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Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment

Jan Seppälä, Sami Suilamo, Mikko Tenhunen, Liisa Sailas, Heli Virsunen, Erna Kaleva, Jani Keyriläinen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric characteristics, monitor unit, and delivery efficiency of 4 different stereotactic body radiotherapy techniques for the treatment of prostate cancer. METHODS: This study included 8 patients with localized prostate cancer. Dosimetric assets of 4 delivery techniques for stereotactic body radiotherapy were evaluated: robotic CyberKnife, noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 2 intensity-modulated arc therapy techniques (RapidArc and Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy)...
April 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Joe H Chang, Arnjeet Sangha, Derek Hyde, Hany Soliman, Sten Myrehaug, Mark Ruschin, Young Lee, Arjun Sahgal, Renee Korol
The aim of this study is to determine whether stereotactic body radiotherapy for multiple vertebral metastases treated with a single isocenter results in greater intrafraction errors than stereotactic body radiotherapy for single vertebral metastases and to determine whether the currently used spinal cord planning organ at risk volume and planning target volume margins are appropriate. Intrafraction errors were assessed for 65 stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments for vertebral metastases. Cone beam computed tomography images were acquired before, during, and after treatment for each fraction...
April 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jiatong Li, Feifan Xiao, Yuening Zhang, Aihua Lan, Qian Song, Ruoheng Zhang, Kailong Gu, Ping Chen, Zhuo Li, Xinhua Zhang, Xiaoli Yang
The association between the polymorphic GGN repeat in androgen receptor gene and prostate cancer susceptibility has been studied extensively. But the results of these polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk remain inconclusive. Previous meta-analysis showed short GGN repeats (≤16 repeats) had high risks for prostate cancer compared with longer GGN repeats (>16 repeats). Many studies have been published since the release of the previous meta-analysis. Here, we conducted an updated meta-analysis to demonstrate whether short repeats have higher risks for prostate cancer compared to long repeats...
April 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Wenjuan Chen, Penggang Bai, Jianji Pan, Yuanji Xu, Kaiqiang Chen
PURPOSE: To assess changes in the volumes and spatial locations of tumors and surrounding organs by cone beam computed tomography during treatment for cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with cervical cancer had intensity-modulated radiotherapy and off-line cone beam computed tomography during chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV-T) and clinical target volumes (CTVs) were contoured on the planning computed tomography and weekly cone beam computed tomography image, and changes in volumes and spatial locations were evaluated using the volume difference method and Dice similarity coefficients...
April 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Scott R Silva, Murat Surucu, Jennifer Steber, Matthew M Harkenrider, Mehee Choi
OBJECTIVE: Radiation treatment planning for locally advanced lung cancer can be technically challenging, as delivery of ≥60 Gy to large volumes with concurrent chemotherapy is often associated with significant risk of normal tissue toxicity. We clinically implemented a novel hybrid RapidArc technique in patients with lung cancer and compared these plans with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and RapidArc-only plans. MATERIALS/METHODS: Hybrid RapidArc was used to treat 11 patients with locally advanced lung cancer having bulky mediastinal adenopathy...
April 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Mei Cao, Panpan Qi, Chong Chen, Liju Song, Xuege Wang, Ningzhe Li, Daoyan Wu, Guoku Hu, Jian Zhao
Aurora kinase B, playing a vital, important role in mitosis, is frequently detected to be overexpressed in many cancer cell lines and various tumor tissues, including prostatic carcinoma. Given the essential function of Aurora kinase B in mitosis and its association with tumorigenesis, it might be a drug target for prostatic carcinoma treatment. In our study, short hairpin RNA targeting Aurora kinase B was cloned into a pGPU6 plasmid vector and then transfected into human prostatic carcinoma cells. The expression level of Aurora kinase B was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Reza Agheli, Bijan Emkanian, Raheleh Halabian, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
BACKGROUND: About 20 different types of staphylococcal enterotoxins are produced by Staphylococcus aureus, in which type A is more common in food poisoning syndrome. Also staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a potent inducer of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and cytokine production and could stimulate T cells containing T-cell receptor beta chain domains when binding to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Hence, it is an important reagent in cancer immunotherapy...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jianying Zeng, Guifeng Liu, Zhong-Hai Li, Yi Yang, Gang Fang, Rong-Rong Li, Ke-Cheng Xu, Lizhi Niu
This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of irreversible electroporation ablation for unresectable large liver cancer. Fourteen patients were enrolled: 8 with large hepatocellular carcinoma (tumor diameter: 5.1-11.5 cm) and 6 with medium hepatocellular carcinoma (tumor diameter: 3.0-4.1 cm). All patients received percutaneous irreversible electroporation ablation. Ablation time and the incidence of complications were assessed by a t test. Post-irreversible electroporation and regular contrast-enhanced computerized tomography scans were performed to investigate the effect of tumor size (large vs medium) on irreversible electroporation treatment efficacy; 4-table data were assessed using a Fisher exact test...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Qing-Qing Ma, Jian-Ting Huang, Yun-Gang Xiong, Xiao-Yan Yang, Ran Han, Wang-Wen Zhu
Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor, presents a dismal prognosis. MicroRNAs play a critical role in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of cancer; however, the potential biological role of miRNAs in glioblastoma multiforme remains largely unknown. In our study, we found that microRNA-96 is upregulated in glioma tissues than in normal human brains. Transfection of microRNA-96 mimics into glioma cells significantly decreases apoptosis by suppressing PDCD4, a well-known tumor suppressor that is involved in apoptosis...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Hong Zhang, Vic Kong, Ke Huang, Jian-Yue Jin
PURPOSE: To present our experiences in understanding and minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a clinical cone beam computed tomography system. METHODS: Bowtie-filter position and profile variations during gantry rotation were studied. Two previously proposed strategies (A and B) were applied to the clinical cone beam computed tomography system to correct bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. Physical calibration and analytical approaches were used to minimize the norm phantom misalignment and to correct for bowtie-filter normalization artifacts...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jinbo Ma, Zhaoyang Wang, Chengde Wang, Ercheng Chen, Yaozong Dong, Yipeng Song, Wei Wang, Dong You, Wei Jiang, Rukun Zang
