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Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242470/flutter-sensitivity-in-fm-bats-part-ii-amplitude-modulation
#1
A Leonie Baier, Kristin-Jasmin Stelzer, Lutz Wiegrebe
Bats use echolocation to detect targets such as insect prey. The echolocation call of frequency-modulating bats (FM bats) typically sweeps through a broad range of frequencies within a few milliseconds. The large bandwidth grants the bat high spatial acuity in depicting the target. However, the extremely short call duration and the overall low duty cycle of call emission impair the bat's capability to detect e.g. target movement. Nonetheless, FM bats constitute more than 80% of all echolocating species and are able to navigate and forage in an environment full of moving targets...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238156/changes-in-electrophysiological-properties-of-photoreceptors-in-periplaneta-americana-associated-with-the-loss-of-screening-pigment
#2
Paulus Saari, Esa-Ville Immonen, Joni Kemppainen, Kyösti Heimonen, Marianna Zhukovskaya, Ekaterina Novikova, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Roman V Frolov
Absence of screening pigment in insect compound eyes has been linked to visual dysfunction. We investigated how its loss in a white-eyed mutant (W-E) alters the photoreceptor electrophysiological properties, opsin gene expression, and the behavior of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of green-sensitive photoreceptors in W-E cockroaches gave reduced membrane capacitance, absolute sensitivity to light, and light-induced currents. Decreased low-pass filtering increased voltage-bump amplitudes in W-E photoreceptors...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232547/auditory-vocal-coupling-in-the-naked-mole-rat-a-mammal-with-poor-auditory-thresholds
#3
Kazuo Okanoya, Shigeto Yosida, Catherine M Barone, Daniel T Applegate, Elizabeth F Brittan-Powell, Robert J Dooling, Thomas J Park
Naked mole-rats are extremely social and extremely vocal rodents, displaying a wide range of functionally distinct call types and vocalizing almost continuously. Their vocalizations are low frequency, and a behavioral audiogram has shown that naked mole-rats, like other subterranean mammals, hear only low frequencies. Hence, the frequency range of their hearing and vocalizations appears to be well matched. However, even at low frequencies, naked mole-rats show very poor auditory thresholds, suggesting vocal communication may be effective only over short distances...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225518/response-of-rainbow-trout-s-oncorhynchus-mykiss-hypothalamus-to-glucose-and-oleate-assessed-through-transcription-factors-bsx-chrebp-creb-and-foxo1
#4
Marta Conde-Sieira, Rosa M Ceinos, Cristina Velasco, Sara Comesaña, Marcos A López-Patiño, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas
We aimed to obtain information regarding mechanisms that link glucose- and fatty acid-sensing systems to expression of neuropeptides that regulate food intake in the fish brain. We assessed the relative expression and protein levels of the transcription factors BSX, ChREBP, FoxO1, and CREB in the hypothalamus of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) treated for 6 h with either glucose or oleate in vivo (intra-cerebroventricular treatment with 1 µl 100 g- 1 body weight of 40 µg glucose or 1 µmol oleate) or in vitro (incubation with 4-8 mM glucose or 100-500 µM oleate)...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225517/evolutionarily-conserved-coding-properties-favour-the-neuronal-representation-of-heterospecific-signals-of-a-sympatric-katydid-species
#5
Konstantinos Kostarakos, Heiner Römer
To function as a mechanism in premating isolation, the divergent and species-specific calling songs of acoustic insects must be reliably processed by the afferent auditory pathway of receivers. Here, we analysed the responses of interneurons in a katydid species that uses long-lasting acoustic trills and compared these with previously reported data for homologous interneurons of a sympatric species that uses short chirps as acoustic signals. Some interneurons of the trilling species respond exclusively to the heterospecific chirp due to selective, low-frequency tuning and "novelty detection"...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206680/vestibular-related-eye-movements-in-the-rat-following-selective-electrical-stimulation-of-the-vestibular-sensors
#6
Martin Hitier, Go Sato, Yan-Feng Zhang, Yiwen Zheng, Stephane Besnard, Paul F Smith
Rats are the most commonly used species in the neurosciences; however, little is known about the effects of selective electrical stimulation of individual vestibular sensors, on their eye movements. This limits their use to study the effects of vestibular stimulation on the brain, and their use in further exploring novel technologies such as artificial vestibular implants. We describe the effects of electrical stimulation of each vestibular sensor on vestibular-related eye movement in rats and compared the results to other species...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203157/olfactory-sensitivity-for-mold-associated-odorants-in-cd-1-mice-and-spider-monkeys
#7
Luis Peixoto, Laura Teresa Hernandez Salazar, Matthias Laska
