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Comptes Rendus Biologies

Rafael N Carvalho, Adriano B Kury
Discocyrtanus canjinjim sp. n., belonging to the family Gonyleptidae Sundevall, 1833 is described based on nineteen specimens, eleven adult males and eight adult females, collected in the Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade, in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This new species represents an endemic component for the harvestmen fauna of Chiquitano Dry Forests terrestrial eco-region, being the most occidental point of distribution of the genus, notably found in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. The new species is characterized by femur IV swollen with the same length of dorsal scutum, trochanter IV with prodorsal distal apophysis as a stout hook not bifurcated, and a unique form of genitalia in the genus...
November 14, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Luigi Rosati, Alessandra Santillo, Maria Maddalena Di Fiore, Piero Andreuccetti, Marina Prisco
Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), 5α-Reductase (5α-Red), P450 aromatase are key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis. Recently, we showed the expression and the localization of P450 aromatase in Podarcis sicula testis during the different phases of the reproductive cycle, showing its involvement in the control of steroidogenesis, particularly in 17β-estradiol synthesis. Now, we have investigated the presence and distribution of the other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, i...
November 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Noopur Singh, Ashok Sharma
Turmeric has been used as a therapeutic herb over centuries in traditional medicinal systems due to the presence of several secondary metabolite compounds. microRNAs are known to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by transcriptional cleavage or translation repression. miRNAs have been demonstrated to play an active role in secondary metabolism regulation. The present work was focused on the identification of the miRNAs involved in the regulation of secondary metabolite and development process of turmeric...
November 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Zhiliang Mei, Xianqin Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Saber Imani, Junjiang Fu
To lay the foundation of the classification of Canarium album (C. album), and C. album from Terminalia Chebula (T. chebula) in different areas of China, improved RAPD and ISSR analysis were performed to analyze polymorphism and genetic relationship. Ten samples were collected from different locations in China. A total of 221 fragments were detected by improved RAPD, out of which polymorphic fragments accounted for 82.3% with average amplification bands of 10.05 per primer. ISSR markers revealed a total of 147 alleles, where polymorphic fragments accounted for 83...
October 31, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Maxim V Vinarski, Ivan N Bolotov, Katrin Schniebs, Ivan O Nekhaev, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
The Lymnaeidae constitute a significant part of the freshwater molluscan diversity of Greenland. Since 1842, not less than 10 nominal taxa of the species and variety rank were described to organize the diversity of the Greenland lymnaeid snails. All previous attempts to revise these taxa were systematically based on morphological evidence only. Here, we provide a molecular analysis of the phylogenetic affinity and systematic status of three alleged species of the Greenland Lymnaeidae: Lymnaea vahlii (Møller, 1842), L...
October 30, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Mohamed A El-Esawi
Assessing the diversity and genetic structure of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm is essential to improve the quality and yield of this economically important crop. In this study, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were utilized to evaluate the diversity and structure of 35 faba bean genotypes originating from three different geographical regions (Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, and Near East). All 15 SSR loci generated a total of 100 alleles. The allele number per locus varied from 4 to 11, with a mean of 6...
October 26, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Takwa Missaoui, Moêz Smiri, Hajer Chmingui, Amor Hafiane
The potential toxicity of nanoparticles in plants is scarce and contradictory. Despite the diversity of research efforts, a detailed explanation of the TiO2NPS effects in plant photosynthesis is still missing. The present work gives a new approach to examine the impact of the TiO2NPs on crop production (development and photosynthesis) and plant protection (tolerance and defense systems) in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Seedlings were assessed in greenhouse trials to estimate the influence of TiO2NPs on physiological characters for 16 days...
October 21, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Zeeshan A Mirza, Harshal Bhosale, Rishikesh Patil
A new large species of gecko superficially resembling Hemidactylus maculatus Duméril & Bibron and its allied large Hemidactylus is described from Eastern Ghats. The new species, Hemidactylus kangerensis sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from members of the H. maculatus complex based on the number of femoral pores, i.e. 18-21 on each side, separated medially by 4 non-pored scales. A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequence of mitochondrial gene cytochrome b shows that the gecko is a member of the "H...
October 13, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nicolas Bacaër
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Wei-Jen Chen, Ryohei Miki, Philippe Borsa
Two previously recorded new species of the large-eye seabream genus Gymnocranius (Gymnocranius sp. D and Gymnocranius sp. E) remain undescribed. Here we describe Gymnocranius sp. E as Gymnocranius obesus sp. nov. This new species is morphologically distinct from all other known species under Gymnocranius by the following combination of characters: relatively deep body, with ratio of standard length to body depth 2.2-2.4; protruding large eye, with eye diameter about equal to or slightly larger than inter-orbital width; caudal fin moderately forked; no blue spots or wavy blue lines on cheek and snout in adults; fourth transversal dark bar on flank running from the sixth spine of the dorsal fin to the origin of the anal fin; anal, caudal and dorsal fins drab with yellowish to yellow margins...