BACKGROUND: To determine whether individualized radiation dose escalation after planned chemoradiation based on the decrease in tumor and normal tissue constraints can improve survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: From August 2005 to December 2010, 112 patients with squamous esophageal carcinoma were treated with radical concurrent chemoradiation. Patients received positron emission tomography-computer tomography scan twice, before radiation and after radiation dose of 50...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Robert Keelan, Kenji Shimada, Yoed Rabin
This study presents an efficient computational technique for the simulation of ultrasound imaging artifacts associated with cryosurgery based on nonlinear ray tracing. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, with prostate cryosurgery as a development model. The capability of performing virtual cryosurgical procedures on a variety of test cases is essential for effective surgical training. Simulated ultrasound imaging artifacts include reverberation and reflection of the cryoprobes in the unfrozen tissue, reflections caused by the freezing front, shadowing caused by the frozen region, and tissue property changes in repeated freeze-thaw cycles procedures...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
B G Muller, A Swaan, D M de Bruin, W van den Bos, A W Schreurs, D J Faber, E C H Zwartkruis, L Rozendaal, A N Vis, J A Nieuwenhuijzen, R J A van Moorselaar, T G van Leeuwen, J J M C H de la Rosette
OBJECTIVE: To design and demonstrate a customized tool to generate histologic sections of the prostate that directly correlate with needle-based optical coherence tomography pullback measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A customized tool was created to hold the prostatectomy specimens during optical coherence tomography measurements and formalin fixation. Using the tool, the prostate could be sliced into slices of 4 mm thickness through the optical coherence tomography measurement trajectory...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Yandong Nan, Jie Du, Lijie Ma, Hua Jiang, Faguang Jin, Shuanying Yang
A specific protein profile that accompanies neoplastic transformation in the premalignant airway epithelium could provide an opportunity for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to screen and identify early candidate biomarkers of non-small cell lung cancer. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer samples were obtained within 30 minutes after a surgical resection. Laser capture microdissection was performed to enrich the normal lung cell and squamous metaplasia or atypical adenomatous hyperplasia cell populations...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Adil S Akthar, Mark K Ferguson, Matthew Koshy, Wickii T Vigneswaran, Renuka Malik
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer are typically staged clinically with positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Currently, limited data exist for the detection of occult hilar/peribronchial (N1) disease. We hypothesize that positron emission tomography-computed tomography underestimates spread of cancer to N1 lymph nodes and that future stereotactic body radiotherapy patients may benefit from increased pathologic evaluation of N1 nodal stations in addition to N2 nodes...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Sunil Sharma, Ganesh Narayanasamy, Beata Przybyla, Jessica Webber, Marjan Boerma, Richard Clarkson, Eduardo G Moros, Peter M Corry, Robert J Griffin
We have developed a small animal conformal radiation therapy device that provides a degree of geometrical/anatomical targeting comparable to what is achievable in a commercial animal irradiator. small animal conformal radiation therapy device is capable of producing precise and accurate conformal delivery of radiation to target as well as for imaging small animals. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Zeping Han, Baoxia Li, Juanjuan Wang, Xiangqiang Zhang, Zhenhua Li, Liting Dai, Mingrong Cao, Jianwei Jiang
Norcantharidin, a low-toxic analog of the active anticancer compound cantharidin in Mylabris, can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of multiple types of cancer cells. However, the anticancer activities of norcantharidin with respect to neuroblastoma, and its underlying mechanisms, have not been investigated. Therefore, our study was designed to determine the efficacy of norcantharidin on SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell death and to elucidate detailed mechanisms of activity. In the present study, norcantharidin suppressed the proliferation and cloning ability of SK-N-SH cells in a dose-dependent manner, apparently by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential and arresting SK-N-SH cells at the G2/M stage, accompanied by elevated expressions of p21 and decreased expressions of cyclin B1 and cell division control 2...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Steve Walston, Allison M Quick, Karla Kuhn, Yi Rong
PURPOSE: To present our clinical workflow of incorporating AlignRT for left breast deep inspiration breath-hold treatments and the dosimetric considerations with the deep inspiration breath-hold protocol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with stage I to III left-sided breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy were considered candidates for deep inspiration breath-hold technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold computed tomography for each patient to determine whether deep inspiration breath-hold was beneficial based on dosimetric comparison...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Saber Nankali, Ahmad Esmaili Torshabi, Payam Samadi Miandoab
At external beam radiotherapy for some tumors located at thorax region due to lack of information in gray scale fluoroscopic images tumor position determination is problematic. One of the clinical strategies is to implant clip as internal fiducial marker inside or near tumor to represent tumor position while the contrast of implanted clip is highly observable rather than tumor. As alternative, using natural anatomical landmarks located at thorax region of patient body is proposed to extract tumor position information without implanting clips that is invasive method with possible side effect...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Lu Sun, Baolin Qu, Jinyuan Wang, Zhongjian Ju, Zizhong Zhang, Zhiqiang Cui, Yang Jack, Zhipei Ling, Xinguang Yu, Longsheng Pan
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of the integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging tractography data into CyberKnife radiosurgery for intracranial tumor management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional neuroimaging, anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography images of patients with brain lesions in critical areas were acquired before radiosurgery. The acquired data sets were coregistered using the MIM image fusion software module and then were imported into the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Multiplan 4...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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