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Cytogenetic and Genome Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441662/buffalo-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-induces-differentiation-and-dome-like-secondary-structures-in-cos-1-cells
#1
Gurjeet Kaur, Syed Azmal Ali, Shikha Pachauri, Dhruba Malakar, Jai K Kaushik, Ashok K Mohanty, Sudarshan Kumar
This study aimed to understand the molecular characteristics of buffalo leukemia inhibitory factor (BuLIF) and the generation of a stably transfected COS-1_BuLIF cell line for its functional characterization. Cumulus cells, isolated from oocytes, were separated, and total cDNA was prepared. The BuLIF gene was ligated into the cloning vector pJET1.2/blunt and expression vector pAcGFP-N1 which was transfected into COS-1 cells and confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. BuLIF was immunoprecipitated and evaluated through a MTT assay...
April 26, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433994/the-chs4-chromatin-insulator-reduces-the-rate-of-retroviral-vector-mediated-gene-dysregulation-associated-with-aberrant-vector-transcription
#2
Xianyao Zhou, Qiujun Liu, Da Wang, Xuemei Zhang, David W Emery, Chang L Li
Integrating gammaretroviral vectors can dysregulate the expression of cellular genes through a variety of mechanisms, leading to genotoxicity and malignant transformation. Although most attention has focused on the activation of cellular genes by vector enhancers, aberrant fusion transcripts involving cellular gene sequences and vector promoters, vector splice elements, and vector transcription termination sequences have also been mechanistically associated with dysregulated expression of cellular genes. Chromatin insulators have emerged as an effective tool for reducing the frequency of vector-mediated genotoxicity and malignant transformation and have been shown to block the activation of cellular genes by vector enhancers...
April 22, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423373/distribution-of-interstitial-telomeric-sequences-in-primates-and-the-pygmy-tree-shrew-scandentia
#3
Sofia Mazzoleni, Odessa Schillaci, Luca Sineo, Francesca Dumas
It has been hypothesized that interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), i.e., repeated telomeric DNA sequences found at intrachromosomal sites in many vertebrates, could be correlated to chromosomal rearrangements and plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we hybridized a telomeric PNA probe through FISH on representative species of 2 primate infraorders, Strepsirrhini (Lemur catta, Otolemur garnettii, Nycticebus coucang) and Catarrhini (Erythrocebus patas, Cercopithecus petaurista, Chlorocebus aethiops, Colobus guereza), as well as on 1 species of the order Scandentia, Tupaia minor, used as an outgroup for primates in phylogenetic reconstructions...
April 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402969/cytogenetic-characterization-of-brown-howler-monkeys-alouatta-guariba-clamitans-atelidae-platyrrhini-meiotic-confirmation-of-an-x1x1x2x2x3x3-x1x2x3y1y2-sex-chromosome-system
#4
Eliana R Steinberg, Vanessa B Fortes, Luis F Rossi, Laurete Murer, Maristela Lovato, Maria S Merani, Marta D Mudry
For brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans), diploid chromosome numbers varying from 2n = 45 to 2n = 52, with XX/XY, X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y, and X1X1X2X2X3X3/X1X2X3Y1Y2 sex chromosome systems have been described by mitotic studies but still await confirmation by meiotic analyses. We analyzed 3 male individuals sampled in the wild (in the municipality of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil) as well as 1 male and 1 female individual in captivity at the São Braz breeding center. Peripheral blood samples and testicular biopsies were taken...
April 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359066/chromosomal-mapping-of-repetitive-dnas-in-myiopsitta-monachus-and-amazona-aestiva-psittaciformes-psittacidae-with-emphasis-on-the-sex-chromosomes
#5
Ivanete de Oliveira Furo, Rafael Kretschmer, Michelly S Dos Santos, Carlos A de Lima Carvalho, Ricardo J Gunski, Patrícia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Marcelo B Cioffi, Edivaldo H C de Oliveira
Here, for the first time, we describe the karyotype of Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae, Arini). We found 2n = 48, corresponding to the lowest diploid number observed in Neotropical Psittaciformes so far, with an uncommonly large W chromosome homomorphic to the Z. In order to better understand the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this species, we applied several molecular cytogenetic approaches, including C-banding, FISH mapping of repetitive DNAs (several microsatellite repeats), and whole-chromosome painting on metaphases of M...
March 31, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334717/a-tandemly-arranged-pattern-of-two-5s-rdna-arrays-in-amolops-mantzorum-anura-ranidae
#6
Ting Liu, Menghuan Song, Yun Xia, Xiaomao Zeng
In an attempt to extend the knowledge of the 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amolops mantzorum were isolated, characterized, and mapped by FISH. Two forms of 5S rDNA, type I (209 bp) and type II (about 870 bp), were found in specimens investigated from various populations. Both of them contained a 118-bp coding sequence, readily differentiated by their non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sizes and compositions. Four probes (the 5S rDNA coding sequences, the type I NTS, the type II NTS, and the entire type II 5S rDNA sequences) were respectively labeled with TAMRA or digoxigenin to hybridize with mitotic chromosomes for samples of all localities...
