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Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446827/emergence-of-a-complex-movement-pattern-in-an-unfamiliar-food-place-by-foraging-ants
#1
Tomoko Sakiyama
Although visual cues are essential for navigation in ants, few studies address movement dynamics in ants when they search and forage after finding food in an unfamiliar environment. Here I introduced Japanese wood ants to an unfamiliar food location by capturing individuals leaving their nest. The food was located at the centre of a straight, narrow, open-top channel. Next, I determined the segment lengths of the foraging paths of the ants between consecutive U-turns. I found that individuals travelled along characteristic and complex paths if they detected a visual landmark...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430252/a-reinterpretation-of-homing-pigeons-flight-over-and-under-low-stratus-based-on-atmospheric-propagation-modeling-of-infrasonic-navigational-cues
#2
Jonathan T Hagstrum
Pigeons flying above temperature inversion and related low-stratus layers appear to lack important navigational cues, and a reinterpretation of Wagner's 1978 study suggests that these cues are low-frequency acoustic signals (infrasound). Wagner released homing pigeons above opaque stratus over the Swiss Plateau to determine whether they could locate their loft beneath it. Birds above the clouds appeared lost, while those that descended beneath them returned home directly. Atmospheric propagation modeling of infrasonic waves virtually transmitted from the loft area shows that these signals would have been ducted beneath the inversion layer, and would not have reached the release sites above it...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406292/changes-in-responsiveness-to-allatostatin-treatment-accompany-shifts-in-stress-reactivity-in-young-worker-honey-bees
#3
Elodie Urlacher, Jean-Marc Devaud, Alison R Mercer
Exposing honey bees to isopentylacetate (IPA) can cause stress-related changes in learning performance. In bees of foraging age, IPA's effects on learning are mimicked by C-type allatostatins (AstCC, AstCCC) injected into the brain. Here we ask whether allatostatins induce a similar response in young (6-day-old) bees and if so, whether their effects on learning performance are modulated by queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). We found that young bees exposed to IPA responded less to the conditioned stimulus during training than controls (Type 1-like stress response)...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302551/the-similarity-of-crawling-mechanisms-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-gastropods
#4
REVIEW
Galina A Pavlova
Crawling gastropods are unique models for studying the functioning of smooth muscles and ciliated epithelia, since they cover the foot sole and are involved in locomotion, allowing for direct investigation. Two types of crawling are known: creeping by muscular waves in terrestrial gastropods such as Helix and сiliary gliding in aquatic gastropods such as Lymnaea. It was found that the smooth muscles that underlie the ciliated epithelium in Lymnaea are involved in gliding and contribute significantly to fast crawling...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206680/vestibular-related-eye-movements-in-the-rat-following-selective-electrical-stimulation-of-the-vestibular-sensors
#5
Martin Hitier, Go Sato, Yan-Feng Zhang, Yiwen Zheng, Stephane Besnard, Paul F Smith
Rats are the most commonly used species in the neurosciences; however, little is known about the effects of selective electrical stimulation of individual vestibular sensors, on their eye movements. This limits their use to study the effects of vestibular stimulation on the brain, and their use in further exploring novel technologies such as artificial vestibular implants. We describe the effects of electrical stimulation of each vestibular sensor on vestibular-related eye movement in rats and compared the results to other species...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377768/auditory-sensitivity-exhibits-sexual-dimorphism-and-seasonal-plasticity-in-music-frogs
#6
Ping Yang, Fei Xue, Jianguo Cui, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Seasonal changes in the structure and function of the vertebrate brain have been described in many species, particularly in seasonal breeders. However, it remains unclear whether sexual dimorphism varies between breeding seasons for specific brain regions. Auditory event-related potential (ERP) changes were evaluated in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina) to assess sexual dimorphism and seasonal variations in auditory sensitivity. An acoustic playback experiment using an oddball paradigm design was conducted, in which two conspecific call types were used as deviant stimuli with synthesized white noise as standard stimulus...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374566/does-silvering-or-11-ketotestosterone-affect-osmoregulatory-ability-in-the-new-zealand-short-finned-eel-anguilla-australis
#7
Erin L Damsteegt, Matthew J Wylie, Alvin N Setiawan
Silvering has been associated with advancing osmoregulatory ability. Given the demonstrated role of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) in mediating many of the silvering-related changes, we investigated the role of 11KT in driving this advanced osmoregulatory ability in the New Zealand short-finned eel (Anguilla australis). Yellow (non-migratory) eels with or without 11KT implants and blank-implanted silver (migratory) eels, either held in freshwater or subjected to seawater challenge, were sampled to determine serum [Na+ ] and [Cl- ], pituitary prolactin mRNA levels, gill Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity and gill mRNA levels for Na+ /K+ -ATPase-α1 subunit and for Na+ /K+ /2Cl- co-transporter-1α-subunit...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367271/seafinding-revisited-how-hatchling-marine-turtles-respond-to-natural-lighting-at-a-nesting-beach
