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Cytogenetic and Genome Research

Abeer A Bahamat, Mourad Assidi, Sahira A Lary, Muna M Almughamsi, Abdul A Peer Zada, Adeel Chaudhary, Adel Abuzenadah, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder known as a clinically variable syndrome with over 180 associated phenotypic features. It is caused by a common human deletion in the 22q11.2 chromosomal region and currently is affecting approximately 1 in 4,000 individuals. Despite the prevalence of inherited diseases mainly due to consanguineous marriages, the current diagnosis of DGS in Saudi Arabia is mainly based on conventional high-resolution chromosome banding (karyotyping) and FISH techniques. However, advanced genome-wide studies for detecting microdeletions or duplications across the whole genome are needed...
February 17, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Zhuang Meng, Xiaoxu Hu, Zhiliang Zhang, Zhanjie Li, Qingfang Lin, Mei Yang, Pingfang Yang, Ray Ming, Qingyi Yu, Kai Wang
Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot plant that has been cultivated in Asia for over 7,000 years for its agricultural, ornamental, religious, and medicinal importance. A notable characteristic of lotus is the seed longevity. Extensive endeavors have been devoted to dissect its genome assembly, including the variety China Antique, which germinated from a 1,300-year-old seed. Here, cytogenetic markers representing the 10 largest megascaffolds, which constitute approximately 70% of the lotus genome assembly, were developed...
February 14, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Lisa G Shaffer, Christina J Ramirez, Patricia Phelps, Maya Aviram, Marta Walczak, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Blake C Ballif
Genetic diseases occur in breeds used for law enforcement. As important team members, dogs are expected to operate at peak performance for several years and are significant investments for both the initial purchase and extensive, specialized training. Previous studies have not focused on causes for retirement or euthanasia as genetic (inherited) versus acquired (environmental). We performed direct mutational analysis for breed-specific conditions on samples from 304 dogs including 267 law enforcement (122 US, 87 Israeli, and 58 Polish) and 37 search and rescue dogs...
February 9, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Huiping Liu, Yi Dai, Dawn Chi, Shuai Huang, Haifeng Li, Yamei Duan, Wenguang Cao, Yong Gao, George Fedak, Jianmin Chen
Wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (2n = 2x = 14, EE), is an important wild relative of wheat with many excellent traits, including resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), that can be used for durum wheat improvement. Through hybridization of the durum cultivar "Langdon" with the amphiploid 8801 (AABBEE), a disomic alien addition line (2n = 30) with a pair of Th. elongatum 7E chromosomes was obtained and confirmed using chromosome-specific molecular markers of Th. elongatum and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)...
February 9, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Beata Aleksiūnienė, Egle Preiksaitiene, Aušra Morkūnienė, Laima Ambrozaitytė, Algirdas Utkus
Many studies have shown that molecular karyotyping is an effective diagnostic tool in individuals with developmental delay/intellectual disability. We report on a de novo interstitial 1q22q23.1 microdeletion, 1.6 Mb in size, detected in a patient with short stature, microcephaly, hypoplastic corpus callosum, cleft palate, minor facial anomalies, congenital heart defect, camptodactyly of the 4-5th fingers, and intellectual disability. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 1.6-Mb deletion in the 1q22q23...
February 9, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Michèle Gerbault-Seureau, Lauriane Cacheux, Bernard Dutrillaux
Amongst Cercopithecidae, the species of the Cercopithecini tribe underwent a very active chromosome evolution, principally by fissions, which increased their chromosome number up to 72. In contrast, all the species of Papionini have fairly similar karyotypes with 42 chromosomes. In animals, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) are generally considered as instable structures, which frequently vary in size, number, and location at both infra- and interspecific levels. Although in Cercopithecinae the NORs, involved in breaks, exchanges, and translocations, behave like fragile sites in somatic cells, their number and location appear to be very stable between species...
January 31, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Katsuya Yamamoto, Shinichiro Kawamoto, Keiji Kurata, Akihito Kitao, Yu Mizutani, Hiroya Ichikawa, Kimikazu Yakushijin, Kazuyoshi Kajimoto, Yoshitake Hayashi, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Hironobu Minami
Oncogene amplification is uncommon in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cytogenetically, it is primarily found as double minute chromosomes (dmin) or homogeneously staining regions (hsr). A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Her bone marrow was hypercellular with 78.6% myeloperoxidase- positive blasts. Some had micronuclei. The patient was diagnosed with AML M2 and remains in complete remission (CR) after induction therapy. G-banding at diagnosis showed 51,XX,t(11;16)(q13;p11...
