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Comptes Rendus Biologies

Wilson R Lourenço, Lucienne Wilmé, Patrick O Waeber
New comments are proposed on the geographic distribution of genus Opisthacanthus, and the Gondwanian model is further supported. The diversity of the genus is extraordinary in Madagascar, with the same number of species as in continental Africa, but sub-Saharan Africa is home to six out of the nine groups currently recognized of Opisthacanthus. Given the affinities of the Opisthacanthus groups and their current distribution, a center of origin in Africa could be favored for these ancient scorpions. The proposed Gondwana model suggests that the Madagascar Opisthacanthus are closer to those of the New World, which is consistent with the affinities observed in morphological characters...
January 11, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Aurélie Tréfier, Florian Guillou, Pascale Crépieux
With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, identifying the translatome, which includes genome-wide ribosome-associated mRNAs, provides new opportunities to define faithfully the protein repertoire of a cell, as opposed to transcriptomic approaches. In addition, the role that extracellular signals such as hormonal modulations could play on the translatome remains to be deciphered. In particular, the regulation of the translatome by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is still poorly described, albeit the trophic role that many receptors of this family play in their target cells...
January 8, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Patrick D Mathews, Ana C M F Patta, Gabriella S Gama, Omar Mertins
The occurrence of copepods ergasilid was investigated in two species of cichlids of economic importance for aquaculture in the Amazon region: Cichla monoculus and Chaetobranchus semifasciatus. The fish were collected from a semi-intensive fish farm, near the city of Nauta, Loreto State, Peru. Copepods were found in the gill filaments of 44 of 85 specimens (51.7%) of C. monoculus and in eight of 30 (26.6%) specimens of C. semifasciatus. The parasite was identified as Ergasilus coatiarus based on its morphological features...
December 26, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Thomas Desvignes, Philippe Bourjon, Bruno Chanet
The green birdmouth wrasse Gomphosus caeruleus is present all year round on the coral reefs of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). A group of individuals was followed on one of these reefs with the objective of studying the reproduction mode of the species, the influence of environmental factors, and social behaviors on the control of reproduction. Our observations revealed that G. caeruleus is, like many Labridae, a protogynous hermaphrodite species, probably diandric, that the reproduction of G. caeruleus is, like in other reef fish species, influenced by the lunar cycle with a peak of reproductive activity during waxing gibbous phase, and that G...
December 21, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nikita Baliyan, Rekha Malik, Reema Rani, Kirti Mehta, Urvashi Vashisth, Santosh Dhillon, Khazan Singh Boora
Bacterial leaf blight (BB), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo), is the major constraint amongst rice diseases in India. CSR-30 is a very popular high-yielding, salt-tolerant Basmati variety widely grown in Haryana, India, but highly susceptible to BB. In the present study, we have successfully introgressed three BB resistance genes (Xa21, xa13 and xa5) from BB-resistant donor variety IRBB-60 into the BB-susceptible Basmati variety CSR-30 through marker-assisted selection (MAS) exercised with stringent phenotypic selection without compromising the Basmati traits...
December 15, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Yassine Djelaila, Christiane Denys, Emmanuelle Stoetzel, Raphaël Cornette, Aude Lalis, Malika Adamou-Djerbaoui, Mohamed Boukhemza
In North Africa, the rodents of the species complex Meriones shawii-grandis have a considerable ecological, economic and epidemiological importance. Until now, the systematics of these species was subject to discussion due to the presence of populations displaying high morphological variability. By means of an approach of traditional morphometrics based on cranial distances and by using the method of the log shape-ratio, we attempt to characterize morphologically these two taxa. The results show significant differences in size and shape between the specimens of Morocco, on the one hand, and those of Algeria and Tunisia, on the other hand...
December 8, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Maria Maddalena Di Fiore, Alessandra Santillo, Sara Falvo, Gabriella Chieffi Baccari, Massimo Venditti, Federica Di Giacomo Russo, Monica Lispi, Antimo D'Aniello
d-Aspartate (d-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid present in the central nervous system and endocrine glands of various animal taxa. d-Asp is implicated in neurotransmission, physiology of learning, and memory processes. In gonads, it plays a crucial role in sex hormone synthesis. We have investigated the effects of chronic (30 days d-Asp drinking solution) and acute (i.p. injection of 2μmol/g bw d-Asp) treatments on sex steroid synthesis in rat brain. Furthermore, to verify the direct effect of d-Asp on neurosteroidogenic enzyme activities, brain homogenates were incubated with different substrates (cholesterol, progesterone, or testosterone) with or without the addition of d-Asp...
December 1, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Alain Dejean, Frédéric Petitclerc, Frédéric Azémar, Laurent Pélozuelo, Stanislas Talaga, Maurice Leponce, Arthur Compin
In Neotropical rainforest canopies, phytotelmata ("plant-held waters") shelter diverse aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, including vectors of animal diseases. Studying these communities is difficult because phytotelmata are widely dispersed, hard to find from the ground and often inaccessible. We propose here a method for placing in tree crowns "artificial phytotelmata" whose size and shape can be tailored to different research targets. The efficacy of this method was shown while comparing the patterns of community diversity of three forest formations...
November 30, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Anass Bouchnita, Pierre Miossec, Alen Tosenberger, Vitaly Volpert
Rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are chronic inflammatory diseases, with massive increase of cardiovascular events (CVE), and contribution of the cytokines TNF-α and IL-17. Chronic inflammation inside the joint membrane or synovium results from the activation of fibroblasts/synoviocytes, and leads to the release of cytokines from monocytes (Tumor Necrosis Factor or TNF) and from T lymphocytes (Interleukin-17 or IL-17). At the systemic level, the very same cytokines affect endothelial cells and vessel wall...
