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Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752490/motor-innervation-pattern-of-labral-muscles-of-locusta-migratoria
#1
Abid Mahmood Alvi, Peter Bräunig
The current study investigates the motor innervation pattern of labral muscles in the adult locust and tries to interpret the results in the light of the hypothesis that the labrum phylogenetically developed by the fusion of paired appendages associated with the intercalary segment. Using Neurobiotin™ as a retrograde neuronal tracer, specific motor nerves or individual labral muscles were stained. Results show that the labral muscles receive innervation from tritocerebrum and suboesophageal ganglion. The axons of many motor neurons use three different pathways to cross the midline in the periphery to innervate ipsi- and contralateral muscles...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721708/electromagnetic-field-exposure-50-hz-impairs-response-to-noxious-heat-in-american-cockroach
#2
Justyna Maliszewska, Patrycja Marciniak, Hanna Kletkiewicz, Joanna Wyszkowska, Anna Nowakowska, Justyna Rogalska
Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) induces physiological changes in organism that are observed at different levels-from biochemical processes to behavior. In this study, we evaluated the effect of EMF exposure (50 Hz, 7 mT) on cockroach's response to noxious heat, measured as the latency to escape from high ambient temperature. We also measured the levels of lipid peroxidation and glutathione content as markers of oxidative balance in cockroaches exposed to EMF. Our results showed that exposure to EMF for 24, 72 h and 7 days significantly increases the latency to escape from noxious heat...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687162/early-milestones-in-the-understanding-of-echolocation-in-bats
#3
REVIEW
Alan D Grinnell
Almost 80 years ago, Griffin and Galambos discovered the phenomenon of echolocation in bats. Since then, the field has grown exponentially as new generations of investigators have joined the chase and technological advances have revolutionized working with ultrasound in the laboratory and in the field. Today our understanding of the diversity of behavioral and neural adaptations for echolocation constitutes one of the paramount triumphs of neuroethology. At the invitation of the editor in chief, I here review some of the important milestones in the discovery and early understanding of echolocation in bats through about the mid-1980s...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679143/early-foraging-life-spatial-and-temporal-aspects-of-landmark-learning-in-the-ant-cataglyphis-noda
#4
Pauline Nikola Fleischmann, Wolfgang Rössler, Rüdiger Wehner
Within the powerful navigational toolkit implemented in desert ants, path integration and landmark guidance are the key routines. Here, we use cue-conflict experiments to investigate the interplay between these two routines in ants, Cataglyphis noda, which start their foraging careers (novices) with learning walks and are then tested at different stages of experience. During their learning walks, the novices take nest-centered views from various directions around the nest. In the present experiments, these learning walks are spatially restricted by arranging differently sized water moats around the nest entrance and thus, limiting the space available around the nest and the nest-feeder route...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671049/parent-offspring-cohabitation-after-weaning-inhibits-partner-preference-and-alters-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-adult-mandarin-vole
#5
Ruiyong Wu, Zhenzhen Song, Fadao Tai
In some mammals, offspring may live with their parents for a very long time after weaning, but little is known about the effect of post-weaning parent-offspring cohabitation on the behavioral and neurobiological development of offspring. Here, we explored the effect of this experience on partner preference in adult mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus). Levels of central oxytocin (OT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), as well as OT receptor (OTR), dopamine D1-type and D2-type receptors (D1R and D2R) mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial amygdala (MeA) were also measured...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666930/role-of-side-slip-flight-in-target-pursuit-blue-tailed-damselflies-ischnura-elegans-avoid-body-rotation-while-approaching-a-moving-perch
#6
Ziv Kassner, Gal Ribak
Visually guided flight control requires processing changes in the visual panorama (optic-flow) resulting from self-movement relative to stationary objects, as well as from moving objects passing through the field of view. We studied the ability of the blue-tailed damselfly, Ischnura elegans, to successfully land on a perch moving unpredictably. We tracked the insects landing on a vertical pole moved linearly 6 cm back and forth with sinusoidal changes in velocity. When the moving perch changed direction at frequencies higher than 1 Hz, the damselflies engaged in manoeuvres that typically involved sideways flight, with minimal changes in body orientation relative to the stationary environment...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610933/treadmill-locomotion-of-the-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus-kinematic-parameters-during-symmetrical-and-asymmetrical-gaits
#7
Marc Herbin, Eva Hommet, Vicky Hanotin-Dossot, Martine Perret, Rémi Hackert
