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Annual Review of Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142283/the-role-of-plant-innate-immunity-in-the-legume-rhizobium-symbiosis
#1
Yangrong Cao, Morgan K Halane, Walter Gassmann, Gary Stacey
A classic view of the evolution of mutualism is that it derives from a pathogenic relationship that attenuated over time to a situation in which both partners can benefit. If this is the case for rhizobia, then one might uncover features of the symbiosis that reflect this earlier pathogenic state. For example, as with plant pathogens, it is now generally assumed that rhizobia actively suppress the host immune response to allow infection and symbiosis establishment. Likewise, the host has retained mechanisms to control the nutrient supply to the symbionts and the number of nodules so that they do not become too burdensome...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142282/trade-offs-between-plant-growth-and-defense-against-insect-herbivory-an-emerging-mechanistic-synthesis
#2
Tobias Züst, Anurag A Agrawal
Costs of defense are central to our understanding of interactions between organisms and their environment, and defensive phenotypes of plants have long been considered to be constrained by trade-offs that reflect the allocation of limiting resources. Recent advances in uncovering signal transduction networks have revealed that defense trade-offs are often the result of regulatory "decisions" by the plant, enabling it to fine-tune its phenotype in response to diverse environmental challenges. We place these results in the context of classic studies in ecology and evolutionary biology, and propose a unifying framework for growth-defense trade-offs as a means to study the plant's allocation of limiting resources...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125283/plastoglobuli-plastid-microcompartments-with-integrated-functions-in-metabolism-plastid-developmental-transitions-and-environmental-adaptation
#3
Klaas J van Wijk, Felix Kessler
Plastoglobuli (PGs) are plastid lipoprotein particles surrounded by a membrane lipid monolayer. PGs contain small specialized proteomes and metabolomes. They are present in different plastid types (e.g., chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and elaioplasts) and are dynamic in size and shape in response to abiotic stress or developmental transitions. PGs in chromoplasts are highly enriched in carotenoid esters and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism. PGs in chloroplasts are associated with thylakoids and contain ∼30 core proteins (including six ABC1 kinases) as well as additional proteins recruited under specific conditions...
January 25, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125287/guilt-by-association-a-phenotype-based-view-of-the-plant-phosphoinositide-network
#4
Katharina Gerth, Feng Lin, Wilhelm Menzel, Praveen Krishnamoorthy, Irene Stenzel, Mareike Heilmann, Ingo Heilmann
Eukaryotic membranes contain small amounts of phospholipids that have regulatory effects on the physiological functions of cells, tissues, and organs. Phosphoinositides (PIs)-the phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol-are one example of such regulatory lipids. Although PIs were described in plants decades ago, their contribution to the regulation of physiological processes in plants is not well understood. In the past few years, evidence has emerged that PIs are essential for plant function and development...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125286/plant-biodiversity-change-across-scales-during-the-anthropocene
#5
Mark Vellend, Lander Baeten, Antoine Becker-Scarpitta, Véronique Boucher-Lalonde, Jenny L McCune, Julie Messier, Isla H Myers-Smith, Dov F Sax
Plant communities have undergone dramatic changes in recent centuries, although not all such changes fit with the dominant biodiversity-crisis narrative used to describe them. At the global scale, future declines in plant species diversity are highly likely given habitat conversion in the tropics, although few extinctions have been documented for the Anthropocene to date (<0.1%). Nonnative species introductions have greatly increased plant species richness in many regions of the world at the same time that they have led to the creation of new hybrid polyploid species by bringing previously isolated congeners into close contact...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125285/the-life-and-death-of-a-plant-cell
#6
Mehdi Kabbage, Ryan Kessens, Lyric C Bartholomay, Brett Williams
Like all eukaryotic organisms, plants possess an innate program for controlled cellular demise termed programmed cell death (PCD). Despite the functional conservation of PCD across broad evolutionary distances, an understanding of the molecular machinery underpinning this fundamental program in plants remains largely elusive. As in mammalian PCD, the regulation of plant PCD is critical to development, homeostasis, and proper responses to stress. Evidence is emerging that autophagy is key to the regulation of PCD in plants and that it can dictate the outcomes of PCD execution under various scenarios...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125284/biogenesis-and-metabolic-maintenance-of-rubisco
#7
Andreas Bracher, Spencer M Whitney, F Ulrich Hartl, Manajit Hayer-Hartl
