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Comptes Rendus Biologies

Alexandre Hassanin, Nicolas Nesi, Julie Marin, Blaise Kadjo, Xavier Pourrut, Éric Leroy, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Prescott Musaba Akawa, Carine Ngoagouni, Emmanuel Nakouné, Manuel Ruedi, Didier Tshikung, Célestin Pongombo Shongo, Céline Bonillo
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae...
October 13, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Conrad A Matthee, Anne Ropiquet
Microsatellite analyses suggest that spatial genetic structure among six leopard-sampling sites in southern Africa is the result of isolation by distance.
October 6, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Claudio Milanesi, Monica Scali, Rita Vignani, Franco Cambi, Lucas Dugerdil, Claudia Faleri, Mauro Cresti
In the late Roman Republic period (2nd-1st century BC), in the area of San Giovanni on Elba Island, previously subject to intense extraction of iron ore, a rustic villa was established by Marco Valerio Messalla, a supreme Roman magistrate. The foundations of the walls were discovered and excavated by an archaeological mission. Palaeobotanical analysis of a set of stratigraphic layers was performed. Palynological slides showed remains of palynomorphic and non-pollen objects, while data combined with anthracological investigations confirmed the hypothesis that in the 1st century AD the villa was destroyed by a fire that created a compact crust under which were discovered four broken Roman amphorae containing about five hundred apple seeds...
October 3, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Sébastien Trape
In the rare perennial bodies of water of the Sahara desert, only a few fish species have survived to increasing aridification since the end of the last humid period at the Holocene, approximately 5000 years BP. Here, I report the occurrence of an undescribed haplochomine cichlid fish in Lake Boukou, one of the seven Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad). These lakes are located in one of the most arid areas of the Sahara desert, but they persist by virtue of subsurface inflow of fresh groundwater from a large fossil aquifer...
October 3, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Haifa Aichi-Yousfi, Bochra Amina Bahri, Maher Medini, Slim Rouz, Mohamed Nejib Rejeb, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar
In order to study the genetic diversity, the phylogeographic pattern and hybridization between six Tunisian Capparis species, 213 accessions of Caper were genotyped with three primer combinations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Out of 750 fragments generated, 636 were polymorphic and 407 of them were restricted to a single species. STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses clearly separated morphologically different populations into six distinct genetic ones. The UPGMA analysis grouped the species into three main clusters: G1 grouped C...
September 30, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nesrine Semiane, Fabienne Foufelle, Pascal Ferré, Isabelle Hainault, Souad Ameddah, Aicha Mallek, Ali Khalkhal, Yasmina Dahmani
A high intake of sugars has been linked to diet-induced health problems. The aim of this study was to assess whether the long-term consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a desert gerbil, Gerbillus gerbillus. Compared to natural diet, HCD leads to several metabolic disorders including adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, ectopic fat deposition in the liver, which were associated with higher levels of transcripts of genes involved with fat synthesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and fibrosis...
September 30, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Ouahiba Sihali-Beloui, Salima El-Aoufi, Boubekeur Maouche, Sergio Marco
The aim of our transmission electron microscope study was to show, for the first time, the alteration of liver cells involved in the evolution of steatosis to steatohepatitis on a murine model of the diet-induced metabolic syndrome, Psammomys obesus. This pathologic evolution was induced by using the standard laboratory diet during 10 months, and analyzed with metabolic studies and the immunohistochemistry technique. Four months later, hepatocytes charged with lipid vacuoles were involved in autophagy. Furthermore, in the sinusoids, we observed Kupffer cells, neutrophils and macrophages...
September 28, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Anisur Rahman, Kamrun Nahar, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Masayuki Fujita
The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) alters different physiological and biochemical attributes that affect plant growth and yield. In our study, we investigated the regulatory role of supplemental manganese (Mn) on hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan29) seedlings under Cd-stress conditions. Exposure of 14-d-old seedlings to 0.3mM CdCl2 for three days caused growth inhibition, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and higher Cd accumulation. Higher Cd uptake caused oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG)...
September 20, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Ammar Elakhdar, Mohamed Abd El-Sattar, Khairy Amer, Assma Rady, Toshihiro Kumamaru
Association mapping is becoming an important tool for identifying alleles and loci responsible for dissecting highly complex traits in barley. This study describes the population structure and marker-trait association using general linear model (GLM) analysis on a site of 60 barley genotypes, evaluated in six salinity environments. Ninety-eight SSR and SNP alleles were employed for the construction of a framework genetic map. The genetic structure analysis of the collection turned out to consist of two major sub-populations, mainly comprising hulled and naked types...
September 19, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Gabriela Blasina, Juan Molina, Andrea Lopez Cazorla, Juan Díaz de Astarloa
This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow...
August 22, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Jeannine McManus, Bool Smuts
Low microsatellites used to investigate leopard genetic structure severely restricts the results by Ropiquet et al. (2015) to infer population structure for managers.
