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Comptes Rendus Biologies

Rémy Slama, Céline Vernet, Feiby L Nassan, Russ Hauser, Claire Philippat
Research on endocrine disruptors (EDs) developed from numerous disciplines. In this concert of disciplines, epidemiology is central to inform on the relevance for humans of mechanisms and dose-response functions identified in animals, to characterize the health impact (number of attributable disease cases), the cost associated with ED exposure, and the efficiency of the measures taken to limit exposure. Here, we present epidemiological tools to draw valid inference regarding effects of potential EDs. Epidemiology is generally observational, requiring care to control confounding bias...
August 23, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Patrick Fénichel, Nicolas Chevalier
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects...
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Yves Combarnous
A number of pesticides are suspected or proved to act as endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). In the present survey of the literature, we try to define the main issues to be considered to classify individual pesticides as EDC or not.
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Anneline Pinson, Delphine Franssen, Arlette Gérard, Anne-Simone Parent, Jean-Pierre Bourguignon
Endocrine disruption is commonly thought to be restricted to a direct endocrine mode of action i.e. the perturbation of the activation of a given type of hormonal receptor by its natural ligand. Consistent with the WHO definition of an endocrine disrupter, a key issue is the "altered function(s) of the endocrine system". Such altered functions can result from different chemical interactions, beyond agonistic or antagonistic effect at a given receptor. Based on neuroendocrine disruption by polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A, this paper proposes different mechanistic paradigms that can result in adverse health effects...
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nur Fatihah Hasan Nudin, Abdul Manaf Ali, Norhayati Ngah, Nor Zuhailah Mazlan, Nashriyah Mat, Mohd Noor Abd Ghani, Nadiawati Alias, Abd Jamil Zakaria, Md Sarwar Jahan
Plant breeding is a way of selection of a particular individual for the production of the progeny by separating or combining desired characteristics. The objective of this study was to justify different characteristics of Dioscorea hispida (Ubi gadong) varieties using molecular techniques to select the best variety for sustainable production at the farmer's level. A total of 160 germplasms of Ubi gadong were collected from different locations at the Terengganu and Kelantan states of Malaysia. Forty eight (48) out of 160 germplasms were selected as "primary" selection based on yield and other qualitative characters...
August 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Rosaria Scudiero, Mariailaria Verderame
The "sex-hormone" estrogen-17β promotes several cognitive functions and is a master regulator of brain bioenergetics via the estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ). In this work, by using Real-Time PCR analysis, we evaluated the effect of aging and high fat diet (HFD) on ERα and ERβ expression in rat hippocampus and cortex. In young rats, ERβ is abundant in cortex and ERα in hippocampus. During the aging, in the cortex, we observe a general decrease in ERα and ERβ expression; in hippocampus ERα increases and ERβ decreases...
August 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Hani Amir Aouissi, Julien Gasparini, Adnène Ibrahim Belabed, Zihad Bouslama
Increasing urbanization is a major challenge in the context of global changes, because this environment is known to negatively impact biodiversity. It is therefore important to identify factors maintaining biodiversity in such areas. Here, we tested in 650 sites whether the greenspaces in urbanized area of Annaba (Algeria) has positive effects on avian species richness and abundances. Our results show that species detection (n=26) is more important during the breeding season as compared to the winter season, and that avian species richness is positively affected by the greenspaces...
August 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Manal Kasmi, Mohammed Aourach, Mohammed El Boukari, Said Barrijal, Haiat Essalmani
Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective...
August 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Raëd Farhat, Ayman El-Seedy, Ariestya Indah Permata Sari, Caroline Norez, Marie-Claude Pasquet, Frédéric Becq, Alain Kitzis, Véronique Ladevèze
Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations on the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator gene (CFTR). Exonic mutations may have variable effect on the CFTR protein and may alter the normal localization of CFTR on the apical membrane of epithelial cells or/and its function as a chloride channel. Identifying the effect of a missense mutation can be a first step in helping the medical counseling and the therapeutic strategies. In this study, the effect of the c.965T>C exon 8 mutation that induces a valine-to-alanine substitution (p...
August 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Luigi Rosati, Piero Andreuccetti, Marina Prisco
VIP and its receptors (VPACRs) are largely investigated in vertebrate testis, as well as their functions in the control of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. By contrast, a few data are available about the presence and role of VIP in the epididymis. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the localization of VIP and its receptors in the epididymis of two vertebrates: Podarcis sicula, a seasonal reproducer, and Rattus rattus, a continuous reproducer. By immunohystochemical investigation, we demonstrated for the first time that VIP and its receptors are widely represented in the epididymis of Podarcis sand Rattus; in particular in Podarcis, we showed that during the reproductive period, as well as in Rattus, VIP and its receptors are well represented in all the epithelial cells and the connective tissue of the epididymis; by contrast, during the non-reproductive period, VIP and its receptors are represented only in the connective tissue...