Using operant conditioning procedures, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice and three spider monkeys for mold-associated odorants. We found that with all eight stimuli, the mice detected concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm (parts per million), and with two of them individual animals even detected concentrations as low as 1 ppt (parts per trillion). The spider monkeys detected concentrations as low as 4 ppm with all eight stimuli, and with four of them individual animals even detected concentrations as low as 4 ppb (parts per billion)...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173381/behavioural-responses-to-environmental-hypercapnia-in-two-eusocial-species-of-african-mole-rats
#8
Travis Branigan, Sulaf Elkhalifa, Matthew E Pamenter
Damaraland and naked mole rat are eusocial mammals that live in crowded burrows in which CO2 is elevated. These species are thought to be highly tolerant of CO2 but their behavioural responses to hypercapnia are poorly understood. We hypothesized that Damaraland and naked mole rats would exhibit blunted behavioural responses to hypercapnia and predicted that their activity levels would be unaffected at low to moderate (2-5%) CO2 but increased at > 7% CO2 . To test this, we exposed Damaraland and naked mole rats to stepwise increases in environmental CO2 (0-10%) and measured activity, exploratory behaviour, and body temperature...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159744/effects-of-pars-intercerebralis-removal-on-circatidal-rhythm-in-the-mangrove-cricket-apteronemobius-asahinai
#9
Hiroki Takekata, Hideharu Numata, Sakiko Shiga
The circatidal rhythm is an endogenous rhythm corresponding to the tidal cycles, and its neural mechanism remains unknown. The mangrove cricket, Apteronemobius asahinai, possesses both circatidal and circadian clocks, and simultaneously exhibits circatidal and circadian rhythms in its locomotor activity. In a previous study, we showed that surgical removal of the optic lobes, the principal circadian clock locus in crickets, disrupted their circadian rhythm, but not their circatidal rhythm. In this study, we focused on the pars intercerebralis (PI) because surgical removal of the PI disrupts the circadian rhythm and causes arrhythmic activity in some cricket species...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159743/what-does-a-butterfly-hear-physiological-characterization-of-auditory-afferents-in-morpho-peleides-nymphalidae
#10
Andrew Mikhail, John E Lewis, Jayne E Yack
Many Nymphalidae butterflies possess ears, but little is known about their hearing. The tympanal membrane of butterflies typically comprises distinct inner and outer regions innervated by auditory nerve branches NII and NIII and their respective sensory organs. Using the Blue Morpho butterfly (Morpho peleides) as a model, we characterized threshold and suprathreshold responses of NII and NIII. Both are broadly tuned to 1-20 kHz with best frequencies at 1-3 kHz, but NIII is significantly more sensitive than NII...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116889/travelling-waves-and-tonotopicity-in-the-inner-ear-a-historical-and-comparative-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Manley
In the 1940s, Georg von Békésy discovered that in the inner ear of cadavers of various vertebrates, structures responded to sound with a displacement wave that travels in a basal-to-apical direction. This historical review examines this concept and sketches its rôle and significance in the development of the research field of cochlear mechanics. It also illustrates that this concept and that of tonotopicity necessarily correlate, in that travelling waves are consequences of the existence of an ordered, longitudinal array of receptor cells tuned to systematically changing frequencies along the auditory organ...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083885/the-energetics-and-thermoregulation-of-water-collecting-honeybees
#12
Helmut Kovac, Helmut Käfer, Anton Stabentheiner
Honeybees need water for different purposes, to maintain the osmotic homeostasis in adults as well as to dilute stored honey and prepare liquid food for the brood. Water is also used for cooling of the hive. Foraging in endothermic insects is energy-intensive and the question arises how much energy bees invest in a resource without any metabolically usable energy. We investigated the energy demand of water collecting bees under natural conditions. The thermoregulation and energetic effort was measured simultaneously in a broad range of experimental ambient temperatures (Ta  = 12-40 °C)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046882/only-natural-local-odours-allow-homeward-orientation-in-homing-pigeons-released-at-unfamiliar-sites
#13
Anna Gagliardo, Enrica Pollonara, Martin Wikelski
According to the olfactory navigation hypothesis, birds are able to exploit the spatial distribution of environmental odourants to determine the direction of displacement and navigate from non-familiar locations. The so-called "olfactory activation hypothesis" challenged the specific role of olfactory cues in navigation by suggesting that olfactory stimuli only activate a navigational system that is based on non-olfactory cues, predicting that even artificial odourants alone are sufficient to allow unimpaired navigation...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980840/the-role-of-spatial-texture-in-visual-control-of-bumblebee-learning-flights
#14
Nellie Linander, Marie Dacke, Emily Baird, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra
