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Comptes Rendus Biologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302364/diversity-of-fungal-assemblages-in-roots-of-ericaceae-in-two-mediterranean-contrasting-ecosystems
#1
Ahlam Hamim, Lucie Miché, Ahmed Douaik, Rachid Mrabet, Ahmed Ouhammou, Robin Duponnois, Mohamed Hafidi
The plants belonging to the Ericaceae family are morphologically diverse and widely distributed groups of plants. They are typically found in soil with naturally poor nutrient status. The objective of the current study was to identify cultivable mycobionts from roots of nine species of Ericaceae (Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, Erica australis, Erica umbellate, Erica scoparia, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Vaccinium myrtillus, and Vaccinium corymbosum). The sequencing approach was used to amplify the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region...
March 14, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268153/convergence-characteristics-between-a-rodent-the-south-american-lowland-paca-and-a-ruminant-the-african-water-chevrotain-an-exemplary-case-study
#2
Gérard Dubost
The level of convergence between a rodent, the South American lowland paca Cuniculus paca, and a ruminant, the African water chevrotain Hyemoschus aquaticus, is analysed using 231 characteristics belonging to different biological sectors. A convergence index is established based on the degree of rarity of each characteristic in each species compared to other members of its zoological group. Although the divergent characteristics are as numerous as the convergent ones, the two species are globally similar. Convergent characteristics occur in all biological categories, but their rate varies a great deal among them...
March 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256414/current-distribution-and-characterization-of-the-wild-grapevine-populations-in-andalusia-spain
#3
Manuel Cantos, Rosa Arroyo-García, José Luis García, Miguel Lara, Ramón Morales, María Ángeles López, Antonio Gallardo, Carlos Alvar Ocete, Álvaro Rodríguez, José Manuel Valle, Ramón Vaca, Magdalena González-Maestro, Hajnalka Bánáti, Rafael Ocete
For decades, human activities have gradually destroyed the natural habitats of wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, and nowadays this species is endangered in southern Europe. In this paper, 94 populations of this species have been localized and characterized in the Andalusian region in the Iberian Peninsula between 1989 and 2013. Location, ecological aspects, and sanitary characteristics are described. Must properties and in vitro tolerance to calcareous conditions were also checked...
February 27, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256413/treated-wastewater-phytotoxicity-assessment-using-lactuca%C3%A2-sativa-focus-on-germination-and-root-elongation-test-parameters
#4
Anne Priac, Pierre-Marie Badot, Grégorio Crini
Sensitive and simple ecotoxicological bioassays like seed germination and root elongation tests are commonly used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of waste and industrial discharge waters. Although the tests are performed following national and international standards, various parameters such as the number of seeds per dish, the test duration or the type of support used remain variable. To be able to make a correct comparison of results from different studies, it is crucial to know which parameter(s) could affect ecotoxicological diagnosis...
February 27, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242272/estrogen-dependent-extrahepatic-synthesis-of-vitellogenin-in-male-vertebrates-a-mini-review
#5
Mariailaria Verderame, Rosaria Scudiero
In the last years, the hormonal balance is threatened by the interferences of substances with hormone-like action (endocrine disruptor chemicals, EDCs) that may harm animal reproduction. Most EDCs are resistant to environmental degradation and are considered ubiquitous contaminants. EDCs may have synthetic or natural origins. Pesticides used in intensive agriculture contain large amounts of chemicals with estrogenic properties, such as the alkylphenol nonylphenol (NP). Besides, animal feeding operations are important sources of natural estrogen metabolites introduced into the environment through manure application in organic farming...
February 24, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215522/aflp-assessment-of-genetic-variability-and-relationships-in-an-asian-wild-germplasm-collection-of-dactylis-glomerata-l
#6
Ming Sun, Chenglin Zhang, XinQuan Zhang, Yan Fan, Kaixin Fu, Wendan Wu, Shiqie Bai, Jianbo Zhang, Yan Peng, Linkai Huang, Yanhong Yan, Xiao Ma
Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), an excellent perennial and cool season forage species distributed in most temperate regions, has been cultivated widely in Western China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were employed to determine the genetic variability and population structure among 41 indigenous orchardgrass accessions from Central Asia and Western China. On the basis of 531 polymorphic fragments resulted from eight primer combinations, polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP) averaged 0...
February 16, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188070/-inflammation-in-the-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-atherosclerosis
#7
Nadjiba Hamlat-Khennaf, Samia Neggazi, Hanene Ayari, Patrick Feugier, Giampiero Bricca, Souhila Aouichat-Bouguerra, Michel Beylot
In atherosclerosis studies, there are few data, especially in men, on the biology of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) compared to that of other adipose tissue (AT), on amendments in obesity, and its possible role in the development of atherosclerosis. We conducted an ex vivo human study on pericarotid adipose tissue-collected in the immediate vicinity (PVATp) and away from the plate (tapas)-and subcutaneous (SC) neck gathered during surgery from patients suffering from atheromatous carotid disease. In addition, we conducted a study in obese Zucker rats (models of obesity and insulin resistance) and Wistar rats subjected to moderate stress...
