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Comptes Rendus Biologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506469/sur-la-vitesse-d-extinction-d-une-population-dans-un-environnement-al%C3%A3-atoire
#1
Nicolas Bacaër
This study focuses on the speed of extinction of a population living in a random environment that follows a continuous-time Markov chain. Each individual dies or reproduces at a rate that depends on the environment. The number of offspring during reproduction follows a given probability law that also depends on the environment. In the so-called subcritical case where the population goes for sure to extinction, there is an explicit formula for the speed of extinction. In some sense, environmental stochasticity slows down population extinction...
May 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506468/-impact-of-cork-oak-management-on-the-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-associated-with-quercus-suber-in-the-m%C3%A3-amora-forest-morocco
#2
Fatima Z Maghnia, Hervé Sanguin, Younes Abbas, Marcello Verdinelli, Benaissa Kerdouh, Naima El Ghachtouli, Enrico Lancellotti, Salah Eddine Bakkali Yakhlef, Robin Duponnois
The cork oak forest is an ecosystem playing a major role in Moroccan socio-economy and biodiversity conservation. However, this ecosystem is negatively impacted by extensive human- and climate-driven pressures, causing a strong decrease in its distribution and a worsening of the desertification processes. This study aims at characterising the impact of cork oak forest management on a major actor of its functioning, the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal community associated with Quercus suber, and the determination of EcM bio-indicators...
May 11, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499882/-effect-of-several-methods-of-scarification-and-osmotic-stress-on-seed-germination-of-robinia-pseudoacacia-l
#3
Mohamed Toumi, Selma Barris, Mohamed Seghiri, Houmam Cheriguene, Fatiha Aid
The planting of several species adapted to forests areas in the Saharan Atlas would allow one to better fight against the desertification of the vegetation cover of these fragile areas. Thanks to its rapid growth on degraded soils, Robinia pseudoacacia L. has an advantage in the repopulation of these areas undergoing desertification. Operation of this large-scale tree requires good control of germination conditions and growth of plants. The scarification of the seeds of Robinia pseudoacacia L. is necessary to allow the absorption of water by the seeds...
May 9, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478930/erosion-of-canine-teeth-in-babirusa-genus-babyrousa
#4
Alastair A Macdonald
Patterns of wear on the canine teeth were examined in 260 adult male babirusa skulls. Video recordings of 161 adult male babirusas at salt licks in North Sulawesi were viewed for behaviour related to erosion of the canine teeth. Corresponding observations were made of the behaviour of male babirusa in Antwerp and Surabaya Zoos. Most loss of maxillary canine dental tissue was from the ventro-lateral or lateral surface of the tooth, towards its distal end. The teeth were smoothly flattened on a plane approximating to the plane formed on the side of the face by the snout, the zygion and the zygomatic process...
May 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457601/a-new-species-of-diplocentrus-scorpiones-diplocentridae-with-punctate-pedipalp-surfaces-a-diagnostic-character-within-the-mexicanus-group
#5
Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Edmundo González-Santillán
Diplocentrus duende n. sp. is described based on adult males collected from a locality in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. This species has punctate pedipalp surfaces, a condition present only in four other species of this specious genus. As suggested here, this condition has evolved independently in these species within the "mexicanus" group of Diplocentrus from the rest of the diplocentrids.
April 27, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389086/developing-eco-friendly-biofungicide-for-the-management-of-major-seed-borne-diseases-of-rice-and-assessing-their-physical-stability-and-storage-life
#6
Ramasamy Naveenkumar, Arjunan Muthukumar, Ganesan Sangeetha, Ramanathan Mohanapriya
Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations...
April 4, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385621/combination-of-morphological-and-molecular-markers-for-the-characterization-of-ancient-native-olive-accessions-in-central-eastern-tunisia
#7
Ibtissem Laaribi, Hassouna Gouta, Mouna Mezghani Ayachi, Foued Labidi, Messaoud Mars
Increasing olive germplasm erosion in the coastline of Tunisia has required an imperious conservation of the traditional genotypes before an ultimate disappearance. This region has been relatively neglected in the literature sources of olive identification. In this context, a prospection effort and a preliminary selection of olive accessions belonging to Central-Eastern Tunisia was carried out. Twenty-seven ancient olive accessions were studied by combining molecular and morphological data in order to fingerprint them, and to evaluate their relationships with classical cultivars...