When leaving the nest for the first time, bees and wasps perform elaborate learning flights, during which the location of the nest is memorised. These flights are characterised by a succession of arcs or loops of increasing radius centred around the nest, with an incremental increase in ground speed, which requires precise control of the flight manoeuvres by the insect. Here, we investigated the role of optic flow cues in the control of learning flights by manipulating spatial texture in the ventral and panoramic visual field...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974192/lateral-undulation-of-the-flexible-spine-of-sprawling-posture-vertebrates
#15
REVIEW
Wei Wang, Aihong Ji, Poramate Manoonpong, Huan Shen, Jie Hu, Zhendong Dai, Zhiwei Yu
Sprawling posture vertebrates have a flexible spine that bends the trunk primarily in the horizontal plane during locomotion. By coordinating cyclical lateral trunk flexion and limb movements, these animals are very mobile and show extraordinary maneuverability. The dynamic and static stability displayed in complex and changing environments are highly correlated with such lateral bending patterns. The axial dynamics of their compliant body can also be critical for achieving energy-efficient locomotion at high velocities...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961122/olfactory-navigation-versus-olfactory-activation-a-controversy-revisited
#16
EDITORIAL
Charles Walcott, Wolfgang Wiltschko, Roswitha Wiltschko, Günther K H Zupanc
In the early 1970s, Floriano Papi and colleagues proposed the olfactory-navigation hypothesis, which explains the homing ability of pigeons by the existence of an odor-based map acquired through learning. This notion, although supported by some observations, has also generated considerable controversy since its inception. As an alternative, Paulo Jorge and colleagues formulated in 2009 the olfactory-activation hypothesis, which states that atmospheric odorants do not provide navigational information but, instead, activate a non-olfactory path integration system...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959501/the-peregrine-falcon-s-rapid-dive-on-the-adaptedness-of-the-arm-skeleton-and-shoulder-girdle
#17
Anke Schmitz, Nele Ondreka, Julia Poleschinski, Dominik Fischer, Helmut Schmitz, Adrian Klein, Horst Bleckmann, Christoph Bruecker
During a dive, peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) can reach a velocity of up to 320 km h- 1 . Our computational fluid dynamics simulations show that the forces that pull on the wings of a diving peregrine can reach up to three times the falcon's body mass at a stoop velocity of 80 m s- 1 (288 km h- 1 ). Since the bones of the wings and the shoulder girdle of a diving peregrine falcon experience large mechanical forces, we investigated these bones. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding bones in European kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), sparrow hawks (Accipiter nisus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica)...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948155/the-mechanical-leg-response-to-vibration-stimuli-in-cave-crickets-and-implications-for-vibrosensory-organ-functions
#18
Nataša Stritih Peljhan, Johannes Strauß
We investigate the influence of leg mechanics on the vibration input and function of vibrosensitive organs in the legs of the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus, using laser Doppler vibrometry. By varying leg attachment, leg flexion, and body posture, we identify important influences on the amplitude and frequency parameters of transmitted vibrations. The legs respond best to relatively high-frequency vibration (200-2000 Hz), but in strong dependence on the leg position; the response peak shifts progressively over 500-1400 Hz towards higher frequencies following leg flexion...
July 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869687/understanding-innate-preferences-of-wild-bee-species-responses-to-wavelength-dependent-selective-excitation-of-blue-and-green-photoreceptor-types
#19
Oksana Ostroverkhova, Gracie Galindo, Claire Lande, Julie Kirby, Melissa Scherr, George Hoffman, Sujaya Rao
Bees have a trichromatic vision with ultraviolet, blue, and green photoreceptors in their compound eyes. While the three photoreceptor types comprise the 'color space' at the perceptual level, preferential excitation of one or two of the photoreceptor types has been shown to play an important role in innate color preferences of bumble bees. Bees have been shown to exhibit strong attraction to fluorescence emission exclusively in the blue spectral region. It is not known if emission exclusively in the green spectral region produces similar attraction...
July 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869100/the-giant-butterfly-moth-paysandisia-archon-has-spectrally-rich-apposition-eyes-with-unique-light-dependent-photoreceptor-dynamics
#20
Primož Pirih, Marko Ilić, Jerneja Rudolf, Kentaro Arikawa, Doekele G Stavenga, Gregor Belušič
The palm borer moth Paysandisia archon (Burmeister, 1880) (fam. Castniidae) is a large, diurnally active palm pest. Its compound eyes consist of ~ 20,000 ommatidia and have apposition optics with interommatidial angles below 1°. The ommatidia contain nine photoreceptor cells and appear structurally similar to those in nymphalid butterflies. Two morphological ommatidial types were identified. Using the butterfly numbering scheme, in type I ommatidia, the distal rhabdom consists exclusively of the rhabdomeres of photoreceptors R1-2; the medial rhabdom has contributions from R1-8...
July 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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