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Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909789/factors-influencing-aversive-learning-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#1
J L Liu, H L Chen, X Y Chen, R K Cui, A Guerrero, X N Zeng
Parameters such as the intensity of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, the inter-trial interval, and starvation time can influence learning. In this study, the parameters that govern aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of fruits and vegetables, were examined. Male flies were trained to associate the attractive odorant methyl eugenol, a male lure, with a food punishment, sodium chloride solution, and the conditioned suppression of the proboscis-extension response was investigated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885506/marsh-frogs-pelophylax-ridibundus-determine-migratory-direction-by-magnetic-field
#2
Vladimir V Shakhparonov, Sergei V Ogurtsov
Orientation by magnetic cues appears to be adaptive during animal migrations. Whereas the magnetic orientation in birds, mammals, and urodele amphibians is being investigated intensively, the data about anurans are still scarce. This study tests whether marsh frogs could determine migratory direction between the breeding pond and the wintering site by magnetic cues in the laboratory. Adult frogs (N = 32) were individually tested in the T-maze 127 cm long inside the three-axis Helmholtz coil system (diameter 3 m)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878378/phonotactic-flight-of-the-parasitoid-fly-emblemasoma-auditrix-diptera-sarcophagidae
#3
Nanina Tron, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
The parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix locates its hosts using acoustic cues from sound producing males of the cicada Okanagana rimosa. Here, we experimentally analysed the flight path of the phonotaxis from a landmark to the target, a hidden loudspeaker in the field. During flight, the fly showed only small lateral deviations. The vertical flight direction angles were initially negative (directed downwards relative to starting position), grew positive (directed upwards) in the second half of the flight, and finally flattened (directed horizontally or slightly upwards), typically resulting in a landing above the loudspeaker...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873005/photoreceptor-spectral-tuning-by-colorful-multilayered-facet-lenses-in-long-legged-fly-eyes-dolichopodidae
#4
D G Stavenga, A Meglič, P Pirih, H Koshitaka, K Arikawa, M F Wehling, G Belušič
The facet lenses of the compound eyes of long-legged flies (Dolichopodidae) feature a striking, interlaced coloration pattern, existing of alternating rows of green-yellow and orange-red reflecting facets, due to dielectric multilayers located distally in the facet lenses (Bernard and Miller. Invest Ophthalmol 7:416-434 (1968). We investigated this phenomenon in the dolichopodid Dolichopus nitidus by applying microspectrophotometry, electron microscopy and optical modeling. The measured narrow-band reflectance spectra, peaking at ~540 and ~590 nm with bandwidth ~105 nm, are well explained by a refractive index oscillating sinusoidally in six periods around a mean value of about 1...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837238/the-flicker-fusion-frequency-of-budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus-revisited
#5
Jannika E Boström, Nicola K Haller, Marina Dimitrova, Anders Ödeen, Almut Kelber
While color vision and spatial resolution have been studied in many bird species, less is known about the temporal aspects of bird vision. High temporal resolution has been described in three species of passerines but it is unknown whether this is specific to passerines, to small actively flying birds, to insectivores or to birds living in bright habitats. Temporal resolution of vision is commonly tested by determining the flicker fusion frequency (FFF), at which the eye can no longer distinguish a flickering light from a constant light of equal intensity at different luminances...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778069/behavioral-responses-of-zebrafish-depend-on-the-type-of-threatening-chemical-cues
#6
Murilo S Abreu, Ana Cristina V Giacomini, Darlan Gusso, Gessi Koakoski, Thiago A Oliveira, Alessandra Marqueze, Rodrigo Egydio Barreto, Leonardo J G Barcellos