September 26, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Henri Rochefort
The selective increase in the incidence of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, testicular) in industrialized countries is associated with the increasing number of endocrine disruptors (EDs) in the environment and raises questions about the role of EDs in mammary carcinogenesis. Answering these questions is difficult because the number of EDs is large and varies with time. Moreover hormonal carcinogenesis is multifactorial and progresses slowly and in stages. This discussion will be limited to breast cancer and three EDs: distilbene, bisphenol A (BPA), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)...
September 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Patrick Balaguer, Vanessa Delfosse, Marina Grimaldi, William Bourguet
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) represent a broad class of exogenous substances that cause adverse effects in the endocrine system mainly by interacting with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs). Humans are generally exposed to low doses of pollutants, and current researches aim at deciphering the mechanisms accounting for the health impact of EDCs at environmental concentrations. Our correlative analysis of structural, interaction and cell-based data has revealed a variety of, sometimes unexpected, binding modes, reflecting a wide range of EDC affinities and specificities...
September 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Robert Barouki
During the last decades, a large number of observations have shown that some exogenous substances could interfere with hormone levels or hormone action and could induce toxic effects. This has led to the identification of endocrine disruptors more than 25 years ago as a new class of toxic agents (Zoeller et al., 2014). Those widely used agents correspond to a variety of chemical classes, are not identified by their chemical structure or by a specific type of usage, but rather by their mechanisms of action; this is not unprecedented in toxicology since genotoxicants have also been identified by their mechanism of action, i...
September 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Claude Monneret
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and potential EDCs are mostly man-made found in various materials. By interfering with the body's endocrine system, endocrine disruptors produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in humans, abnormal growth patterns and neurodevelopmental delays in children. Thus, diethylstilbestrol (DES) a non-steroidal estrogen, which is regarded as a proof of concept, induces clear cell carcinoma among young women. EDCS may be found in plastic bottles and metal food cans (BPA), medical devices (phthalates), detergents, flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), food (BPA), toys (phthalates), cosmetics and drugs (parabens), and pesticides (alkyl phenols such as nonylphenol)...
September 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Philippe Bouchard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Rémy Slama, Céline Vernet, Feiby L Nassan, Russ Hauser, Claire Philippat
Research on endocrine disruptors (EDs) developed from numerous disciplines. In this concert of disciplines, epidemiology is central to inform on the relevance for humans of mechanisms and dose-response functions identified in animals, to characterize the health impact (number of attributable disease cases), the cost associated with ED exposure, and the efficiency of the measures taken to limit exposure. Here, we present epidemiological tools to draw valid inference regarding effects of potential EDs. Epidemiology is generally observational, requiring care to control confounding bias...
August 23, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Patrick Fénichel, Nicolas Chevalier
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects...
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Yves Combarnous
A number of pesticides are suspected or proved to act as endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). In the present survey of the literature, we try to define the main issues to be considered to classify individual pesticides as EDC or not.
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Anneline Pinson, Delphine Franssen, Arlette Gérard, Anne-Simone Parent, Jean-Pierre Bourguignon
Endocrine disruption is commonly thought to be restricted to a direct endocrine mode of action i.e. the perturbation of the activation of a given type of hormonal receptor by its natural ligand. Consistent with the WHO definition of an endocrine disrupter, a key issue is the "altered function(s) of the endocrine system". Such altered functions can result from different chemical interactions, beyond agonistic or antagonistic effect at a given receptor. Based on neuroendocrine disruption by polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A, this paper proposes different mechanistic paradigms that can result in adverse health effects...
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nur Fatihah Hasan Nudin, Abdul Manaf Ali, Norhayati Ngah, Nor Zuhailah Mazlan, Nashriyah Mat, Mohd Noor Abd Ghani, Nadiawati Alias, Abd Jamil Zakaria, Md Sarwar Jahan
Plant breeding is a way of selection of a particular individual for the production of the progeny by separating or combining desired characteristics. The objective of this study was to justify different characteristics of Dioscorea hispida (Ubi gadong) varieties using molecular techniques to select the best variety for sustainable production at the farmer's level. A total of 160 germplasms of Ubi gadong were collected from different locations at the Terengganu and Kelantan states of Malaysia. Forty eight (48) out of 160 germplasms were selected as "primary" selection based on yield and other qualitative characters...
August 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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