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Comptes Rendus Biologies

Krystyna Makowska, Liliana Rytel, Piotr Lech, Adam Osowski, Ewa Kruminis-Kaszkiel, Slawomir Gonkowski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is widely distributed within the central and peripheral nervous system. In the brain, CART is considered as the main anorectic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake. Contrary to the central nervous system, a lot of aspects connected with the distribution and functions of CART within the enteric nervous system (ENS) still remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the population of CART-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) neurons within the porcine esophagus and the denotation of their neurochemical coding...
July 5, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Abdelaziz Heddi, Anna Zaidman-Rémy
Some years ago, Lynn Margulis proposed to envision symbiosis as a source of evolutionary innovation. Here we revisit this concept in the context of insect nutritional endosymbiosis, and discuss recent data suggesting that host-endosymbiont coevolution has led to the selection of innovative strategies towards endosymbiont maintenance and control by the host immune system.
June 2, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Mallappa Manjunath, Upendra Kumar, Raj Bahadur Yadava, Awadhesh Bahadur Rai, Bijendra Singh
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on the functional diversity of soil microbial community under a vegetable production system. The Biolog® Eco-plate technique and indices, such as average well-colour development (AWCD), McIntosh and Shannon diversity were employed to study the diversity of soil microorganisms. The AWCD, i.e. overall utilization of carbon sources, suggested that different organic treatments had a significant impact on the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms...
May 31, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Muhammad Idrees, Bibi Sania, Bibi Hafsa, Sana Kumari, Haji Khan, Hina Fazal, Ishfaq Ahmad, Fazal Akbar, Naveed Ahmad, Sadeeq Ali, Nisar Ahmad
Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is the most important therapeutic plant species and has been accepted as such worldwide. It has a tendency to accumulate steviol glycosides, which are 300 times sweeter than marketable sugar. Recently, diabetic patients commonly use this plant as a sugar substitute for sweet taste. In the present study, the effects of different spectral lights were investigated on biomass accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of S. rebaudiana. For callus development, leaf explants were excised from seed-derived plantlets and inoculated on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D, 2...
May 30, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Marie-Élodie Perga, Michael Danger, Stanislas Dubois, Clémentine Fritch, Cédric Gaucherel, Cedric Hubas, Franck Jabot, Gérard Lacroix, Sébastien Lefebvre, Pierre Marmonier, Alexandre Bec
The French National Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE) aims at fostering pluridisciplinarity in Environmental Science and, for that purpose, funds ex muros research groups (GDR) on thematic topics. Trophic ecology has been identified as a scientific field in ecology that would greatly benefit from such networking activity, as being profoundly scattered. This has motivated the seeding of a GDR, entitled "GRET". The contours of the GRET's action, and its ability to fill these gaps within trophic ecology at the French national scale, will depend on the causes of this relative scattering...
May 30, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Pascale Cossart, Michel Delseny, Bernard Dujon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Karina Bivar Xavier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Denis Allemand, Paola Furla
Cnidarians (corals and sea anemones) harbouring photosynthetic microalgae derive several benefits from their association. To allow this association, numerous symbiotic-dependent adaptations in both partners, resulting from evolutionary pressures, have been selected. The dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) are located inside a vesicle in the cnidarian host cell and are therefore exposed to a very different environment compared to the free-living state of these microalgae in terms of ion concentration and carbon content and speciation...
April 9, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Anne-Gaëlle Goubet, Romain Daillère, Bertrand Routy, Lisa Derosa, Paula M Roberti, Laurence Zitvogel
Accumulating evidence points to the impact of the gut microbiota in regulating various chronic inflammatory disorders such as cancers. The intestinal microbiome is not only influencing the spontaneous course of colon malignancies but also acts at distant sterile sites of neoplasia, mostly playing a detrimental role. By providing microbial-associated molecular patterns and potentially antigens sharing molecular mimicry with tumor antigens, our commensals modulate the local and the systemic immune tonus, eventually influencing tumor microenvironment...
April 6, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Gérard Eberl
The intestinal microbiota is essential for digestion, the production of physiological metabolites, and defense. More than 1013 bacteria are present in the intestine, inspiring awe as well as fear of potential infections. By definition, the immune system protects us from infection, and is given the task to recognize dangerous pathogens from useful mutualists. Nevertheless, the definition of pathogens and mutualists is often contextual, and the immune system reacts to all types of microbes. In fact, immune reactivity to microbiota is necessary for the development of the immune system...
April 6, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Karina Bivar Xavier
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse and complex resident bacterial community, which interacts with the host in many beneficial processes required for optimal host health. We are studying the importance of bacterial cell-cell communication mediated by the interspecies quorum-sensing signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in the beneficial properties of the gut microbiota. Our recent work provided the first evidence that AI-2 produced by Escherichia coli can influence the species composition of this community in the mouse gut...
