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Comptes Rendus Biologies

Fodé Salifou Soumah, David Kaniewski, Kouami Kokou
Guinea has very little ecological data available regarding its sacred forests. This study shows the important conservation role of these forests in a local context of strong human impacts. We present four representative case studies from the Sudano-Guinean zone in Upper Guinea. Our phytoecological inventories recorded a total of 431 species, 312 genera, and 87 families including 242 species, 187 genera, and 64 families in the forests. Twelve plant groups have been identified, including five in forests and seven in the surrounding vegetation...
November 11, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Valeria Gabbanelli, Juan Martín Díaz de Astarloa, Mariano Gonzalez-Castro, Diego Martín Vazquez, Ezequiel Mabragaña
Zearaja chilensis has been reported from Southern Brazil in the Southwest Atlantic (SWA) to northern Chile in the Southeast Pacific (SEP), and it was listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. Recent molecular studies have called into question the conspecificity between specimens from these opposite coasts of South America, which can have implications for the conservation status of the species. To verify the identity of specimens identified as Z. chilensis, 47 individuals from SWA and 22 from SEP were examined. By comparing external morphology, spinulation pattern, clasper, egg cases, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence data, differences between groups were found...
November 10, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Marion Walbott, Christiane Gallet, Emmanuel Corcket
Recruitment is a key process for forest sustainability, especially in warm margin of distribution area. The influence of climate (temperate or warm), of soil water availability, and of allelopathic interactions from different forest species have been tested on the germination of Fagus sylvatica in controlled climatic conditions. Germination rates of non-dormant Fagus seeds were improved by relatively warm temperatures (20°C), but reversibly stopped under heat constraint (27°C). The relative growth rate of Fagus seedlings was better under temperate climatic conditions...
October 23, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Almudena Cánovas-Molina, Monica Montefalcone, Giorgio Bavestrello, Mauatassem Billah Masmoudi, Anne Haguenauer, Pachka Hammami, Lamya Chaoui, Mohammed Hichem Kara, Didier Aurelle
Connectivity studies in the marine realm are of great importance to understand the evolutionary potential of populations in a context of growing pressures on the marine environment. Here, we investigated the effect of the local, regional, and depth spatial scale on the population genetic structure of the yellow gorgonian Eunicella cavolini, one of the most common octocoral species of the Mediterranean hard-bottom communities. This species, along with other sessile metazoans typical of coralligenous ecosystems, plays an important role in supporting biodiversity, but is also impacted by direct and indirect consequences of human activities, such as physical destruction or mortality events due to thermal anomalies...
October 11, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Hadjer Mecheri, Mohamed Kouidri, Feriel Boukheroufa-Sakraoui, Ala-Eddine Adamou
The forests of the Saharan Atlas represent the southern edge of the natural range of the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.). These are exposed to climatic stress in relation to drought and attacks of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff., denoted by CP in the French text). The purpose of our work is to study the variation of the infestation rate by the pine processionary moth and its density with climatic factors and dendrometric parameters. The infestation rate (7.82%) by the pine processionary moth and its density (2...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Oussama Bouarakia, Christiane Denys, Violaine Nicolas, Loubna Tifarouine, Touria Benazzou, Abdelaziz Benhoussa
Even though Gerbillinae rodents represent an important part of the mammalian fauna in North Africa, many gaps remain in our understanding of the distribution, ecology, evolution, and systematics of some lesser known species in this family. We present in this study the most recent findings on two of these species. The first species, Gerbillus simoni Lataste, 1881, is a short-tailed, small gerbil, endemic to North Africa. In Morocco, it is present only in a small area in the northeast, where it has not been caught since 1970...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Mariailaria Verderame, Vincenzo Migliaccio, Rosaria Scudiero
Obesity and overweight are frequently associated with male subfertility. To address new findings on the players involved in the obesity-induced impairment of spermatogenesis, we used a high-fat diet-induced overweight-rat model. Following four weeks of high-fat diet, the organization of seminiferous epithelium was affected, and tubules lumen showed immature/degenerated cells, typical signs of hormonal imbalance and testicular damage. Real-time PCR analysis allowed us to detect increased levels of ERα and decreased levels of aromatase CYP19 transcripts in testis, suggesting an increase in circulating estrogens derived from the accumulating adipose tissue rather than the induction of testicular estrogen synthesis...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Olivier Gros, Laurie Bisqué, Mélissa Sadjan, Catherine Azede, Patrick Jean-Louis, Chantal Guidi-Rontani
Here, we report the first description of a marine purple sulfur bacterium (PSB) from sulfide-rich sediments of a marine mangrove in the Caribbean. TEM shows that this new isolate contains intracytoplasmic vesicular membrane systems (containing bacteriochlorophyll a) and larger internal sulfur granules, confirmed by EDXS analyses performed using ESEM. The sulfur distribution and mapping obtained for this PSB strain has allowed us to conclude that elemental sulfur is formed as an intermediate oxidation product and stored intracellularly...