In fish, defensive reactions are induced by different chemical cues that emanate from sense-related stresses [physical, chemical, and visual (visual contact with predator)] or food stresses (acute fasting and chronic food restriction). Using a shuttle box with a two-chamber unmixed laminar flow that allowed fish to remain or flee from a chemical cue, we showed that the avoidance response depended on the type of the chemical cue. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) retreated from water conditioned with chemical cues released by chemically or physically stressed fish and acutely fasted fish, but not from water with cues from fish experiencing visual contact with predatory fish or fish suffering from chronic food restriction...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766381/comparative-and-developmental-patterns-of-amphibious-auditory-function-in-salamanders
#7
Jeffrey N Zeyl, Carol E Johnston
Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766380/mathematical-analysis-of-the-homing-flights-of-pigeons-based-on-gps-tracks
#8
Ingo Schiffner, Susanne Denzau, Dennis Gehring, Roswitha Wiltschko
To analyse the effect of magnetic and olfactory deprivation on the homing flight of pigeons, we released birds from a familiar site with either their upper beak or their nostrils anaesthetized. The tracks were analysed by time lag embedding to calculate the short-term correlation dimension, a variable that reflects the degrees of freedom and thus the number of factors involved in a system. We found that higher natural fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field characterized by A P-indices of 8 and above caused a reduction of the correlation dimension of the control birds...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678397/budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus-do-not-hear-infrasound-the-audiogram-from-8%C3%A2-hz-to-10%C3%A2-khz
#9
Henry E Heffner, Gimseong Koay, Rickye S Heffner
The pure-tone thresholds of three budgerigars were determined from 8 Hz to 10 kHz. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m(2)), their hearing range extends 6.6 octaves from 77 Hz to 7.6 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 1.1 dB at 3 kHz. Unlike pigeons and chickens, budgerigars do not have better low-frequency hearing than humans. This difference implies anatomical, physiological, and ecological differences between birds that hear infrasound (so far, pigeons and chickens) and those that do not (budgerigars)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655343/rapid-mapping-of-compound-eye-visual-sampling-parameters-with-facets-a-highly-automated-wide-field-goniometer
#10
John K Douglass, Martin F Wehling
A highly automated goniometer instrument (called FACETS) has been developed to facilitate rapid mapping of compound eye parameters for investigating regional visual field specializations. The instrument demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing the complete field of view of an insect eye in a fraction of the time required if using non-motorized, non-computerized methods. Faster eye mapping makes it practical for the first time to employ sample sizes appropriate for testing hypotheses about the visual significance of interspecific differences in regional specializations...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796483/aerial-low-frequency-hearing-in-captive-and-free-ranging-harbour-seals-phoca-vitulina-measured-using-auditory-brainstem-responses
#11
Klaus Lucke, Gordon D Hastie, Kerstin Ternes, Bernie McConnell, Simon Moss, Deborah J F Russell, Heike Weber, Vincent M Janik
The hearing sensitivity of 18 free-ranging and 10 captive harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to aerial sounds was measured in the presence of typical environmental noise through auditory brainstem response measurements. A focus was put on the comparative hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. Low- and mid-frequency thresholds appeared to be elevated in both captive and free-ranging seals, but this is likely due to masking effects and limitations of the methodology used. The data also showed individual variability in hearing sensitivity with probable age-related hearing loss found in two old harbour seals...
