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Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Brooke Y Kauffman, Jafar Bakhshaie, Hantin Lam, Candice Alfano, Michael J Zvolensky
There is limited understanding of the relation between insomnia and aspects of eating among college students though available data suggest salient clinical relationships. The present study explored a potential transdiagnostic mechanism in the relation between insomnia symptoms and eating expectancies. Participants were a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 1589 college students (80.4% females; Mage = 22.2 years, SD = 5.27) from an urban university. Primary analysis included three regression-based models of eating expectancies...
May 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Audur S Thorisdottir, Arnrun Tryggvadottir, Saevar Thor Saevarsson, Andri S Bjornsson
The present study examined sudden gains (SGs; large symptom improvements between adjacent treatment sessions) and its association with treatment outcome in a randomized-controlled trial comparing cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) versus group psychotherapy (GPT; designed to incorporate only non-specific factors) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD symptoms were assessed after each treatment session in a sample of 45 college students. Independent assessors evaluated symptom severity at baseline, post-treatment and follow-up...
May 15, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Rony Kayrouz, Blake F Dear, Bechara Kayrouz, Eyal Karin, Milena Gandy, Nickolai Titov
A meta-analysis of the literature of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with Arab adult populations experiencing anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was conducted. Nine studies (n = 536) met the eligibility criteria. Three of the nine studies (33%) were randomised control trials using waitlist control groups. All studies (100%) reported a statistically significant reduction in psychological symptoms at post-treatment with large effect sizes for anxiety (effect size, 95% confidence interval) (1...
May 1, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Heather D Hadjistavropoulos, Luke H Schneider, Kristen Klassen, Blake F Dear, Nickolai Titov
Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is often accompanied by therapist emails, but there is limited research on the quality of this therapist-assistance. In this study, an ICBT Therapist Rating Scale (ICBT-TRS) was developed and evaluated to assess whether therapist emails showed fidelity to specific therapist behaviours. Using data from a previous ICBT trial for depression and anxiety, the ICBT-TRS was used to rate 706 emails sent by 39 therapists to 91 randomly selected patients. Emails were rated for adherence (absent/present) and quality (inadequate/competent) on the following behaviours: Builds Rapport, Seeks Feedback, Provides Symptom Feedback, Provides Psychoeducation, Facilitates Understanding, Praises Effort, Encourages Practice, Clarifies Administrative Procedures, and Communicates Effectively...
April 25, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Andrew H Rogers, Nicole A Short, Zuzuky Robles, Jafar Bakhshaie, Andres Viana, Norman B Schmidt, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Daniel Bogiaizian, Angela Medvedeva, Michael J Zvolensky
Rates of suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD) are currently at the highest point in the history of the United States (US). However, these rates are not distributed evenly among the population and Latinos show disproportionately high rates of both suicide and MDD. Yet, past research has infrequently explored factors related to suicide and MDD in primary care settings that serve as the major community portal for mental health among the Latino population. Thus, the current study investigated sociodemographic variables (marital status, nativity, education, employment, primary language, age, and gender) in terms of their relations with suicidal ideation, suicide risk, MDD, and MDD symptom severity among Latino primary care patients in a Federally Qualified Health Center (N = 634, Mage  = 39...
March 6, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Hantin Lam, Kirsten J Langdon, Joseph W Ditre, Michael J Zvolensky
Pain problems are of significant public health concern, and with opioid-related problems and death due to overdose at an all-time high, there is significant public health importance to identify risk factors that link instances of pain to opioid misuse among persons with pain whether or not they have been prescribed opioids for pain management. Severe pain and pain-related problems have been associated with increased risk for opioid misuse, and recent research indicates that pain-related anxiety (worry about the negative consequences of pain) may contribute to a more debilitating pain experience...
February 26, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Pedro N Oliveira, Shireen L Rizvi
Telephone coaching is a treatment mode in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) that is designed to help clients generalize skills, prevent suicidal behaviors, and repair therapeutic ruptures. To date, phone coaching has received scant empirical investigation. The aims of this study were to (1) describe patterns in frequency of telephone calls and text messaging in DBT and (2) investigate whether demographic factors, baseline severity, suicidal behaviors, and therapeutic alliance are associated with phone and text frequency...
February 22, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
James Bennett-Levy, Amy Finlay-Jones
Prior to 2000, personal practice (PP) for therapists mostly meant personal therapy. Recently a new landscape of PPs has emerged, with meditation-based programs and therapy self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) programs playing an increasing role in training and personal/professional development. The challenge now for practitioners and researchers is to refocus on the role of PPs in training and professional development. Are PPs of value - or not? Do they have a role in therapist development? How might PPs enhance therapist skilfulness? Do different PPs act in similar or different ways? Currently, the PP literature lacks a theoretical framework to guide practitioners in their choice of PPs or researchers in their choice of research questions and measures...
May 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Jake Linardon
The original and enhanced cognitive model of eating disorders proposes that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) "works" through modifying dietary restraint and dysfunctional attitudes towards shape and weight. However, evidence supporting the validity of this model is limited. This meta-analysis examined whether CBT can effectively modify these proposed maintaining mechanisms. Randomized controlled trials that compared CBT to control conditions or non-CBT interventions, and reported dietary restraint and shape and weight concern outcomes were searched...