The gaits of the adult grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus were studied during treadmill locomotion over a large range of velocities. The locomotion sequences were analysed to determine the gait and the various spatiotemporal gait parameters of the limbs. We found that velocity adjustments are accounted for differently by stride frequency and stride length depending on whether the animal showed a symmetrical or an asymmetrical gait. When using symmetrical gaits the increase in velocity is associated with a constant contribution of the stride length and stride frequency; the increase of the stride frequency being always lower...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589113/corticosterone-level-and-central-dopaminergic-activity-involved-in-agile-and-exploratory-behaviours-in-formosan-wood-mice-apodemus-semotus
#8
Kun-Ruey Shieh, Shu-Chuan Yang
The native Formosan wood mouse (Apodemus semotus) is the dominant rodent in Taiwan. In their natural environment, Formosan wood mice exhibit high locomotor activity, including searching and exploratory behaviours, which is observed similarly in the laboratory environment. How the behavioural responses of Formosan wood mice exhibit in elevated plus maze and marble burying tests remains unclear. How corticosterone levels and central dopaminergic activities are related to the behaviours in these tests is also unclear...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582137/diversity-and-common-themes-in-the-organization-of-ocelli-in-hymenoptera-odonata-and-diptera
#9
Willi Ribi, Jochen Zeil
We show in a comparative analysis that distinct retinal specializations in insect ocelli are much more common than previously realized and that the rhabdom organization of ocellar photoreceptors is extremely diverse. Hymenoptera, Odonata and Diptera show prominent equatorial fovea-like indentations of the ocellar retinae, where distal receptor endings are furthest removed from the lens surface and receptor densities are highest. In contrast, rhabdomere arrangements are very diverse across insect groups: in Hymenoptera, with some exceptions, pairs of ocellar retinular cells form sheet-like rhabdoms that form elongated rectangular shapes in cross-section, with highly aligned microvilli directions perpendicular to the long axis of cross-sections...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574596/characterization-and-modelling-of-looming-sensitive-neurons-in-the-crab-neohelice
#10
Julia Carbone, Agustín Yabo, Damian Oliva
Looming-sensitive neurons (LSNs) are motion-sensitive neurons tuned for detecting imminent collision. Their main characteristic is the selectivity to looming (a 2D representation of an object approach), rather than to receding stimuli. We studied a set of LSNs by performing surface extracellular recordings in the optic nerve of Neohelice granulata crabs, and characterized their response against computer-generated visual stimuli with different combinations of moving edges, highlighting different components of the optical flow...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492668/de-novo-transcriptomics-reveal-distinct-phototransduction-signaling-components-in-the-retina-and-skin-of-a-color-changing-vertebrate-the-hogfish-lachnolaimus-maximus
#11
Lorian E Schweikert, Robert R Fitak, Sönke Johnsen
Across diverse taxa, an increasing number of photoreceptive systems are being discovered in tissues outside of the eye, such as in the skin. Dermal photoreception is believed to serve a variety of functions, including rapid color change via specialized cells called chromatophores. In vitro studies of this system among color-changing fish have suggested the use of a phototransduction signaling cascade that fundamentally differs from that of the retina. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify phototransduction genes and compare their expression in the retina and skin of a color-changing fish, the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488014/tyraminergic-modulation-of-agonistic-outcomes-in-crayfish
#12
Yuto Momohara, Hitoshi Aonuma, Toshiki Nagayama
Octopamine, a biogenic amine, modulates various behaviors, ranging from locomotion and aggression to learning and memory in invertebrates. Several studies recently demonstrated that tyramine, the biological precursor of octopamine, also affects behaviors independent of octopamine. Here we investigated the involvement of tyramine in agonistic interaction of the male crayfish Procambarus clarkii. When male crayfish fight, larger animals (3-7% difference in body length) are more likely to win. By contrast, direct injection of tyramine or octopamine counteracted the physical advantage of larger animals...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488013/candidate-genes-for-cooperation-and-aggression-in-the-social-wasp-polistes-dominula
#13
Fabio Manfredini, Mark J F Brown, Amy L Toth
Cooperation and aggression are ubiquitous in social groups, and the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviours are of great interest for understanding how social group formation is regulated and how it evolves. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to investigate the patterns of expression of key genes for cooperation and aggression in the brain of a primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes dominula, during colony founding, when multiple foundresses can join the same nest and establish subtle hierarchies of dominance...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476321/interaction-of-interaural-cues-and-their-contribution-to-the-lateralisation-of-mongolian-gerbils-meriones-unguiculatus
#14
Sandra Tolnai, Rainer Beutelmann, Georg M Klump