September 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Wilson R Lourenço
Although scorpions have been described from China since the 19th century, it was only in the early 2000s that this fauna has seen a noticeable improvement in terms of the number and diversity of the described taxa. Some regions of China have been extensively prospected, while others remain largely unexplored. The latter is the case for the Province of Xinjiang, in the Extreme West of the country. A few contributions dealing with scorpions from this region are available, but these mainly concern representatives of the family Buthidae...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Alain Lenoir, Séverine Devers
Although alkaloids are frequent in the poison glands of ants of the genus Aphaenogaster, this is not the case for A. iberica. Hypothesizing that in the genus Aphaenogaster, alkaloids are produced by symbiotic bacteria, except for A. iberica, we treated an experimental lot of both A. iberica and a 'classical' Aphaenogaster species, A. senilis, with an antibiotic. Compared to workers from a control lot, this treatment reduced considerably alkaloid production in A. senilis, whereas A. iberica did not react to the treatment...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Fatima Nouayti, Abdessalem Tahiri, Ilham Madani, Abdelali Blenzar, Rachid Lahlali
Rhizomania is one of serious threat to sugar beet production in Morocco and in several parts of the world. This disease led to a statistically significant decrease in the quality and yield of sugar beet plantations. Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the efficacy of six commonly used RNA extraction methods for the detection, recovery of RNA of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and removal of amplification inhibitors by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The efficiency of these extraction methods was then compared to that of a commercial isolation kit with high content of phenolic compounds...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Asma Awadi, Hichem Ben Slimen, Steve Smith, Jonas Kahlen, Mohamed Makni, Franz Suchentrunk
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major group of proteins that recognize molecular components of infectious agents, known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The structure of these genes is similar and characterized by the presence of an ectodomain, a signal transmembrane segment and a highly conserved cytoplasmic domain. The latter domain is homologous to the human interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) and human IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) and designated TIR domain. The latter domain of the TLR genes was suggested to be very conservative and its evolution is driven by purifying selection...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Krystyna Makowska, Liliana Rytel, Piotr Lech, Adam Osowski, Ewa Kruminis-Kaszkiel, Slawomir Gonkowski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is widely distributed within the central and peripheral nervous system. In the brain, CART is considered as the main anorectic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake. Contrary to the central nervous system, a lot of aspects connected with the distribution and functions of CART within the enteric nervous system (ENS) still remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the population of CART-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) neurons within the porcine esophagus and the denotation of their neurochemical coding...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Mallappa Manjunath, Upendra Kumar, Raj Bahadur Yadava, Awadhesh Bahadur Rai, Bijendra Singh
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on the functional diversity of soil microbial community under a vegetable production system. The Biolog® Eco-plate technique and indices, such as average well-colour development (AWCD), McIntosh and Shannon diversity were employed to study the diversity of soil microorganisms. The AWCD, i.e. overall utilization of carbon sources, suggested that different organic treatments had a significant impact on the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Muhammad Idrees, Bibi Sania, Bibi Hafsa, Sana Kumari, Haji Khan, Hina Fazal, Ishfaq Ahmad, Fazal Akbar, Naveed Ahmad, Sadeeq Ali, Nisar Ahmad
Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is the most important therapeutic plant species and has been accepted as such worldwide. It has a tendency to accumulate steviol glycosides, which are 300 times sweeter than marketable sugar. Recently, diabetic patients commonly use this plant as a sugar substitute for sweet taste. In the present study, the effects of different spectral lights were investigated on biomass accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of S. rebaudiana. For callus development, leaf explants were excised from seed-derived plantlets and inoculated on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D, 2...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Marie-Élodie Perga, Michael Danger, Stanislas Dubois, Clémentine Fritch, Cédric Gaucherel, Cedric Hubas, Franck Jabot, Gérard Lacroix, Sébastien Lefebvre, Pierre Marmonier, Alexandre Bec
The French National Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE) aims at fostering pluridisciplinarity in Environmental Science and, for that purpose, funds ex muros research groups (GDR) on thematic topics. Trophic ecology has been identified as a scientific field in ecology that would greatly benefit from such networking activity, as being profoundly scattered. This has motivated the seeding of a GDR, entitled "GRET". The contours of the GRET's action, and its ability to fill these gaps within trophic ecology at the French national scale, will depend on the causes of this relative scattering...
July 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Pascale Cossart, Michel Delseny, Bernard Dujon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Abdelaziz Heddi, Anna Zaidman-Rémy
Some years ago, Lynn Margulis proposed to envision symbiosis as a source of evolutionary innovation. Here we revisit this concept in the context of insect nutritional endosymbiosis, and discuss recent data suggesting that host-endosymbiont coevolution has led to the selection of innovative strategies towards endosymbiont maintenance and control by the host immune system.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Karina Bivar Xavier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Denis Allemand, Paola Furla
Cnidarians (corals and sea anemones) harbouring photosynthetic microalgae derive several benefits from their association. To allow this association, numerous symbiotic-dependent adaptations in both partners, resulting from evolutionary pressures, have been selected. The dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) are located inside a vesicle in the cnidarian host cell and are therefore exposed to a very different environment compared to the free-living state of these microalgae in terms of ion concentration and carbon content and speciation...
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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