January 24, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Valentina G Kuznetsova, Anna Maryańska-Nadachowska, Nazar A Shapoval, Boris A Anokhin, Anatoly P Shapoval
We studied the karyotypes of 8 dragonfly species originating from the Curonian Spit (the Baltic Sea, Russia) using C-banding and FISH with 18S rDNA and "insect" telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Our results show that Leucorrhinia rubicunda, Libellula depressa, L. quadrimaculata, Orthetrum cancellatum, Sympetrum danae, and S. vulgatum from the family Libellulidae, as well as Cordulia aenea and Epitheca bimaculata from the family Corduliidae share 2n = 25 (24 + X) in males, with a minute pair of m-chromosomes being present in every karyotype except for that of C...
January 17, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Erina Suzuki, Ryosuke Bo, Kaori Sue, Hiroyuki Awano, Tsutomu Ogata, Satoshi Narumi, Masayo Kagami, Shinichiro Sano, Maki Fukami
Germline intragenic mutations in the GNAS locus result in pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) and related conditions. Nearly half of the previously reported GNAS intragenic mutations were structural variants, including 3 tandem duplications of 12-25 bp. However, the precise mutation spectrum and the genomic basis of GNAS structural variants remain to be clarified. Here, we report a de novo 50-bp tandem duplication in GNAS (c.723_772dup50, p.Glu259Leufs*29) identified in a patient with typical clinical features of PHP1a...
January 11, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Lyvia Marlet, Eudeline Alix, Marianne Till, Fabienne Raskin-Champion, Jocelyne Attia, Dominique Boggio, Damien Sanlaville, Caroline Schluth-Bolard
We report on a prenatally diagnosed unusual case of inverted terminal duplication of the short arm of chromosome 2, leading to interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) and partial trisomy 2p. To our knowledge, there are only 4 further cases of pure partial trisomy 2p reported prenatally. Here, the mother was referred at 22 weeks of gestation for isolated fetal congenital heart malformation at ultrasound. The karyotype of amniotic fluid cells displayed a large duplication of the short arm of chromosome 2 that was further investigated by array-CGH, which detected a 1-copy gain of 43...
December 22, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Manman Qu, Kunpeng Li, Yanli Han, Lei Chen, Zongyun Li, Yonghua Han
Chromosome identification is critical for many aspects of cytogenetic research. However, for Fragaria vesca, definite identification of individual chromosomes is almost impossible because of their small size and high similarity. Here, we demonstrate that bulked oligonucleotide (oligo) probes can be used as chromosome-specific DNA markers for chromosome identification in F. vesca. Oligos specific to entire pseudochromosomes in the draft genome of F. vesca were identified and synthesized as libraries. In all, we synthesized 6 oligo libraries corresponding to 6 pseudochromosomes of F...
December 21, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Rosamaria Silipigni, Edoardo Monfrini, Marco Baccarin, Sara Giangiobbe, Faustina Lalatta, Silvana Guerneri, Maria Francesca Bedeschi
Rearrangements of the region 1q42.13q43 are rare, with only 7 cases reported to date. The imbalances described are usually the result of inherited translocations with other chromosomes. Moreover, few cases of both inter- and intrachromosomal deletions/duplications detected cytogenetically have been described. We report the molecular cytogenetic characterization of an inverted insertion involving the region 1q42.13q43 and segregating in 2 generations of a family. The deletion and the duplication of the same segment were detected in 2 affected family members...
December 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Andréa C M Malinverni, Érika M Yamashiro Coelho, Kelin Chen, Mileny E Colovati, Mirlene C Soares Pinho Cernach, Silvia Bragagnolo, Maria Isabel Melaragno
Partial monosomy 21 results in a great variability of clinical features that may be associated with the size and location of the deletion. In this study, we report a 22-month-old girl who showed a 45,XX,add(12)(p13)dn,-21 karyotype. The final cytogenomic result was 45,XX,der(12)t(12;21)(p13;q22.11) dn,-21.arr[hg19] 21q11.2q22.11(14824453_33868129)×1 revealing a deletion from 21pter to 21q22.11. Clinical manifestation of the patient included hypertonia, a long philtrum, epicanthic folds, low-set ears, and café-au-lait macules - a phenotype considered as mild despite the relatively large size of the deletion compared to patients from the literature...
