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Traffic Injury Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524731/german-taxi-drivers-experience-and-expression-of-driving-anger-are-the-driving-anger-scale-and-the-driving-anger-expression-inventory-valid-measures
#1
Stefan Brandenburg, Michael Oehl, Kristin Seigies
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was twofold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers as these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to non-professional drivers in different countries. Secondly, we wanted to examine possible differences in driving anger experience and expression between professional German taxi drivers and non-professional German drivers...
May 19, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494162/are-automatic-systems-the-future-of-motorcycle-safety-a-novel-methodology-to-prioritize-potential-safety-solutions-based-on-their-projected-effectiveness
#2
Gustavo Gil, Giovanni Savino, Simone Piantini, Niccolò Baldanzini, Riender Happee, Marco Pierini
OBJECTIVE: Motorcycle riders are involved in significantly more crashes per kilometer driven than passenger car drivers. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of motorcycle safety systems lags far behind that of passenger cars. This research addresses the identification of the most effective motorcycle safety solutions in the context of different countries. METHODS: A Knowledge-Based system of Motorcycle Safety (KBMS) was developed to assess the potential for various safety solutions to mitigate or avoid motorcycle crashes...
May 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481682/acute-impairing-effects-of-morphine-related-to-driving-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-studies-to-define-blood-morphine-concentrations-related-to-impairment-in-opioid-na%C3%A3-ve-subjects
#3
Maren Cecilie Strand, Marianne Arnestad, Bente Fjeld, Jørg Mørland
OBJECTIVE: To look for dose- and concentration-effect relationships in experimental studies on single-dose administration of morphine on traffic relevant behavioral tests by a systematic literature review, and possibly to see if a dose/concentration could be defined, below which few or no tests would be affected. METHODS: Searches for corresponding literature were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, throughout March of 2016. The search strategy consisted of words colligated to cognitive- and psychomotor functions of relevance to driving, in relation to morphine administration...
May 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463528/understanding-the-context-of-alcohol-impaired-driving-for-fatal-crash-involved-drivers-a-descriptive-case-analysis
#4
Lisa Wundersitz, Simon Raftery
OBJECTIVE: To understand the social context and circumstances surrounding alcohol impaired driving prior to fatal crash involvement for drivers with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC ≥0.05g/100 ml or 0.00g/100 ml for restricted licence holders). METHODS: Coroner's case reports investigating fatal crashes in South Australia over a three year period (2008-2010) were examined. The personal and crash characteristics of drivers with an illegal BAC were compared with those who had a legal BAC...
May 2, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459283/impact-of-improving-vehicle-front-design-on-the-burden-of-pedestrian-injuries-in-germany-usa-and-india
#5
Dane Moran, Dipan Bose, Kavi Bhalla
OBJECTIVE: European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and two countries, (USA, and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. METHODS: We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and non-fatal injuries in each country in 2013...
May 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453311/provisional-drivers-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-displaying-p-plates
#6
Lyndel Bates, Bridie Scott-Parker, Millie Darvell, Barry Watson
OBJECTIVE: P plates (or decals) identify a driver's licence status to other road users. They are a compulsory part of the graduated driver licensing system in Queensland, Australia for drivers on a P1 (Provisional 1) or P2 (Provisional 2) licence. This study explored the perceptions of young drivers regarding the display of P plates (decals) in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: In this study, 226 young drivers with a provisional (intermediate/restricted) licence completed a 30 minute online survey between October 2013 and June 2014...
