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Traffic Injury Prevention

Ioana Koglbauer, Jürgen Holzinger, Arno Eichberger, Cornelia Lex
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction, and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Currently automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction, e.g. on snowy roads. Since winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm...
December 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Karisa K Harland, Ronald Bedford, Hongqian Wu, Marizen Ramirez
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol impairment in crashes involving farm equipment on public roadways and the effect of alcohol impairment on the odds of crash injury or fatality. METHODS: On-road farm equipment crashes were collected from four Great Plains state Departments of Transportation during 2005-2010. Alcohol impairment was defined as an involved driver having blood alcohol content of ≥0.08 g/100 ml or a finding of alcohol-impaired as a driver contributing circumstance recorded on the police crash report...
December 6, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Alexander Maistros, William H Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Evangeline Woodford, Julie Brown, Lynne E Bilston
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes have high mortality and morbidity for young children. While many specialised child restraint systems improve injury outcomes, no large-scale studies have investigated the cross-chest clip's role during a crash, despite concerns in some jurisdictions about the potential for neck contact injuries from the clips. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cross-chest clip use and injury outcomes in children between 0-4 years of age. METHODS: Child passengers between 0-4 years of age were selected from the Crashworthiness Data System of the US National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) datasets (2003-2014)...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Dan Wu, Martine Hours, Jean-Louis Martin
OBJECTIVE: The present paper identifies and assesses the effect of critical factors on the risk of motorcycle loss-of-control (LOC) crashes. METHOD: Data come from a French project on road crashes, which comprises all fatal road crashes and a random sample of 1/20th of non-fatal crashes in France in 2011, based on police reports. A case-control study was carried out on a sample of 903 crashes for 444 LOC motorcycle riders (case) and 470 non-LOC and non-responsible motorcycle riders (control)...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Samantha L Schoell, Ashley A Weaver, Jennifer W Talton, Ryan T Barnard, Gretchen Baker, Joel D Stitzel, Mark R Zonfrillo
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of the severity of injury should account for both mortality and disability. The objective of this study was to develop a disability metric for thoracic injuries in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), and compare the functional outcomes between the pediatric and adult populations. METHODS: Disability risk (DR) was quantified using Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores within the National Trauma Data Bank for the most frequently occurring Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2-5 thoracic injuries...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Marjorie Lee White, J Lynn Zinkan, Geni Smith, Dawn Taylor Peterson, Amber Q Youngblood, Ashley Dodd, Walter Parker, Samuel Strachan, Peter Sloane, Nancy Tofil
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated benefits of adding high-fidelity simulation to a teenage trauma prevention program to decrease recidivism rates and encourage teens to discuss actionable steps towards safe driving. METHODS: A simulated pediatric trauma scenario was integrated into an established trauma prevention program. Participants were recruited because they were court-ordered to attend this program after misdemeanor convictions for moving violations. The teenage participants viewed this simulation from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) handoff to complete trauma care...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mary L Smiley, C Raymond Bingham, Peter D Jacobson, Michelle L Macy
Objectives In this study we sought to accomplish the following objectives: 1) to calculate the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained across eight criteria of increasing restrictiveness; 2) to examine agreement between age- and size-based appropriateness criteria; 3) to assess for changes in the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained by the eight criteria between 2011 (shortly after updates to United States (U.S.) guidelines) and 2015. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys of 928 parents of children younger than 12 years old (n = 591 in 2011, n = 337 in 2015) were analyzed in 2017...
November 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Greg Shaw, David Lessley, Joseph Ash, Salvador Acosta, Sara Heltzel, Patrick Riley, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a pelvic restraint cushion (PRC), a submarining countermeasure that deploys under the thighs when a crash is detected in order to block the forward motion of the pelvis. METHODS: Sled tests approximating low and high speed frontal impacts were conducted with four PMHS female subjects restrained by a lap and shoulder belt in the right front passenger seat. The subjects were tested with and without a PRC...
November 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Panagiotis Papantoniou
Objective The present research relies on two main objectives. The first is to investigate whether latent model analysis through a structural equation model can be implemented on driving simulator data in order to define an unobserved driving performance variable. Subsequently, the second objective is to investigate and quantify the effect of several risk factors including distraction sources, driver characteristics, road and traffic environment on the overall driving performance and not in independent driving performance measures Methods For the scope of the present research, 95 participants from all age groups were asked to drive under different types of distraction (conversation with passenger, cell phone use) in urban and rural road environment with low and high traffic volume in a driving simulator experiment...
October 31, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kathleen D Klinich, Miriam A Manary, Laura A Malik, Carol A Flannagan, Jessica S Jermakian
OBJECTIVE: Investigate vehicle factors associated with child restraint tether use and misuse in pickup trucks and evaluate four labeling interventions designed to educate consumers on proper tether use. METHODS: Volunteer testing was performed with 24 subjects and four different pickup trucks. Each subject performed eight child restraint installations among the four pickups using two forward-facing restraints: a Britax Marathon G4.1 and an Evenflo Triumph. Vehicles were selected to represent four different implementations of tether anchors among pickups: plastic loop routers (Chevrolet Silverado), webbing routers (Ram), back wall anchors (Nissan Frontier), and webbing routers plus metal anchors (Toyota Tundra)...