December 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Saadia Amasdl, Wiam Smaili, Abdelhafid Natiq, Amale Hassani, Aziza Sbiti, Aomar Agadr, Damien Sanlaville, Abdelaziz Sefiani
Unbalanced translocations involving X and Y chromosomes are rare and associated with a contiguous gene syndrome. The clinical phenotype is heterogeneous including mainly short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, ichthyosis, hypogonadism, and intellectual disability. Here, we report 2 brothers with peculiar gestalt, short stature, and hearing loss, who harbor an X/Y translocation. Physical examination, brainstem acoustic potential evaluation, bone age, hormonal assessment, and X-ray investigations were performed...
December 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Olga Raskina
In wild plant populations, chromosome rearrangements lead to the wide intraspecific polymorphisms in the abundance and patterns of highly repetitive DNA. However, despite the large amount of accumulated data, the impact of the complex repetitive DNA fraction on genome reorganization and functioning and the mechanisms balancing and maintaining the structural integrity of the genome are not fully understood. Homologous recombination is thought to play a key role in both genome reshuffling and stabilization, while the contribution of nonhomologous recombination seems to be undervalued...
December 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Patrik F Viana, Tariq Ezaz, Leandro Marajó, Milena Ferreira, Jansen Zuanon, Marcelo B Cioffi, Luiz A C Bertollo, Maria C Gross, Eliana Feldberg
The genus Colomesus is the sole representative of the family Tetraodontidae in the Amazon region. Here, Colomesus asellus was analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols. Its diploid chromosome number is 2n = 46 with 12 meta-, 10 submeta-, 16 subtelo-, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes and a fundamental number of FN = 84. An XX/XY sex chromosome system was identified. Mapping of 18S rDNA correlated with the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs) in the short arms of the 2 X chromosomes in females and in the Y chromosome in males...
November 30, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Massimo Giovannotti, Paola Nisi Cerioni, Tahar Slimani, Andrea Splendiani, Alessio Paoletti, Adnane Fawzi, Ettore Olmo, Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi
Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus is now regarded as an ecotype of A. erythrurus with which it has been recently synonymized. Despite the wide range of A. erythrurus, karyological data for this species are scarce and limited to classical cytogenetic studies carried out in individuals from only 2 locations (central Spain and Spanish enclave of Melilla on the northwestern Mediterranean Moroccan coast). Here, for the first time, we cytogenetically characterized individuals of A. lineomaculatus from the southwestern Moroccan Atlantic coast with the aim to increase the karyological knowledge of this wide-ranging species and to assess if any chromosomal changes can be found in this ecotype in comparison to other populations of this species...
November 29, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Baifen Song, Xiaoting Li, Jinzhu Ma, Liquan Yu, Zhenyue Feng, Zhenhua Liu, Yudong Cui
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a cytokine produced by activated natural killer cells and T lymphocytes, is an important regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Interleukin (IL)-18, also known as IFN-γ-inducing factor, is a cytokine that induces T and natural killer cells to produce IFN-γ. In this study, the chicken IL-18 (ChIL-18) and chicken IFN-γ (ChIFN-γ) genes were inserted into the pET28a prokaryotic expression vector, resulting in pET28a-IL-18 and pET28a-IFN-γ, respectively. These plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21, and the ChIL-18 and ChIFN-γ proteins were expressed and purified...
November 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Letizia Camerota, Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Diana Postorivo, Anna M Nardone, Claudio Ligas, Costanzo Moretti, Augusto Pasini, Francesco Brancati
A 17-year-old girl presented with a distinct phenotype mainly featuring craniofacial dysmorphism, including a disproportioned large, round, elongated face; hypertelorism; deep-set eyes with short palpebral fissures; obesity (BMI 37), and a neuropsychiatric disorder with high-functioning autism. Postnatal conventional cytogenetic analyses from peripheral blood revealed a mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) with a mos 47,XX,+mar[7]/46,XX[43] karyotype. By cenM-FISH technique, the sSMC was identified as a ring derivative of chromosome 5...
November 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Lin Kang, Phillip George, Donald K Price, Igor Sharakhov, Pawel Michalak
Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to a decreased cost and an increased throughput in genome sequencing. Yet, many genome assemblies based on short sequencing reads have been assembled only to the scaffold level due to the lack of sufficient chromosome mapping information. Traditional ways of mapping scaffolds to chromosomes require a large amount of laboratory work and time to generate genetic and/or physical maps. To address this problem, we conducted a rapid technique which uses laser capture microdissection and enables mapping scaffolds of de novo genome assemblies directly to chromosomes in Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila...
November 8, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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