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Annual Review of Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570365/nitrate-transport-signaling-and-use-efficiency
#1
Ya-Yun Wang, Yu-Hsuan Cheng, Kuo-En Chen, Yi-Fang Tsay
Nitrogen accounts for approximately 60% of the fertilizer consumed each year; thus, it represents one of the major input costs for most nonlegume crops. Nitrate is one of the two major forms of nitrogen that plants acquire from the soil. Mechanistic insights into nitrate transport and signaling have enabled new strategies for enhancing nitrogen utilization efficiency, for lowering input costs for farming, and, more importantly, for alleviating environmental impacts (e.g., eutrophication and production of the greenhouse gas N2 O)...
March 23, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570364/protein-quality-control-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-of-plants
#2
Richard Strasser
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of maturation for roughly onethird of all cellular proteins. ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding catalysts promote folding and assembly in a diverse set of newly synthesized proteins. Because these processes are error-prone, all eukaryotic cells have a quality control system in place that constantly monitors the proteins and decides their fate. Proteins with potentially harmful nonnative conformations are subjected to assisted folding or degraded. Persistent folding-defective proteins are distinguished from folding intermediates and targeted for degradation by a specific process involving clearance from the ER...
March 23, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553800/genetic-regulation-of-shoot-architecture
#3
Bing Wang, Steven M Smith, Jiayang Li
Shoot architecture is determined by the organization and activities of apical, axillary, intercalary, secondary, and inflorescence meristems and by the subsequent development of stems, leaves, shoot branches, and inflorescences. In this review, we discuss the unifying principles of hormonal and genetic control of shoot architecture including advances in our understanding of lateral branch outgrowth; control of stem elongation, thickness, and angle; and regulation of inflorescence development. We focus on recent progress made mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, pea, maize, and tomato, including the identification of new genes and mechanisms controlling shoot architecture...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539271/plant-malectin-like-receptor-kinases-from-cell-wall-integrity-to-immunity-and-beyond
#4
Christina Maria Franck, Jens Westermann, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier
Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls protecting them from a myriad of environmental challenges. For successful habitat adaptation, extracellular cues are perceived at the cell wall and relayed to downstream signaling constituents to mediate dynamic cell wall remodeling and adapted intracellular responses. Plant malectin-like receptor kinases, also known as Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like proteins (CrRLK1Ls), take part in these perception and relay processes. CrRLK1Ls are involved in many different plant functions...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539270/autophagy-the-master-of-bulk-and-selective-recycling
#5
Richard S Marshall, Richard D Vierstra
Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to recycle intracellular constituents, which are essential for developmental and metabolic transitions; for efficient nutrient reuse; and for the proper disposal of proteins, protein complexes, and even entire organelles that become obsolete or dysfunctional. One major route is autophagy, which employs specialized vesicles to encapsulate and deliver cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for breakdown. In the past decade, the mechanics of autophagy and the scores of components involved in autophagic vesicle assembly have been documented...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539269/modularity-in-jasmonate-signaling-for-multistress-resilience
#6
Gregg A Howe, Ian T Major, Abraham J Koo
The plant hormone jasmonate coordinates immune and growth responses to increase plant survival in unpredictable environments. The core jasmonate signaling pathway comprises several functional modules, including a repertoire of COI1-JAZ (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1-JASMONATEZIM DOMAIN) coreceptors that couple jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine perception to the degradation of JAZ repressors, JAZ-interacting transcription factors that execute physiological responses, and multiple negative feedback loops to ensure timely termination of these responses...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719167/one-hundred-ways-to-invent-the-sexes-theoretical-and-observed-paths-to-dioecy-in-plants
#7
Isabelle M Henry, Takashi Akagi, Ryutaro Tao, Luca Comai