March 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334706/repetitive-dna-a-versatile-tool-for-karyotyping-in-festuca-pratensis-huds
#7
Anna Křivánková, David Kopecký, Štěpán Stočes, Jaroslav Doležel, Eva Hřibová
FISH is a useful method to identify individual chromosomes in a karyotype and to discover their structural changes accompanying genome evolution and speciation. DNA probes for FISH should be chromosome specific and/or exhibit specific patterns of distribution along each chromosome. Such probes are not available in many plants including meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), an important forage grass species. In the present study, various DNA repeats identified in Illumina shotgun sequences specific to chromosome 4F of F...
March 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315870/the-hypermethylated-regions-in-avian-chromosomes
#8
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein
Chromosomal locations and amounts of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions were detected in the karyotypes of 13 bird species by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-methylcytosine antibody. These species belong to 7 orders and 10 families of modern (Neognathae) and primitive (Palaeognathae) birds and are characterized by macro- and microchromosomes as well as ZW sex chromosomes. In all 13 species, the hypermethylated chromosome segments are confined to constitutive heterochromatin. The chromosomal locations of hypermethylated DNA regions in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#9
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297695/stability-of-genome-composition-and-recombination-between-homoeologous-chromosomes-in-festulolium-festuca-%C3%A3-lolium-cultivars
#10
David Kopecký, Denisa Šimoníková, Marc Ghesquière, Jaroslav Doležel
Festulolium are hybrids between fescue (Festuca) and ryegrass (Lolium) species and combine high seed yield of ryegrasses with abiotic stress tolerance of fescues. Chromosomes of Festuca and Lolium present in Festulolium freely pair and recombine, which results in highly variable progeny where every single plant has a unique chromosome constitution. Thus, the stability of the genomic composition in Festulolium cultivars is an important issue. In this work, we used in situ hybridization to examine the genomic composition (understood as the proportion of parental genomes present) over 3 consecutive generations of propagation via outcrossing (the first one being the generation used for cultivar registration) of 3 Festulolium cultivars...
March 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278505/chromosome-painting-in-callicebus-nigrifrons-provides-insights-into-the-genome-evolution-of-titi-monkeys-and-the-ancestral-callicebinae-karyotype
#11
Naiara Pereira Araújo, Alice Alves do Espírito Santo, Valéria do Socorro Pereira, Roscoe Stanyon, Marta Svartman
We studied the chromosomes of Callicebus nigrifrons with conventional and molecular cytogenetic methods. Our chromosome painting analysis in C. nigrifrons together with previous reports allowed us to hypothesize an ancestral Callicebinae karyotype with 2n = 48. The associations of human chromosomes (HSA) 2/22, 7/15, 10/11, and the inverted HSA2/16 would link Callicebus, Cheracebus, and Plecturocebus and would thus be present in the ancestral Callicebinae karyotype. Four fusions (HSA1b/1c, 3c/8b, 13/20, and 14/15/3/21) and 1 fission (HSA2/22) are synapomorphies of Callicebus...
March 10, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273668/large-duplications-can-be-benign-copy-number-variants-a-case-of-a-3-6-mb-xq21-33-duplication
#12
Marie-Laure Maurin, Chloé Arfeuille, Pascale Sonigo, Sophie Rondeau, Michel Vekemans, Catherine Turleau, Yves Ville, Valérie Malan
Segmental aneusomies are usually associated with clinical consequences, but an increasing number of nonpathogenic cytogenetically visible as well as large cryptic chromosomal imbalances have been reported. Here, we report a 3.6-Mb Xq21.33 microduplication detected prenatally on a female fetus which was inherited from a phenotypically normal mother and grandfather. It is assumed that male patients harboring Xq or Xp duplication present with syndromic intellectual disability because of functional disomy of the corresponding genes...
