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Traffic Injury Prevention

Ghassan A Alkharboush, Faisal A Al Rashed, Ahmed H Saleem, Ibrahim S Alnajashi, Aljohara S Almeneessier, Awad H Olaish, Junaid A Bhatti, Ahmed S BaHammam
OBJECTIVES: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a significant health burden in Saudi Arabia. The literature has consistently indicated that chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, and neurodevelopmental disorders, increase the risk of MVCs. Therefore, assessment of driver fitness by primary care physicians (PCPs) remains a major health intervention that might reduce MVCs. We studied the practices of PCPs in assessing medical fitness-to-drive in at-risk patients...
January 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Tapio Antero Koisaari, Tiina Leivo, Ahmad Sahraravand, Anna-Kaisa Haavisto, Pekka Sulander, Timo M T Tervo
OBJECTIVE We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using two different data sets. METHODS The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams (RAIT) was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-12 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from 1...
January 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ion N Beratis, Nikos Andronas, Dionysia Kontaxopoulou, Stella Fragkiadaki, Dimosthenis Pavlou, John Papatriantafyllou, Alexandra Economou, George Yannis, Sokratis G Papageorgiou
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with MCI (Age: Mean = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (Age: Mean = 65...
December 12, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Byoung-Keon D Park, Sheila Ebert, Matthew P Reed
OBJECTIVE: The shape of the current physical and computational surrogates of children used for restraint system assessments are based largely on standard anthropometric dimensions. These scalar dimensions provide valuable information on the overall size of the individual, but do not provide good guidance on shape or posture. This study introduced development of a parametric model, which statistically predicts individual child body shapes in seated postures with a few given parameters...
December 12, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Janette Baird, Eunice Yang, Valerie Strezsak, Michael J Mello
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of motor vehicle crash (MVC) involvement and readiness to change drinking and driving behaviors on subsequent driving and drinking behaviors among injured emergency department (ED) patients who use alcohol at harmful levels. METHODS: A secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial of injured ED patients who screened positive for harmful alcohol use, who at recruitment reported driving in the past 12 months and received at least one of the intended intervention sessions (brief behavioral intervention versus attention placebo control [N = 407])...
December 6, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Selina Mårdh, Pamela Mårdh, Anna Anund
Objective Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on the individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are regulations on driving cessation post-stroke. The information on driving cessation should be given to all patients and noted in the journal. The present study sought to find out physician's compliance to driving regulations post-stroke as well as follow-up and gender aspects...
November 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Duo Li, Yifei Zhao, Qiang Bai, Bei Zhou, Hongbiao Ling
OBJECTIVE: Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high because of large passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This paper presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Brendan J Russo, Peter T Savolainen, Timothy J Gates, Jonathan J Kay, Sterling Frazier
OBJECTIVE: Although a considerable amount of prior research has investigated the impacts of speed limits on traffic safety and operations, much of this research, and nearly all of the research related to differential speed limits, has been specific to limited access freeways. The unique safety and operational issues on highways without access control creates difficulty relating the conclusions from prior freeway-related speed limit research to two-lane highways, particularly research on differential limits due to passing limitations and subsequent queuing...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ali Behnood, Fred L Mannering
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that alcohol and drugs influence driving behavior by affecting the central nervous system, awareness, vision, and perception/reaction times, but the resulting effect driver-injuries in car crashes is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting the injury severities of unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers Method: The current paper applies a random parameters logit model to study the differences in injury severities among unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jeremy Seppi, Jacek Toczyski, Jeff R Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
OBJECTIVE: To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. METHODS: Test data from DRoTS tests, Deceleration Rollover Sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, Small Overlap Impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability...
November 8, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jose Luis Vilchez
Objective The effect of traffic signs in the motor behavior of drivers is not completely understood yet. Knowing about how humans process the meaning of signs (not just by learning but instinctively) will improve reaction time and decision making when traveling. The economic, social and psychological consequences of car accidents are well-known. Every single effort orientated to the solution of this social problem is welcome. Methods This study sounds out which traffic signs are more ergonomic for participants, from a cognitive point of view, and determines, at the same time, which is their effect in participants' movement trajectory in a driving-simulation task: the tracking task...