February 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188069/corrigendum-to-wing-geometry-of-phlebotomus-stantoni-and-sergentomyia-hodgsoni-from-different-geographical-locations-in-thailand-c-%C3%A2-r-%C3%A2-biologies-340-1-2017-37-46
#8
Suchada Sumruayphol, Boonruam Chittsamart, Raxsina Polseela, Patchara Sriwichai, Yudthana Samung, Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188068/ssr-and-morphological-trait-based-population-structure-analysis-of-130-diverse-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-accessions
#9
Shashi Bhushan Choudhary, Hariom Kumar Sharma, Arroju Anil Kumar, Rangappa Thimmaiah Maruthi, Jiban Mitra, Isholeena Chowdhury, Binay Kumar Singh, Pran Gobinda Karmakar
A total of 130 flax accessions of diverse morphotypes and worldwide origin were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 11 morphological traits and microsatellite markers (15 gSSRs and 7 EST-SSRs). Analysis performed after classifying these accessions on the basis of plant height, branching pattern, seed size, Indian/foreign origin into six categories called sub-populations viz. fibre type exotic, fibre type indigenous, intermediate type exotic, intermediate type indigenous, linseed type exotic and linseed type indigenous...
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089486/molecular-genetics-of-human-obesity-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Rajan Kumar Singh, Permendra Kumar, Kulandaivelu Mahalingam
Obesity and its related health complications is a major problem worldwide. Hypothalamus and their signalling molecules play a critical role in the intervening and coordination with energy balance and homeostasis. Genetic factors play a crucial role in determining an individual's predisposition to the weight gain and being obese. In the past few years, several genetic variants were identified as monogenic forms of human obesity having success over common polygenic forms. In the context of molecular genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach and their findings signified a number of genetic variants predisposing to obesity...
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081967/-the-micrornas-as-biomarkers-what-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Mustapha Zendjabil, Séverine Favard, Chantal Tse, Omar Abbou, Bernard Hainque
MicroRNAs are nucleic acids of about twenty nucleotides that regulate about a third of the genome at the post-transcriptional level. Thanks to their different forms of transport, microRNAs are stable and can be detected in biological fluids such as blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or saliva. In addition, the profile of circulating microRNAs is a specific part of the cells in which it is secreted and is modified according to the physiological or pathological conditions of these cells. MicroRNAs therefore appear as biomarkers of interest for many diseases...
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038977/determination-of-genetic-diversity-among-saccharina-germplasm-using-issr-and-rapd-markers
#12
Cuiju Cui, Yan Li, Yanling Liu, Xiaojie Li, Shiju Luo, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Ruina Wu, Guangjin Liang, Juan Sun, Jie Peng, Pingping Tian
Various species of genus Saccharina are economically important brown macroalgae cultivated in China. The genetic background of the conserved Saccharina germplasm was not clear. In this report, DNA-based molecular markers such as inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 48 Saccharina germplasms. A total of 50 ISSR and 50 RAPD primers were tested, of which only 33 polymorphic primers (17 ISSR and 16 RAPD) had an amplified clear and reproducible profile, and could be used...
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024999/diversity-and-endemicity-in-the-scorpion-fauna-of-vietnam-a-preliminary-synopsis
#13
Dinh-Sac Pham, Thi-Hang Tran, Wilson R Lourenço
A faunistic inventory is proposed for the known Vietnamese scorpion species. The aim of this contribution is to bring an up-to-date checklist of all known species in Vietnam, prior to a more detailed study of the Vietnamese fauna to be performed by one of the authors (T.-H.T.) in the context of the preparation of a doctoral degree. Final taxonomic decisions should be taken at the end of the doctoral dissertation.
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011249/lack-of-effects-of-statins-on-high-density-lipoprotein-subfractions-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-receiving-protease-inhibitors
#14
Randa Bittar, Élisabeth Aslangul, Philippe Giral, Lambert Assoumou, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Olga Kalmykova, Marie-Christine Federspiel, Corinne Cherfils, Dominique Costagliola, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of 45 days of rosuvastatin or pravastatin treatment on the distribution of HDL subfractions in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) with cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The distribution of HDL subclasses by gradient gel electrophoresis was blindly assessed in 74 HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted PIs at baseline and at day 45 of statin treatment, and compared with the distribution obtained in 63 healthy normolipidemic individuals taken as controls...
