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Comptes Rendus Biologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177499/-variation-in-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-infestation-rate-of-aleppo-pine-effect-on-dendrometric-parameters-in-the-djelfa-region-forests-saharan-atlas-algeria
#1
Hadjer Mecheri, Mohamed Kouidri, Feriel Boukheroufa-Sakraoui, Ala-Eddine Adamou
The forests of the Saharan Atlas represent the southern edge of the natural range of the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.). These are exposed to climatic stress in relation to drought and attacks of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff., denoted by CP in the French text). The purpose of our work is to study the variation of the infestation rate by the pine processionary moth and its density with climatic factors and dendrometric parameters. The infestation rate (7.82%) by the pine processionary moth and its density (2...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153972/notes-on-the-distribution-and-phylogeography-of-two-rare-small-gerbillinae-rodentia-muridae-in-morocco-gerbillus-simoni-and-gerbillus-henleyi
#2
Oussama Bouarakia, Christiane Denys, Violaine Nicolas, Loubna Tifarouine, Touria Benazzou, Abdelaziz Benhoussa
Even though Gerbillinae rodents represent an important part of the mammalian fauna in North Africa, many gaps remain in our understanding of the distribution, ecology, evolution, and systematics of some lesser known species in this family. We present in this study the most recent findings on two of these species. The first species, Gerbillus simoni Lataste, 1881, is a short-tailed, small gerbil, endemic to North Africa. In Morocco, it is present only in a small area in the northeast, where it has not been caught since 1970...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150094/role-of-estrogen-receptors-p450-aromatase-pcna-and-p53-in-high-fat-induced-impairment-of-spermatogenesis-in-rats
#3
Mariailaria Verderame, Vincenzo Migliaccio, Rosaria Scudiero
Obesity and overweight are frequently associated with male subfertility. To address new findings on the players involved in the obesity-induced impairment of spermatogenesis, we used a high-fat diet-induced overweight-rat model. Following four weeks of high-fat diet, the organization of seminiferous epithelium was affected, and tubules lumen showed immature/degenerated cells, typical signs of hormonal imbalance and testicular damage. Real-time PCR analysis allowed us to detect increased levels of ERα and decreased levels of aromatase CYP19 transcripts in testis, suggesting an increase in circulating estrogens derived from the accumulating adipose tissue rather than the induction of testicular estrogen synthesis...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097382/first-description-of-a-new-uncultured-purple-sulfur-bacterium-colonizing-marine-mangrove-sediment-in-the-caribbean-halochromatium-like-psb-from-guadeloupe
#4
Olivier Gros, Laurie Bisqué, Mélissa Sadjan, Catherine Azede, Patrick Jean-Louis, Chantal Guidi-Rontani
Here, we report the first description of a marine purple sulfur bacterium (PSB) from sulfide-rich sediments of a marine mangrove in the Caribbean. TEM shows that this new isolate contains intracytoplasmic vesicular membrane systems (containing bacteriochlorophyll a) and larger internal sulfur granules, confirmed by EDXS analyses performed using ESEM. The sulfur distribution and mapping obtained for this PSB strain has allowed us to conclude that elemental sulfur is formed as an intermediate oxidation product and stored intracellularly...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032782/scorpions-at-high-altitudes-a-new-species-of-scorpiops-peters-1861-scorpiones-scorpiopidae-from-the-taxkorgan-reserve-xinjiang-china
#5
Wilson R Lourenço
Although scorpions have been described from China since the 19th century, it was only in the early 2000s that this fauna has seen a noticeable improvement in terms of the number and diversity of the described taxa. Some regions of China have been extensively prospected, while others remain largely unexplored. The latter is the case for the Province of Xinjiang, in the Extreme West of the country. A few contributions dealing with scorpions from this region are available, but these mainly concern representatives of the family Buthidae...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032781/alkaloid-secretion-inhibited-by-antibiotics-in-aphaenogaster-ants
#6
Alain Lenoir, Séverine Devers
Although alkaloids are frequent in the poison glands of ants of the genus Aphaenogaster, this is not the case for A. iberica. Hypothesizing that in the genus Aphaenogaster, alkaloids are produced by symbiotic bacteria, except for A. iberica, we treated an experimental lot of both A. iberica and a 'classical' Aphaenogaster species, A. senilis, with an antibiotic. Compared to workers from a control lot, this treatment reduced considerably alkaloid production in A. senilis, whereas A. iberica did not react to the treatment...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032780/comparison-of-rna-extraction-methods-for-the-detection-of-bnyvv-rhizomania-virus-from-roots-of-sugar-beet
