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Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment

Qiang Li, Keke Wang, Chang Su, Jieyu Fang
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Thus, there is a need for timely diagnosis and effective treatment. Our aim in the present study was to detect the serum level of trefoil factor 3 protein and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of trefoil factor 3 in patients with colorectal cancer. We collected serum samples from 204 participants (127 patients with colorectal cancer, 35 patients with polyps, and 42 healthy controls). The levels of serum trefoil factor 3 and carcinoembryonic antigen expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 19, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Nelson N Stone, Vladimir Mouraviev, David Schechter, Josh Goetz, M Scott Lucia, E Erin Smith, E David Crawford
OBJECTIVE: The biopsy needles currently used were designed for a transrectal biopsy and are known to experience significant deflection from the point of entry into the gland to the needle tip. METHODS: Five designs were selected for testing: 18-gauge Bard, 15-gauge lancet tip needle with 12° vet-point cannula, and trocar tip needle with 12°, 15°, and 20° vet-point cannulas. The 15-gauge needle was designed to take a variable specimen sample between 20 and 60 mm, whereas the Bard needle specimen bed was fixed at 20 mm...
October 5, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Hui Ding, Xianhua Gui, Xubo Lin, Ruhua Chen, Tieliang Ma, Yunlu Sheng, Hourong Cai, Yan Fen
The purpose of this study was to examine the MAC30 expression in non-small cell lung cancer and to evaluate its prognostic value on therapeutic response in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving postoperative chemotherapy. Among a total of 218 retrospective Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer, 164 patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the expression of MAC30 messenger RNA in 32 cases of non-small cell lung cancer tumors with the corresponding nontumor lung tissues...
September 29, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Scott R Silva, Murat Surucu, Jennifer Steber, Matthew M Harkenrider, Mehee Choi
OBJECTIVE: Radiation treatment planning for locally advanced lung cancer can be technically challenging, as delivery of ≥60 Gy to large volumes with concurrent chemotherapy is often associated with significant risk of normal tissue toxicity. We clinically implemented a novel hybrid RapidArc technique in patients with lung cancer and compared these plans with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and RapidArc-only plans. MATERIALS/METHODS: Hybrid RapidArc was used to treat 11 patients with locally advanced lung cancer having bulky mediastinal adenopathy...
September 28, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Ganesh Narayanasamy, Sotirios Stathakis, Alonso N Gutierrez, Evangelos Pappas, Richard Crownover, John R Floyd, Niko Papanikolaou
BACKGROUND: In this treatment planning study, we compare the plan quality and delivery parameters for the treatment of multiple brain metastases using 2 monoisocentric techniques: the Multiple Metastases Element from Brainlab and the RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy from Varian Medical Systems. METHODS: Eight patients who were treated in our institution for multiple metastases (3-7 lesions) were replanned with Multiple Metastases Element using noncoplanar dynamic conformal arcs...
September 9, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Xiaojun Liu, Dong Chen, Jiamei Liu, Zhangtao Chu, Dongli Liu
Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified...
September 7, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Rahul Mehta, Kejia Cai, Nishant Kumar, M Grace Knuttinen, Thomas M Anderson, Hui Lu, Yang Lu
We present a probabilistic approach to identify patients with primary and secondary hepatic malignancies as responders or nonresponders to yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy. Recent advances in computer-aided detection have decreased false-negative and false-positive rates of perceived abnormalities; however, there is limited research in using similar concepts to predict treatment response. Our approach is driven by the goal of precision medicine to determine pretherapy fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging parameters to facilitate the identification of patients who would benefit most from yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy, while avoiding complex and costly procedures for those who would not...
September 6, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Hao Xu, Stephen Brown, Indrin J Chetty, Ning Wen
PURPOSE: To determine the localization uncertainties associated with 2-dimensional/3-dimensional image registration in comparison to 3-dimensional/3-dimensional image registration in 6 dimensions on a Varian Edge Linac under various imaging conditions. METHODS: The systematic errors in 6 dimensions were assessed by comparing automatic 2-dimensional/3-dimensional (kV/MV vs computed tomography) with 3-dimensional/3-dimensional (cone beam computed tomography vs computed tomography) image registrations under various conditions encountered in clinical applications...
August 31, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Mu Zhang, Chen Chen, Feng Su, Zhiguo Huang, Xiangmin Li, Xiaogang Li
Low-dose metronomic chemotherapy represents a new strategy for solid tumor treatments with a strong antiangiogenic activity and few side effects. However, low-dose metronomic therapy alone is not always as effective as traditional chemotherapy on eradication of tumor. On the contrary, low-dose metronomic in some cases could stimulate tumor growth due to hypoxia of tumor cells induced during therapy. Our study aimed to investigate whether knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor cell could facilitate low-dose metronomic therapy with paclitaxel for human colon cancer...
August 29, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Lasse L Nonboe, Tommy K Nielsen, Søren Høyer, Ole Graumann, Jørgen Frøkiær, Michael Borre
INTRODUCTION: The minimally invasive treatment of small renal masses with cryoablation has become increasingly widespread during the past 15 years. Studies with long-term follow-up are beginning to emerge, showing good oncological control, however, tumors with a central and endophytic location seem to possess an increased risk of treatment failure. Such tumors are likely to be subjected to a high volume of blood giving thermal protection to the cancerous cells. Arterial clamping during freezing might reduce this effect but at the same time subject the kidney to ischemia...