April 28, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448753/road-traffic-injury-in-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-systematic-review-and-summary-of-observational-studies
#7
João Ricardo N Vissoci, Daniel J Shogilev, Elizabeth Krebs, Luciano de Andrade, Igor Fiorese Vieira, Nicole Toomey, Adelia Portero Batilana, Michael Haglund, Catherine A Staton
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a systematic review of hospital based studies, the proportion of road traffic injuries and fatalities in SSA. METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines we searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Africa-Wide Information, Global Health, and Web of Science. Articles were eligible if they measured proportion of RTIs in SSA by using hospital based studies. In addition, a reference and citation analysis was conducted as well as a data quality assessment...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448173/high-beam-headlamp-use-rates-effects-of-rurality-proximity-of-other-traffic-and-roadway-curvature
#8
Ian J Reagan, Matthew L Brumbelow, Michael J Flannagan, John M Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: The few observational studies of the prevalence of high beam use indicate the rate of high beam use is about 25% when vehicles are isolated from other vehicles on unlit roads. Recent studies were limited to two-lane rural roads and used measurement methods that likely overestimated use. The current study examined factors associated with the rate of high beam use of isolated vehicles on a variety of roadways in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area. METHODS: Twenty observation sites were categorized as urban, rural, or on a rural/urban boundary and selected to estimate the effects of street lighting, road curvature, and direction of travel relative to the city on high beam use...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448167/standardized-error-severity-score-ess-ratings-to-quantify-risk-associated-with-child-restraint-system-crs-and-booster-seat-misuse
#9
Christina M Rudin-Brown, Chelsea Kramer, Robin Langerak, Andrea Scipione, Shelley Kelsey
OBJECTIVE: Although numerous research studies have reported high levels of error and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) and booster seats in experimental and real world scenarios, conclusions are limited because they provide little information regarding which installation issues pose the highest risk and thus should be targeted for change. Beneficial to legislating bodies and researchers alike would be a standardized, globally relevant, assessment of the potential injury risk associated with more common forms of CRS and booster seat misuse, which could be applied with observed error frequency, for example, in car seat clinics or during prototype user testing, to better identify and characterize the installation issues of greatest risk to safety...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448166/changes-in-motorcycle-related-injuries-and-deaths-after-mandatory-motorcycle-helmet-law-in-a-district-of-vietnam
#10
Ninh Thi Ha, David Ederer, Van Anh Vo Ha, An Van Pham, Anthony Mounts, Leisha Nolen, David Sugerman
OBJECTIVE: Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. METHODS: Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTI) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorised using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RR) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/06-2009/10)...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448164/increasing-use-of-cannabis-among-arrested-drivers-in-norway
#11
Anja Valen, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVE: The availability of cannabis in Norway seems to have increased according to seizures by customs and police. On the other hand, national population surveys have not found any increase in self-reported use of cannabis. This investigation aimed at studying trends in cannabis use among suspected drug-impaired drivers apprehended by the police in Norway. METHODS: A time series observational study of cannabis use among all drivers tested for drugs during 2000-2015 was performed...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429962/predictors-of-restraint-use-among-child-occupants
#12
Marco Benedetti, Kathleen D Klinich, Miriam A Manary, Carol A Flannagan
OBJECTIVES: Identify factors that predict restraint use and optimal restraint use among children aged 0 to 13 years. METHODS: The dataset is a national sample of police-reported crashes for years 2010-2014 in which type of child restraint is recorded. The dataset was supplemented with demographic census data linked by driver zip code, as well as a score for the state child restraint law during the year of the crash relative to best practice recommendations for protecting child occupants...
April 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414545/modular-use-of-human-body-models-of-varying-levels-of-complexity-validation-of-head-kinematics
#13
William Decker, Bharath Koya, Matthew L Davis, F Scott Gayzik
Objective The significant computational resources required to execute detailed human body finite element models has motivated the development of faster running simplified models (e.g. GHBMC M50-OS). Previous studies have demonstrated the ability to modularly incorporate the validated GHBMC M50-O brain model into the simplified model (GHBMC M50-OS+B), which allows for localized analysis of the brain in a fraction of the computation time required for the detailed model. The objective of this study is to validate the head and neck kinematics of the GHBMC M50-O and M50-OS (detailed and simplified versions of the same model) against human volunteer test data in frontal and lateral loading...
April 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409675/the-relation-between-driving-violations-and-health-promotion-behaviors-among-undergraduate-students-self-report-of-road-behavior
#14
Liat Korn, Yossi Weiss, Tova Rosenbloom
Introduction The purposes of this study are to characterize the Israeli undergraduate students' driving violations in the terms of Problem Behavior Theory and to identify if there is any relationship between driving violations and health risk behaviors, daring behaviors, excitement-seeking, and health promotion behaviors. Methods This study is based on a structured self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to undergraduate students in an academic institution. The sample included 533 undergraduate students (374 females and 159 males)...