#7
Fatima Nouayti, Abdessalem Tahiri, Ilham Madani, Abdelali Blenzar, Rachid Lahlali
Rhizomania is one of serious threat to sugar beet production in Morocco and in several parts of the world. This disease led to a statistically significant decrease in the quality and yield of sugar beet plantations. Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the efficacy of six commonly used RNA extraction methods for the detection, recovery of RNA of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and removal of amplification inhibitors by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The efficiency of these extraction methods was then compared to that of a commercial isolation kit with high content of phenolic compounds...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032779/genetic-diversity-of-the-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-in-hare-lepus-capensis-populations-from-tunisia
#8
Asma Awadi, Hichem Ben Slimen, Steve Smith, Jonas Kahlen, Mohamed Makni, Franz Suchentrunk
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major group of proteins that recognize molecular components of infectious agents, known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The structure of these genes is similar and characterized by the presence of an ectodomain, a signal transmembrane segment and a highly conserved cytoplasmic domain. The latter domain is homologous to the human interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) and human IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) and designated TIR domain. The latter domain of the TLR genes was suggested to be very conservative and its evolution is driven by purifying selection...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983247/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-peptide-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-esophagus
#9
Krystyna Makowska, Liliana Rytel, Piotr Lech, Adam Osowski, Ewa Kruminis-Kaszkiel, Slawomir Gonkowski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is widely distributed within the central and peripheral nervous system. In the brain, CART is considered as the main anorectic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake. Contrary to the central nervous system, a lot of aspects connected with the distribution and functions of CART within the enteric nervous system (ENS) still remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the population of CART-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) neurons within the porcine esophagus and the denotation of their neurochemical coding...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861196/influence-of-organic-and-inorganic-sources-of-nutrients-on-the-functional-diversity-of-microbial-communities-in-the-vegetable-cropping-system-of-the-indo-gangetic-plains
#10
Mallappa Manjunath, Upendra Kumar, Raj Bahadur Yadava, Awadhesh Bahadur Rai, Bijendra Singh
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on the functional diversity of soil microbial community under a vegetable production system. The Biolog® Eco-plate technique and indices, such as average well-colour development (AWCD), McIntosh and Shannon diversity were employed to study the diversity of soil microorganisms. The AWCD, i.e. overall utilization of carbon sources, suggested that different organic treatments had a significant impact on the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859915/spectral-lights-trigger-biomass-accumulation-and-production-of-antioxidant-secondary-metabolites-in-adventitious-root-cultures-of-stevia-rebaudiana-bert
#11
Muhammad Idrees, Bibi Sania, Bibi Hafsa, Sana Kumari, Haji Khan, Hina Fazal, Ishfaq Ahmad, Fazal Akbar, Naveed Ahmad, Sadeeq Ali, Nisar Ahmad
Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is the most important therapeutic plant species and has been accepted as such worldwide. It has a tendency to accumulate steviol glycosides, which are 300 times sweeter than marketable sugar. Recently, diabetic patients commonly use this plant as a sugar substitute for sweet taste. In the present study, the effects of different spectral lights were investigated on biomass accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of S. rebaudiana. For callus development, leaf explants were excised from seed-derived plantlets and inoculated on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D, 2...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859914/-strengths-weaknesses-and-opportunities-of-french-research-in-trophic-ecology
#12
Marie-Élodie Perga, Michael Danger, Stanislas Dubois, Clémentine Fritch, Cédric Gaucherel, Cedric Hubas, Franck Jabot, Gérard Lacroix, Sébastien Lefebvre, Pierre Marmonier, Alexandre Bec
