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Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294159/robustness-of-an-innate-releasing-mechanism-against-degradation-of-acoustic-communication-signals-in-the-grasshopper-chorthippus-biguttulus
#1
Stefanie Krämer, Bernhard Ronacher
Noise is a challenge for animals that use acoustic communication to find a mate. A potent source of noise in animal communication is that arising from other conspecific signals, whose co-occurrence can result in extensive interference-evident as the so called "cocktail-party problem"-that may affect the receiver mechanisms to detect potential mates. We studied grasshopper females to explore how modifications of the song pattern influence song recognition. First, we degraded an attractive model song with random fluctuations of increasing amplitudes out of different frequency bands, and determined "critical degradation levels" at which the females ceased to respond...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290056/presynaptic-serotonin-5-ht1b-d-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-glycinergic-transmission-to-the-frog-spinal-motoneurons
#2
N I Kalinina, Aleksey V Zaitsev, N P Vesselkin
Endogenous monoamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is a phylogenetically ancient neurotransmitter present in vertebrates. The functions of 5-HT in central nervous system are intensively studied; however, the presynaptic effects of 5-HT in frog spinal motoneurons are practically unexplored. We have previously shown that 5-HT decreases the frequency of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (mIPSPs), but does not affect the frequency of GABAergic mIPSPs and increases the frequency of glutamatergic postsynaptic potentials...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236130/referees-2017
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234861/neural-coding-of-sound-envelope-structure-in-songbirds
#4
Santiago Boari, Ana Amador
Songbirds are a well-established animal model to study the neural basis of learning, perception and production of complex vocalizations. In this system, telencephalic neurons in HVC present a state-dependent, highly selective response to auditory presentations of the bird's own song (BOS). This property provides an opportunity to study the neural code behind a complex motor behavior. In this work, we explore whether changes in the temporal structure of the sound envelope can drive changes in the neural responses of highly selective HVC units...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230544/size-discrimination-in-barn-owls-as-compared-to-humans
#5
Torsten Stemmler, Petra Nikolay, Aline Nüttgens, Jan Skorupa, Julius Orlowski, Hermann Wagner
We tested how well barn owls can discriminate objects of different sizes. This ability may be important for the owls when catching prey. We performed a quantitative experiment in the laboratory and trained owls in a task in which the owls had to discriminate whether two rhombi presented simultaneously on a computer monitor were of the same or of different sizes. We obtained full data sets with two experienced owls and one data point with a third owl. For objects being sufficiently larger than the spatial resolution of the barn owl, the angular threshold was related to object size, implying that the discrimination followed Weber's law...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222726/non-auditory-electrophysiological-potentials-preceding-dolphin-biosonar-click-production
#6
James J Finneran, Jason Mulsow, Ryan Jones, Dorian S Houser, Alyssa W Accomando, Sam H Ridgway
The auditory brainstem response to a dolphin's own emitted biosonar click can be measured by averaging epochs of the instantaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) that are time-locked to the emitted click. In this study, averaged EEGs were measured using surface electrodes placed on the head in six different configurations while dolphins performed an echolocation task. Simultaneously, biosonar click emissions were measured using contact hydrophones on the melon and a hydrophone in the farfield. The averaged EEGs revealed an electrophysiological potential (the pre-auditory wave, PAW) that preceded the production of each biosonar click...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218413/do-free-ranging-rattlesnakes-use-thermal-cues-to-evaluate-prey
#7
Hannes A Schraft, Colin Goodman, Rulon W Clark
Rattlesnakes use infrared radiation to detect prey animals such as small mammals and lizards. Because ectotherm locomotor performance depends on temperature, rattlesnakes could use prey temperature to evaluate the potential of lizards to evade attacks. Here, we tested whether hunting rattlesnakes use infrared information to (1) detect and (2) evaluate prey before attack. We expected thermal contrast between prey and background to be the best predictor of predatory behaviour under the prey detection hypothesis, and absolute prey temperature under the prey evaluation hypothesis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209770/androgen-and-estrogen-sensitivity-of-bird-song-a-comparative-view-on-gene-regulatory-levels
#8
REVIEW
Carolina Frankl-Vilches, Manfred Gahr
Singing of songbirds is sensitive to testosterone and its androgenic and estrogenic metabolites in a species-specific way. The hormonal effects on song pattern are likely mediated by androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ligand activated transcription factors that are expressed in neurons of various areas of the songbirds' vocal control circuit. The distribution of AR in this circuit is rather similar between species while that of ERα is species variant and concerns a key vocal control area, the HVC (proper name)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209769/different-behavioral-neural-and-neuropeptide-responses-of-fathers-to-their-own-and-to-alien-pups-in-mandarin-voles
#9
Wei Yuan, Xiang-Ping Yang, Peng Yu, Rui Jia, Fa-Dao Tai, Bin Wei, Xiao Liu, Lei-Ge Ma
Mothers often prefer to care for their own offspring rather than those of other females. However, whether fathers respond differently to their own pups and to alien ones remains unclear. In this study, we found that male mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) directed more sniffing toward their own pups than toward alien pups. The numbers of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the medial preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex were significantly increased when fathers were exposed to an alien pups; however, more brain regions such as paraventricular nucleus, hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus, lateral habenula, ventral lateral septal nucleus, and medial amygdaloid nucleus showed increased number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons activated when the fathers were exposed to their own pups...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196800/effects-of-mating-on-host-selection-by-female-small-white-butterflies-pieris-rapae-lepidoptera-pieridae
#10
Yuki Itoh, Yukiko Okumura, Takeshi Fujii, Yukio Ishikawa, Hisashi Ômura
