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Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Sevasti Konstantinidou, Eirini Konstantinidou
Thyroidology is a discipline of Endocrinology which has evolved markedly over the past few decades. However, its historical roots can be seen in the literature of, among others, ancient Greek medicine. In the present article, we present the descriptions of the thyroid gland by ancient Greek physicians and its depiction in ancient Greek art.
June 19, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Antonis Makrigiannakis, Thomas Vrekoussis, Emmanouel Zoumakis, Vassilia Hatzidakis, Eugenia Vlachou, Nicolaos Salakos, Sophia N Kalantaridou
Endometrial corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been described as a mediator of decidualisation and as a contributor of maternal-fetal immunotolerance. Deregulation of the CRH expression pattern has been associated with unfavourable reproductive outcomes as well as chronic endometrium-derived inflammatory disorders, such as endometriosis and adenomyosis. The current review summarises the evidence produced regarding the role of CRH in endometrial physiology and pathophysiology and highlights recent clinical data regarding the role of CRH in improving clinical pregnancy rates in women with repeated implantation failures following in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer...
June 18, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kristy L Meadows
Ischemic stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the USA and is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability worldwide. The principle sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), both endogenous and exogenous, have profound effects on various stroke outcomes and have become the focus of a number of studies evaluating risk factors and treatment options for ischemic stroke. In addition, the expression of other hormones that may influence stroke outcome, including select adipose-derived hormones (adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin), can be regulated by sex hormones and are also the focus of several ischemic stroke studies...
June 6, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Evangelia Triantafyllou, Maria P Yavropoulou, Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Polyzois Makras
Hypoparathyroidism is a relatively rare endocrine disease characterised by either null or inappropriately low secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) for serum calcium levels. The other main laboratory findings include hypocalcaemia, inappropriately normal or high urine calcium excretion and hyperphosphataemia with low urine phosphate excretion. The management of hypoparathyroidism should be tailored to each individual case, which makes it a demanding undertaking in everyday clinical practice. In this review, we sought to focus on the diagnostic approach of hypoparathyroidism and the therapeutic challenges of the disease from a clinical perspective...
June 6, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ana Valea, Carmen Emanuela Georgescu
Selenium (Se) has a multilevel, complex and dynamic effect on the human body as a major component of selenocysteine, incorporated into selenoproteins, which include the selenocysteine-containing enzymes iodothyronine deiodinases. At the thyroid level, these proteins play an essential role in antioxidant protection and hormone metabolism. This is a narrative review based on PubMed/Medline database research regarding thyroid physiology and conditions with Se and Se-protein interferences. In humans, Se-dependent enzyme functions are best expressed through optimal Se intake, although there is gap in our knowledge concerning the precise mechanisms underlying the interrelation...
June 5, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Giuseppe Defeudis, Elvira Fioriti, Andrea Palermo, Dario Tuccinardi, Angelo Minucci, Ettore Capoluongo, Paolo Pozzilli, Silvia Manfrini
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma (Ph) is a rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumour that arises from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Ph usually presents with symptoms including paroxysmal headache, sweating, palpitations, and hypertension. CLINICAL CASE: During a computed tomography (CT) scan in a normotensive 49-year-old man, an incidentaloma of 4.5 cm was detected. Hypercortisolism was excluded after the dexamethasone suppression test, levels of DHEAS all falling within the normal range...
June 2, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Matteo Zoli, Federica Guaraldi, Marco Faustini, Diego Mazzatenta
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting neuromuscular transmission that manifests with muscle weakness and typically involves the eye muscles, often producing diplopia and ptosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a role in the development of MG, although its association with prolactinoma is extremely rare. We report the unusual case of a 71-year-old male affected with macroprolactinoma, who presented at our Center 2 weeks after starting cabergoline treatment because of acute onset of headache, diplopia, and ptosis...
June 2, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Salma H Hussein, Tayba S Wahedi, Naji Al Johani, Yasser A Hakami, Kamal Alzahrani, Mussa H AlMalki
PURPOSE: Pituitary tumours are slowly progressing tumours, mostly benign, with a reported global prevalence of 16.7% (22.5% in radiologic studies and 14.4% in autopsy studies). Clinical and epidemiological data on pituitary adenomas in Saudi Arabia are lacking. We aimed to utilise our database variables to determine clinical and epidemiological characteristics as well as treatment outcomes of pituitary tumours among Saudi patients. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in patients with pituitary tumours...
May 7, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yılmaz Kor
Familial testotoxicosis is a disease with autosomal dominant inheritance that only affects men and which causes gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty. Although basal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone are low, similar to what is expected in the pre-pubertal period, testosterone levels are high. Bicalutamide as an anti-androgen medication and anastrozole as an aromatase inhibitor have been proposed as agents that can be safely used in children. In the present study, we present the case of coexistent familial testotoxicosis and central precocious puberty induced by long-term androgen exposure in a patient aged 7...
