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Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Lauren E Poulin, Melissa L Button, Henny A Westra, Michael J Constantino, Martin M Antony
Client motivation to change is often considered a key factor in psychotherapy. To date, research on this client construct has largely relied on self-report, which is prone to response bias and ceiling effects. Moreover, self-reported motivation has been inconsistently related to treatment outcome. Early observed client in-session language may be a more valid measure of initial motivation and thus a promising predictor of outcome. The predictive ability of motivational factors has been examined in addiction treatment but has been limited in other populations...
September 21, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Jennifer Krafft, Jack A Haeger, Michael E Levin
Transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral interventions target different cognitive processes to promote mental health, including cognitive fusion and cognitive reappraisal. Determining the relative impact of cognitive fusion and reappraisal on a range of student mental health concerns could help interventions target psychopathological cognitive processes more effectively. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal impact of cognitive fusion and reappraisal on mental health and functioning outcomes. A series of hierarchical regression models tested the effects of cognitive fusion and reappraisal in a sample of college students (n = 339)...
September 19, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Bailee L Malivoire, Michelle Marcos, Elizabeth J Pawluk, Kathleen Tallon, Andrea Kusec, Naomi Koerner
Negative interpretation bias, the propensity to make threatening interpretations of ambiguous information, is associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Apart from its relationship with intolerance of uncertainty (IU), little is known about what explains the presence of this cognitive bias in GAD. One factor may be negative urgency (NU), the tendency to take rash action when distressed, which is related to GAD symptoms and to cognitive biases in nonclinical populations. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between NU and interpretation bias in individuals high in GAD symptoms (N = 111)...
September 19, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Hanna Sahlin, Johan Bjureberg, Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Jonas Bjärehed, Jussi Jokinen, Lars-Gunnar Lundh, Clara Hellner, Brjánn Ljótsson
Emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) is a novel treatment specifically targeting deliberate non-suicidal self-harm (DSH) in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Identifying robust predictors of positive response to ERGT could aid clinicians in treatment selection; however, to date, only one such study has been conducted. Thus, we aimed to replicate previously identified predictors of treatment response to ERGT by investigating demographic, clinical, and diagnostic predictors in 95 women with BPD or subclinical BPD who had participated in an open-trial evaluation of ERGT...
September 19, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
A Nair, C Turner, I Heyman, D Mataix-Cols, K Lovell, G Krebs, K Lang, S Byford, R O'Kearney
This study provides a preliminary exploration of factors which differentially predict treatment response to telephone-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (TCBT) compared to face-to-face CBT (CBT) in a randomised non-inferiority controlled trial of 72 children (aged 11-18 years) with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Potential moderator variables, their interaction with treatment group (CBT, TCBT) and baseline levels of OCD severity were entered into separate regression models where the primary outcome measure was the post-intervention Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale total score (CYBOCS)...
September 17, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Lisa Vincent, Peter J Norton
Sudden gains-substantial stable symptom improvements between consecutive therapy sessions-are a common phenomenon. As condensed points of change, examination of sudden gains can provide insight into mechanisms of therapeutic change. This study investigated the association between sudden gains and cognitive change, therapeutic alliance, and/or client engagement in transdiagnostic group cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders. Of 58 treatment initiators, 21% (n = 12) exhibited a sudden gain. Consistent with previous research, sudden gainers demonstrated significantly greater pre- to post-treatment symptom improvement than non-sudden gainers...
September 13, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Anna Bergman, Nils Lindefors, Maria Bradley
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and debilitating inflammatory dermatological disorder and is marked by itch and inflamed skin. Scratching, sleep loss, and avoidance of situations associated with more AD symptoms are central hypothesized mechanisms that perpetuate the disorder and cause reduced quality of life. We developed an exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that entailed mindfulness practice as a means to increase tolerance for aversive experiences during exposure. The aim of the present study was to test the treatment's acceptability and preliminary efficacy in adults with AD...
September 7, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Michael E Levin, Cynthia Navarro, Rick A Cruz, Jack Haeger
Mobile apps are promising for teaching how to practice psychological skills in high-risk and in vivo momentary situations, but there has been minimal research on the immediate effects of app-based skill coaching on mental health in-the-moment. This study analyzed the mobile app data in a non-clinical sample of 39 adults participating in a larger randomized controlled trial, with participants randomized to an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) mobile app that tailors skill coaching based on in-the-moment variables (n = 17) or an app that provides randomly selected skill coaching (n = 22)...
August 17, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Kelsi A Clayson, Joseph R Bardeen, Sara L Dolan, Thomas A Fergus
The majority of individuals exposed to trauma do not go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); thus, researchers have sought to identify individual difference variables that make one particularly susceptible to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Trait anxiety is one individual difference variable implicated in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Following from cognitive theories of anxiety and extant data, the purpose of the present study was to examine executive attention as a moderator of the relation between trait anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms, particularly hyperarousal symptoms, among undergraduate women reporting trauma exposure (N = 88)...
August 17, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Michael W Otto, Gladys N Pachas, Corinne Cather, Susanne S Hoeppner, Samantha J Moshier, Bridget A Hearon, Heather Burrell Ward, Alexandra B Laffer, Jasper A J Smits, A Eden Evins
Recent studies underscore the importance of studying d-cycloserine (DCS) augmentation under conditions of adequate cue exposure treatment (CET) and protection from reconditioning experiences. In this randomized trial, we evaluated the efficacy of DCS for augmenting CET for smoking cessation under these conditions. Sixty-two smokers attained at least 18 hours abstinence following 4 weeks of smoking cessation treatment and were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of DCS (n=30) or placebo (n=32) prior to each of two sessions of CET...