December 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638304/how-females-of-chirping-and-trilling-field-crickets-integrate-the-what-and-where-of-male-acoustic-signals-during-decision-making
#12
Eileen Gabel, David A Gray, R Matthias Hennig
In crickets acoustic communication serves mate selection. Female crickets have to perceive and integrate male cues relevant for mate choice while confronted with several different signals in an acoustically diverse background. Overall female decisions are based on the attractiveness of the temporal pattern (informative about the 'what') and on signal intensity (informative about the 'where') of male calling songs. Here, we investigated how the relevant cues for mate choice are integrated during the decision process by females of five different species of chirping and trilling field crickets...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614771/avian-axons-undergo-wallerian-degeneration-after-injury-and-stress
#13
John C Bramley, Samantha V A Collins, Karen B Clark, William J Buchser
The integrity of long axons is essential for neural communication. Unfortunately, relatively minor stress to a neuron can cause extensive loss of this integrity. Axon degeneration is the cell-intrinsic program that actively deconstructs an axon after injury or damage. Although ultrastructural examination has revealed signs of axon degeneration in vivo, the occurrence and progression of axon degeneration in avian species have not yet been documented in vitro. Here, we use a novel cell culture system with primary embryonic zebra finch retinal ganglion cells to interrogate the properties of avian axon degeneration...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604699/effects-of-aging-on-the-food-intake-in-the-feeding-behavior-of-aplysia-kurodai
#14
Tatsumi Nagahama, Risa Abe, Yuki Enomoto, Atsuhiro Kashima
In wild Aplysia, the birthdate of animals can typically not be determined. Therefore, we sought a reliable index of old age by taking into consideration the distinguished Japanese seasons. Large amounts of eggs and dead bodies were present on the coast during and after the second half of May (MayS). Body mass decreased after May. We roughly classified animals collected before and after the MayS as mature and old animals. Plots of internalized shell length (S) against body mass (B) gave distinct best-fit curves for mature and old animals...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566319/species-specific-control-of-acoustic-gaze-by-echolocating-bats-rhinolophus-ferrumequinum-nippon-and-pipistrellus-abramus-during-flight
#15
Yasufumi Yamada, Shizuko Hiryu, Yoshiaki Watanabe
Based on the characteristics of the ultrasounds they produce, echolocating bats can be categorized into two main types: broadband FM (frequency modulated) and narrowband CF (constant frequency) echolocators. In this study, we recorded the echolocation behavior of a broadband FM (Pipistrellus abramus) and a narrowband CF echolocator species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) while they explored an unfamiliar space in a laboratory chamber. During flight, P. abramus smoothly shifted its acoustic gaze in relation to its flight direction, whereas R...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558791/visual-motion-detection-and-habitat-preference-in-anolis-lizards
#16
David S Steinberg, Manuel Leal
The perception of visual stimuli has been a major area of inquiry in sensory ecology, and much of this work has focused on coloration. However, for visually oriented organisms, the process of visual motion detection is often equally crucial to survival and reproduction. Despite the importance of motion detection to many organisms' daily activities, the degree of interspecific variation in the perception of visual motion remains largely unexplored. Furthermore, the factors driving this potential variation (e...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487785/neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria-sensitive-to-polarized-light-at-low-stimulus-elevations
#17
M Jerome Beetz, Keram Pfeiffer, Uwe Homberg
Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) sense the plane of dorsally presented polarized light through specialized dorsal eye regions that are likely adapted to exploit the polarization pattern of the blue sky for spatial orientation. Receptive fields of these dorsal rim photoreceptors and polarization-sensitive interneurons are directed toward the upper sky but may extend to elevations below 30°. Behavioral data, however, suggests that S. gregaria is even able to detect polarized light from ventral directions but physiological evidence for this is still lacking...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461115/vibration-transmission-through-sheet-webs-of-hobo-spiders-eratigena-agrestis-and-tangle-webs-of-western-black-widow-spiders-latrodectus-hesperus
#18
Samantha Vibert, Catherine Scott, Gerhard Gries
Web-building spiders construct their own vibratory signaling environments. Web architecture should affect signal design, and vice versa, such that vibratory signals are transmitted with a minimum of attenuation and degradation. However, the web is the medium through which a spider senses both vibratory signals from courting males and cues produced by captured prey. Moreover, webs function not only in vibration transmission, but also in defense from predators and the elements. These multiple functions may impose conflicting selection pressures on web design...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518819/stingless-bees-meliponini-senses-and-behavior
#19
EDITORIAL
Michael Hrncir, Stefan Jarau, Friedrich G Barth
Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) are by far the largest group of eusocial bees on Earth. Due to the diversity of evolutionary responses to specific ecological challenges, the Meliponini are well suited for comparative studies of the various adaptations to the environment found in highly eusocial bees. Of particular interest are the physiological mechanisms underlying the sophisticated cooperative and collective actions of entire colonies, which form the basis of the ecological success of the different bee species under the particular conditions prevailing in their respective environment...
October 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495990/body-size-limits-dim-light-foraging-activity-in-stingless-bees-apidae-meliponini
#20
Martin Streinzer, Werner Huber, Johannes Spaethe
Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn...
October 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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