May 7, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Edip Unal, Ruken Yıldırım, Funda Feryal Taş, Suat Tekin, Askin Sen, Yusuf Kenan Haspolat
Congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency (IAD) is a rarely seen disease characterized by low serum ACTH and cortisol levels accompanied by normal levels of the other anterior pituitary hormones. In these patients, severe hypoglycemia, convulsions, and prolonged cholestatic jaundice are expected findings in the neonatal period. In this paper, we present two siblings with TBX19 gene mutation. The first case was investigated at the age of 2 months for severe hypoglycemia, recurrent convulsions, and prolonged cholestatic jaundice persisting since the neonatal period...
May 3, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Athanasios N Tsartsalis, George I Lambrou, Dimitrios Tsartsalis, Christos Savvidis, Maria Karantza, Evangelos Terpos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George P Chrousos, Antonis Kattamis
Thalassemia Major (TM) is a clinical entity with a high prevalence of low bone mass. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis of all available data on the role of bisphosphonates (BPs) in the therapy of thalassemia major-induced osteoporosis. The PRISMA recommendations for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses were used to guide the present study. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) through March 31, 2017 for articles related to thalassemia and BPs...
May 2, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Faiza Lamine, Sara De Giorgi, Laura Marino, Marina Michalaki, Gerasimos P Sykiotis
The indications for levothyroxine replacement therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) remain a subject of debate, especially when prescribed for older adults. The results of the recent TRUST trial indicate that levothyroxine does not improve clinical symptom scores among elderly patients with SH. While there is much concern regarding the dilemma of introducing or withholding levothyroxine, less attention may be paid to the differential diagnosis of an elevated TSH level, which is the prerequisite for diagnosing SH...
April 27, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Christos Savvidis, Symeon Tournis, Anastasia D Dede
The interaction between obesity and bone metabolism is complex. The effects of fat on the skeleton are mediated by both mechanical and biochemical factors. Though obesity is characterized by higher bone mineral density, studies conducted on bone microarchitecture have produced conflicting results. The majority of studies indicate that obesity has a positive effect on skeletal strength, even though most likely the effects are site-dependent and, in fact, obese individuals might be at risk of certain types of fractures...
April 24, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrea Avendaño, Irene Paradisi, Francisco Cammarata-Scalisi, Michele Callea
5-α-Reductase type 2 enzyme catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, a potent androgen responsible for male sexual development during the fetal period and later during puberty. Its deficiency causes an autosomal recessive disorder of sex development characterized by a wide range of under-virilization of external genitalia in patients with a 46,XY karyotype. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene cause 5-α-Reductase deficiency; although it is an infrequent disorder, it has been reported worldwide, with mutational heterogeneity...
April 20, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Konstantinos Laios
The term thymus was used in ancient Greek medical literature to describe not only the thymus gland but also the warty excrescences found mainly in the genitals or the anus, but also over the entire body. Rufus of Ephesus (1st-2nd c. AD) gave the earliest anatomical description of this gland in humans, while Galen (1st-2nd c. AD) first described it in animals. However, the origins and meaning of this term have long mystified researchers. A careful investigation into its etymology together with the information derived from early anatomical descriptions has enabled us to propose a new interpretation of the origins of the name of the thymus gland...
April 19, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Athanasios Kitsos, Evangelia Dounousi, Rigas Kalaitzidis, Anna Challa, Kostas C Siamopoulos, Stelios Tigas
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and renal disease are both associated with low serum 25(OH)D. The aims of the present study were to (a) assess vitamin D status and compare serum vitamin D levels in overweight/obese versus normal-weight individuals according to eGFR and (b) assess the role of 25(OH)D in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). DESIGN: Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2 D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and phosphate were measured in 104 subjects with BMI > 25 kg/m2 ...
April 17, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Laura Iogna Prat, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is prevalent in more than 50% of patients with type II diabetes. At present, there is no approved therapy for NASH. Until now, the only proven effective interventions in improving biochemical and histological features of NASH, including fibrosis, are weight loss and physical activity even without weight loss. Because of the common epidemiological and pathophysiological features between NAFLD and T2DM, many antidiabetics drugs have been tested in patients with NAFLD over the years...
April 17, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shahla Nader
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a form of chronic anovulation not due to identifiable organic causes with adverse health consequences. A thorough history is paramount in the identification of women with this disorder as it is usually associated with lifestyle factors such as stress, weight loss, and excessive exercise. In this paper, recently published clinical guidelines are reviewed and a series of cases is presented that highlights diagnostic and therapeutic challenges encountered.
April 17, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Obesity is a growing epidemic worldwide. The most frequent cause leading to the development of obesity is an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The gut microbiota is an environmental factor involved in obesity and metabolic disorders which reveals that obese animal and human subjects present alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Furthermore, evidence has so far demonstrated that the gut microbiota, which influences whole-body metabolism, by affecting energy balance, but also inflammation and gut barrier function, integrates peripheral and central food intake regulatory signals, thereby altering body weight...
April 16, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrew N Margioris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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