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Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment

Radwan Qasrawi, Louis Silve, Fernando Burdío, Ziad Abdeen, Antoni Ivorra
Irreversible electroporation is a novel tissue ablation technique which entails delivering intense electrical pulses to target tissue, hence producing fatal defects in the cell membrane. The present study numerically analyzes the potential impact of liver blood vessels on ablation by irreversible electroporation because of their influence on the electric field distribution. An anatomically realistic computer model of the liver and its vasculature within an abdominal section was employed, and blood vessels down to 0...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Anna K Paulsson, Sue S Yom, Mekhail Anwar, Dilini Pinnaduwage, Atchar Sudhyadhom, Alexander R Gottschalk, Albert J Chang, Martina Descovich
Stereotactic body radiation therapy is a well-tolerated modality for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver lesions, and fiducials are often used as surrogates for tumor tracking during treatment. We evaluated respiratory-induced liver deformation by measuring the rigidity of the fiducial configuration during the breathing cycle. Seventeen patients, with 18 distinct treatment courses, were treated with stereotactic body radiosurgery using multiple fiducials. Liver deformation was empirically quantified by measuring the intrafiducial distances at different phases of respiration...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Wenjuan Chen, Penggang Bai, Jianji Pan, Yuanji Xu, Kaiqiang Chen
PURPOSE: To assess changes in the volumes and spatial locations of tumors and surrounding organs by cone beam computed tomography during treatment for cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with cervical cancer had intensity-modulated radiotherapy and off-line cone beam computed tomography during chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV-T) and clinical target volumes (CTVs) were contoured on the planning computed tomography and weekly cone beam computed tomography image, and changes in volumes and spatial locations were evaluated using the volume difference method and Dice similarity coefficients...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Reza Agheli, Bijan Emkanian, Raheleh Halabian, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
BACKGROUND: About 20 different types of staphylococcal enterotoxins are produced by Staphylococcus aureus, in which type A is more common in food poisoning syndrome. Also staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a potent inducer of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and cytokine production and could stimulate T cells containing T-cell receptor beta chain domains when binding to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Hence, it is an important reagent in cancer immunotherapy...
November 23, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jianying Zeng, Guifeng Liu, Zhong-Hai Li, Yi Yang, Gang Fang, Rong-Rong Li, Ke-Cheng Xu, Lizhi Niu
This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of irreversible electroporation ablation for unresectable large liver cancer. Fourteen patients were enrolled: 8 with large hepatocellular carcinoma (tumor diameter: 5.1-11.5 cm) and 6 with medium hepatocellular carcinoma (tumor diameter: 3.0-4.1 cm). All patients received percutaneous irreversible electroporation ablation. Ablation time and the incidence of complications were assessed by a t test. Post-irreversible electroporation and regular contrast-enhanced computerized tomography scans were performed to investigate the effect of tumor size (large vs medium) on irreversible electroporation treatment efficacy; 4-table data were assessed using a Fisher exact test...
November 11, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Haiping Liu, Dan Lyu, Yan Zhang, Lianbing Sheng, Ning Tang
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death among females in less developed countries. Studies have shown that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin 6 might be associated with cervical cancer risk. A total of 710 articles from EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of science, PubMed, Springer link, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were reviewed in our study. A meta-analysis on the associations between interleukin 6 rs1800795 polymorphism and cervical cancer risk was carried out by comparison using 5 genetic models...
October 24, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Fei Wang, Dapeng Yu, Zhen Liu, Ruijie Wang, Yan Xu, Haiyin Cui, Tingbao Zhao
MicroRNAs are highly conserved noncoding RNA that negatively modulate protein expression at a posttranscriptional and/or translational level and are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers. To date, the potential microRNAs regulating the growth and progression of osteosarcoma are not fully identified yet. Previous reports have shown differentially expressed miR-125b in osteosarcoma. However, the role of miR-125b in human osteosarcoma has not been totally illuminated. In this study, we have shown that miR-125b was downregulated in human osteosarcoma tissues compared to the adjacent tissues and effects as a tumor suppressor in vitro We found that stable overexpression of miR-125b in osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and MG-63 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Sathiyan Saminathan, Henry Finlay Godson, Retna Ponmalar, Ravikumar Manickam, James Mazarello, Rahul Fernandes
Dose measurement with ionization chamber is essential to deliver accurate dose to the tumor in radiotherapy. The cylindrical Farmer-type ionization chamber is recommended by various dosimetry protocols for dose measurement of radiotherapy beams. The air-equivalent graphite wall Farmer-type ionization chamber (FAR 65 GB) of active volume 0.65 cm(3) with aluminum as the central electrode material was fabricated. Various dosimetric parameters were studied for the newly developed ionization chamber in cobalt-60, 6 and 18 MV photon beams...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
L C G G Persoon, M Podesta, S M J J G Nijsten, E G C Troost, F Verhaegen
PURPOSE: It is desirable that dosimetric deviations during radiation treatments are detected. Integrated transit planar dosimetry is commonly used to evaluate external beam treatments such as volumetric-modulated arc therapy. This work focuses on patient geometry changes which result in differences between the planned and the delivered radiation dose. Integrated transit planar dosimetry will average out some deviations. Novel time-resolved transit planar dosimetry compares the delivered dose of volumetric-modulated arc therapy to the planned dose at various time points...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Zhang Kun, Yang Yuling, Wang Dongchun, Xie Bingbing, Li Xiaoli, Xu Bin