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) mediates the fixation of atmospheric CO2 in photosynthesis by catalyzing the carboxylation of the 5-carbon sugar ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP). Rubisco is a remarkably inefficient enzyme, fixing only 2-10 CO2 molecules per second. Efforts to increase crop yields by bioengineering Rubisco remain unsuccessful, owing in part to the complex cellular machinery required for Rubisco biogenesis and metabolic maintenance. The large subunit of Rubisco requires the chaperonin system for folding, and recent studies have shown that assembly of hexadecameric Rubisco is mediated by specific assembly chaperones...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125282/phloem-mobile-rnas-as-systemic-signaling-agents
#8
Byung-Kook Ham, William J Lucas
The plant vascular system plays a central role in coordinating physiological and developmental events through delivery of both essential nutrients and long-distance signaling agents. The enucleate phloem sieve tube system of the angiosperms contains a broad spectrum of RNA species. Grafting and transcriptomics studies have indicated that several thousand mRNAs move long distances from source organs to meristematic sink tissues. Ribonucleoprotein complexes play a pivotal role as stable RNA-delivery systems for systemic translocation of cargo RNA...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125281/strigolactone-signaling-and-evolution
#9
Mark T Waters, Caroline Gutjahr, Tom Bennett, David C Nelson
Strigolactones are a structurally diverse class of plant hormones that control many aspects of shoot and root growth. Strigolactones are also exuded by plants into the rhizosphere, where they promote symbiotic interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and germination of root parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae family. Therefore, understanding how strigolactones are made, transported, and perceived may lead to agricultural innovations as well as a deeper knowledge of how plants function. Substantial progress has been made in these areas over the past decade...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125280/the-structural-basis-of-ligand-perception-and-signal-activation-by-receptor-kinases
#10
Ulrich Hohmann, Kelvin Lau, Michael Hothorn
Plants have evolved a family of unique membrane receptor kinases to orchestrate the growth and development of their cells, tissues, and organs. Receptor kinases also form the first line of defense of the plant immune system and allow plants to engage in symbiotic interactions. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding, at the molecular level, how receptor kinases with lysin-motif or leucine-rich-repeat ectodomains have evolved to sense a broad spectrum of ligands. We summarize and compare the established receptor activation mechanisms for plant receptor kinases and dissect how ligand binding at the cell surface leads to activation of cytoplasmic signaling cascades...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860488/firmly-planted-always-moving
#11
Natasha V Raikhel
I was a budding pianist immersed in music in Leningrad, in the Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), when I started over, giving up sheet music for the study of ciliates. In a second starting-over story, I emigrated to the United States, where I switched to studying carbohydrate-binding plant lectin proteins, dissecting plant vesicular trafficking, and isolating novel glycosyltransferases responsible for making cell wall polysaccharides. I track my journey as a plant biologist from student to principal investigator to founding director of the Center for Plant Cell Biology and then director of the Institute for Integrative Genome Biology at the University of California, Riverside...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813652/retrograde-signals-integrators-of-interorganellar-communication-and-orchestrators-of-plant-development
#12
Amancio de Souza, Jin-Zheng Wang, Katayoon Dehesh
Interorganellar cooperation maintained via exquisitely controlled retrograde-signaling pathways is an evolutionary necessity for maintenance of cellular homoeostasis. This signaling feature has therefore attracted much research attention aimed at improving understanding of the nature of these communication signals, how the signals are sensed, and ultimately the mechanism by which they integrate targeted processes that collectively culminate in organellar cooperativity. The answers to these questions will provide insight into how retrograde-signal-mediated regulatory mechanisms are recruited and which biological processes are targeted, and will advance our understanding of how organisms balance metabolic investments in growth against adaptation to environmental stress...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128469/the-haustorium-a-specialized-invasive-organ-in-parasitic-plants
#13
Satoko Yoshida, Songkui Cui, Yasunori Ichihashi, Ken Shirasu
Parasitic plants thrive by infecting other plants. Flowering plants evolved parasitism independently at least 12 times, in all cases developing a unique multicellular organ called the haustorium that forms upon detection of haustorium-inducing factors derived from the host plant. This organ penetrates into the host stem or root and connects to its vasculature, allowing exchange of materials such as water, nutrients, proteins, nucleotides, pathogens, and retrotransposons between the host and the parasite. In this review, we focus on the formation and function of the haustorium in parasitic plants, with a specific emphasis on recent advances in molecular studies of root parasites in the Orobanchaceae and stem parasites in the Convolvulaceae...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128468/mapping-transcriptional-networks-in-plants-data-driven-discovery-of-novel-biological-mechanisms
#14
Allison Gaudinier, Siobhan M Brady