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Palma Simoniello, Maria Grazia Esposito, Francesca Trinchella, Chiara Maria Motta, Rosaria Scudiero
The teratogenic effects of thermal stress were studied in the oviparous Italian wall lizard Podarcis sicula. To this purpose, the eggs were exposed to continuous or temporary cold (15°C) or warm (30°C) stresses and the effects were analysed at the cytological and molecular levels. The results demonstrated the lethality of the continuous regimes and of the warm temporary regime, no matter if given at early (5 days) or late (15 days) stages of development. Temporary cold stress also resulted in lethality, but only if given in the early stage; later, in fact, it resulted in an abnormal development, with marked alterations in the encephalic vesicles, in the eyes and the trunk organs...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Philippe Borsa, Kang-Ning Shen, Irma S Arlyza, Thierry B Hoareau
Previous investigations have uncovered divergent mitochondrial clades within the blue-spotted maskray, previously Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller and Henle). The hypothesis that the blue-spotted maskray may consist of a complex of multiple cryptic species has been proposed, and four species have been recently described or resurrected. To test the multiple cryptic species hypothesis, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and coalescence patterns of mitochondrial sequences in a sample of 127 new individuals from the Indian Ocean and the Coral Triangle region, sequenced at both the CO1 and cytochrome b loci...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Andrzej Kowalski
In a previous work (Górnicka-Michalska et al. (1998)), an occurrence of genetic variants in the chicken erythrocyte histone H5 has been presented. Here, the pheasant histone H5 heterogeneity is characterized to verify if the interspecies variability of this protein is caused by the analogous determinants. During screening histone H1 preparations isolated from the pheasant erythrocytes, histone H5 was identified as differently located in the electrophoretic gels. According to the rate of electrophoretic migration, two histone H5 phenotypes (H5a and H5b) possessing similar quantitative proportion (P>0...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Manon Simonneau, Cyril Courtial, Julien Pétillon
Spiders are known to commonly use aerial dispersal, so-called ballooning, especially at juvenile stages. They produce a silk thread that allows them to rise up in the air to disperse, which serves as inbreeding avoidance or to find an optimal over-winter habitat. Studies of phenology, species and meteorological factors associated with aerial dispersal have been limited to laboratory settings, with few data obtained under natural settings and no studies to date executed in France. To understand aerial dispersal, we conducted daily sampling between 2000 and 2002 at a height of 12m...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Meriam Ben Romdhane, Leila Riahi, Ayet Selmi, Nejia Zoghlami
This study investigates the extent of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and the amount of gene flow among Tunisian Citrus species based on a set of 15 informative nuclear SSR molecular markers. Genotyping data highlighted an allelic richness among Tunisian Citrus species and has allowed the detection of 168 alleles among them 104.19 were effective. The partition of the total genetic diversity (HT=0.832) showed that the highest amount of variation within the Citrus species is HS=0.550, while the relative amount of the between-species genetic diversity GST does not exceed 0...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Manel Chiboub, Omar Saadani, Imen Challougui Fatnassi, Souhir Abdelkrim, Ghassen Abid, Moez Jebara, Salwa Harzalli Jebara
The inoculation of plants with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria has become a priority in the phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. A total of 82 bacteria were isolated from Sulla coronaria root nodules cultivated on four soil samples differently contaminated by heavy metals. The phenotypic characterization of these isolates demonstrated an increased tolerance to cadmium reaching 4.1mM, and to other metals, including Zn, Cu and Ni. Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) analysis showed a large diversity represented by genera related to Agrobacterium sp...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Md Rashidul Islam, Md Samiul Alam, Ashik Iqbal Khan, Ismail Hossain, Lorne R Adam, Fouad Daayf
Bacterial blight (BB) is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a most destructive disease of rice, mostly in Asia, including Bangladesh. Altogether 96 isolates of Xoo were collected from 19 rice-growing districts of Bangladesh in both the rain-fed and irrigated seasons of 2014 to assess their pathotypic and genetic variation. Pathotypic analyses were carried out on a set of 12 Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) of rice containing a single resistance gene and two check varieties IR24 and TN1 by the leaf clipping inoculation method...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Guo-Ye Guo, Fang Chen, Xiao-Dong Shi, Yin-Shuai Tian, Mao-Qun Yu, Xue-Qin Han, Li-Chun Yuan, Ying Zhang
Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among 102 Jatropha curcas accessions from Asia, Africa, and the Americas were assessed using the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS). The average G+C content (65.04%) was considerably higher than the A+T (34.96%) content. The estimated genetic diversity revealed moderate genetic variation. The pairwise genetic divergences (GD) between haplotypes were evaluated and ranged from 0.000 to 0.017, suggesting a higher level of genetic differentiation in Mexican accessions than those of other regions...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Wilson R Lourenço, Patrick O Waeber, Lucienne Wilmé
New comments are proposed for the Ananterinae (sensu Pocock) or the 'Ananteris Group'. The worldwide pattern of distribution of the elements associated with the Ananterinae, as well as aspects of their ecology, is discussed. The biogeographic patterns presented by extant and fossil elements of this group confirm not only the characteristics of a lineage representing a typical Gondwanian distribution, but correspond also to older Pangean patterns. One new species is described in the genus Tityobuthus Pocock...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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