April 14, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402687/seat-belt-pre-pretensioner-effect-on-child-sized-dummies-during-run-off-road-events
#15
Isabelle Stockman, Katarina Bohman, Lotta Jakobsson
OBJECTIVE: Run-off-road events occur frequently and can result in severe consequences. Several potential injury-causing mechanisms can be observed in the diverse types of run-off-road events. Real-world data show that different types of environments, such as rough terrain, ditch types, and whether multiple events occur, may be important contributing factors to occupant injury. Though countermeasures addressing front seat occupants have been presented, studies on rear seat occupant retention in situations such as run-off-road events are lacking...
April 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402136/survey-of-discomfort-glare-from-the-headlamps-of-cars-widely-used-in-iran
#16
Ahmad Mehri, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Roohalah Hajizadeh, Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian, Hamzeh Mohammadi, Milad Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: In two-lane roads, a discomfort glare can cause annoyance, discomfort and inconvenience, stress and fatigue to drivers on the front line. This can cause accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the discomfort glare from the headlamps of cars widely used in Iran. METHODS: The discomfort glare of new vehicles including Pride Saba model GTX, Pride Model 131SL, Samand Soren, Peugeot 405, Megan, and Peugeot Pars was examined at distances of 5 to 100 metres and in background luminance of 50 cd/m(2) (late twilight / early dawn lighting) and 1 cd/m(2) (night time) by Schmidt-Clausen and Bindels model and de Boer subjective scale...
April 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399658/evaluation-of-a-coplanar-6a3%C3%AF-configuration-in-the-hybrid-iii-50-th-percentile-male-head
#17
Yun-Seok Kang, Sam Goldman, Kevin Moorhouse, John Bolte
OBJECTIVES: In order to understand the mechanisms of TBI and develop proper safety measures, it is essential that accurate instrumentation methods are utilized. The Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC) has been developed and validated to predict brain injuries in combination with the head injury criterion (Takhounts et al., 2011 ; Takhounts et al., 2013 ). Being that the validated BrIC is heavily dependent on angular motion, the accuracy of any head instrumentation technique should be judged in part by its ability to measure angular motion...
April 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394639/the-safety-potential-of-lane-departure-warning-systems-a-descriptive-real-world-study-of-fatal-lane-departure-passenger-car-crashes-in-sweden
#18
Simon Sternlund
OBJECTIVE: Lane departure crashes account for a significant proportion of passenger car occupant fatalities and serious injuries. Utilising real-world data involving fatal passenger car crashes in Sweden, the characteristics of lane departure crashes were identified and the safety potential of Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems was quantified. METHODS: The material consisted of 104 in-depth studies of fatal passenger car crashes in 2010. The crashes were classified as single vehicle (n = 48), head-on (n = 52) and overtaking (n = 4) crashes...
April 10, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394632/effects-of-rearview-cameras-and-rear-parking-sensors-on-police-reported-backing-crashes
#19
Jessica B Cicchino
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of rearview cameras, rear parking sensors, and both systems combined in preventing police-reported backing crashes. METHODS: Negative binomial regression was used to compare rates of police-reported backing crash involvements per insured vehicle year in 22 U.S. states during 2009-2014 between passenger vehicle models with backing technologies and the same vehicle models where the optional systems were not purchased, controlling for other factors affecting crash risk...
April 10, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384074/risk-of-serious-injury-of-occupants-involved-in-frontal-crashes-of-cab-over-type-trucks
#20
Hyeok-Jin Jeon, Sang-Chul Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Jae-Yoon Jeong, Kang-Hyun Lee, Hee-Young Lee, Ho-Joong Kim
OBJECTIVES: Truck vehicles (TVs) have a different structure and stiffness from non-TV and are used commercially for transporting goods. This study aimed to analyze whether truck occupants have a greater risk of serious injury than those of other types of vehicles. METHODS: Crash data were obtained from the Korean In-depth Data Analysis Study (KIDAS) for calendar years 2011-2016. Vehicles involved in frontal crash were included and classified into TVs and non-TVs (passenger cars and sports utility vehicles)...
April 6, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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