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Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Costina Ruxandra Păsărelu, Gerhard Andersson, Lise Bergman Nordgren, Anca Dobrean
Anxiety and depressive disorders are often comorbid. Transdiagnostic and tailored treatments seem to be promising approaches in dealing with comorbidity. Although several primary studies have examined the effects of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) for anxiety and depression, no meta-analysis including different types of iCBT that address comorbidity has been conducted so far. We conducted systematic searches in databases up to 1 July 2016. Only randomized trials comparing transdiagnostic/tailored iCBT for adult anxiety and/or depression with control groups were included...
October 7, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Nicole A Short, Kelly Fuller, Aaron M Norr, Norman B Schmidt
Despite the well-documented efficacy of cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders, the acceptability of these treatments remains an under-researched area. A better understanding of acceptability could help to improve the initiation of, and engagement in, these effective interventions. Recent research has suggested computerized interventions of anxiety-related risk factors may be one way to improve acceptability and overcome several common barriers to treatment. Considering this, the current study tested the acceptability of a computerized, anxiety sensitivity (AS)-focused treatment among a sample of treatment-seeking community participants and military veterans (N = 58)...
October 7, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Nina Reinholt, Ruth Aharoni, Clas Winding, Nicole Rosenberg, Bent Rosenbaum, Sidse Arnfred
Comorbidity among the anxiety disorders is common and may negatively impact treatment outcome. Potentially, transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) deal more effectively with comorbidity than standard CBT. The present study tested the effectiveness of The Unified Protocol (UP) applied to Mental Health Services. Pre-post-treatment effects were examined for psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorders receiving UP treatment in groups. Forty-seven patients (mean-age = 34.1 (SD = 9.92), 77% females) with a principal diagnosis of anxiety were included...
October 5, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Nicholas P Allan, Mary E Oglesby, Aubree Uhl, Norman B Schmidt
The hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress contextualizes the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety as occurring indirectly through cognitive risk factors. In particular, inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty (IU; difficulty in uncertain circumstances), fear of negative evaluation (FNE; fear of being judged negatively), and anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns (fear of outwardly observable anxiety) are related to social anxiety. It is unclear whether these risk factors uniquely relate to social anxiety, and whether they account for the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety...
October 3, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Yael I Nillni, Suzanne L Pineles, Kelly J Rohan, Michael J Zvolensky, Ann M Rasmusson
Clinically significant premenstrual symptoms (PMS) is conceptualized as a depressive disorder in DSM-5, however, it may share pathophysiological processes with anxiety- and fear-related disorders. Specifically, women with PMS panic at higher rates during biological challenge procedures. It is unclear if this increased interoceptive sensitivity is a general vulnerability or specific to the premenstrual phase. The current study examined the role of menstrual cycle phase on reactivity to a CO2 challenge among women with (n = 11) and without (n = 26) clinically significant PMS (N = 37)...
September 30, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Alexander Rozental, Erik Forsell, Andreas Svensson, Gerhard Andersson, Per Carlbring
Procrastination is a common self-regulatory failure that can have a negative impact on well-being and performance. However, few clinical trials have been conducted, and no follow-up has ever been performed. The current study therefore aimed to provide evidence for the long-term benefits and investigate predictors of a positive treatment outcome among patients receiving Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT). A total of 150 self-recruited participants were randomized to guided or unguided ICBT. Self-report measures of procrastination, depression, anxiety, and quality of life were distributed at pre-treatment assessment, post-treatment assessment, and one-year follow-up...
September 29, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Joseph R Bardeen, Thomas A Fergus, Holly K Orcutt
We examined five dimensions of distress tolerance (i.e. uncertainty, ambiguity, frustration, negative emotion, physical discomfort) as prospective predictors of perceived stress. Undergraduate students (N = 135) completed self-report questionnaires over the course of two assessment sessions (T1 and T2). Results of a linear regression in which the five dimensions of distress tolerance and covariates (i.e. T1 perceived stress, duration between T1 and T2) served as predictor variables and T2 perceived stress served as the outcome variable showed that intolerance of uncertainty was the only dimension of distress tolerance to predict T2 perceived stress...
September 28, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Terence H W Ching, Monnica Williams, Jedidiah Siev
The picture of suicide in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unclear because previous research did not uniformly control for depressive symptoms when examining the relationship between OCD and suicidality. Specific links between OC symptom dimensions and suicidality were also not adequately studied. As such, we investigated specific associations between OC symptom dimensions and suicidality, beyond the contribution of depressive symptoms, in an OCD analog sample of college students, a group traditionally at risk for suicide...
September 23, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Sara Pankowski, Mats Adler, Gerhard Andersson, Nils Lindefors, Cecilia Svanborg
Previous studies have supported acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for reducing impairment related to various chronic conditions. ACT may possibly be beneficial for bipolar disorder (BD) with co-existing anxiety, which is associated with a poorer treatment outcome. Efforts are needed to identify suitable psychological interventions for BD and co-existing anxiety. In this open clinical trial, we included 26 patients with BD type 1 or 2 at an outpatient psychiatric unit specializing in affective disorders...
September 19, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
R Nicholas Carleton, Michelle J N Teale Sapach, Chris Oriet, Daniel M LeBouthillier
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) models posit vigilance for external social threat cues and exacerbated self-focused attention as key in disorder development and maintenance. Evidence indicates a modified dot-probe protocol may reduce symptoms of SAD; however, the efficacy when compared to a standard protocol and long-term maintenance of treatment gains remains unclear. Furthermore, the efficacy of such protocols on SAD-related constructs remains relatively unknown. The current investigation clarified these associations using a randomized control trial replicating and extending previous research...