Pituitary adenomas usually develop temozolomide resistance, which could compromise the anticancer effects of temozolomide. Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α has been shown to sensitize glioblastoma cells to temozolomide treatment according to previous reports. However, whether and how the suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α could sensitize pituitary adenomas to temozolomide treatment are still poorly understood. In the present study, using hypoxia-inducible factor 1α knockdown strategy, we demonstrated for the first time that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α knockdown could inhibit temozolomide-induced autophagy in rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and thus increase antitumor efficacy of temozolomide...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Huihui Hu, Jin Zhao, Man Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expressions of annexin A2 in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer tissues, we want to find the relationship among annexin A2, drug resistance, and recurrence of bladder cancer. METHODS: Our laboratory established the PUMC-91 bladder cancer cell line against gradient concentration of Adriamycin (0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 μg/mL), and we also collected 60 cases of surgically resected bladder cancer recurrent tissue samples. The tissues were classified into 2 groups according to the frequency of recurrence (<6 months and >2 years) after initial surgery...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Mark Korpics, Paul Johnson, Rakesh Patel, Murat Surucu, Mehee Choi, Bahman Emami, John C Roeske
PURPOSE: To evaluate a method for reducing metal artifacts, arising from dental fillings, on cone-beam computed tomography images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A projection interpolation algorithm is applied to cone-beam computed tomography images containing metal artifacts from dental fillings. This technique involves identifying metal regions in individual cone-beam computed tomography projections and interpolating the surrounding values to remove the metal from the projection data...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Zhong-Yang Wang, Hong-Yan Li, Zongpei Jiang, Tian-Biao Zhou, Gregor P C Drummen
Published reports on the relationship between GSTM1 gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk are heterogeneous in their conclusions, and the significance of these polymorphisms is still debated. This meta-analysis was performed to attempt to combine comparable studies, thereby increasing sample size and statistical significance in order to obtain a better evaluation of the association between GSTM1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. The association investigations were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and China Biological Medicine Database on March 1, 2014...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Joost Mathijs Verburg, Clemens Grassberger, Stephen Dowdell, Jan Schuemann, Joao Seco, Harald Paganetti
Simulations of clinical proton radiotherapy treatment plans using general purpose Monte Carlo codes have been proven to be a valuable tool for basic research and clinical studies. They have been used to benchmark dose calculation methods, to study radiobiological effects, and to develop new technologies such as in vivo range verification methods. Advancements in the availability of computational power have made it feasible to perform such simulations on large sets of patient data, resulting in a need for automated and consistent simulations...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Sabbir Hossain, Vance Keeling, Kimberly Hildebrand, Salahuddin Ahmad, David A Larson, Arjun Sahgal, Lijun Ma
Recent studies have reported about the application of volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple brain metastases. One of the key concerns for these radiosurgical treatments lies in the integral dose within the normal brain tissue, as it has been shown to increase with increasing number of brain tumors treated. In this study, we investigate the potential to improve normal brain tissue sparing specific to volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy by increasing the number of isocenters and arc beams...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
David C P Cobben, Hans C J de Boer, Rob H Tijssen, Emma G G M Rutten, Marco van Vulpen, Jurgen Peerlings, Esther G C Troost, Aswin L Hoffmann, Astrid L H M W van Lier
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent soft-tissue contrast and allows for specific scanning sequences to optimize differentiation between various tissue types and properties. Moreover, it offers the potential for real-time motion imaging. This makes magnetic resonance imaging an ideal candidate imaging modality for radiation treatment planning in lung cancer. Although the number of clinical research protocols for the application of magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer treatment is increasing (www...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Anjali Sehrawat, Robert Keelan, Kenji Shimada, Dona M Wilfong, James T McCormick, Yoed Rabin
A proof-of-concept for an advanced-level computerized training tool for cryosurgery is demonstrated, based on three-dimensional cryosurgery simulations and a variable insertion depth strategy for cryoprobes. The objective for system development is two-fold: to identify a cryoprobe layout in order to best match a planning isotherm with the target region shape and to verify that cryoprobe placement does not violate accepted geometric constraints. System validation has been performed by collecting training data from 17 surgical residents having no prior experience or advanced knowledge of cryosurgery...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Ni Xin-Ye, Lei Ren, Hui Yan, Fang-Fang Yin
PURPOSE: This study aimed to detect the sensitivity of Delt 4 on ordinary field multileaf collimator misalignments, system misalignments, random misalignments, and misalignments caused by gravity of the multileaf collimator in stereotactic body radiation therapy. METHODS: (1) Two field sizes, including 2.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y) and 7.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y), were set. The leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator were simultaneously opened. (2) Three cases of stereotactic body radiation therapy of spinal tumor were used...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Leping Li, Ying Guo, Yuezhi Chen, Jinshen Wang, Lei Zhen, Xiaobo Guo, Jinglei Liu, Changqing Jing
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide in terms of both incidence and mortality. The associations of expressions of tissue and plasma miR-29b were not detected in this study. METHODS: There are 400 healthy age- and gender-matched controls enrolled in this study in a rate of 1:2. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was undertaken using the expression level for miR-29b in the colorectal cancer specimens from patients with cancer and healthy controls to assess the diagnostic accuracy of both tissue and plasma miR-29b levels...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Yan Liu, Tingting Bi, Wei Dai, Gang Wang, Liqiang Qian, Genhai Shen, Quangen Gao
Lupeol, a dietary triterpene present in many fruits and medicinal plants, has been reported to possess many pharmacological properties including anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo However, the activity of lupeol against osteosarcoma remains unclear. The present study is conducted to investigate the anticancer activity and the underlying mechanisms of lupeol on human osteosarcoma cells (MNNG/HOS and MG-63) in vitro and in vivo MNNG/HOS and MG-63 cells were treated by lupeol and subjected to methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium analysis, Hoechst staining, annexin V/propidium iodide double staining, cell cycle analysis, and Western blot analysis...
December 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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