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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916736/the-history-of-the-pulmonary-diffusing-capacity-for-nitric-oxide-dl-no
#1
Colin Dr Borland, Hervé Guénard
The DL,NO (TL,NO) had its unexpected origins in the Paris "events" of 1968 and the unsuccessful efforts of the UK tobacco industry in the 1970's to create a "safer cigarette". Adoption of the technique has been slow due to the instability of NO in air, lack of standardisation of the technique and lack of agreement as to whether DL,NO is equal to or merely reflects membrane diffusing capacity (DM.) With the availability of inexpensive analysers, standardisation of the technique and publication of reference equations we believe that its worldwide use will increase...
December 1, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890604/gender-dimorphism-in-pediatric-osa-is-it-for-real
#2
REVIEW
Pablo E Brockmann, Dorit Koren, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
In epidemiologic studies focused on adults, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has higher prevalence in men than in women. The evidence supporting a gender-related discrepant prevalence of OSA is however much more tenuous in children. Here, we aimed to review the evidence concerning gender- based differences in the prevalence of OSA in children, and if so, to examine the evidence with the intent to identify potential factors that may account for this putative association. Gender-based perception and reporting of clinical manifestations of OSA may be modulated by several social and cultural factors in children...
November 23, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884797/breathing-abnormalities-in-animal-models-of-rett-syndrome-a-female-neurogenetic-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Chun Jiang, Ningren Cui, Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Yang Wu
A characteristic feature of Rett syndrome (RTT) is abnormal breathing accompanied by several other neurological and cognitive disorders. Since RTT rodent models became available, studies have begun shedding insight into the breathing abnormalities at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. Defects are found in several groups of brainstem neurons involved in respiratory control, and potential neural mechanisms have been suggested. The findings in animal models are helpful in therapeutic strategies for people with RTT with respect to lowering sudden and unexpected death, preventing secondary developmental consequences, and improving the quality of lives...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884796/can-the-measurement-of-pulmonary-diffusing-capacity-for-nitric-oxide-replace-the-measurement-of-pulmonary-diffusing-capacity-for-carbon-monoxide
#4
Gerald S Zavorsky, Ivo van der Lee
Pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) has been an important pulmonary function test used since the 1950's. It measures the uptake of CO from the alveolar space into pulmonary capillary blood, following the same path as oxygen. It's used to evaluate/follow the progress of various lung diseases. In the eighties, a new test was developed similar to the DLCO test: pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO). About 81-90% of the variance in DLNO is shared by DLCO in patients with cardiopulmonary disease and in healthy subjects...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884795/forced-oscillation-technique-as-a-predictor-of-fev1-improvement-in-asthma
#5
Taisuke Akamatsu, Toshihiro Shirai, Yukiko Shimoda, Takahito Suzuki, Ichiro Hayashi, Rie Noguchi, Eisuke Mochizuki, Shogo Sakurai, Mika Saigusa, Akito Yamamoto, Yuichiro Shishido, Takefumi Akita, Satoru Morita, Kazuhiro Asada
The usefulness of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for predicting the treatment outcomes in untreated asthmatic patients is unknown. We investigated whether FOT could predict an improvement in FEV1 following treatment. FOT, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were performed in 31 outpatients before and after undergoing a minimum of two months combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists. The patients were classified as responders or nonresponders to treatment based on the presence or absence of a 10% improvement in the FEV1...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884794/peroxiredoxin-6-suppresses-muc5ac-overproduction-in-lps-induced-airway-inflammation-through-h2o2-egfr-mapk-signaling-pathway
#6
Dong Yang, Meiling Jin, Chunxue Bai, Jian Zhou, Yao Shen
Mucus hypersecretion is a prominent mechanism in airway inflammation. Muc5ac is a major component of mucus and can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) highly expresses in airway epithelium and protects the airway from oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the roles of Prdx6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucin production in mice. We found that the levels of H2O2 and the Muc5ac mRNA were significantly increased in Prdx6 (-/-) mice compared to those in C57BL/6J mice after LPS instillation, which were markedly inhibited by epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor Elrotinib...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884793/sex-stress-and-sleep-apnoea-decreased-susceptibility-to-upper-airway-muscle-dysfunction-following-intermittent-hypoxia-in-females
