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Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343237/actogram-analysis-of-free-flying-migratory-birds-new-perspectives-based-on-acceleration-logging
#1
REVIEW
Johan Bäckman, Arne Andersson, Lykke Pedersen, Sissel Sjöberg, Anders P Tøttrup, Thomas Alerstam
The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332031/how-do-energy-stores-and-changes-in-these-affect-departure-decisions-by-migratory-birds-a-critical-view-on-stopover-ecology-studies-and-some-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Heiko Schmaljohann, Cas Eikenaar
In birds, accumulating energy is far slower than spending energy during flight. During migration, birds spend, therefore, most of the time at stopover refueling energy used during the previous flight. This elucidates why current energy stores and actual rate of accumulating energy are likely crucial factors influencing bird's decision when to resume migration in addition to other intrinsic (sex, age) and extrinsic (predation, weather) factors modulating the decision within the innate migration program. After first summarizing how energy stores and stopover durations are generally determined, we critically review that high-energy stores and low rates of accumulating energy were significantly related to high departure probabilities in several bird groups...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315939/the-transient-potassium-outward-current-has-different-roles-in-modulating-the-pyloric-and-gastric-mill-rhythms-in-the-stomatogastric-ganglion
#3
Lin Zhu, Allen I Selverston, Joseph Ayers
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system is a classic model for understanding the effects of modulating ionic currents and synapses at both the cell and network levels. The stomatogastric ganglion in this system contains two distinct central pattern generators: a slow gastric mill network that generates flexible rhythmic outputs (8-20 s) and is often silent, and a fast pyloric network that generates more consistent rhythmic outputs (0.5-2 s) and is always active in vitro. Different ionic conductances contribute to the properties of individual neurons and therefore to the overall dynamics of the pyloric and gastric mill networks...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314998/multispectral-images-of-flowers-reveal-the-adaptive-significance-of-using-long-wavelength-sensitive-receptors-for-edge-detection-in-bees
#4
Vera Vasas, Daniel Hanley, Peter G Kevan, Lars Chittka
Many pollinating insects acquire their entire nutrition from visiting flowers, and they must therefore be efficient both at detecting flowers and at recognizing familiar rewarding flower types. A crucial first step in recognition is the identification of edges and the segmentation of the visual field into areas that belong together. Honeybees and bumblebees acquire visual information through three types of photoreceptors; however, they only use a single receptor type-the one sensitive to longer wavelengths-for edge detection and movement detection...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299428/the-avian-hippocampus-and-the-hypothetical-maps-used-by-navigating-migratory-birds-with-some-reflection-on-compasses-and-migratory-restlessness
#5
Verner P Bingman, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The homology between the avian hippocampal formation (HF) and mammalian hippocampus nurtures the expectation that HF plays a fundamental role in navigation by migratory birds. Indeed, HF of migratory birds displays anatomical properties that differ from non-migratory species. Using a hypothetical framework of multiple maps of differing spatial resolution and range, homing pigeon data suggest that HF is important for navigating by landscape features near familiar breeding, over-wintering, and stop-over sites...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289837/navigation
#6
Roswitha Wiltschko
Experiments with migrating birds displaced during autumn migration outside their normal migration corridor reveal two different navigational strategies: adult migrants compensate for the displacement, and head towards their traditional wintering areas, whereas young first-time migrants continue in their migratory direction. Young birds are guided to their still unknown goal by a genetically coded migration program that indicates duration and direction(s) of the migratory flight by controlling the amount of migratory restlessness and the compass course(s) with respect to the geomagnetic field and celestial rotation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283755/vasotocin-induces-sexually-dimorphic-effects-on-acoustically-guided-behavior-in-a-tropical-frog
#7
Alexander T Baugh, Michael J Ryan