March 9, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351057/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-type-b-authentic-response-regulator-gene-family-in-peach-prunus-persica
#13
Jingjue Zeng, Xudong Zhu, Muhammad S Haider, Xicheng Wang, Cheng Zhang, Chen Wang
The type-B authentic response regulator (ARR-B) family members serve as DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, whose activities are probably regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, resulting in the rapid induction of type-A ARR genes. Type-B ARRs are believed to be involved in many biological processes, including cytokinin signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or by isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The public availability of complete peach genome sequences allows the identification of 23 ARR-B genes by HMMER and blast analysis...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329743/multicolor-spectral-analyses-of-mitotic-and-meiotic-mouse-chromosomes-involved-in-multiple-robertsonian-translocations-ii-the-nmri-cd-and-cd-ta-hybrid-strains
#14
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein, Heinz Winking
Multicolor spectral analyses (spectral karyotyping) were performed on mitotic chromosomes of NMRI, CD, and TA mice and on male meiotic chromosomes (diakineses) of NMRI/CD and CD/TA hybrids. All chromosomes, including the various centric (robertsonian) fusions, could be unequivocally identified. Apart from the robertsonian translocations, which were previously detected by conventional banding analyses, no other interchromosomal rearrangements were found in these mice. In both the CD and TA mice, the autosomes 19 and the XY sex chromosomes are not involved in robertsonian translocations...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297694/immunocytological-analysis-of-meiotic-recombination-in-the-gray-goose-anser-anser
#15
Anna A Torgasheva, Pavel M Borodin
Studies on mammals demonstrate wide interspecific variation in the number and distribution of recombination events along chromosomes. Birds represent an interesting model group for comparative analysis of cytological and ecological drivers of recombination rate evolution. Yet, data on variation in recombination rates in birds are limited to a dozen of species. In this study, we used immunolocalization of MLH1, a mismatch repair protein marking mature recombination nodules, to estimate the overall recombination rate and distribution of crossovers along macrochromosomes in female and male meiosis of the gray goose (Anser anser)...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278512/targeted-segment-transfer-from-rye-chromosome-2r-to-wheat-chromosomes-2a-2b-and-7b
#16
Tianheng Ren, Zhi Li, Benju Yan, Feiquan Tan, Zongxiang Tang, Shulan Fu, Manyu Yang, Zhenglong Ren
Increased chromosome instability was induced by a rye (Secale cereale L.) monosomic 2R chromosome into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Centromere breakage and telomere dysfunction result in high rates of chromosome aberrations, including breakages, fissions, fusions, deletions, and translocations. Plants with target traits were sequentially selected to produce a breeding population, from which 3 translocation lines with target traits have been selected. In these lines, wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 7B recombined with segments of the rye chromosome arm 2RL...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278497/true-nondisjunction-of-whole-bivalents-in-oocytes-with-attachment-and-congression-defects
#17
Martin Sodek, Kristina Kovacovicova, Martin Anger
Chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes is prone to errors causing aneuploidy with consequences such as precocious termination of development or severe developmental disorders. Aneuploidy also represents a serious problem in procedures utilizing mammalian gametes and early embryos in vitro. In our study, we focused on congression defects during meiosis I and observed whole nondisjoined bivalents in meiosis II as a direct consequence, together with a substantially delayed first polar body extrusion. We also show that the congression defects are accompanied by less stable attachments of the kinetochores...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253503/xp22-31-microdeletion-due-to-microhomology-mediated-break-induced-replication-in-a-boy-with-contiguous-gene-deletion-syndrome
#18
Koki Nagai, Hirohito Shima, Miki Kamimura, Junko Kanno, Erina Suzuki, Akira Ishiguro, Satoshi Narumi, Shigeo Kure, Ikuma Fujiwara, Maki Fukami
The Xp22.31 region is characterized by a low frequency of interspersed repeats and a low GC content. Submicroscopic deletions at Xp22.31 involving STS and ANOS1 (alias KAL1) underlie X-linked ichthyosis and Kallmann syndrome, respectively. Of the known microdeletions at Xp22.31, a common approximately 1.5-Mb deletion encompassing STS was ascribed to nonallelic homologous recombination, while 2 ANOS1-containing deletions were attributed to nonhomologous end-joining. However, the genomic bases of other microdeletions within the Xp22...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249262/the-u2-sndna-is-a-useful-marker-for-b-chromosome-detection-and-frequency-estimation-in-the-grasshopper-abracris-flavolineata
#19
Diogo Milani, Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez, Diogo C Cabral-de-Mello
In this study, we describe a strategy to determine the presence of B chromosomes in the living grasshopper Abracris flavolineata by FISH using U2 snDNA as a probe in interphase hemolymph nuclei. In individuals without B chromosomes, (0B) 2 dot signals were noticed, corresponding to A complement U2 snDNA clusters. In +1B and +2B individuals, 4 or 8 additional signals were noticed, respectively. In all cases, the absence or presence of 1 or 2 B chromosomes correlated in hemolymph and in somatic or germline tissues, validating the efficiency of the marker...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226328/a-de-novo-pericentric-inversion-in-chromosome-4-associated-with-disruption-of-pitx2-and-a-microdeletion-in-4p15-2-in-a-patient-with-axenfeld-rieger-syndrome-and-developmental-delay
#20
Živilė Maldžienė, Eglė Preikšaitienė, Salomėja Ignotienė, Natalija Kapitanova, Algirdas Utkus, Vaidutis Kučinskas
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal dominantly inherited malformations that predominantly affect the eye but are also associated with craniofacial dysmorphism and dental abnormalities. A broad spectrum of genetic alterations involving PITX2 and FOXC1 lead to ARS. We report on a 4-year-old girl with clinical features of ARS and developmental delay due to a de novo apparently balanced pericentric inversion in chromosome 4. This report emphasizes that complementary investigations are necessary to precisely characterize chromosomal rearrangements...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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