October 30, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yong Han, Di Pan, Jun Ouyang, Lei Qian, Koji Mizuno, Anguo Cang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the 5-point harness or the impact shield CRS or both has the potential to cause chest injuries to children. This is determined by examining whether the loading to the chest reaches the internal organ injury threshold for children. METHOD: The chest injury risk to a child occupant in a child restraint system (CRS) was investigated using Q3 dummy tests, finite element (FE) simulations (Q3 dummy and human models) and animal tests. The investigation was done for two types of CRSs (i...
October 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Erica Sawula, Jan Polgar, Michel M Porter, Sylvain Gagnon, Bruce Weaver, Satoru Nakagawa, Arne Stinchcombe, Michel Bédard
OBJECTIVE: A number of training programs that seek to improve driving performance among older drivers are available accompanied by a growing interest in their effectiveness. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the combined effect of 1) basic in-class training (BT); 2) on-road training with individualized feedback (OR); and 3) training on a driving simulator (S). METHOD: Using a randomized controlled trial study design, 78 older drivers were randomly assigned to one of three groups (BT, BT+OR, or BT+OR+S)...
October 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kun Xie, Kaan Ozbay, Hong Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the contributing factors to secondary collisions and the effects of secondary collisions on injury severity levels. Manhattan, which is the most densely populated urban area of New York City, is used as a case study. In Manhattan, about 7.5% of crash events become involved with secondary collisions and as high as 9.3% of those secondary collisions lead to incapacitating and fatal injuries. METHODS: Structural equation models (SEMs) are proposed to jointly model the presence of secondary collisions and injury severity levels and adjust for the endogeneity effects...
October 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Fernando Martín Poó, Ruben Daniel Ledesma, Roberto Trujillo
OBJECTIVES: Pedestrian crashes are a critical problem in Latin American countries. However, little research has been published about pedestrians and even less about their behaviors in a naturalistic context. The objective of the present research was to explore risky pedestrian crossing behaviors in traffic intersections in an argentine city (Ushuaia). It is focused in different stages of the crossing process, traffic code violations, and other potentially risky behaviors such as distractions...
October 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Chantal S Parenteau, David C Viano
PURPOSE: This is a study that updates earlier research on the influence of a front passenger on the risk for severe driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts. It includes the effects of belt use by the driver and passenger, identifies body regions involved in driver injury and identifies the sources for severe, driver head injury. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the risk for MAIS 4+F driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts by front-passenger belt use and as a sole occupant in the driver seat...
October 18, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yizhe Huang, Daniel Jian Sun, Juanyu Tang
OBJECTIVE: The three objectives of this study are: 1) To identify the driving style characteristics of taxi drivers in Shanghai and NYC using taxi GPS data and make a comparative analysis; 2) To explore the influence of different driving style characteristics on the frequency of speeding (who and how?) 3) To explore the influence of driving style characteristics, road attributes and environmental factors on the speeding rate (when, where and how?) Methods: This study proposes a Driver-Road-Environment Identification (DREI) method to investigate the determinant factors of taxi speeding violations...
October 18, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Xiaoli Xie, Alexandros Nikitas, Hongqi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Although intersections correspond to a small proportion of the entire roadway system, they account for a disproportionally high number of fatal pedestrian crashes, especially in rural roads situated in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines pedestrian safety at rural intersections and suggests applicable accident prevention treatments by providing an in-depth analysis of 28 fatal pedestrian crashes from eight low volume roads in Southwest China. METHODS: The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) is a method to support a systematic classification of accident causation information and to facilitate aggregation of that information into patterns of contributing factors...
October 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Elizabeth M Boone, Matthew E Rossheim, Jenna R Krall, Robert M Weiler
OBJECTIVE: Research has found that mandatory motorcycle helmet laws increase helmet use and reduce motorcycle-related fatalities. However, the association between state moped helmet laws and helmet use in the United States has not been examined. This study investigated this association among a census of fatally injured moped riders in the United States. METHODS: A logistic regression model was constructed to analyze data extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to examine risk factors for helmet non-use among 572 moped riders fatally injured between 2011 and 2015...
September 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mark R Zonfrillo, Mackenzie L Ramsay, Janette E Fennell, Amber Andreasen
OBJECTIVE: There have been substantial reductions in motor vehicle crash-related child fatalities due to advances in legislation, public safety campaigns, and engineering. Less is known about non-traffic injuries and fatalities to children in and around motor vehicles. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of various non-traffic incidents, injuries, and fatalities to children using a unique surveillance system and database. METHODS: Instances of non-traffic injuries and fatalities in the United States to children 0-14 years were tracked from January 1990 to December 2014 using a compilation of sources including media reports, individual accounts from families of affected children, medical examiner reports, police reports, child death review teams, coroner reports, medical professionals, legal professionals, and other various modes of publication...
September 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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