March 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Peter Molander, Hugo Hesser, Sandra Weineland, Kajsa Bergwall, Sonia Buck, Johan Jäder Malmlöf, Henning Lantz, Thomas Lunner, Gerhard Andersson
Psychological distress is common among people with hearing problems, but treatments that specifically target this aspect have been almost non-existent. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, an eight-week long Internet-based treatment, informed by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, was administered to explore the feasibility and efficacy of such a treatment. Included participants were randomized to either treatment (n = 31) or wait-list control (n = 30) condition. All participants were measured prior to randomization and immediately after treatment ended using standardized self-report instruments measuring hearing-related emotional and social adjustment (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - S, HHIE-S), quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory, QOLI), and symptoms of depression and anxiety (Patient health Questionnaire, PHQ-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, GAD-7)...
March 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Rudi De Raedt, Kiara R Timpano, Jutta Joormann
When in a negative mood state, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) may have difficulties recalling positive autobiographical memories in a manner that repairs that negative mood. Using cognitive bias modification techniques, investigators have successfully altered different aspects of cognition among individuals with MDD. However, little has been done to investigate the modification of positive autobiographical memory recall. This study examined the impact of a novel positive memory enhancement training (PMET) on the memories and subjective affective experiences of individuals with MDD (N = 27)...
March 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Angie S LeRoy, Qian Lu, Michael J Zvolensky, Jeffrey Ramirez, Christopher P Fagundes
Perceived burdensomeness (PB), the perception of being a burden to others, is associated with pain and physical symptoms. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), the fear of arousal-related sensations, arising from beliefs that the sensations may have adverse personal consequences (physical, cognitive, and social), may increase risk for pain responding, particularly in anxiety-provoking (e.g. socially threatening) contexts. Accordingly, individuals high in AS may have a stronger pain response when experiencing PB than those low in AS...
March 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Paul Sadler, Suzanne McLaren, Britt Klein, Megan Jenkins
Insomnia and depression are two of the most common mental health problems that negatively impact older adults. The burden associated with these highly comorbid conditions requires an innovative approach to treatment. There have been significant advancements in the field of cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) over recent years. CBT-I has evolved from targeting homogenous insomnia samples to now showing promising results for comorbid insomnia. CBT-I is not only effective at treating comorbid insomnia, but can also have a positive impact on depression severity...
March 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Peter W Tuerk, Bethany C Wangelin, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Ron Acierno, Ursula S Myers, Scott P Orr, Edna B Foa, Mark B Hamner
The alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, can facilitate fear extinction in animals and humans. One potential mechanism is increased noradrenergic activity and associated arousal in the presence of conditioned stimuli. Accordingly, yohimbine might augment prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where heightened exposure-oriented arousal is a theorized driver and empirical predictor of treatment success. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial (NCT 01031979) piloted yohimbine augmentation in 26 males with combat-related PTSD...
February 15, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Pim Cuijpers, Eirini Karyotaki, Mirjam Reijnders, Marcus J H Huibers
It is not clear whether specific target groups for psychotherapies in adult depression benefit as much from these treatments as other patients. We examined target groups that have been examined in randomized trials, including women, older adults, students, minorities, patients with general medical disorders, and specific types of depression, and we examined where patients were recruited. We conducted subgroup and multivariate metaregression analyses in a sample of 256 trials (with 332 comparisons) comparing psychotherapy with an inactive control condition...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Anke R Sonnenschein, Stefan G Hofmann, Tobias Ziegelmayer, Wolfgang Lutz
We analyzed the verbal behavior of patients with mood or/and anxiety disorders during psychotherapy. Investigating the words people used, we expected differences due to cognitive and emotional foci in patients with depression vs. anxiety. Transcripts of therapy sessions from 85 outpatients treated with cognitive behavioral therapy were analyzed using the software program Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Multivariate group comparisons were carried out investigating the LIWC-categories first-person-singular pronouns, sad, anxiety and fillers...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson, Pim Cuijpers, Heleen Riper, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf
During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial...
January 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Bo Bach, George Lockwood, Jeffrey E Young
This study reexamined the organization of Young's 18 early maladaptive schemas and their hypothesized associations with experiences of need-thwarting parental experiences in childhood and the "vulnerable child" mode of emotional distress in adulthood. A large Danish sample (N = 1054) of 658 clinical- and 391 nonclinical adults completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, parenting styles, and the vulnerable child mode. We identified four higher-order schema domains as most appropriate in terms of interpretability and empirical indices ("Disconnection & Rejection", "Impaired Autonomy & Performance", "Excessive Responsibility & Standards", and "Impaired Limits")...
December 19, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Jafar Bakhshaie, Michael J Zvolensky, Kirsten J Langdon, Adam M Leventhal, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity has been implicated as a potential risk factor for post-quit withdrawal symptoms. The present study examined relations between the extent of change in anxiety sensitivity and the course of nicotine withdrawal symptoms experienced during the initial two weeks of a quit attempt among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample consisted of 29 adult daily smokers (34% female; Mage = 47.7, SD = 13.1) who successfully quit and maintained their abstinence. After adjusting for the effects of gender, treatment condition, use of nicotine replacement therapy, nicotine dependence, alcohol use problems, baseline levels of anxiety sensitivity, and reductions in negative affect, greater reductions in anxiety sensitivity were related to faster decreases in withdrawal symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Catherine Fréchette-Simard, Isabelle Plante, Jonathan Bluteau
This review aimed to identify the strategies used in programs based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent and treat symptoms of anxiety, depression, and internalized behaviors of children and adolescents. Based on an online search (ERIC, PsycInfo, Virtuose UQAM, and Google Scholar), 61 studies describing different cognitive behavioral programs were selected. Results showed that 40 strategies were implemented in at least one program. However, none of the strategies were systematically present in all programs, and only few were reported in more than 50% of the studies...
November 6, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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