April 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385620/retinoblastoma-binding-protein%C3%A2-6-and-crystallin-lambda%C3%A2-1-are-cadmium-responsive-genes-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-adults-retinae
#8
Rosaria Scudiero, Maria Grazia Esposito, Palma Simoniello, Chiara Maria Motta
Nonessential metal cadmium is widely used and released in the environment, causing cell toxicity and posing a severe threat to wildlife. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most commonly used animals in the investigation of environmental cadmium toxicity in vertebrates. In this study, we identified two cadmium-responsive genes, RBBP6 and CRYL1, in the early phases of zebrafish development, at the gastrula stage. The retinoblastoma binding protein 6 is associated with increased protein degradation and cell proliferation; crystallin-lambda 1 is a lens protein with redox activity...
April 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372927/effects-of-different-preservation-methods-on-inter-simple-sequence-repeat-issr-and-random-amplified-polymorphic-dna-rapd-molecular-markers-in-botanic-samples
#9
Xiaolong Wang, Lin Li, Jiaxin Zhao, Fangliang Li, Wei Guo, Xia Chen
To evaluate the effects of different preservation methods (stored in a -20°C ice chest, preserved in liquid nitrogen and dried in silica gel) on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) or random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses in various botanical specimens (including broad-leaved plants, needle-leaved plants and succulent plants) for different times (three weeks and three years), we used a statistical analysis based on the number of bands, genetic index and cluster analysis. The results demonstrate that methods used to preserve samples can provide sufficient amounts of genomic DNA for ISSR and RAPD analyses; however, the effect of different preservation methods on these analyses vary significantly, and the preservation time has little effect on these analyses...
March 31, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372926/epsilonproteobacteria-dominate-bacterial-diversity-at-a-natural-tar-seep
#10
Florence Lormières, Phil M Oger
The bacterial diversity of a naturally seeping bitumen source was investigated by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. Epsilonproteobacteria were shown to dominate the bacterial diversity in the underground water and within the bitumen, representing ca. 75% of the total bacterial diversity. These Epsilonproteobacteria were dominated by Sulfurimonas OTUs, while Sulfurovum and Arcobacter OTUs completed the remaining diversity. Epsilonproteobacteria are sulfur-oxidizer, nitrate-reducing chemo-lithoautotrophic bacteria, unable to use most organics for growth but capable of CO2 fixation...
March 31, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366508/morphometric-ratio-analyses-locomotor-mode-in-anurans
#11
Tamara G Petrović, Tanja D Vukov, Nataša Tomašević Kolarov
Current studies of anuran morphology use sacral vertebrae, hindlimbs as main predictor for locomotor modes, while forelimbs and their segments were not analysed in this context. Due the fact that the complex interplay of numerous morphological traits determines the locomotion ability of anurans, we used ratios for both fore- and hindlimbs to obtain useful information of the structural and functional properties of locomotor system. We examined patterns of variation in total length of fore-, and hindlimbs as well as sacral vertebrae width and diapophyseal expansion in order to position two locomotor modes (jumpers and walkers) in a morphological shape space...
March 30, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343941/characterization-of-culturable-bacteria-isolated-from-hot-springs-for-plant-growth-promoting-traits-and-effect-on-tomato-lycopersicon-esculentum-seedling
#12
Kinjal Samir Patel, Jinal Hardik Naik, Sejal Chaudhari, Natarajan Amaresan
To elucidate the functional diversity of hot spring bacteria, 123 bacteria were isolated and screened for evaluating their multifunctional plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. The antagonistic activity against different phytopathogens showed the presence of a high amount of biocontrol bacteria in the hot springs. During screening for PGP properties, 61.0% isolates showed production of indole acetic acid and 23.6% showed inorganic phosphate solubilization qualitatively. For production of extracellular enzymes, it was found that 61...
March 23, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302364/diversity-of-fungal-assemblages-in-roots-of-ericaceae-in-two-mediterranean-contrasting-ecosystems
#13
Ahlam Hamim, Lucie Miché, Ahmed Douaik, Rachid Mrabet, Ahmed Ouhammou, Robin Duponnois, Mohamed Hafidi
The plants belonging to the Ericaceae family are morphologically diverse and widely distributed groups of plants. They are typically found in soil with naturally poor nutrient status. The objective of the current study was to identify cultivable mycobionts from roots of nine species of Ericaceae (Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, Erica australis, Erica umbellate, Erica scoparia, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Vaccinium myrtillus, and Vaccinium corymbosum). The sequencing approach was used to amplify the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region...
