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Comptes Rendus Biologies

Mustapha Zendjabil, Séverine Favard, Chantal Tse, Omar Abbou, Bernard Hainque
MicroRNAs are nucleic acids of about twenty nucleotides that regulate about a third of the genome at the post-transcriptional level. Thanks to their different forms of transport, microRNAs are stable and can be detected in biological fluids such as blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or saliva. In addition, the profile of circulating microRNAs is a specific part of the cells in which it is secreted and is modified according to the physiological or pathological conditions of these cells. MicroRNAs therefore appear as biomarkers of interest for many diseases...
January 9, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Cuiju Cui, Yan Li, Yanling Liu, Xiaojie Li, Shiju Luo, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Ruina Wu, Guangjin Liang, Juan Sun, Jie Peng, Pingping Tian
Various species of genus Saccharina are economically important brown macroalgae cultivated in China. The genetic background of the conserved Saccharina germplasm was not clear. In this report, DNA-based molecular markers such as inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 48 Saccharina germplasms. A total of 50 ISSR and 50 RAPD primers were tested, of which only 33 polymorphic primers (17 ISSR and 16 RAPD) had an amplified clear and reproducible profile, and could be used...
December 27, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Dinh-Sac Pham, Thi-Hang Tran, Wilson R Lourenço
A faunistic inventory is proposed for the known Vietnamese scorpion species. The aim of this contribution is to bring an up-to-date checklist of all known species in Vietnam, prior to a more detailed study of the Vietnamese fauna to be performed by one of the authors (T.-H.T.) in the context of the preparation of a doctoral degree. Final taxonomic decisions should be taken at the end of the doctoral dissertation.
December 23, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Randa Bittar, Élisabeth Aslangul, Philippe Giral, Lambert Assoumou, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Olga Kalmykova, Marie-Christine Federspiel, Corinne Cherfils, Dominique Costagliola, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of 45 days of rosuvastatin or pravastatin treatment on the distribution of HDL subfractions in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) with cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The distribution of HDL subclasses by gradient gel electrophoresis was blindly assessed in 74 HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted PIs at baseline and at day 45 of statin treatment, and compared with the distribution obtained in 63 healthy normolipidemic individuals taken as controls...
December 20, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Ronald Fricke, Jhen-Nien Chen, Wei-Jen Chen
The unusual clingfish Protogobiesox asymmetricus n. gen, n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens collected in deep water off the north coast of Papua New Guinea in 2012. The species is characterized by its 9-10 dorsal rays, 8 anal rays, 17-24 pectoral-fin rays, 15 principal caudal-fin rays, 3 gills, third arch with 3 gill rakers, 34-35 total vertebrae, with asymmetrical lateral bending starting behind the skull, bent at an angle of 85°-92°; skull asymmetrical in frontal view; skin naked, surface of head and body without striae; disc without adhesive papillae...
December 12, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Rosaria Scudiero, Luisa Cigliano, Mariailaria Verderame
Neurodegeneration is one of the main physiological consequences of aging on brain. Metallothioneins (MTs), low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy-metal ions and oxygen-free radicals, are commonly expressed in various tissues of mammals. MTs are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and protection, and may be engaged in aging. Expression of the ubiquitous MTs (1 and 2) and the brain specific MT3 have been studied in many neurodegenerative disorders. The research results indicate that MTs may play important, although not yet fully known, roles in brain diseases; in addition, data lack the ability to identify the MT isoforms functionally involved...
December 8, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Xiaoxiao Mi, Xue Liu, Haolu Yan, Lina Liang, Xiangyan Zhou, Jiangwei Yang, Huaijun Si, Ning Zhang
Aphids, the largest group of sap-sucking pests, cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide every year. The massive use of pesticides to combat this pest causes severe damage to the environment, putting in risk the human health. In this study, transgenic potato plants expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene were developed using CaMV 35S and ST-LS1 promoters generating six transgenic lines (35S1-35S3 and ST1-ST3 corresponding to the first and second promoter, respectively). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the GNA gene was expressed in leaves, stems and roots of transgenic plants under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, while it was only expressed in leaves and stems under the control of the ST-LS1 promoter...
December 6, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Deju Lin, Liping Zhou, Biao Wang, Lizhen Liu, Li Cong, Chuanqin Hu, Tingting Ge, Qin Yu
Preclinical researches on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation, which is used to treat hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage, have received inspiring achievements. However, the insufficient migration of active cells to damaged tissues has limited their potential therapeutic effects. There are some evidences that hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) promotes the viability and migration of the cells. Here, we aim to investigate whether overexpression of HIF-1α in MSCs could improve the viability and migration capacity of cells, and its therapeutic efficiency on HI brain damage...
December 6, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Ahmed M Shokry, Saleh Al-Karim, Sanaa G Al Attas, Nour O Gadallah, Sherif Edris, Magdy A Al-Kordy, Sabah M Hassan, Salah Abo-Aba, Fotouh M El-Domyati
RNA-Seq of the Catharanthus roseus SRA database was done in order to detect putative universal stress proteins (USPs) and their possible controlling factors. Previous analysis indicated the existence and characterization of uspA-like genes. In silico analysis of RNA-Seq database in several plant tissues revealed the possible functions and regulations of some uspA-like transcripts whose transcription factors (TFs) that might drive their expression were detected. BLAST indicated the existence of TF superfamilies erf (ethylene-responsive TF), bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) and WRKY that might regulate several uspA-like genes...