August 16, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale, Kristen Hagen, Audun Havnen, Lars-Göran Öst
There are few long-term follow-up studies on psychological treatment of anxiety disorders carried out in clinical mental health settings, so called effectiveness studies. The present paper presents a four year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder treated by the Bergen 4-day treatment (B4DT), a concentrated form of exposure and response prevention (ERP). A total of 77 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients received treatment during four consecutive days and were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) pre, post, and at follow-ups after 3 and 6 months, and 4 years post-treatment...
August 8, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Julia Elizabeth Mason, Daniel Marc LeBouthillier, Gordon J G Asmundson
Poor health outcomes associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may reflect engagement in unhealthy behaviors that increase morbidity risk and disengagement in healthy behaviors that decrease morbidity risk. Although research supports this pattern, findings are not definitive, particularly for healthy behaviors. Many studies have not controlled for effects of concurrent generalized anxiety and depression, which might explain conflicting findings. To address this limitation, we used an online cross-sectional research design and multivariate multilevel modelling to evaluate associations between a multitude of health behaviors (i...
August 7, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Samantha G Farris, Ana M Abrantes, Michael J Zvolensky
Fluctuations in ovarian hormones over the menstrual cycle contribute to cigarette reward, however less is known about menstrual cycle influences on emotional distress in female smokers. We examined between-group differences in emotional distress (negative affectivity, emotion dysregulation, distress intolerance) and hypothetical cigarette purchasing (i.e. tobacco demand) among female smokers at three different menstrual stages. Women (n = 32) were non-treatment seeking daily smokers not on hormonal contraceptive, and were currently in their follicular (estradiol-dominant; n = 10), early-mid luteal (progesterone-dominant; n = 15), and late-luteal phase (decreasing progesterone/estradiol; n = 7)...
July 31, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Steffen Moritz, Anne Külz, Ulrich Voderholzer, Thomas Hillebrand, Dean McKay, Lena Jelinek
Meta-analyses suggest that exposure with response prevention (ERP) is the most efficacious treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and treatment guidelines for the disorder accordingly recommend ERP. Despite this, many therapists, including those with a cognitive-behavioral therapeutic background, do not perform ERP in patients with OCD. The present study aimed to elucidate the reasons why. German therapists (N = 216) completed an anonymous online survey, the newly developed Reasons for Not Performing Exposure in OCD Scale (REPEX), that inquired whether, to what extent, and how they perform ERP in the treatment of OCD...
July 31, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Polina Eidelman, Alexandra Jensen, Lance M Rappaport
We investigated associations between pretreatment social support, negative social exchange, and slope of weekly symptom change for depression, anxiety, and stress over the course of ideographic, case formulation-based, cognitive behavior therapy. Participants were 74 adults treated in a private practice setting. We used self-report measures to assess social support and negative social exchange at intake and to assess symptoms on a weekly basis. At pretreatment, a higher level of social support was associated with lower levels of depression, and a higher level of negative social exchanges was associated with higher levels of depression and stress...
July 17, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Talitha A Lowndes, Sarah J Egan, Peter M McEvoy
Perfectionism has been proposed as a transdiagnostic process that maintains depression and anxiety through shared cognitive and behavioral processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a brief, guided cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for perfectionism delivered via a self-help booklet in reducing perfectionism and symptoms of depression and anxiety during the antenatal period. Pregnant women in their third trimester were randomly allocated to self-help (n = 30) or waitlist control (n = 30)...
July 13, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Mostafa Jasbi, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Gholamreza Karami, Maryam Omidbeygi, Maryam Peyravi, Ailin Panahi, Jafar Mirzaee, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
Even 30 or more years after the end of a war, veterans can suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we explored the influence on symptoms of PTSD among Iranian veterans of the Iran-Iraq war of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as add-on to a standard treatment with citalopram. Forty-eight male veterans with PTSD (mean age: 52.97 years) took part in this eight-week intervention study. Standard treatment for all patients consisted of citalopram (30-50 mg/day at therapeutic dosages)...
September 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Rony Kayrouz, Blake F Dear, Bechara Kayrouz, Eyal Karin, Milena Gandy, Nickolai Titov
A meta-analysis of the literature of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with Arab adult populations experiencing anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was conducted. Nine studies (n = 536) met the eligibility criteria. Three of the nine studies (33%) were randomised control trials using waitlist control groups. All studies (100%) reported a statistically significant reduction in psychological symptoms at post-treatment with large effect sizes for anxiety (effect size, 95% confidence interval) (1...
September 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Andrew H Rogers, Nicole A Short, Zuzuky Robles, Jafar Bakhshaie, Andres Viana, Norman B Schmidt, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Daniel Bogiaizian, Angela Medvedeva, Michael J Zvolensky
Rates of suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD) are currently at the highest point in the history of the United States (US). However, these rates are not distributed evenly among the population and Latinos show disproportionately high rates of both suicide and MDD. Yet, past research has infrequently explored factors related to suicide and MDD in primary care settings that serve as the major community portal for mental health among the Latino population. Thus, the current study investigated sociodemographic variables (marital status, nativity, education, employment, primary language, age, and gender) in terms of their relations with suicidal ideation, suicide risk, MDD, and MDD symptom severity among Latino primary care patients in a Federally Qualified Health Center (N = 634, M age  = 39...
September 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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