March 14, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268153/convergence-characteristics-between-a-rodent-the-south-american-lowland-paca-and-a-ruminant-the-african-water-chevrotain-an-exemplary-case-study
#14
Gérard Dubost
The level of convergence between a rodent, the South American lowland paca Cuniculus paca, and a ruminant, the African water chevrotain Hyemoschus aquaticus, is analysed using 231 characteristics belonging to different biological sectors. A convergence index is established based on the degree of rarity of each characteristic in each species compared to other members of its zoological group. Although the divergent characteristics are as numerous as the convergent ones, the two species are globally similar. Convergent characteristics occur in all biological categories, but their rate varies a great deal among them...
March 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256414/current-distribution-and-characterization-of-the-wild-grapevine-populations-in-andalusia-spain
#15
Manuel Cantos, Rosa Arroyo-García, José Luis García, Miguel Lara, Ramón Morales, María Ángeles López, Antonio Gallardo, Carlos Alvar Ocete, Álvaro Rodríguez, José Manuel Valle, Ramón Vaca, Magdalena González-Maestro, Hajnalka Bánáti, Rafael Ocete
For decades, human activities have gradually destroyed the natural habitats of wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, and nowadays this species is endangered in southern Europe. In this paper, 94 populations of this species have been localized and characterized in the Andalusian region in the Iberian Peninsula between 1989 and 2013. Location, ecological aspects, and sanitary characteristics are described. Must properties and in vitro tolerance to calcareous conditions were also checked...
February 27, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256413/treated-wastewater-phytotoxicity-assessment-using-lactuca%C3%A2-sativa-focus-on-germination-and-root-elongation-test-parameters
#16
Anne Priac, Pierre-Marie Badot, Grégorio Crini
Sensitive and simple ecotoxicological bioassays like seed germination and root elongation tests are commonly used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of waste and industrial discharge waters. Although the tests are performed following national and international standards, various parameters such as the number of seeds per dish, the test duration or the type of support used remain variable. To be able to make a correct comparison of results from different studies, it is crucial to know which parameter(s) could affect ecotoxicological diagnosis...
February 27, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242272/estrogen-dependent-extrahepatic-synthesis-of-vitellogenin-in-male-vertebrates-a-mini-review
#17
Mariailaria Verderame, Rosaria Scudiero
In the last years, the hormonal balance is threatened by the interferences of substances with hormone-like action (endocrine disruptor chemicals, EDCs) that may harm animal reproduction. Most EDCs are resistant to environmental degradation and are considered ubiquitous contaminants. EDCs may have synthetic or natural origins. Pesticides used in intensive agriculture contain large amounts of chemicals with estrogenic properties, such as the alkylphenol nonylphenol (NP). Besides, animal feeding operations are important sources of natural estrogen metabolites introduced into the environment through manure application in organic farming...
February 24, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215522/aflp-assessment-of-genetic-variability-and-relationships-in-an-asian-wild-germplasm-collection-of-dactylis-glomerata-l
#18
Ming Sun, Chenglin Zhang, XinQuan Zhang, Yan Fan, Kaixin Fu, Wendan Wu, Shiqie Bai, Jianbo Zhang, Yan Peng, Linkai Huang, Yanhong Yan, Xiao Ma
Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), an excellent perennial and cool season forage species distributed in most temperate regions, has been cultivated widely in Western China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were employed to determine the genetic variability and population structure among 41 indigenous orchardgrass accessions from Central Asia and Western China. On the basis of 531 polymorphic fragments resulted from eight primer combinations, polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP) averaged 0...
February 16, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188070/-inflammation-in-the-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-atherosclerosis
#19
Nadjiba Hamlat-Khennaf, Samia Neggazi, Hanene Ayari, Patrick Feugier, Giampiero Bricca, Souhila Aouichat-Bouguerra, Michel Beylot
In atherosclerosis studies, there are few data, especially in men, on the biology of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) compared to that of other adipose tissue (AT), on amendments in obesity, and its possible role in the development of atherosclerosis. We conducted an ex vivo human study on pericarotid adipose tissue-collected in the immediate vicinity (PVATp) and away from the plate (tapas)-and subcutaneous (SC) neck gathered during surgery from patients suffering from atheromatous carotid disease. In addition, we conducted a study in obese Zucker rats (models of obesity and insulin resistance) and Wistar rats subjected to moderate stress...
February 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188069/corrigendum-to-wing-geometry-of-phlebotomus-stantoni-and-sergentomyia-hodgsoni-from-different-geographical-locations-in-thailand-c-%C3%A2-r-%C3%A2-biologies-340-1-2017-37-46
#20
Suchada Sumruayphol, Boonruam Chittsamart, Raxsina Polseela, Patchara Sriwichai, Yudthana Samung, Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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