November 24, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Suchada Sumruayphol, Boonruam Chittsamart, Raxsina Polseela, Patchara Sriwichai, Yudthana Samung, Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
Geographic populations of the two main sandflies genera present in Thailand were studied for species and population identification. Size and shape of Phlebotomus stantoni and Sergentomyia hodgsoni from different island and mainland locations were examined by landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Intraspecific and interspecific wing comparison was carried out based on 12 anatomical landmarks. The wing centroid size of P. stantoni was generally larger than that of S. hodgsoni. Within both species, wings from the continent were significantly larger than those from island populations...
November 24, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Brygida Manikowska-Ślepowrońska, Magdalena Lazarus, Katarzyna Żółkoś, Adam Zbyryt, Ignacy Kitowski, Dariusz Jakubas
We analysed hydrographic and habitat factors influencing the location of 207 colonies of the grey heron Ardea cinerea in Poland. We compared areas of particular habitats in three buffers around colonies (0-1, 0-10, 0-20km) among eight regions differing in their proportions of studied habitats. We found the highest inter-region dissimilarities in areas covered by water bodies (all scales) and pastures (0-1km). We recognized some indicator habitats characteristic of the majority (water bodies, pastures) or of some (seacoast, inland marshes, urbanized zone) regions...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Alexandre Hassanin, Nicolas Nesi, Julie Marin, Blaise Kadjo, Xavier Pourrut, Éric Leroy, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Prescott Musaba Akawa, Carine Ngoagouni, Emmanuel Nakouné, Manuel Ruedi, Didier Tshikung, Célestin Pongombo Shongo, Céline Bonillo
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Conrad A Matthee, Anne Ropiquet
Microsatellite analyses suggest that spatial genetic structure among six leopard-sampling sites in southern Africa is the result of isolation by distance.
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Claudio Milanesi, Monica Scali, Rita Vignani, Franco Cambi, Lucas Dugerdil, Claudia Faleri, Mauro Cresti
In the late Roman Republic period (2nd-1st century BC), in the area of San Giovanni on Elba Island, previously subject to intense extraction of iron ore, a rustic villa was established by Marco Valerio Messalla, a supreme Roman magistrate. The foundations of the walls were discovered and excavated by an archaeological mission. Palaeobotanical analysis of a set of stratigraphic layers was performed. Palynological slides showed remains of palynomorphic and non-pollen objects, while data combined with anthracological investigations confirmed the hypothesis that in the 1st century AD the villa was destroyed by a fire that created a compact crust under which were discovered four broken Roman amphorae containing about five hundred apple seeds...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Sébastien Trape
In the rare perennial bodies of water of the Sahara desert, only a few fish species have survived to increasing aridification since the end of the last humid period at the Holocene, approximately 5000 years BP. Here, I report the occurrence of an undescribed haplochomine cichlid fish in Lake Boukou, one of the seven Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad). These lakes are located in one of the most arid areas of the Sahara desert, but they persist by virtue of subsurface inflow of fresh groundwater from a large fossil aquifer...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Haifa Aichi-Yousfi, Bochra Amina Bahri, Maher Medini, Slim Rouz, Mohamed Nejib Rejeb, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar
In order to study the genetic diversity, the phylogeographic pattern and hybridization between six Tunisian Capparis species, 213 accessions of Caper were genotyped with three primer combinations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Out of 750 fragments generated, 636 were polymorphic and 407 of them were restricted to a single species. STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses clearly separated morphologically different populations into six distinct genetic ones. The UPGMA analysis grouped the species into three main clusters: G1 grouped C...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Anisur Rahman, Kamrun Nahar, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Masayuki Fujita
The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) alters different physiological and biochemical attributes that affect plant growth and yield. In our study, we investigated the regulatory role of supplemental manganese (Mn) on hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan29) seedlings under Cd-stress conditions. Exposure of 14-d-old seedlings to 0.3mM CdCl2 for three days caused growth inhibition, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and higher Cd accumulation. Higher Cd uptake caused oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG)...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Ammar Elakhdar, Mohamed Abd El-Sattar, Khairy Amer, Assma Rady, Toshihiro Kumamaru
Association mapping is becoming an important tool for identifying alleles and loci responsible for dissecting highly complex traits in barley. This study describes the population structure and marker-trait association using general linear model (GLM) analysis on a site of 60 barley genotypes, evaluated in six salinity environments. Ninety-eight SSR and SNP alleles were employed for the construction of a framework genetic map. The genetic structure analysis of the collection turned out to consist of two major sub-populations, mainly comprising hulled and naked types...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Ouahiba Sihali-Beloui, Salima El-Aoufi, Boubekeur Maouche, Sergio Marco
The aim of our transmission electron microscope study was to show, for the first time, the alteration of liver cells involved in the evolution of steatosis to steatohepatitis on a murine model of the diet-induced metabolic syndrome, Psammomys obesus. This pathologic evolution was induced by using the standard laboratory diet during 10 months, and analyzed with metabolic studies and the immunohistochemistry technique. Four months later, hepatocytes charged with lipid vacuoles were involved in autophagy. Furthermore, in the sinusoids, we observed Kupffer cells, neutrophils and macrophages...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Gabriela Blasina, Juan Molina, Andrea Lopez Cazorla, Juan Díaz de Astarloa
This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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