The main sound localisation cues in the horizontal plane are interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs, respectively). ITDs are thought to be the dominant cue in the low-frequency range, ILDs the dominant cue in the high-frequency range. ITDs and ILDs co-occur. Their interaction and contribution to the lateralisation of pure tones by Mongolian gerbils was investigated behaviourally using cross-talk cancellation techniques for presenting ITDs and ILDs independently. First, ITDs were applied to pure tones with frequencies ≤ 2 kHz to the ongoing waveform, at the onsets and offsets, or in both the ongoing waveform and at the onsets and offsets...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460143/listening-in-the-bog-ii-neural-correlates-for-acoustic-interactions-and-spacing-between-sphagniana-sphagnorum-males
#15
Konstantinos Kostarakos, Heiner Römer
Males of the katydid Sphagniana sphagnorum maintain inter-male distances from one another using agonistic song interactions with a frequency-modulated song that consists of alternating audio and ultrasonic parts. We studied the neuronal representation of this song in auditory receptors and interneurons of receivers, using playbacks of songs that mimicked the absolute and relative sound pressure levels of the two song modes varying with distance. The tuning and sensitivity of both receptors and interneurons strongly determine their responses to the two song modes at different distances...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441409/listening-in-the-bog-i-acoustic-interactions-and-spacing-between-males-of-sphagniana-sphagnorum
#16
Glenn K Morris, Aaron M Hall, Heiner Römer
Males of the katydid Sphagniana sphagnorum form calling aggregations in boreal sphagnum bogs to attract mates. They broadcast frequency-modulated (FM) songs in steady series, each song comprised of two wing-stroking modes that alternate audio and ultrasonic spectra. NN analysis of three populations found mean distances between 5.1 and 8.4 m, but failed to find spacing regularity: in one males spaced randomly, in another they were clumped, but within the clumps spaced at random. We tested a mechanism for maintaining inter-male distances by playback of conspecific song to resident males and analysing song interactions between neighbouring males in the field...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423751/oviposition-like-central-pattern-generators-in-pregenital-segments-of-male-and-female-grasshoppers
#17
Karen J Thompson
Grasshoppers produce an extraordinary oviposition behavior that is associated with multiple specializations of the skeletal and neuromuscular systems in the posterior abdomen, including a central pattern generator (CPG) in the female's terminal abdominal ganglion. Two pairs of shovel-shaped appendages, the ovipositor valves on the abdomen tip, excavate the soil for deposition of eggs. By contrast, the sexually monomorphic pregenital region of the abdomen is without appendages. Morphological homologues of ovipositor muscles and efferent neurons in the eighth abdominal segment are nevertheless present in pregenital segments of males and females...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350260/modulation-rate-transfer-functions-from-four-species-of-stranded-odontocete-stenella-longirostris-feresa-attenuata-globicephala-melas-and-mesoplodon-densirostris
#18
Adam B Smith, Aude F Pacini, Paul E Nachtigall
Odontocete marine mammals explore the environment by rapidly producing echolocation signals and receiving the corresponding echoes, which likewise return at very rapid rates. Thus, it is important that the auditory system has a high temporal resolution to effectively process and extract relevant information from click echoes. This study used auditory evoked potential methods to investigate auditory temporal resolution of individuals from four different odontocete species, including a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340763/the-retinal-projection-to-the-nucleus-lentiformis-mesencephali-in-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-and-anna-s-hummingbird-calypte-anna
#19
Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Andrea H Gaede, Max R Dannish, Douglas L Altshuler, Douglas R Wylie
In birds, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM) are retinal recipient nuclei involved in the analysis of optic flow and the generation of the optokinetic response. In both pigeons and chickens, retinal inputs to the nBOR arise from displaced ganglion cells (DGCs), which are found at the margin of the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers. The LM receives afferents from retinal ganglion cells, but whether DGCs also project to LM is a matter of debate. Previous work in chickens had concluded that DGCs do not project to LM, but a recent study in pigeons found that both retinal ganglion cells and DGCs project to LM...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294159/robustness-of-an-innate-releasing-mechanism-against-degradation-of-acoustic-communication-signals-in-the-grasshopper-chorthippus-biguttulus
#20
Stefanie Krämer, Bernhard Ronacher
Noise is a challenge for animals that use acoustic communication to find a mate. A potent source of noise in animal communication is that arising from other conspecific signals, whose co-occurrence can result in extensive interference-evident as the so called "cocktail-party problem"-that may affect the receiver mechanisms to detect potential mates. We studied grasshopper females to explore how modifications of the song pattern influence song recognition. First, we degraded an attractive model song with random fluctuations of increasing amplitudes out of different frequency bands, and determined "critical degradation levels" at which the females ceased to respond...
March 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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