August 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Marcelly Miranda Aybal Jayme, Rebeca Oliveira Castro, Carlos André Mandarino Silva, Mariana Muniz Silva, Flávia Lima do Carmo, Fábio Vieira de Araujo
Production of antibiotics and enzymes by microorganisms is well recognized for its economic benefits. Searching potentially exploitable microorganisms, strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from marine and estuarine waters in Niterói-RJ, Brazil, and tested for the production of enzymes and antimicrobial substances. From the 76 isolated colonies, 09.21% showed antimicrobial potential, 63.16% showed enzymatic activity for at least one of the substrates tested and 91% showed multidrug resistance. Strains that presented the better results were identified by sequencing...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Xiangbo Xin, Ting Wang, Xinfeng Liu, Guoning Sui, Congfei Jin, Yingwei Yue, Shuping Yang, Hong Guo
CMYA1 is a protein that plays an important role in muscle development and contains a highly conserved Xin repeats region. However, the function of the Xin-repeats in CMYA1 is unknown, and there is little information regarding proteins that interact with the CMYA1/Xin-repeats in the bovine system. In this study, we generated a high-quality bovine muscle cDNA library and performed a yeast two-hybrid screen twice using both CMYA1 and the Xin-repeats as bait. There were 27 candidate-interacting proteins identified in this screen...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Konrad Celiński, Hanna Kijak, Aleksandra Wojnicka-Półtorak, Katarzyna Buczkowska-Chmielewska, Joanna Sokołowska, Ewa Chudzińska
DNA barcoding is a standard and efficient method, frequently used for identification, discrimination and discovery of new species. Although this approach is very useful for classifying the world's biodiversity, little is known about its usefulness in barcoding at lower taxonomic level and its discrimination rate for closely related species, like conifers. In this study, we compared the genetic variation of eight chloroplast DNA barcode regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF, rpl20-rps18, trnV, ycf1, ycf2) in 17 conifers - three closely related pines from Pinus mugo complex and 14 more distant conifers representing two genera and four sections of the Pinaceae family...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Maria Shafique, Aqsa Jawaid, Yasir Rehman
Remediation of toxic metal-polluted sites by microorganisms is an environment-friendly remediation technique. Multi-metal-resistant bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant showing resistance against As(III), As(V), Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. Maximum resistance against all metals was shown by the bacterial isolate MX-6 (As 20mM, Cd 30mM, Cr 5.0mM, Co 25mM, Cu 25mM, Ni 20mM, Zn 30mM, Pb 15mM, Se 20mM and Hg 2.5mM), which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. through 16S rDNA sequencing...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Wilson R Lourenço
Plethoscorpiops profusus gen. n., sp. n., belonging to the family Scorpiopidae Kraepelin, 1905 is described on the basis of two specimens, one adult female and one male juvenile collected in the Saddan Cave, in Kayin State, Hpa-An, Burma (Myanmar). This new scorpion taxon most certainly represents an endemic element for the fauna of Burma and seems to be strictly distributed inside the cave system. The new genus is characterized by a previously unknown and totally unique plethotaxic trichobothrial pattern within the family Scorpiopidae...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Shilan Nasri, Sahar Dashchi, Sorour Arzhang, Iraj Bernousi, Hossein Abbasi Holasou
The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nicolas Bacaër
This study focuses on the speed of extinction of a population living in a random environment that follows a continuous-time Markov chain. Each individual dies or reproduces at a rate that depends on the environment. The number of offspring during reproduction follows a given probability law that also depends on the environment. In the so-called subcritical case where the population goes for sure to extinction, there is an explicit formula for the speed of extinction. In some sense, environmental stochasticity slows down population extinction...
May 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Fatima Z Maghnia, Hervé Sanguin, Younes Abbas, Marcello Verdinelli, Benaissa Kerdouh, Naima El Ghachtouli, Enrico Lancellotti, Salah Eddine Bakkali Yakhlef, Robin Duponnois
The cork oak forest is an ecosystem playing a major role in Moroccan socio-economy and biodiversity conservation. However, this ecosystem is negatively impacted by extensive human- and climate-driven pressures, causing a strong decrease in its distribution and a worsening of the desertification processes. This study aims at characterising the impact of cork oak forest management on a major actor of its functioning, the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal community associated with Quercus suber, and the determination of EcM bio-indicators...
May 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Mohamed Toumi, Selma Barris, Mohamed Seghiri, Houmam Cheriguene, Fatiha Aid
The planting of several species adapted to forests areas in the Saharan Atlas would allow one to better fight against the desertification of the vegetation cover of these fragile areas. Thanks to its rapid growth on degraded soils, Robinia pseudoacacia L. has an advantage in the repopulation of these areas undergoing desertification. Operation of this large-scale tree requires good control of germination conditions and growth of plants. The scarification of the seeds of Robinia pseudoacacia L. is necessary to allow the absorption of water by the seeds...
May 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Alastair A Macdonald
Patterns of wear on the canine teeth were examined in 260 adult male babirusa skulls. Video recordings of 161 adult male babirusas at salt licks in North Sulawesi were viewed for behaviour related to erosion of the canine teeth. Corresponding observations were made of the behaviour of male babirusa in Antwerp and Surabaya Zoos. Most loss of maxillary canine dental tissue was from the ventro-lateral or lateral surface of the tooth, towards its distal end. The teeth were smoothly flattened on a plane approximating to the plane formed on the side of the face by the snout, the zygion and the zygomatic process...
May 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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