#8
Lisa Celano, Caroline Sullivan, Angela Field, Michael Salmon
Hatchling marine turtles emerge at night from underground nests on oceanic beaches and then use visual cues to crawl from the nest site to the sea ("seafinding"). However, the light wavelengths (λ's) used to accomplish this orientation have not been thoroughly documented, nor do we understand why some λ's are favored over others. We measured nocturnal radiance on the horizon at 20 nm intervals between 340 and 600 nm at two nesting beach sites and then, under laboratory conditions, determined the lowest intensities of those λ's that induced green turtle and loggerhead hatchlings to crawl toward each light source (a low positive "phototaxis threshold")...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353372/enhancement-of-habituation-during-escape-swimming-in-starved-crayfish
#9
Nozomi Kato, Naoyuki Fujiyama, Toshiki Nagayama
Feeding is important to supply the immediate energy needs of animals and starved animals must expend energy in attempting to acquire foods irrespective of the danger of predation risk. Crayfish escape from attack of predators by tailflipping and in response to rostral stimuli crayfish show backward escape swimming following an initial rapid flexion of the abdomen. Since the tailflip is an energetically costly behaviour, the occurrence of a tailflip diminishes if a stimulus is repeatedly applied through habituation...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350127/magnetoreception-activation-of-avian-cryptochrome-1a-in-various-light-conditions
#10
Christine Nießner, Susanne Denzau, Leo Peichl, Wolfgang Wiltschko, Roswitha Wiltschko
The avian magnetic inclination compass is based on radical pair processes, with cryptochrome (Cry) assumed to form the crucial radical pairs; it requires short-wavelength light from UV to green. Under high-intensity narrow-band lights and when yellow light is added, the magnetic compass is disrupted: migratory birds no longer prefer their migratory direction, but show other orientation responses. The candidate receptor molecule Cry1a is located in the shortwavelength-sensitive SWS1 cone photoreceptors in the retina...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298343/a-simple-mathematical-model-using-centred-loops-and-random-perturbations-accurately-reconstructs-search-patterns-observed-in-desert-ants
#11
Franz Waldner, Tobias Merkle
This paper describes a new mathematical model that is based on centred loops to reconstruct the "Systematic Search" behaviour of Cataglyphis desert ants. The notable advantage of this model is the combination of simplicity, efficiency and performance. All model input is kept to a minimum, using only parameters that previous research has shown to be available to the animals at all times: distance from the origin, direction of the last step and home vector. Outbound and inbound search paths are being combined into loops that return to the origin, sampling this area more intensely...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298342/iridescent-colouration-of-male-anna-s-hummingbird-calypte-anna-caused-by-multilayered-barbules
#12
Marco A Giraldo, Juan L Parra, Doekele G Stavenga
The male Anna's hummingbird features a brightly reddish-pink reflecting gorget, due to large stacks of melanosomes in the feather barbules, arranged in layers separated by keratin. Direct observations together with detailed scatterometry demonstrated that the barbules reflect incident light in an approximately specular manner. The structural colouration is iridescent, i.e. varies with a changing angle of light incidence. Spectrophotometrical measurements of the barbule reflectance and absorbance can be well interpreted with calculated spectra obtained with a transfer matrix method for optical multilayers, using anatomical data and measured refractive index spectra...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259097/hemodynamics-of-tonic-immobility-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-identified-through-doppler-ultrasonography
#13
Bruce A Young, James Adams, Solomon Segal, Tatyana Kondrashova
American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) held inverted exhibit tonic immobility, combining unresponsiveness with flaccid paralysis. We hypothesize that inverting the alligator causes a gravitationally promoted increase in right aortic blood flowing through the foramen of Panizza, with a concurrent decrease in blood flow through the primary carotid, and thereby of cerebral perfusion. Inverting the alligator results in displacement of the liver, post-pulmonary septum, and the heart. EKG analysis revealed a significant decrease in heart rate following inversion; this decrease was maintained for approximately 45 s after inversion which is in general agreement with the total duration of tonic immobility in alligators (49 s)...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251036/independent-processing-of-increments-and-decrements-in-odorant-concentration-by-on-and-off-olfactory-receptor-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Harald Tichy, Maria Hellwig
