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Traffic Injury Prevention

Haoran Zheng, Yaqin Qin, Fengxiang Guo, Jian Xiong, Biao Xu, Yao Chen
OBJECTIVE: Speed and reaction time have an important influence on traffic safety. The highway landscape can affect psychological and physiological characteristics, which are associated with the speed and reaction time of drivers. This study aimed to understand the association between the highway landscape and driving speed and reaction time. METHODS: Two simulation experiments were conducted, referred to as experiment 1 and experiment 2. Forty-four drivers were recruited to participate in the experiments...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Guopeng Zhang, Wenbo Fan, Teng Meng, Xinguo Jiang, Guangrong Chen
OBJECTIVE: This research aims to evaluate the safety impacts of signal coordination on signalized intersections and provide a scientific basis to design and improve signal control and management from a traffic safety perspective. METHODS: A kernel regression model is adopted to evaluate the safety performance of intersections before and after implementing the signal coordination strategy. By using this statistical method, the authors identify the nonlinear relationship between crash frequency and the crash's spatial location and examine the discrepancy of crash spatial distributions between the coordination and noncoordination conditions at disaggregated levels, such as time of day and crash type...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Thomas Hartka, George Glass, Christopher Kao, Timothy McMurry
OBJECTIVE: The clinical evaluation of motor vehicle collision (MVC) victims is challenging and commonly relies on computed tomography (CT) to detect internal injuries. CT scans are financially expensive and each scan exposes the patient to additional ionizing radiation with an associated, albeit low, risk of cancer. Injury risk prediction based on regression modeling has been to be shown to be successful in estimating Injury Severity Scores (ISSs). The objective of this study was to (1) create risk models for internal injuries of occupants involved in MVCs based on CT body regions (head, neck, chest, abdomen/pelvis, cervical spine, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine) and (2) evaluate the performance of these risk prediction models to predict internal injury...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Noora Airaksinen, Ilona Nurmi-Lüthje, Heikki Kröger, Peter Lüthje
OBJECTIVE: In Finland, the severity of road traffic injuries is determined using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Finnish Modification (ICD-10-FM) injury codes from Finnish Hospital Discharge data and the automatic conversion tool (ICD-AIS map) developed by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the ICD-AIS map to identify seriously injured patients due to traffic accidents in Finnish injury data by comparing the severity rating generated by an expert and by the ICD-AIS map...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Joshua Parreco, Sarah A Eidelson, Scott Revell, Tanya L Zakrison, Carl I Schulman, Rishi Rattan
OBJECTIVE: Some drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes across the United States may be identified as at risk of subsequent injury by a similar mechanism. The purpose of this study was to perform a national review of the risk factors for hospitalization for a new injury due to a subsequent motor vehicle crash. It was hypothesized that presenting to a different hospital after subsequent injury would result in worse patient outcomes when compared to presentation at the same hospital. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all inpatient hospitalizations with injury related to motor vehicle traffic...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kathryn L Loftis, Janet Price, Patrick J Gillich
OBJECTIVE: Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was initially developed in the mid-1960s for tracking injury in automotive and aircraft crashes, it has grown to become an internationally recognized scoring system for a variety of traumatic injuries. This shift in focus and advances in organized medical care, combined with feedback from field use and outcome analysis, have resulted in several AIS updates and revisions. This article demonstrates how AIS codes and severities have changed over the last 25 years and investigates the effects of those changes...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Rebecca Spicer, Amin Vahabaghaie, George Bahouth, Ludwig Drees, Robert Martinez von Bülow, Peter Baur
OBJECTIVE: Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are a class of vehicle technologies designed to increase safety by providing drivers with timely warnings and autonomously intervening to avoid hazardous situations. Though laboratory testing suggests that ADAS technologies will greatly impact crash involvement rates, real-world evidence that characterizes their effectiveness is still limited. This study evaluates and quantifies the association of ADAS technologies with the likelihood of a moderate or severe crash for new-model BMWs in the United States...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Matthew P Reed, Sheila M Ebert, Monica L H Jones, B-K Daniel Park, Jason J Hallman, Rini Sherony
OBJECTIVE: A test track study was conducted to quantify patterns of adult front seat passenger head motion during abrupt vehicle maneuvers. METHOD: Eighty-seven men and women with a wide range of body sizes and ages participated in data collection on a closed test track in a passenger sedan under manual control by a test driver. Because a primary goal of the study was to gather "unaware" data, the participants were instructed that the study was concerned with vehicle dynamics and they were required to read from a questionnaire taped to the top of their thighs as the drive began...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Devon L Albert, Stephanie M Beeman, Andrew R Kemper
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to compare the kinetics and predicted injury risks of the Hybrid III (HIII) and Test device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR)-M necks during full-scale frontal sled tests under 3 safety restraint conditions: knee bolster (KB), knee bolster and steering wheel airbag (KB/SWAB), and knee bolster airbag and steering wheel airbag (KBAB/SWAB). METHODS: Twelve sled tests were performed for the HIII and THOR-M, and 8 matched sled tests were performed using postmortem human surrogates (PMHSs)...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Francisco J Lopez-Valdes, Krystoffer Mroz, Andre Eggers, Bengt Pipkorn, Julia Muehlbauer, Sylvia Schick, Steffen Peldschus
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to develop experimental chest loading conditions that would cause up to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2 chest injuries in elderly occupants in moderate-speed frontal crashes. The new set of experimental data was also intended to be used in the benchmark of existing thoracic injury criteria in lower-speed collision conditions. METHODS: Six male elderly (age >63) postmortem human subjects (PMHS) were exposed to a 35 km/h (nominal) frontal sled impact...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Liz de Rome, Julie Brown, Matthew Baldock, Michael Fitzharris
OBJECTIVE: Crash and injury surveillance studies have identified a range of rider-related factors, including age, sex, licensure, training and experience, as being associated with motorcycle crash risk. The aim of this study was to establish whether these previously identified factors were associated with crash involvement in an Australian-based population. METHODS: Data obtained from motorcyclists recruited from road authority licensing offices in a population-based survey design were analyzed...
