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Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Polina Eidelman, Alexandra Jensen, Lance M Rappaport
We investigated associations between pretreatment social support, negative social exchange, and slope of weekly symptom change for depression, anxiety, and stress over the course of ideographic, case formulation-based, cognitive behavior therapy. Participants were 74 adults treated in a private practice setting. We used self-report measures to assess social support and negative social exchange at intake and to assess symptoms on a weekly basis. At pretreatment, a higher level of social support was associated with lower levels of depression, and a higher level of negative social exchanges was associated with higher levels of depression and stress...
July 17, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Talitha A Lowndes, Sarah J Egan, Peter M McEvoy
Perfectionism has been proposed as a transdiagnostic process that maintains depression and anxiety through shared cognitive and behavioral processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a brief, guided cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for perfectionism delivered via a self-help booklet in reducing perfectionism and symptoms of depression and anxiety during the antenatal period. Pregnant women in their third trimester were randomly allocated to self-help (n = 30) or waitlist control (n = 30)...
July 13, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Brian J Albanese, Richard J Macatee, Lauren A Stentz, Norman B Schmidt, Craig J Bryan
Growing research links Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) with greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Much of this research has focused on the influence of the presence or severity of a single TBI while neglecting the potential cumulative effects of multiple TBIs incurred across an individual's lifetime on combat-related PTSD. The present study addressed this gap using a sample of 157 military service members and 4 civilian contractors who underwent structured TBI interviews at a military hospital in Iraq and completed the Combat Experiences Scale (CES) and Posttraumatic Checklist - Military (PCL-M)...
June 22, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
R Nicholas Carleton, Stephanie Korol, Julia E Mason, Kadie Hozempa, Gregory S Anderson, Nicholas A Jones, Keith S Dobson, Andrew Szeto, Suzanne Bailey
Police agencies increasingly implement training programs to protect mental health. The Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) program was designed by the Canadian military to increase mental health resilience. A version of R2MR was adapted for municipal police by the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). The current research was designed to assess the R2MR program, as adapted and delivered by the MHCC, in a municipal police sample. Participants were 147 Canadian police agency employees (57% women) who received a single R2MR training session...
June 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Mostafa Jasbi, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Gholamreza Karami, Maryam Omidbeygi, Maryam Peyravi, Ailin Panahi, Jafar Mirzaee, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
Even 30 or more years after the end of a war, veterans can suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we explored the influence on symptoms of PTSD among Iranian veterans of the Iran-Iraq war of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as add-on to a standard treatment with citalopram. Forty-eight male veterans with PTSD (mean age: 52.97 years) took part in this eight-week intervention study. Standard treatment for all patients consisted of citalopram (30-50 mg/day at therapeutic dosages)...
June 12, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
R Nicholas Carleton, Gabrielle Desgagné, Rachel Krakauer, Ryan Y Hong
Anxiety levels have increased for several decades, despite objective indicators of historically unprecedented safety. A perceived inability to tolerate uncertainty or distress motivates individuals experiencing anxiety to engage in safety behaviors. Mobile phones provide unrestricted access to safety cues intended to reduce uncertainty and therein anxiety; however, recurrent engagement in reassurance seeking behaviors paradoxically increases anxiety. The current research was designed to assess whether self-reported intolerance of uncertainty (IU) levels may have been increasing and, if so, whether the increases correlate positively with mobile phone penetration and Internet usage...
June 8, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Emma Hormoz, Matthew Pugh, Glenn Waller
Individuals with anorexia nervosa often describe experiencing an internal "voice" of their disorder, which previous research has associated with multiple dimensions of eating pathology. This pilot study examined whether eating disorder measures use invoice characteristics at the outset of outpatient therapy predicted changes in disordered eating over the course of treatment. Participants were 14 individuals meeting ICD-10 criteria for anorexia nervosa. Participants completed measures relating to the severity of disordered eating and voice-related characteristics (perceived voice power and metacognitive appraisals about its nature) at the start and end of therapy...
June 8, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Thomas Probst, Cornelia Weise, Gerhard Andersson, Maria Kleinstäuber
Although Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) is an effective treatment for chronic tinnitus, several patients do not improve. In the current study, baseline and process variables were compared between non-responders and responders. Data from patients participating in two randomized controlled trials on iCBT for chronic tinnitus were re-analyzed. Based on the literature, a pre-post difference on the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory" (THI) of less than seven points improvement was used to operationalize non-response...
June 6, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Philip Hyland, Gráinne McGinty, Thanos Karatzias, Jamie Murphy, Frédérique Vallières, Joanna McHugh Power
Loneliness is a common psychological experience affecting a significant minority of the general population. Loneliness may in part be related to the existence of dysfunctional cognitive evaluations. To date, however, loneliness has yet to be explicitly assessed within a cognitive-behavioural theoretical framework. The current study sought to determine the association between negative cognitions, within the context of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), and the experience of loneliness. A multinational sample of university students (n = 397) completed self-report assessments of rational and irrational beliefs, and loneliness...
June 5, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Joseph R Bardeen, Thomas A Daniel
The purpose of the present study was to examine anxiety sensitivity, attentional bias to threat (ABT), and the aggregate influence of these constructs as prospective predictors of anxiety. Participants (N = 176) completed a baseline assessment session which included the completion of self-report measures of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity, as well as an eye-tracking task in which eye movements were recorded during the viewing of neutral and threat images. Measures of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity were completed again as part of an online questionnaire battery at a 1-year follow-up session...
June 5, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Kevin G Saulnier, Nicholas P Allan, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
Depression is typically treated as a homogeneous construct despite evidence for distinct cognitive, affective, and somatic symptom dimensions. Anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of consequences of anxiety symptoms) is a cognitive risk factor implicated in the development of depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear how lower order AS dimensions (i.e. physical, cognitive, and social concerns) relate to depressive symptom factors. Confirmatory factor analysis, followed by structural equation modeling, were conducted to examine the factor structure of depression and to then examine the relations between these factors and the lower order factors of AS...