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979388/new-case-of-lateral-asymmetry-in-fishes-a-new-subfamily-genus-and-species-of-deep-water-clingfishes-from-papua-new-guinea-western-pacific-ocean
#15
Ronald Fricke, Jhen-Nien Chen, Wei-Jen Chen
The unusual clingfish Protogobiesox asymmetricus n. gen, n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens collected in deep water off the north coast of Papua New Guinea in 2012. The species is characterized by its 9-10 dorsal rays, 8 anal rays, 17-24 pectoral-fin rays, 15 principal caudal-fin rays, 3 gills, third arch with 3 gill rakers, 34-35 total vertebrae, with asymmetrical lateral bending starting behind the skull, bent at an angle of 85°-92°; skull asymmetrical in frontal view; skin naked, surface of head and body without striae; disc without adhesive papillae...
January 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939232/age-related-changes-of-metallothionein-1-2-and-metallothionein-3-expression-in-rat-brain
#16
Rosaria Scudiero, Luisa Cigliano, Mariailaria Verderame
Neurodegeneration is one of the main physiological consequences of aging on brain. Metallothioneins (MTs), low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy-metal ions and oxygen-free radicals, are commonly expressed in various tissues of mammals. MTs are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and protection, and may be engaged in aging. Expression of the ubiquitous MTs (1 and 2) and the brain specific MT3 have been studied in many neurodegenerative disorders. The research results indicate that MTs may play important, although not yet fully known, roles in brain diseases; in addition, data lack the ability to identify the MT isoforms functionally involved...
January 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938939/expression-of-the-galanthus-nivalis-agglutinin-gna-gene-in-transgenic-potato-plants-confers-resistance-to-aphids
#17
Xiaoxiao Mi, Xue Liu, Haolu Yan, Lina Liang, Xiangyan Zhou, Jiangwei Yang, Huaijun Si, Ning Zhang
Aphids, the largest group of sap-sucking pests, cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide every year. The massive use of pesticides to combat this pest causes severe damage to the environment, putting in risk the human health. In this study, transgenic potato plants expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene were developed using CaMV 35S and ST-LS1 promoters generating six transgenic lines (35S1-35S3 and ST1-ST3 corresponding to the first and second promoter, respectively). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the GNA gene was expressed in leaves, stems and roots of transgenic plants under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, while it was only expressed in leaves and stems under the control of the ST-LS1 promoter...
January 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938938/overexpression-of-hif-1%C3%AE-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-contributes-to-repairing-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage-in-rats
#18
Deju Lin, Liping Zhou, Biao Wang, Lizhen Liu, Li Cong, Chuanqin Hu, Tingting Ge, Qin Yu
Preclinical researches on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation, which is used to treat hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage, have received inspiring achievements. However, the insufficient migration of active cells to damaged tissues has limited their potential therapeutic effects. There are some evidences that hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) promotes the viability and migration of the cells. Here, we aim to investigate whether overexpression of HIF-1α in MSCs could improve the viability and migration capacity of cells, and its therapeutic efficiency on HI brain damage...
January 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890577/transcription-factors-regulating-uspa-genes-in-catharanthus%C3%A2-roseus
#19
Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Ahmed M Shokry, Saleh Al-Karim, Sanaa G Al Attas, Nour O Gadallah, Sherif Edris, Magdy A Al-Kordy, Sabah M Hassan, Salah Abo-Aba, Fotouh M El-Domyati
RNA-Seq of the Catharanthus roseus SRA database was done in order to detect putative universal stress proteins (USPs) and their possible controlling factors. Previous analysis indicated the existence and characterization of uspA-like genes. In silico analysis of RNA-Seq database in several plant tissues revealed the possible functions and regulations of some uspA-like transcripts whose transcription factors (TFs) that might drive their expression were detected. BLAST indicated the existence of TF superfamilies erf (ethylene-responsive TF), bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) and WRKY that might regulate several uspA-like genes...
January 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890576/wing-geometry-of-phlebotomus-stantoni-and-sergentomyia-hodgsoni-from-different-geographical-locations-in-thailand
#20
Suchada Sumruayphol, Boonruam Chittsamart, Raxsina Polseela, Patchara Sriwichai, Yudthana Samung, Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
Geographic populations of the two main sandflies genera present in Thailand were studied for species and population identification. Size and shape of Phlebotomus stantoni and Sergentomyia hodgsoni from different island and mainland locations were examined by landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Intraspecific and interspecific wing comparison was carried out based on 12 anatomical landmarks. The wing centroid size of P. stantoni was generally larger than that of S. hodgsoni. Within both species, wings from the continent were significantly larger than those from island populations...
January 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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