Mating might significantly affect the host selection behaviors of phytophagous insects. Here, we investigated the post-mating changes in behavioral and antennal responses of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) females to host plant volatiles. In two-choice bioassays using artificial plant models, mated females visited the model scented with synthetic blends (15-, 9-, or 6-components) of cabbage plant volatiles more frequently than the unscented control, whereas virgin females did not exhibit this preference...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192330/the-role-of-ocelli-in-cockroach-optomotor-performance
#11
Anna Honkanen, Paulus Saari, Jouni Takalo, Kyösti Heimonen, Matti Weckström
Insect ocelli are relatively simple eyes that have been assigned various functions not related to pictorial vision. In some species they function as sensors of ambient light intensity, from which information is relayed to various parts of the nervous system, e.g., for the control of circadian rhythms. In this work we have investigated the possibility that the ocellar light stimulation changes the properties of the optomotor performance of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. We used a virtual reality environment where a panoramic moving image is presented to the cockroach while its movements are recorded with a trackball...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189909/behavioral-and-physiological-polymorphism-in-males-of-the-austral-lizard-liolaemus-sarmientoi
#12
Jimena B Fernández, Elizabeth Bastiaans, Marlin Medina, Fausto R Méndez De la Cruz, Barry R Sinervo, Nora R Ibargüengoytía
Integrative behavioral studies show that the interplay between individual physiology and social behavior influences the ecology of the species, ultimately affecting individual fitness. Particularly in lizards, color polymorphism is associated with differential behaviors and reproductive strategies, which are evident in mature males during the mating season. Dominant males generally have greater endurance, higher body temperature, and larger bodies than submissive males, so they can acquire and defend larger territories and have greater access to females for mating...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170980/from-electromyographic-activity-to-frequency-modulation-in-zebra-finch-song
#13
Juan F Döppler, Alan Bush, Franz Goller, Gabriel B Mindlin
Behavior emerges from the interaction between the nervous system and peripheral devices. In the case of birdsong production, a delicate and fast control of several muscles is required to control the configuration of the syrinx (the avian vocal organ) and the respiratory system. In particular, the syringealis ventralis muscle is involved in the control of the tension of the vibrating labia and thus affects the frequency modulation of the sound. Nevertheless, the translation of the instructions (which are electrical in nature) into acoustical features is complex and involves nonlinear, dynamical processes...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164331/kairomones-from-an-estuarine-fish-increase-visual-sensitivity-in-brine-shrimp-artemia-franciscana-from-great-salt-lake-utah-usa
#14
Corie L Charpentier, Jonathan H Cohen
Chemical cues from fish, or kairomones, often impact the behavior of zooplankton. These behavioral changes are thought to improve predator avoidance. For example, marine and estuarine crustacean zooplankton become more sensitive to light after kairomone exposure, which likely deepens their vertical distribution into darker waters during the day and thereby reduces their visibility to fish predators. Here, we show that kairomones from an estuarine fish induce similar behavioral responses in adult brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from an endorheic, hypersaline lake, Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143128/the-evolution-of-androgen-receptor-expression-and-behavior-in-anolis-lizard-forelimb-muscles
#15
Michele A Johnson, Bonnie K Kircher, Diego J Castro
The motor systems that produce behavioral movements are among the primary targets for the action of steroid hormones, including androgens. Androgens such as testosterone bind to androgen receptors (AR) to induce physiological changes in the size, strength, and energetic capacity of skeletal muscles, which can directly influence the performance of behaviors in which those muscles are used. Because tissues differentially express AR, resulting in tissue-specific sensitivity to androgens, AR expression may be a major target of selection for the evolution of behavior...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119247/wall-following-in-xenopus-laevis-is-barrier-driven
#16
Sara Hänzi, Hans Straka
The tendency of animals to follow boundaries within their environment can serve as a strategy for spatial learning or defensive behaviour. We examined whether Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets employ such a strategy by characterizing their swimming pattern in a square tank with shallow water. Trajectories obtained from video recordings were analysed for proximity to the nearest wall. With the exception of young larvae, the vast majority of animals (both tadpoles and froglets) spent a disproportionately large amount of time near the wall...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101455/hormonal-control-of-behavior-novel-mechanisms-and-model-organisms
#17
EDITORIAL
Barney A Schlinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094198/the-turtle-visual-system-mediates-a-complex-spatiotemporal-transformation-of-visual-stimuli-into-cortical-activity
#18
Mahmood S Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel C Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
The three-layered visual cortex of turtle is characterized by extensive intracortical axonal projections and receives non-retinotopic axonal projections from lateral geniculate nucleus. What spatiotemporal transformation of visual stimuli into cortical activity arises from such tangle of malleable cortical inputs and intracortical connections? To address this question, we obtained band-pass filtered extracellular recordings of neural activity in turtle dorsal cortex during visual stimulation of the retina. We discovered important spatial and temporal features of stimulus-modulated cortical local field potential (LFP) recordings...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086012/on-the-role-of-brain-aromatase-in-females-why-are-estrogens-produced-locally-when-they-are-available-systemically
#19
REVIEW
Charlotte A Cornil
The ovaries are often thought of as the main and only source of estrogens involved in the regulation of female behavior. However, aromatase, the key enzyme for estrogen synthesis, although it is more abundant in males, is expressed and active in the brain of females where it is regulated by similar mechanisms as in males. Early work had shown that estrogens produced in the ventromedial hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of female sexual behavior in musk shrews. However, the question of the role of central aromatase in general had not received much attention until recently...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086011/remembering-franz-huber-november-20-1925-april-27-2017-a-pioneer-of-insect-neuroethology
#20
EDITORIAL
Friedrich G Barth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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