Dioecy, the presence of male and female flowers on separate individuals, is both widespread and uncommon within flowering plants, with only a few percent of dioecious species spread across most major phylogenetic taxa. It is therefore safe to assume that dioecy evolved independently in these different groups, which allows us to ask questions regarding the molecular and developmental mechanisms underlying these independent transitions to dioecy. We start this review by examining the problem from the standpoint of a genetic engineer trying to develop dioecy, discuss various potential solutions, and compare them to models proposed in the past and based on genetic and evolutionary considerations...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719166/paleobotany-and-global-change-important-lessons-for-species-to-biomes-from-vegetation-responses-to-past-global-change
#8
Jennifer C McElwain
Human carbon use during the next century will lead to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2 ) that have been unprecedented for the past 50-100+ million years according to fossil plant-based CO2 estimates. The paleobotanical record of plants offers key insights into vegetation responses to past global change, including suitable analogs for Earth's climatic future. Past global warming events have resulted in transient poleward migration at rates that are equivalent to the lowest climate velocities required for current taxa to keep pace with climate change...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719165/receptor-like-cytoplasmic-kinases-central-players-in-plant-receptor-kinase-mediated-signaling
#9
Xiangxiu Liang, Jian-Min Zhou
Receptor kinases (RKs) are of paramount importance in transmembrane signaling that governs plant reproduction, growth, development, and adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs), which lack extracellular ligand-binding domains, have emerged as a major class of signaling proteins that regulate plant cellular activities in response to biotic/abiotic stresses and endogenous extracellular signaling molecules. By associating with immune RKs, RLCKs regulate multiple downstream signaling nodes to orchestrate a complex array of defense responses against microbial pathogens...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719164/genetically-encoded-biosensors-in-plants-pathways-to-discovery
#10
Ankit Walia, Rainer Waadt, Alexander M Jones
Genetically encoded biosensors that directly interact with a molecule of interest were first introduced more than 20 years ago with fusion proteins that served as fluorescent indicators for calcium ions. Since then, the technology has matured into a diverse array of biosensors that have been deployed to improve our spatiotemporal understanding of molecules whose dynamics have profound influence on plant physiology and development. In this review, we address several types of biosensors with a focus on genetically encoded calcium indicators, which are now the most diverse and advanced group of biosensors...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561663/plant-vacuoles
#11
Tomoo Shimada, Junpei Takagi, Takuji Ichino, Makoto Shirakawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plant vacuoles are multifunctional organelles. On the one hand, most vegetative tissues develop lytic vacuoles that have a role in degradation. On the other hand, seed cells have two types of storage vacuoles: protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in endosperm and embryonic cells and metabolite storage vacuoles in seed coats. Vacuolar proteins and metabolites are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the vacuoles via Golgi-dependent and Golgi-independent pathways. Proprotein precursors delivered to the vacuoles are converted into their respective mature forms by vacuolar processing enzyme, which also regulates various kinds of programmed cell death in plants...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553801/the-physiological-basis-of-drought-tolerance-in-crop-plants-a-scenario-dependent-probabilistic-approach
#12
François Tardieu, Thierry Simonneau, Bertrand Muller
Drought tolerance involves mechanisms operating at different spatial and temporal scales, from rapid stomatal closure to maintenance of crop yield. We review how short-term mechanisms are controlled for stabilizing shoot water potential and how long-term processes have been constrained by evolution or breeding to fit into acclimation strategies for specific drought scenarios. These short- or long-term feedback processes participate in trade-offs between carbon accumulation and the risk of deleterious soil water depletion...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505739/heterogeneity-and-robustness-in-plant-morphogenesis-from-cells-to-organs
#13
Lilan Hong, Mathilde Dumond, Mingyuan Zhu, Satoru Tsugawa, Chun-Biu Li, Arezki Boudaoud, Olivier Hamant, Adrienne H K Roeder
Development is remarkably reproducible, producing organs with the same size, shape, and function repeatedly from individual to individual. For example, every flower on the Antirrhinum stalk has the same snapping dragon mouth. This reproducibility has allowed taxonomists to classify plants and animals according to their morphology. Yet these reproducible organs are composed of highly variable cells. For example, neighboring cells grow at different rates in Arabidopsis leaves, sepals, and shoot apical meristems...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505738/diversity-of-chlorophototrophic-bacteria-revealed-in-the-omics-era
#14
Vera Thiel, Marcus Tank, Donald A Bryant