April 6, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Alastair A Macdonald
A worldwide survey of babirusa skulls curated in museum and private collections located 431 that were from adult males and had retained at least one maxillary canine tooth. Eighty-three of these skulls were identified as exhibiting aberrant maxillary canine tooth growth. Twenty-four of the skulls represented babirusa from Buru and the Sula Islands, and forty-five skulls represented babirusa from Sulawesi and the Togian Islands. The remaining series of fourteen babirusa skulls originally came from zoo animals...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Alastair A Macdonald, Darren J Shaw
The growth of the maxillary canine teeth of the babirusa (genus Babyrousa) was studied on a sample of 149 adult male babirusa skulls from twenty-two international museum and private collections. Skulls from Buru, Sulawesi and the Togian Islands were represented. The continuous growth process was summarised into five stages ('A'-'E') according to the position of the tip of the tooth over the bones of the skull. The supracutaneous portion of the tooth grew in a curve-linear fashion dorso-caudally, and was orientated such that the tips grew towards the midline of the cranium...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Rosa Carotenuto, Margherita Tussellino
At the beginning of diplotene, the oocyte of Xenopus laevis is a cell of about 10-20 microns destined to increase 10,000-fold its size when the oocyte becomes filled with yolk platelets and has accumulated a great number of pigment granules in a half of its periphery. Its internal architecture is gradually accomplished during growth because of several factors, especially because of cytoskeletal changes. In the fully-grown oocyte, the cytoskeleton appears to sustain the eccentrically located germinal vesicle through arms radiating from the cortex to the germinal vesicle, a unique organization not to be found in other Amphibians...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Pablo Castillejo, Susana Chamorro, Luis Paz, Carla Heinrich, Ivonne Carrillo, Jose G Salazar, Juan C Navarro, Eduardo A Lobo
Epilithic diatom communities are particularly suitable for the evaluation of freshwater quality. In Ecuador, however, no water quality index includes this biotic parameter. This work is the first attempt in the country to determine the composition of epilithic diatom communities associated with different degrees of eutrophication. This was accomplished by measuring physical, chemical and microbiological variables at five sampling sites along the Pita River, Ecuador, from August to December 2016. The results indicate a clear gradient of eutrophication from sampling sites P1 (good water) in the upper reaches to P5 (bad water) located in the lower reaches...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Wilson R Lourenço, Dinh-Sac Pham, Thi-Hang Tran, Thi-Hang Tran
Two new species of scorpion belonging to the family Pseudochactidae and to the genus Vietbocap are described based on specimens collected in the Thien Duong cave, which belongs to the Vom cave system, in the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. The previously described species from this cave, Vietbocap thienduongensis Lourenço & Pham, 2012 was collected in the initial section of the cave (1500 to 1800m from the cave entrance) and proved to be a true troglobitic element. The diagnosis of this species, only known from males, is completed based on females collected at 750m from the cave entrance...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Massimo Venditti, Chiara Fasano, Alessandra Santillo, Francesco Aniello, Sergio Minucci
Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1) is a protein belonging to the formin family, which regulates, together with the small GTPase RhoA, the nucleation and the assembly of actin fibres through Wnt-Dishevelled PCP pathway. Its role has been investigated in essential biological processes, such as cell polarity, movement and adhesion during morphogenesis and organogenesis. In this work, we studied the expression of DAAM1 mRNA and protein by PCR and Western blot analyses and its co-localization with actin in adult mouse seminal vesicles by immunofluorescence...
April 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Alain Dejean, Arthur Compin, Maurice Leponce, Frédéric Azémar, Camille Bonhomme, Stanislas Talaga, Laurent Pelozuelo, Yann Hénaut, Bruno Corbara
In an inundated Mexican forest, 89 out of 92 myrmecophytic tank bromeliads (Aechmea bracteata) housed an associated ant colony: 13 sheltered Azteca serica, 43 Dolichoderus bispinosus, and 33 Neoponera villosa. Ant presence has a positive impact on the diversity of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (n=30 bromeliads studied). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the presence and the species of ant are not correlated to bromeliad size, quantity of water, number of wells, filtered organic matter or incident radiation...
March 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Sara Falvo, Gabriella Chieffi Baccaria, Giuseppe Spaziano, Luigi Rosati, Massimo Venditti, Maria Maddalena Di Fiore, Alessandra Santillo
The Harderian gland (HG) of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) secretes copious amounts of lipids, such as cholesterol. Here we report a study of the expressions of the StAR protein and key steroidogenic enzymes in the HG of male and female rats. The objective of the present investigation was to ascertain (a) whether the rat HG is involved in steroid production starting with cholesterol, and (b) whether the pattern of gene and protein expressions together with the enzymatic activities display sexual dimorphism. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the expression of StAR gene and protein, and Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, Srd5a2 and Cyp19a1 genes in the rat HG...
March 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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