May 29, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Brooke Y Kauffman, Jafar Bakhshaie, Hantin Lam, Candice Alfano, Michael J Zvolensky
There is limited understanding of the relation between insomnia and aspects of eating among college students though available data suggest salient clinical relationships. The present study explored a potential transdiagnostic mechanism in the relation between insomnia symptoms and eating expectancies. Participants were a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 1589 college students (80.4% females; Mage = 22.2 years, SD = 5.27) from an urban university. Primary analysis included three regression-based models of eating expectancies...
May 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Audur S Thorisdottir, Arnrun Tryggvadottir, Saevar Thor Saevarsson, Andri S Bjornsson
The present study examined sudden gains (SGs; large symptom improvements between adjacent treatment sessions) and its association with treatment outcome in a randomized-controlled trial comparing cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) versus group psychotherapy (GPT; designed to incorporate only non-specific factors) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD symptoms were assessed after each treatment session in a sample of 45 college students. Independent assessors evaluated symptom severity at baseline, post-treatment and follow-up...
May 15, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Rony Kayrouz, Blake F Dear, Bechara Kayrouz, Eyal Karin, Milena Gandy, Nickolai Titov
A meta-analysis of the literature of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with Arab adult populations experiencing anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was conducted. Nine studies (n = 536) met the eligibility criteria. Three of the nine studies (33%) were randomised control trials using waitlist control groups. All studies (100%) reported a statistically significant reduction in psychological symptoms at post-treatment with large effect sizes for anxiety (effect size, 95% confidence interval) (1...
May 1, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Heather D Hadjistavropoulos, Luke H Schneider, Kristen Klassen, Blake F Dear, Nickolai Titov
Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is often accompanied by therapist emails, but there is limited research on the quality of this therapist-assistance. In this study, an ICBT Therapist Rating Scale (ICBT-TRS) was developed and evaluated to assess whether therapist emails showed fidelity to specific therapist behaviours. Using data from a previous ICBT trial for depression and anxiety, the ICBT-TRS was used to rate 706 emails sent by 39 therapists to 91 randomly selected patients. Emails were rated for adherence (absent/present) and quality (inadequate/competent) on the following behaviours: Builds Rapport, Seeks Feedback, Provides Symptom Feedback, Provides Psychoeducation, Facilitates Understanding, Praises Effort, Encourages Practice, Clarifies Administrative Procedures, and Communicates Effectively...
April 25, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Anke R Sonnenschein, Stefan G Hofmann, Tobias Ziegelmayer, Wolfgang Lutz
We analyzed the verbal behavior of patients with mood or/and anxiety disorders during psychotherapy. Investigating the words people used, we expected differences due to cognitive and emotional foci in patients with depression vs. anxiety. Transcripts of therapy sessions from 85 outpatients treated with cognitive behavioral therapy were analyzed using the software program Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Multivariate group comparisons were carried out investigating the LIWC-categories first-person-singular pronouns, sad, anxiety and fillers...
July 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Bo Bach, George Lockwood, Jeffrey E Young
This study reexamined the organization of Young's 18 early maladaptive schemas and their hypothesized associations with experiences of need-thwarting parental experiences in childhood and the "vulnerable child" mode of emotional distress in adulthood. A large Danish sample (N = 1054) of 658 clinical- and 391 nonclinical adults completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, parenting styles, and the vulnerable child mode. We identified four higher-order schema domains as most appropriate in terms of interpretability and empirical indices ("Disconnection & Rejection", "Impaired Autonomy & Performance", "Excessive Responsibility & Standards", and "Impaired Limits")...
July 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Jafar Bakhshaie, Michael J Zvolensky, Kirsten J Langdon, Adam M Leventhal, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity has been implicated as a potential risk factor for post-quit withdrawal symptoms. The present study examined relations between the extent of change in anxiety sensitivity and the course of nicotine withdrawal symptoms experienced during the initial two weeks of a quit attempt among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample consisted of 29 adult daily smokers (34% female; Mage  = 47.7, SD = 13.1) who successfully quit and maintained their abstinence. After adjusting for the effects of gender, treatment condition, use of nicotine replacement therapy, nicotine dependence, alcohol use problems, baseline levels of anxiety sensitivity, and reductions in negative affect, greater reductions in anxiety sensitivity were related to faster decreases in withdrawal symptoms...
July 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Catherine Fréchette-Simard, Isabelle Plante, Jonathan Bluteau
This review aimed to identify the strategies used in programs based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent and treat symptoms of anxiety, depression, and internalized behaviors of children and adolescents. Based on an online search (ERIC, PsycInfo, Virtuose UQAM, and Google Scholar), 61 studies describing different cognitive behavioral programs were selected. Results showed that 40 strategies were implemented in at least one program. However, none of the strategies were systematically present in all programs, and only few were reported in more than 50% of the studies...
July 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Kristin Silfvernagel, Anna Westlinder, Stina Andersson, Kajsa Bergman, Rosario Diaz Hernandez, Line Fallhagen, Ida Lundqvist, Nicole Masri, Linda Viberg, Marie-Louise Forsberg, Maria Lind, Thomas Berger, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson
Mixed anxiety and depression is common among older adults. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of an eight-week-long tailored internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) programme and to compare against the provision of weekly general support. A second aim was to investigate if pre-treatment cognitive flexibility and self-reported cognitive problems would predict outcome. We included 66 older adults (aged over 60 years) with mixed anxiety/depression following media recruitment and randomised them into treatment and control groups...
July 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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