August 15, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Robert Brockman, Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip Parker, Todd Kashdan
Most empirical studies of emotion regulation have relied on retrospective trait measures, and have not examined the link between daily regulatory strategies and every day emotional well-being. We used a daily diary methodology with multilevel modelling data analyses (n = 187) to examine the influence of three emotion regulation strategies (mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression) on the experience of daily negative and positive affect. Our results suggested that daily mindfulness was associated with lower negative and higher positive affect whereas the converse pattern was found for daily emotion suppression; cognitive reappraisal was related to daily positive, but not negative affect...
August 12, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Naomi Koerner, Teresa Mejia, Andrea Kusec
A number of studies have examined the association of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) to trait worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, few studies have examined the extent of overlap between IU and other psychological constructs that bear conceptual resemblance to IU, despite the fact that IU-type constructs have been discussed and examined extensively within psychology and other disciplines. The present study investigated (1) the associations of IU, trait worry, and GAD status to a negative risk orientation, trait curiosity, indecisiveness, perceived constraints, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, intolerance of ambiguity, the need for predictability, and the need for order and structure and (2) whether IU is a unique correlate of trait worry and of the presence versus absence of Probable GAD, when overlap with other uncertainty-relevant constructs is accounted for...
August 10, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Soljana Çili, Sharon Pettit, Lusia Stopa
Imagery rescripting (ImRS) effectively targets intrusive images and symptoms in a number of disorders, but the mechanisms of change behind it are not yet clear. This study investigated the impact of ImRS on the characteristics of adverse self-defining memories and post-recall working selves in a non-clinical sample. In the first session, participants recalled an adverse memory and completed state self and affect measures. Then they attended an ImRS session and a follow-up session one week later. Participants rated their memory as less negative, less distressing and less important for their sense of self at follow-up compared to the first session...
July 29, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Markus Jansson-Fröjmark, Katarina Danielsson, Agneta Markström, Jan-Erik Broman
This article reports the development of a treatment protocol, based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD). The protocol consists of psycho-education, presenting a CBT model for DSWPD, case formulation, motivational interviewing, registering sleep in a diary, strategies to improve the rhythm of sleep and wakefulness, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, strategies to cope with daytime symptoms, constructing an individualized CBT program, and learning how to deal with relapses...
November 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Michael J Zvolensky, Charles Jardin, Lorra Garey, Zuzuky Robles, Carla Sharp
Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45...
November 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Paul Lucian Szasz, Stefan G Hofmann, Renata M Heilman, Joshua Curtiss
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and rumination for regulating anger and sadness on decision-making. Participants (N = 165) were asked to recall two autobiographical events in which they felt intense anger and sadness, respectively. Participants were then instructed to reappraise, accept, ruminate, or not use any strategies to regulate their feelings of anger and sadness. Following this manipulation, risk aversion, and decision-making strategies were measured using a computer-based measure of risk-taking and a simulated real-life decision-making task...
November 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Ani C Keshishian, Melanie A Watkins, Michael W Otto
Co-rumination is associated with positive friendship quality (thought to buffer against anxiety and depression) but paradoxically higher levels of anxiety and depression. With the increasing use of technology for communication among adults, there is little known about co-rumination effects across different modalities of communication. In the current study, we examined co-rumination through four methods (i.e. in person, phone calls, text messaging, and social media) in two separate samples - college students and participants from the community...
November 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Tetsuhiro Yamada, Samantha J Moshier, Michael W Otto
Problematic Internet use has been associated with the neglect of valued activities such as work, exercise, social activities, and relationships. In the present study, we expanded the understanding of problematic Internet use by identifying an important predictor of the inability to curb Internet use despite the desire to do so. Specifically, in a college student sample reporting a mean of 27.8 h of recreational Internet use in the past week, we investigated the role of distress intolerance (DI)-an individual difference variable that refers to the inability of an individual to tolerate emotional discomfort and to engage in goal-directed behavior when distressed-to predict the failure to meet personal restrictions on Internet use...
November 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Alex Kirk, Joshua Broman-Fulks, John Bergquist
Most conceptualizations of evidence-based practice view it as a "three legged stool" consisting of: the use of best available research evidence, clinical expertise, and client preferences. Although empirical evidence and clinical expertise have received greater empirical attention, relatively little research has systematically explored client preferences. The present study analyzed self-reported treatment preferences for various clinical and non-clinical presentations. Adult participants (n = 1262) residing in the United States were presented with diagnostic vignettes and rated their relative preferences among 5 treatment variables, including: use of an empirically supported treatment (EST), quality of the client-therapist relationship, therapist empathy, therapist experience, and client speaking for the majority of therapy sessions...
November 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Dane Jensen, Jonah N Cohen, Douglas S Mennin, David M Fresco, Richard G Heimberg
Increasing evidence suggests that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may be a transdiagnostic factor across the anxiety disorders, and to a lesser extent, unipolar depression. Whereas anxiety inherently involves uncertainty regarding threat, depression has traditionally been associated with certainty (e.g. the hopelessness theory of depression). Some theorists posit that the observed relationship between depression and IU may be due to the relationship between depression and anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and IU...
November 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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