Because of recent advances in omics methodologies, knowledge of chlorophototrophy (i.e., chlorophyll-based phototrophy) in bacteria has rapidly increased. Chlorophototrophs currently are known to occur in seven bacterial phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes. Other organisms that can produce chlorophylls and photochemical reaction centers may still be undiscovered. Here we summarize the current status of the taxonomy and phylogeny of chlorophototrophic bacteria as revealed by genomic methods...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505737/when-two-rights-make-a-wrong-the-evolutionary-genetics-of-plant-hybrid-incompatibilities
#15
Lila Fishman, Andrea L Sweigart
Hybrids between flowering plant species often exhibit reduced fitness, including sterility and inviability. Such hybrid incompatibilities create barriers to genetic exchange that can promote reproductive isolation between diverging populations and, ultimately, speciation. Additionally, hybrid breakdown opens a window into hidden molecular and evolutionary processes occurring within species. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms and origins of hybrid incompatibility in flowering plants, including both diverse genic interactions and chromosomal incompatibilities...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489400/preadaptation-and-naturalization-of-nonnative-species-darwin-s-two-fundamental-insights-into-species-invasion
#16
Marc W Cadotte, Sara E Campbell, Shao-Peng Li, Darwin S Sodhi, Nicholas E Mandrak
Predicting which nonnative species become invasive is critical for their successful management, and Charles Darwin provided predictions based on species' relatedness. However, Darwin provided two opposing predictions about the relatedness of introduced nonnatives to indigenous species. First, environmental fit is the dominant factor determining invader success; thus, we should expect that invasive species are closely related to local native residents. Alternatively, if competition is important, we should expect successful invaders are distantly related to the native residents...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489399/macroevolutionary-patterns-of-flowering-plant-speciation-and-extinction
#17
Jana C Vamosi, Susana Magallón, Itay Mayrose, Sarah P Otto, Hervé Sauquet
Species diversity is remarkably unevenly distributed among flowering plant lineages. Despite a growing toolbox of research methods, the reasons underlying this patchy pattern have continued to perplex plant biologists for the past two decades. In this review, we examine the present understanding of transitions in flowering plant evolution that have been proposed to influence speciation and extinction. In particular, ploidy changes, transitions between tropical and nontropical biomes, and shifts in floral form have received attention and have offered some surprises in terms of which factors influence speciation and extinction rates...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489398/cell-and-developmental-biology-of-plant-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases
#18
George Komis, Olga Šamajová, Miroslav Ovečka, Jozef Šamaj
Plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) constitute a network of signaling cascades responsible for transducing extracellular stimuli and decoding them to dedicated cellular and developmental responses that shape the plant body. Over the last decade, we have accumulated information about how MAPK modules control the development of reproductive tissues and gametes and the embryogenic and postembryonic development of vegetative organs such as roots, root nodules, shoots, and leaves. Of key importance to understanding how MAPKs participate in developmental and environmental signaling is the characterization of their subcellular localization, their interactions with upstream signal perception mechanisms, and the means by which they target their substrates...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489397/essential-roles-of-local-auxin-biosynthesis-in-plant-development-and-in-adaptation-to-environmental-changes
#19
Yunde Zhao
It has been a dominant dogma in plant biology that the self-organizing polar auxin transport system is necessary and sufficient to generate auxin maxima and minima that are essential for almost all aspects of plant growth and development. However, in the past few years, it has become clear that local auxin biosynthesis is required for a suite of developmental processes, including embryogenesis, endosperm development, root development, and floral initiation and patterning. Moreover, it was discovered that local auxin biosynthesis maintains optimal plant growth in response to environmental signals, including light, temperature, pathogens, and toxic metals...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489396/genomics-informed-insights-into-endosymbiotic-organelle-evolution-in-photosynthetic-eukaryotes
#20
Eva C M Nowack, Andreas P M Weber
The conversion of free-living cyanobacteria to photosynthetic organelles of eukaryotic cells through endosymbiosis transformed the biosphere and eventually provided the basis for life on land. Despite the presumable advantage conferred by the acquisition of photoautotrophy through endosymbiosis, only two independent cases of primary endosymbiosis have been documented: one that gave rise to the Archaeplastida, and the other to photosynthetic species of the thecate, filose amoeba Paulinella. Here, we review recent genomics-informed insights into the primary endosymbiotic origins of cyanobacteria-derived organelles...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
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