November 28, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Rafael N Carvalho, Adriano B Kury
Discocyrtanus canjinjim sp. n., belonging to the family Gonyleptidae Sundevall, 1833 is described based on nineteen specimens, eleven adult males and eight adult females, collected in the Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade, in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This new species represents an endemic component for the harvestmen fauna of Chiquitano Dry Forests terrestrial eco-region, being the most occidental point of distribution of the genus, notably found in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. The new species is characterized by femur IV swollen with the same length of dorsal scutum, trochanter IV with prodorsal distal apophysis as a stout hook not bifurcated, and a unique form of genitalia in the genus...
November 14, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Luigi Rosati, Alessandra Santillo, Maria Maddalena Di Fiore, Piero Andreuccetti, Marina Prisco
Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), 5α-Reductase (5α-Red), P450 aromatase are key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis. Recently, we showed the expression and the localization of P450 aromatase in Podarcis sicula testis during the different phases of the reproductive cycle, showing its involvement in the control of steroidogenesis, particularly in 17β-estradiol synthesis. Now, we have investigated the presence and distribution of the other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, i...
November 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Noopur Singh, Ashok Sharma
Turmeric has been used as a therapeutic herb over centuries in traditional medicinal systems due to the presence of several secondary metabolite compounds. microRNAs are known to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by transcriptional cleavage or translation repression. miRNAs have been demonstrated to play an active role in secondary metabolism regulation. The present work was focused on the identification of the miRNAs involved in the regulation of secondary metabolite and development process of turmeric...
November 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Zhiliang Mei, Xianqin Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Saber Imani, Junjiang Fu
To lay the foundation of the classification of Canarium album (C. album), and C. album from Terminalia Chebula (T. chebula) in different areas of China, improved RAPD and ISSR analysis were performed to analyze polymorphism and genetic relationship. Ten samples were collected from different locations in China. A total of 221 fragments were detected by improved RAPD, out of which polymorphic fragments accounted for 82.3% with average amplification bands of 10.05 per primer. ISSR markers revealed a total of 147 alleles, where polymorphic fragments accounted for 83...
October 31, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Maxim V Vinarski, Ivan N Bolotov, Katrin Schniebs, Ivan O Nekhaev, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
The Lymnaeidae constitute a significant part of the freshwater molluscan diversity of Greenland. Since 1842, not less than 10 nominal taxa of the species and variety rank were described to organize the diversity of the Greenland lymnaeid snails. All previous attempts to revise these taxa were systematically based on morphological evidence only. Here, we provide a molecular analysis of the phylogenetic affinity and systematic status of three alleged species of the Greenland Lymnaeidae: Lymnaea vahlii (Møller, 1842), L...
October 30, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Mohamed A El-Esawi
Assessing the diversity and genetic structure of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm is essential to improve the quality and yield of this economically important crop. In this study, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were utilized to evaluate the diversity and structure of 35 faba bean genotypes originating from three different geographical regions (Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, and Near East). All 15 SSR loci generated a total of 100 alleles. The allele number per locus varied from 4 to 11, with a mean of 6...
October 26, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Takwa Missaoui, Moêz Smiri, Hajer Chmingui, Amor Hafiane
The potential toxicity of nanoparticles in plants is scarce and contradictory. Despite the diversity of research efforts, a detailed explanation of the TiO2NPS effects in plant photosynthesis is still missing. The present work gives a new approach to examine the impact of the TiO2NPs on crop production (development and photosynthesis) and plant protection (tolerance and defense systems) in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Seedlings were assessed in greenhouse trials to estimate the influence of TiO2NPs on physiological characters for 16 days...
October 21, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Zeeshan A Mirza, Harshal Bhosale, Rishikesh Patil
A new large species of gecko superficially resembling Hemidactylus maculatus Duméril & Bibron and its allied large Hemidactylus is described from Eastern Ghats. The new species, Hemidactylus kangerensis sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from members of the H. maculatus complex based on the number of femoral pores, i.e. 18-21 on each side, separated medially by 4 non-pored scales. A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequence of mitochondrial gene cytochrome b shows that the gecko is a member of the "H...
October 13, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nicolas Bacaër
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Wei-Jen Chen, Ryohei Miki, Philippe Borsa
Two previously recorded new species of the large-eye seabream genus Gymnocranius (Gymnocranius sp. D and Gymnocranius sp. E) remain undescribed. Here we describe Gymnocranius sp. E as Gymnocranius obesus sp. nov. This new species is morphologically distinct from all other known species under Gymnocranius by the following combination of characters: relatively deep body, with ratio of standard length to body depth 2.2-2.4; protruding large eye, with eye diameter about equal to or slightly larger than inter-orbital width; caudal fin moderately forked; no blue spots or wavy blue lines on cheek and snout in adults; fourth transversal dark bar on flank running from the sixth spine of the dorsal fin to the origin of the anal fin; anal, caudal and dorsal fins drab with yellowish to yellow margins...
September 26, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Henri Rochefort
The selective increase in the incidence of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, testicular) in industrialized countries is associated with the increasing number of endocrine disruptors (EDs) in the environment and raises questions about the role of EDs in mammary carcinogenesis. Answering these questions is difficult because the number of EDs is large and varies with time. Moreover hormonal carcinogenesis is multifactorial and progresses slowly and in stages. This discussion will be limited to breast cancer and three EDs: distilbene, bisphenol A (BPA), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)...
September 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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