The French National Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE) aims at fostering pluridisciplinarity in Environmental Science and, for that purpose, funds ex muros research groups (GDR) on thematic topics. Trophic ecology has been identified as a scientific field in ecology that would greatly benefit from such networking activity, as being profoundly scattered. This has motivated the seeding of a GDR, entitled "GRET". The contours of the GRET's action, and its ability to fill these gaps within trophic ecology at the French national scale, will depend on the causes of this relative scattering...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910003/symbiosis-and-cohabitation
#13
EDITORIAL
Pascale Cossart, Michel Delseny, Bernard Dujon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871803/endosymbiosis-as-a-source-of-immune-innovation
#14
Abdelaziz Heddi, Anna Zaidman-Rémy
Some years ago, Lynn Margulis proposed to envision symbiosis as a source of evolutionary innovation. Here we revisit this concept in the context of insect nutritional endosymbiosis, and discuss recent data suggesting that host-endosymbiont coevolution has led to the selection of innovative strategies towards endosymbiont maintenance and control by the host immune system.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793840/bacterial-interspecies-quorum-sensing-in-the-mammalian-gut-microbiota-c-r-biologies-341-2018-https-doi-org-10-1016-j-crvi-2018-03-006
#15
Karina Bivar Xavier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650460/how-does-an-animal-behave-like-a-plant-physiological-and-molecular-adaptations-of-zooxanthellae-and-their-hosts-to-symbiosis
#16
Denis Allemand, Paola Furla
Cnidarians (corals and sea anemones) harbouring photosynthetic microalgae derive several benefits from their association. To allow this association, numerous symbiotic-dependent adaptations in both partners, resulting from evolutionary pressures, have been selected. The dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) are located inside a vesicle in the cnidarian host cell and are therefore exposed to a very different environment compared to the free-living state of these microalgae in terms of ion concentration and carbon content and speciation...
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631891/the-impact-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-therapeutic-responses-against-cancer
#17
Anne-Gaëlle Goubet, Romain Daillère, Bertrand Routy, Lisa Derosa, Paula M Roberti, Laurence Zitvogel
Accumulating evidence points to the impact of the gut microbiota in regulating various chronic inflammatory disorders such as cancers. The intestinal microbiome is not only influencing the spontaneous course of colon malignancies but also acts at distant sterile sites of neoplasia, mostly playing a detrimental role. By providing microbial-associated molecular patterns and potentially antigens sharing molecular mimicry with tumor antigens, our commensals modulate the local and the systemic immune tonus, eventually influencing tumor microenvironment...
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631890/the-microbiota-a-necessary-element-of-immunity
#18
Gérard Eberl
The intestinal microbiota is essential for digestion, the production of physiological metabolites, and defense. More than 1013 bacteria are present in the intestine, inspiring awe as well as fear of potential infections. By definition, the immune system protects us from infection, and is given the task to recognize dangerous pathogens from useful mutualists. Nevertheless, the definition of pathogens and mutualists is often contextual, and the immune system reacts to all types of microbes. In fact, immune reactivity to microbiota is necessary for the development of the immune system...
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631889/bacterial-interspecies-quorum-sensing-in-the-mammalian-gut-microbiota
#19
Karina Bivar Xavier
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse and complex resident bacterial community, which interacts with the host in many beneficial processes required for optimal host health. We are studying the importance of bacterial cell-cell communication mediated by the interspecies quorum-sensing signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in the beneficial properties of the gut microbiota. Our recent work provided the first evidence that AI-2 produced by Escherichia coli can influence the species composition of this community in the mouse gut...
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802014/aberrant-growth-of-maxillary-canine-teeth-in-male-babirusa-genus-babyrousa
#20
Alastair A Macdonald
A worldwide survey of babirusa skulls curated in museum and private collections located 431 that were from adult males and had retained at least one maxillary canine tooth. Eighty-three of these skulls were identified as exhibiting aberrant maxillary canine tooth growth. Twenty-four of the skulls represented babirusa from Buru and the Sula Islands, and forty-five skulls represented babirusa from Sulawesi and the Togian Islands. The remaining series of fourteen babirusa skulls originally came from zoo animals...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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