August 25, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jing Bian, Xu Xiao Sun, Bo Li, Liang Ming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Shiming Shi, Zhaochong Zeng, Luxi Ye, Yan Huang, Jian He
Radiation pneumonitis is the most frequent acute pulmonary toxicity following stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer. Here, we investigate clinical and dosimetric factors associated with symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. A total of 67 patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer who received stereotactic body radiation therapy at our institution were enrolled, and their clinicopathological parameters and dosimetric parameters were recorded and analyzed...
August 11, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Luguang Zhao, Dan He, Mengmeng Jiao, Lingshuo Kong, Chunkui Shao, Junli Chen, Zhigang Fang, Xiaohui Ma, Huifang Chen, Lin Li, Si Luo, Na Zheng, Yunbo Chen, Qi Wang, Shuhuan Fang
Epigenetic modifications are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer, and histone deacetylase inhibitors are considered potential therapeutic agents. Histone tails undergo acetylation at lysine residues, which is associated with transcriptional activation. However, previous studies indicated that as histone deacetylase inhibitors, both (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and valproic acid presented the effects of downregulation of amyloid precursor protein expression, which resulted in the induction of apoptosis...
August 9, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Murat Surucu, Karan K Shah, John C Roeske, Mehee Choi, William Small, Bahman Emami
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of adaptive radiotherapy on dosimetric, clinical, and toxicity outcomes for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with advanced head and neck cancer underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the original plan optimized to deliver 70.2 Gy. All patients were resimulated at a median dose of 37.8 Gy (range, 27.0-48.6 Gy) due to changes in tumor volume and/or patient weight loss (>15% from baseline)...
August 8, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jasmine A Oliver, Mikalai Budzevich, Dylan Hunt, Eduardo G Moros, Kujtim Latifi, Thomas J Dilling, Vladimir Feygelman, Geoffrey Zhang
The effect of noise on image features has yet to be studied in depth. Our objective was to explore how significantly image features are affected by the addition of uncorrelated noise to an image. The signal-to-noise ratio and noise power spectrum were calculated for a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanner using a Ge-68 phantom. The conventional and respiratory-gated positron emission tomography/computed tomography images of 31 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively examined. Multiple sets of noise images were created for each original image by adding Gaussian noise of varying standard deviation equal to 2...
August 8, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Vedang Murthy, Shirley Lewis, Mayur Sawant, Siji N Paul, Umesh Mahantshetty, Shyam Kishore Shrivastava
OBJECTIVES: Pelvic lymph nodal regions receive an incidental dose from conformal treatment of the prostate. This study was conducted to investigate the doses received by the different pelvic nodal regions with varying techniques used for prostate radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty patients of high-risk node-negative prostate cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the prostate alone were studied. Replanning was done for intensity-modulated radiotherapy, 3-dimensional conformal treatment, and 2-dimensional conventional radiotherapy with additional delineation of the pelvic nodal regions, namely, common iliac (upper and lower), presacral, internal iliac, obturator, and external iliac...
August 4, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Michael Chan, Kristopher Dennis, Yuexi Huang, Charles Mougenot, Edward Chow, Carlo DeAngelis, Jennifer Coccagna, Arjun Sahgal, Kullervo Hynynen, Gregory Czarnota, William Chu
BACKGROUND: Bone is one of the most common sites of metastases, with bone metastases-related pain representing a significant source of morbidity among patients with cancer. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound is a noninvasive, outpatient modality with the potential for treating painful bone metastases. The aim of this study is to report our initial experience with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound in the treatment of bone metastases and our preliminary analysis of urinary cytokine levels after therapy...
August 1, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Xin Zhou, Kun Yao, Lang Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yin Han, Hui-Ling Liu, Xiang-Wen Liu, Gang Su, Wen-Zhen Yuan, Xiao-Dong Wei, Quan-Lin Guan, Bing-Dong Zhu
There is a significant correlation between the degree of tumor differentiation and the survival of patients with gastric cancers. In this report, we compared proteomic differences between poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma tissues in order to identify differentiation-related proteins that may be closely correlated with differentiation of gastric cancer pathogenesis. We identified 7 proteins, of which calreticulin precursor, tapasinERP57 heterodimer, pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 isoform M2, class Pi glutathione S-transferase, and chain A crystal structure of human enolase 1 were upregulated in poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma compared with well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma, while myosin-11 isoform SM2A and actin alpha cardiac were downregulated...
October 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Rachel McDonald, Linda Probyn, Ian Poon, Darby Erler, Drew Brotherston, Hany Soliman, Patrick Cheung, Hans Chung, William Chu, Andrew Loblaw, Nemica Thavarajah, Catherine Lang, Lee Chin, Edward Chow, Arjun Sahgal
INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic body radiation therapy allows for the precise delivery of high-dose radiation to disease sites and is becoming increasingly used to treat nonspine bone metastases. Previous studies have shown that remineralization of lytic bone metastases follows after conventional radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in bone density in nonspine bone metastases following stereotactic body radiation therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted for all patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy to nonspine bone metastases between May 2011 and April 2014...
October 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Liel Rubinsky, Enric Guenther, Paul Mikus, Michael Stehling, Boris Rubinsky
Nonthermal irreversible electroporation is a new tissue ablation technique that consists of applying pulsed electric fields across cells to induce cell death by creating permanent defects in the cell membrane. Nonthermal irreversible electroporation is of interest because it allows treatment near sensitive tissue structures such as blood vessels and nerves. Two recent articles report that electrolytic reaction products at electrodes can be combined with electroporation pulses to augment and optimize tissue ablation...
October 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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