November 3, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Stacey Teruya, Deyu Pan, Johnny Lin, David Gordon, Pamela C Krochalk, Mohsen Bazargan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of intent and other theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in predicting college students' willingness to text while driving (TWD). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. 243 male and female college students enrolled in the 2013-2014 academic year in the College of Health, Human Services & Nursing completed a survey on TWD. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All races and ethnicities, ≥18 years of age, cell phone owner, and licensed driver...
January 2, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Allison E Curry
OBJECTIVES: Current methods of estimating compliance with graduated driver licensing (GDL) restrictions among young drivers with intermediate driver's licenses-which include surveys, direct observations, and naturalistic studies-cannot sufficiently answer many critical foundational questions: What is the extent of noncompliance among the population of young intermediate drivers? How does compliance change over the course of licensure? How does compliance differ by driver subgroup and in certain driving environments? This article proposes an alternative and complementary approach to estimating population-level compliance with GDL nighttime and passenger restrictions via application of the quasi-induced exposure (QIE) method...
January 2, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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November 16, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Parvin Shahri, Rezvan Yazdani, Amir Shafiee
OBJECTIVE: Motorcycle-related crashes and injuries continue to be of great concern in Iran. This study seeks to explore how motorcyclists' perspectives and impressions of a crash are shaped and influence their future riding behaviors. METHODS: This was a qualitative study conducted in 3 major cities in Iran between March 2011 and February 2012. Participants included 31 male motorcyclists, of whom 22 participated in 4 focus groups and 9 in in-depth interviews. Findings were derived through the thematic method of analysis...
November 16, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yikai Chen, Yiming Li, Mark King, Qin Shi, Changjun Wang, Pingfan Li
OBJECTIVES: In China, serious road traffic crashes (SRTCs) are those in which there are 10-30 fatalities, 50-100 serious injuries, or a total cost of 50-100 million RMB (U.S.$8-16 M), and particularly serious road traffic crashes (PSRTCs) are those that are more severe or costly. Due to the large number of fatalities and injuries as well as the negative public reaction they elicit, SRTCs and PSRTCs have become of great concern to China during recent years. The aim of this study is to identify the main factors contributing to these road traffic crashes and to propose preventive measures to reduce their number...
November 16, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ruth A Shults, Tanima Banerjee, Timothy Perry
OBJECTIVES: We examined associations among race/ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and driving status in a nationally representative sample of >26,000 U.S. high school seniors. METHODS: Weighted data from the 2012 and 2013 Monitoring the Future surveys were combined and analyzed. We imputed missing values using fully conditional specification multiple imputation methods. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted to explore associations among race/ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and driving status, while accounting for selected student behaviors and location...
November 16, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Huiqin Chen, Qiang Chen, Lei Chen, Guanjun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to study risk factors that significantly influence the severity of crashes for drivers both under and not under the influence of alcohol. METHODS: Ordinal logistic regression was applied to analyze a crash data set involving drivers under and not under the influence of alcohol in China from January 2011 to December 2014. RESULTS: Four risk factors were found to be significantly associated with the severity of driver injury, including crash partner and intersection type...
November 16, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Giovanni Savino, Marco Pierini, Jason Thompson, Michael Fitzharris, Michael G Lenné
OBJECTIVE: Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) acts to slow down a vehicle when an unavoidable impending collision is detected. In addition to documented benefits when applied to passenger cars, AEB has also shown potential when applied to motorcycles (MAEB). However, the feasibility of MAEB as practically applied to motorcycles in the real world is not well understood. METHODS: In this study we performed a field trial involving 16 riders on a test motorcycle subjected to automatic decelerations, thus simulating MAEB activation...
November 16, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Clémentine Helfenstein-Didier, Frédéric Rongiéras, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Mickaël Tanter, Philippe Beillas
OBJECTIVES: Due to limitations of classic imaging approaches, the internal response of abdominal organs is difficult to observe during an impact. Within the context of impact biomechanics for the protection of the occupant of transports, this could be an issue for human model validation and injury prediction. METHODS: In the current study, a previously developed technique (ultrafast ultrasound imaging) was used as the basis to develop a protocol to observe the internal response of abdominal organs in situ at high imaging rates...
November 16, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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