#7
REVIEW
Ken D O'Halloran, Philip Lewis, Fiona McDonald
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a devastating respiratory control disorder more common in men than women. The reasons for the sex difference in prevalence are multifactorial, but are partly attributable to protective effects of oestrogen. Indeed, OSAS prevalence increases in post-menopausal women. OSAS is characterized by repeated occlusions of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Dysfunction of the upper airway muscles controlling airway calibre and collapsibility is implicated in the pathophysiology of OSAS, and sex differences in the neuro-mechanical control of upper airway patency are described...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871890/respiratory-dynamics-in-phonation-and-breathing-a-real-time-mri-study
#8
Louisa Traser, Ali Caglar Özen, Fabian Burk, Michael Burdumy, Michael Bock, Bernhard Richter, Matthias Echternach
The respiratory system is a central part of voice production, but for phonation neither the underlying functional relations between diaphragm (DPH) and rib cage (RC), nor differences to normal breathing are yet understood. This study aims to compare respiratory dynamics in phonation and breathing via dynamic MRI of the lung. Images of the breathing apparatus of 6 professional singers were captured in a 1.5T MRI system in supine position during vital capacity breathing and maximal long sustained phonation at 3 different pitches and loudness conditions...
November 18, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866957/gender-and-the-circadian-pattern-of-body-temperature-in-normoxia-and-hypoxia
#9
REVIEW
Jacopo P Mortola
Circadian patterns are at the core of many physiological processes, and their disruption can have short- and long-term consequences. This essay focuses on one of the best known patterns, the daily oscillation of body temperature (Tb), and the possibility of its difference between genders. From human and animal studies globally considered, the tentative conclusion is reached that differences in Tb circadian pattern between genders are very small and probably limited to the timing of the Rhythm, not to its amplitude...
November 17, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840272/short-term-modulation-of-the-ventilatory-response-to-exercise-is-preserved-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#10
Vipa Bernhardt, Gordon S Mitchell, Won Y Lee, Tony G Babb
BACKGROUND: The ventilatory response to exercise can be transiently adjusted in response to environmentally (e.g., breathing apparatus) or physiologically altered conditions (e.g., respiratory disease), maintaining constant relative arterial PCO2 regulation from rest to exercise (Mitchell and Babb, 2006); this augmentation is called short-term modulation (STM) of the exercise ventilatory response. Obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea could affect the exercise ventilatory response and the capacity for STM due to chronically increased mechanical and/or ventilatory loads on the respiratory system, and/or recurrent (chronic) intermittent hypoxia experienced during sleep...
November 10, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840271/exercise-tolerance-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-osah-before-and-after-cpap-treatment-effects-of-autonomic-dysfunction-improvement
#11
F Quadri, E Boni, L Pini, D Bottone, N Venturoli, L Corda, C Tantucci
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea (OSAH) is associated with decreased exercise tolerance and autonomic abnormalities and represents a risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of CPAP on cardiovascular autonomic abnormalities and exercise performance in patients with OSAH without changes in lifestyle and body weight during treatment. METHODS: Twelve overweight subjects with OSAH underwent anthropometric measures, autonomic cardiovascular and incremental symptom-limited cardio-respiratory exercise tests before and after two months of treatment with CPAP...
November 10, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838334/histological-identification-of-phrenic-afferent-projections-to-the-spinal-cord
#12
Jayakrishnan Nair, Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Lyandysha V Zholudeva, Megan R Detloff, Paul J Reier, Michael A Lane, David D Fuller
Limited data are available regarding the spinal projections of afferent fibers in the phrenic nerve. We describe a method that robustly labels phrenic afferent spinal projections in adult rats. The proximal end of the cut phrenic nerve was secured in a microtube filled with a transganglionic tracer (cholera toxin β-subunit, CT-β, or Cascade Blue) and tissues harvested 96-h later. Robust CT-β labeling occurred in C3-C5 dorsal root ganglia cell bodies and phrenic afferent projections were identified in the mid-cervical dorsal horn (laminae I-III), intermediate grey matter (laminae IV, VII) and near the central canal (laminae X)...