The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) promotes sexual advertisement and influences vocalization structure in male anuran amphibians. In the present study, we used wild túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) to investigate the effects of AVT on phonotaxis in males and females-thereby controlling for potential task differences between the sexes. Using a combined within- and between-subjects design, we showed that acoustic choice behavior in female frogs is not influenced by injection per se (vehicle) or by AVT...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271185/to-transduce-a-zebra-finch-interrogating-behavioral-mechanisms-in-a-model-system-for-speech
#8
Jonathan B Heston, Stephanie A White
The ability to alter neuronal gene expression, either to affect levels of endogenous molecules or to express exogenous ones, is a powerful tool for linking brain and behavior. Scientists continue to finesse genetic manipulation in mice. Yet mice do not exhibit every behavior of interest. For example, Mus musculus do not readily imitate sounds, a trait known as vocal learning and a feature of speech. In contrast, thousands of bird species exhibit this ability. The circuits and underlying molecular mechanisms appear similar between disparate avian orders and are shared with humans...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260189/behavioral-pieces-of-neuroethological-puzzles
#9
Kenneth C Catania
In this review, I give a first-person account of surprising insights that have come from the behavioral dimension of neuroethological studies in my laboratory. These studies include the early attempts to understand the function of the nose in star-nosed moles and to explore its representation in the neocortex. This led to the discovery of a somatosensory fovea that parallels the visual fovea of primates in several ways. Subsequent experiments to investigate the assumed superiority of star-nosed moles to their relatives when locating food led to the unexpected discovery of stereo olfaction in common moles...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251296/hard-shell-mating-in-neohelice-granulata-the-role-of-ecdysone-in-female-receptivity-and-mate-attraction
#10
María P Sal Moyano, Tomás Luppi, Daniel A Medesani, Colin L McLay, Enrique M Rodríguez
Most brachyuran females become receptive during the intermolt period, a condition considered "derived". However, as far as we know, studies testing the existence and function of pheromones in decapods are based on species which have mating linked to molting, a condition considered as "ancestral". For the first time, we studied some physiological and morphological processes involved in Neohelice granulata intermolt female crabs becoming receptive and potentially attracting males. We found that receptive females have mobile vulvae opercula due to a softening process of the cuticle hinge which showed lower calcium levels compared to the hinge of unreceptive females...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247016/satiation-level-affects-anti-predatory-decisions-in-foraging-juvenile-crayfish
#11
Abigail C Schadegg, Jens Herberholz
Moving shadows signify imminent threat to foraging juvenile crayfish, and the animals respond with one of two discrete anti-predatory behaviors: They either freeze in place or rapidly flex their tails, which quickly propels them away from the approaching danger signal. Although a freeze might be the more risky choice, it keeps the animal near the expected food reward, while a tail-flip is effective in avoiding the shadow, but puts critical distance between the animal and its next meal. We manipulated the satiation level of juvenile crayfish to determine whether their behavioral choices are affected by internal energy states...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247015/seasonal-plasticity-of-auditory-saccular-sensitivity-in-sneaker-type-ii-male-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus
#12
Ashwin A Bhandiwad, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Orphal Colleye, David G Zeddies, Joseph A Sisneros
Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in "sneaker" type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive "sneaker" type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247014/electrophysiological-measures-of-temporal-resolution-contrast-sensitivity-and-spatial-resolving-power-in-sharks
#13
Laura A Ryan, Jan M Hemmi, Shaun P Collin, Nathan S Hart
In most animals, vision plays an important role in detecting prey, predators and conspecifics. The effectiveness of vision in assessing cues such as motion and shape is influenced by the ability of the visual system to detect changes in contrast in both space and time. Understanding the role vision plays in shark behaviour has been limited by a lack of knowledge about their temporal resolution, contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution. In this study, an electrophysiological approach was used to compare these measures across five species of sharks: Chiloscyllium punctatum, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Mustelus mustelus and Haploblepharus edwardsii...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233059/the-muscle-activity-of-trout-exposed-to-unsteady-flow
#14
Adrian Klein, Horst Bleckmann