A salient feature of the insect olfactory system is its ability to detect and interpret simultaneously the identity and concentration of an odorant signal along with the temporal stimulus cues that are essential for accurate odorant tracking. The olfactory system of the cockroach utilizes two parallel pathways for encoding of odorant identity and the moment-to-moment succession of odorant concentrations as well as the rate at which concentration changes. This separation originates at the peripheral level of the ORNs (olfactory receptor neurons) which are localized in basiconic and trichoid sensilla...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244365/flutter-sensitivity-in-fm-bats-part-i-delay-modulation
#15
A Leonie Baier, Lutz Wiegrebe
Echolocating bats measure target distance by the time delay between call and echo. Target movement such as the flutter of insect wings induces delay modulations. Perception of delay modulations has been studied extensively in bats, but only concerning how well bats discriminate flutter frequencies, never with regard to flutter magnitude. We used an auditory virtual reality approach to generate changes in echo delay that were independent of call repetition rate, mimicking fluttering insect wings. We show that in the frequency-modulating (FM) bat Phyllostomus discolor, the sensitivity for modulations in echo delay depends on the rate of the modulation, with bats being most sensitive at modulation rates below 20 Hz and above 50 Hz...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242470/flutter-sensitivity-in-fm-bats-part-ii-amplitude-modulation
#16
A Leonie Baier, Kristin-Jasmin Stelzer, Lutz Wiegrebe
Bats use echolocation to detect targets such as insect prey. The echolocation call of frequency-modulating bats (FM bats) typically sweeps through a broad range of frequencies within a few milliseconds. The large bandwidth grants the bat high spatial acuity in depicting the target. However, the extremely short call duration and the overall low duty cycle of call emission impair the bat's capability to detect e.g. target movement. Nonetheless, FM bats constitute more than 80% of all echolocating species and are able to navigate and forage in an environment full of moving targets...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238156/changes-in-electrophysiological-properties-of-photoreceptors-in-periplaneta-americana-associated-with-the-loss-of-screening-pigment
#17
Paulus Saari, Esa-Ville Immonen, Joni Kemppainen, Kyösti Heimonen, Marianna Zhukovskaya, Ekaterina Novikova, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Roman V Frolov
Absence of screening pigment in insect compound eyes has been linked to visual dysfunction. We investigated how its loss in a white-eyed mutant (W-E) alters the photoreceptor electrophysiological properties, opsin gene expression, and the behavior of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of green-sensitive photoreceptors in W-E cockroaches gave reduced membrane capacitance, absolute sensitivity to light, and light-induced currents. Decreased low-pass filtering increased voltage-bump amplitudes in W-E photoreceptors...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232547/auditory-vocal-coupling-in-the-naked-mole-rat-a-mammal-with-poor-auditory-thresholds
#18
Kazuo Okanoya, Shigeto Yosida, Catherine M Barone, Daniel T Applegate, Elizabeth F Brittan-Powell, Robert J Dooling, Thomas J Park
Naked mole-rats are extremely social and extremely vocal rodents, displaying a wide range of functionally distinct call types and vocalizing almost continuously. Their vocalizations are low frequency, and a behavioral audiogram has shown that naked mole-rats, like other subterranean mammals, hear only low frequencies. Hence, the frequency range of their hearing and vocalizations appears to be well matched. However, even at low frequencies, naked mole-rats show very poor auditory thresholds, suggesting vocal communication may be effective only over short distances...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225518/response-of-rainbow-trout-s-oncorhynchus-mykiss-hypothalamus-to-glucose-and-oleate-assessed-through-transcription-factors-bsx-chrebp-creb-and-foxo1
#19
Marta Conde-Sieira, Rosa M Ceinos, Cristina Velasco, Sara Comesaña, Marcos A López-Patiño, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas
We aimed to obtain information regarding mechanisms that link glucose- and fatty acid-sensing systems to expression of neuropeptides that regulate food intake in the fish brain. We assessed the relative expression and protein levels of the transcription factors BSX, ChREBP, FoxO1, and CREB in the hypothalamus of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) treated for 6 h with either glucose or oleate in vivo (intra-cerebroventricular treatment with 1 µl 100 g- 1 body weight of 40 µg glucose or 1 µmol oleate) or in vitro (incubation with 4-8 mM glucose or 100-500 µM oleate)...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251035/effects-of-photoperiod-temperature-and-aging-on-adult-diapause-termination-and-post-diapause-development-in-female-asian-comma-butterflies-polygonia-c-aureum-linnaeus-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#20
Satoshi Hiroyoshi, Gadi V P Reddy, Jun Mitsuhashi
Polygonia c-aureum females exhibit photoperiodically induced imaginal diapause, characterized by cessation of ovarian development. Females grown at a short daylength (SD) entered imaginal diapause, whereas those grown at a long daylength (LD) produced eggs rapidly after adult emergence at 21 °C. The termination of diapause was influenced by daylength: diapause ended faster at LD than SD. Complete termination of diapause took 30 days in unchilled females reared under LD at 21 °C. On the other hand, prompt, synchronized and strong diapause termination occurred at post-chilling periods...
October 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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