In plants, systems biology approaches have led to the generation of a variety of large data sets. Many of these data are created to elucidate gene expression profiles and their corresponding transcriptional regulatory mechanisms across a range of tissue types, organs, and environmental conditions. In an effort to map the complexity of this transcriptional regulatory control, several types of experimental assays have been used to map transcriptional regulatory networks. In this review, we discuss how these methods can be best used to identify novel biological mechanisms by focusing on the appropriate biological context...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128467/toxic-heavy-metal-and-metalloid-accumulation-in-crop-plants-and-foods
#15
Stephan Clemens, Jian Feng Ma
Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are toxic elements that are almost ubiquitously present at low levels in the environment because of anthropogenic influences. Dietary intake of plant-derived food represents a major fraction of potentially health-threatening human exposure, especially to arsenic and cadmium. In the interest of better food safety, it is important to reduce toxic element accumulation in crops. A molecular understanding of the pathways responsible for this accumulation can enable the development of crop varieties with strongly reduced concentrations of toxic elements in their edible parts...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128466/endocytosis-and-endosomal-trafficking-in-plants
#16
Julio Paez Valencia, Kaija Goodman, Marisa S Otegui
Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking are essential processes in cells that control the dynamics and turnover of plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors, transporters, and cell wall biosynthetic enzymes. Plasma membrane proteins (cargo) are internalized by endocytosis through clathrin-dependent or clathrin-independent mechanism and delivered to early endosomes. From the endosomes, cargo proteins are recycled back to the plasma membrane via different pathways, which rely on small GTPases and the retromer complex...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128465/the-path-to-thioredoxin-and-redox-regulation-in-chloroplasts
#17
Bob B Buchanan
After a brief discussion of my graduate work at Duke University, I describe a series of investigations on redox proteins at the University of California, Berkeley. Starting with ferredoxin from fermentative bacteria, the Berkeley research fostered experiments that uncovered a pathway for fixing CO2 in bacterial photosynthesis. The carbon work, in turn, opened new vistas, including the discovery that thioredoxin functions universally in regulating the Calvin-Benson cycle in oxygenic photosynthesis. These experiments, which took place over a 50-year period, led to the formulation of a set of biological principles and set the stage for research demonstrating a role for redox in the regulation of previously unrecognized processes extending far beyond photosynthesis...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023742/rapid-long-distance-electrical-and-calcium-signaling-in-plants
#18
Won-Gyu Choi, Richard Hilleary, Sarah J Swanson, Su-Hwa Kim, Simon Gilroy
Plants integrate activities throughout their bodies using long-range signaling systems in which stimuli sensed by just a few cells are translated into mobile signals that can influence the activities in distant tissues. Such signaling can travel at speeds well in excess of millimeters per second and can trigger responses as diverse as changes in transcription and translation levels, posttranslational regulation, alterations in metabolite levels, and even wholesale reprogramming of development. In addition to the use of mobile small molecules and hormones, electrical signals have long been known to propagate throughout the plant...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927905/physiological-functions-of-cyclic-electron-transport-around-photosystem-i-in-sustaining-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth
#19
Wataru Yamori, Toshiharu Shikanai
The light reactions in photosynthesis drive both linear and cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (PSI). Linear electron transport generates both ATP and NADPH, whereas PSI cyclic electron transport produces ATP without producing NADPH. PSI cyclic electron transport is thought to be essential for balancing the ATP/NADPH production ratio and for protecting both photosystems from damage caused by stromal overreduction. Two distinct pathways of cyclic electron transport have been proposed in angiosperms: a major pathway that depends on the PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 (PGR5) and PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE 1 (PGRL1) proteins, which are the target site of antimycin A, and a minor pathway mediated by the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927904/biosynthesis-of-the-plant-cell-wall-matrix-polysaccharide-xyloglucan
#20
Markus Pauly, Kenneth Keegstra
Xyloglucan (XyG) is a matrix polysaccharide that is present in the cell walls of all land plants. It consists of a β-1,4-linked glucan backbone that is further substituted with xylosyl residues. These xylosyl residues can be further substituted with other glycosyl and nonglycosyl substituents that vary depending on the plant family and specific tissue. Advances in plant mutant isolation and characterization, functional genomics, and DNA sequencing have led to the identification of nearly all transferases and synthases necessary to synthesize XyG...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
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