December 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
John R Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Klaus G Driesslein, Frank A Pintar
OBJECTIVES: Analyses of recent automotive accident data indicate an increased risk of injury for small female occupants compared to males in similar accidents. Females have been shown to be more susceptible to spinal injuries than males. To protect this more vulnerable population, advanced anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and computer human body models are being developed and require biofidelity curves for validation. The aim of this study is to generate female-specific 3D kinematic corridors in near- and far-side oblique frontal impacts for the head, spine, and pelvis...
December 5, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
S Valero, R Bosch, M Corominas, V Barrau, J A Ramos-Quiroga, M Casas
OBJECTIVE: Recent data regarding the persistence or remittance of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis into adulthood raise the question of its possible role in crucial public health issues, including road safety, especially when neurocognitive capacities are challenged. METHODS: The study included 611 participants with serious traffic violations. The Spanish version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was used to assess psychopathology...
November 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Julio de Carvalho Ponce, Marcela de Carvalho Ponce Kawauti, Gabriel Andreuccetti, Heráclito Barbosa de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the current legislation would encourage drunk drivers to refrain from taking a breathalyzer and thus avoid jail time. METHOD: Brazilian traffic laws currently have 3 possible punishments for drivers suspected of driving under the influence: A fine and suspension of license for 12 months if the breathalyzer result is under 0.3 mg/L (by law; a result up to 0.33 mg/L would receive the same punishment due to a later regulatory document) but positive; the same punishment for refusal to take a breathalyzer test; and up to 3 years of jail time and license cancellation if over 0...
November 27, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Pushpa Choudhary, Nagendra R Velaga
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to quantify the effects of texting and driver behavior on the accident risk associated with a sudden event. Further, the study attempts to compare the effects of driving behavior of inexperienced young and professional drivers on risk during predetection and postdetection phases of the event. METHODS: Forty-nine drivers from 2 categories-inexperienced young drivers and experienced professional drivers-took part in simulated experiments...
November 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Shadi Doroudgar, Hannah Mae Chuang, Kimberly Bohnert, Joanne Canedo, Sahai Burrowes, Paul J Perry
OBJECTIVES: The effects of marijuana on driving pose a significant public health concern. More studies on chronic marijuana use in driving are needed. The study objectives were to (1) assess differences in the Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) and driving performance outcomes between chronic medical marijuana users and nonusers and (2) identify a cutoff tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration above which chronic medical marijuana users demonstrate driving impairment. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study assessed 31 chronic marijuana users and 41 nonusers...
November 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Hannes Devos, Maud Ranchet, Kathryn Bollinger, Amber Conn, Abiodun E Akinwuntan
OBJECTIVE: Conventional visual field (VF) tests are limited in predicting on-road driving performance of individuals with glaucoma. We developed a new performance-based VF test in a driving simulator for individuals with glaucoma. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed test. METHODS: In this pilot study, 17 drivers with glaucoma aged 65.24 ± 9.69 and 13 control drivers aged 61.27 ± 11.45 completed the performance-based VF task...
November 8, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sacha Dubois, Aislin R Mushquash, Bruce Weaver, Michel Bédard
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between body mass index (BMI) and the odds of a driver being fatally injured in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) after controlling for driver, crash, and vehicle factors known to independently contribute to injury severity. We hypothesized that BMI would be related to risk of fatal injury after controlling for other risk factors but that BMI would also interact with age. METHOD: We analyzed crashes involving 2 passenger type vehicles (1998-2015) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System using binary logistic regression (with generalized estimating equations) to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of fatality by BMI status...
November 8, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Eric Nimako Aidoo, Shaibu Bawa, Carole Amoako-Yirenkyi
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence rate and identified the associated factors influencing helmet use in Kumasi, Ghana. METHODS: The data used in this study were collected from motorcycle riders in the Kumasi metropolis through questionnaire survey. The contributing factors influencing helmet use were determined using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The results show that the rate of helmet use was about 47% and the influential factors include rider's gender, marital status, educational attainment, ownership of a helmet, and motorcycle license...
October 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Alessandro Grassi, Niccolò Baldanzini, Daniele Barbani, Marco Pierini
OBJECTIVE: The ISO13232 standard provides guidelines and methodologies for research on the effectiveness of protective devices fitted to motorcycles. The accident database used to develop the standard was composed of 2 data sets from Hannover and Los Angeles, dating from 1996. This study aims to apply the methodology outlined in the standard to a more recent European accident database to determine whether the set of the 7 most relevant impact configurations identified in the ISO13232 are representative of the European context...
October 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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