In running water trout seek out special regions for station holding. Trout exposed to flow fluctuations caused by a cylinder hold station immediately upstream of the cylinder (bow wake region), adjacent to the cylinder (entraining region) or downstream of the cylinder (Kármán gait). In addition it was shown that the activity of the axial red swimming muscles is reduced during Kármán gaiting. Up to now only the two-dimensional (horizontal) extensions of the above regions have been examined. We determined both, the horizontal and vertical extension of the Kármán gait, entraining and bow wake region by continuously recording the position (spatial resolution 1 cm(3)) of trout for 3 h...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233058/electric-organ-discharge-diversification-in-mormyrid-weakly-electric-fish-is-associated-with-differential-expression-of-voltage-gated-ion-channel-genes
#15
Rebecca Nagel, Frank Kirschbaum, Ralph Tiedemann
In mormyrid weakly electric fish, the electric organ discharge (EOD) is used for species recognition, orientation and prey localization. Produced in the muscle-derived adult electric organ, the EOD exhibits a wide diversity across species in both waveform and duration. While certain defining EOD characteristics can be linked to anatomical features of the electric organ, many factors underlying EOD differentiation are yet unknown. Here, we report the differential expression of 13 Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channel genes, two inwardly rectifying potassium channel genes, two previously studied sodium channel genes and an ATPase pump in two sympatric species of the genus Campylomormyrus in both the adult electric organ and skeletal muscle...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224277/energy-metabolism-during-endurance-flight-and-the-post-flight-recovery-phase
#16
REVIEW
Susanne Jenni-Eiermann
Migrating birds are known to fly non-stop for thousands of kilometres without food or water intake and at a high metabolic rate thereby relying on energy stores which were built up preceding a flight bout. Hence, from a physiological point of view the metabolism of a migrant has to switch between an active fasting phase during flight and a fuelling phase during stopover. To meet the energetic and water requirements of endurance flight, migratory birds have to store an optimal fuel composition and they have to be able to quickly mobilize and deliver sufficient energy to the working flight muscles...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#17
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197725/schema-vs-primitive-perceptual-grouping-the-relative-weighting-of-sequential-vs-spatial-cues-during-an-auditory-grouping-task-in-frogs
#18
Hamilton E Farris, Michael J Ryan
Perceptually, grouping sounds based on their sources is critical for communication. This is especially true in túngara frog breeding aggregations, where multiple males produce overlapping calls that consist of an FM 'whine' followed by harmonic bursts called 'chucks'. Phonotactic females use at least two cues to group whines and chucks: whine-chuck spatial separation and sequence. Spatial separation is a primitive cue, whereas sequence is schema-based, as chuck production is morphologically constrained to follow whines, meaning that males cannot produce the components simultaneously...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194485/detection-of-hydrodynamic-stimuli-by-the-postcranial-body-of-florida-manatees-trichechus-manatus-latirostris
#19
Joseph C Gaspard, Gordon B Bauer, David A Mann, Katharine Boerner, Laura Denum, Candice Frances, Roger L Reep
Manatees live in shallow, frequently turbid waters. The sensory means by which they navigate in these conditions are unknown. Poor visual acuity, lack of echolocation, and modest chemosensation suggest that other modalities play an important role. Rich innervation of sensory hairs that cover the entire body and enlarged somatosensory areas of the brain suggest that tactile senses are good candidates. Previous tests of detection of underwater vibratory stimuli indicated that they use passive movement of the hairs to detect particle displacements in the vicinity of a micron or less for frequencies from 10 to 150 Hz...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190120/precocious-hearing-in-harbour-porpoise-neonates
#20
Magnus Wahlberg, Lara Delgado-García, Jakob H Kristensen
Hearing is the primary sensory modality for toothed whales, but it is not known at which age it is fully developed. For newborn calves, hearing could fill an important function in maintaining contact with the mother and to develop echolocation skills. We non-invasively measured the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in two neonate (age 1-4 days) and three adult harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). The stimuli consisted of clicks centred at 130 kHz, which is within the frequency band used for echolocation and communication in this species...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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