November 10, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838333/sex-dependent-differences-in-the-in-vivo-respiratory-phenotype-of-the-task-1-potassium-channel-knockout-mouse
#13
Stefan Jungbauer, Philipp Karl Buehler, Jacqueline Neubauer, Cordula Haas, Dirk Heitzmann, Ines Tegtmeier, Christina Sterner, Jacques Barhanin, Michael Georgieff, Richard Warth, Jörg Thomas
TASK-1 potassium channels have been implicated in central and peripheral chemoreception; however, the precise contribution of TASK-1 for the control of respiration is still under debate. Here, we investigated the respiration of unrestrained adult and neonatal TASK-1 knockout mice (TASK-1(-/-)) using a plethysmographic device. Respiration in adult female TASK-1(-/-) mice under control (21% O2), hypoxia and hypercapnia was unaffected. Under acute hypoxia male TASK-1(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced increase of the respiratory frequency (fR) compared to wildtypes...
November 9, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836649/sensory-detection-of-threshold-intensity-resistive-loads-in-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#14
Warren R Ruehland, Peter D Rochford, Robert J Pierce, Kate E Webster, John A Trinder, Amy S Jordan, Fergal J O'Donoghue
Respiratory related evoked potentials (RREPs) were used to investigate whether sensory detection of small mid-inspiratory resistive loads (≈1.2-6.2 cmH2OL(-1)s), delivered during wakefulness, was impaired in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It was reasoned that impaired detection of minor airway patency challenge may lead to difficult-to-remedy further collapse. There was a significant reduction in OSA (n=16) vs. control (n=17) participants in the slope of the relationship between the P1 RREP component amplitude, which reflects arrival of somatosensory information at the cortex, and stimulus intensity, expressed as change in epiglottic pressure (mean [95% confidence intervals]: -0...
November 9, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836648/sex-differences-in-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Tijana Lozo, Dragana Komnenov, M Safwan Badr, Jason H Mateika
The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is greater in men compared to women. This disparity could be due to sex differences in the diagnosis and presentation of sleep apnea, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that instigate this disorder. Women tend to report more non-typical symptoms of sleep apnea compared to men, and the presentation of apneic events are more prevalent in rapid compared to non-rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, there is evidence of sex differences in upper airway structure and mechanics and in neural mechanisms that impact on the control of breathing...
November 9, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836647/corrective-effect-of-diaphragm-pacing-on-the-decrease-in-cardiac-output-induced-by-positive-pressure-mechanical-ventilation-in-anesthetized-sheep
#16
Hicham Masmoudi, Romain Persichini, Jérôme Cecchini, Julie Delemazure, Martin Dres, Julien Mayaux, Alexandre Demoule, Jalal Assouad, Thomas Similowski
Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is a fundamental life support measure, but it decreases cardiac output (CO). Diaphragmatic contractions produce negative intrathoracic and positive abdominal pressures, promoting splanchnic venous return. We hypothesized that: 1) diaphragm pacing alone could produce adequate ventilation without decreasing CO; 2) diaphragm pacing on top of PPV could improve CO. Of 11 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated ewes (39.6±5.9kg), 3 were discarded from analysis because of hemodynamic instability during the experiment, and 8 retained for analysis...
November 9, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818313/erythropoietin-in-the-locus-coeruleus-attenuates-the-ventilatory-response-to-co2-in-rats
#17
Carlos A Silva, Mariane C Vicente, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Jorge Soliz, Luciane H Gargaglioni
The Locus coeruleus (LC) is a pontine area that contributes to the CO2/pH chemosensitivity. LC cells express erythropoietin (Epo) receptors (EpoR), and Epo in the brainstem is a potent normoxic and hypoxic respiratory stimulant. However, a recent study showed that the intra-cisternal injection (ICI) of Epo antagonist does not alter the hypercapnic ventilatory response in mice. As ICI leads to a widespread dispersal of the product throughout the brainstem, in this work we evaluated the specific impact of Epo in the LC-mediated ventilatory response to CO2 (by whole body plethysmography) in juvenile male Wistar rats...
November 3, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756648/sexual-dimorphism-of-cardiopulmonary-regulation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#18
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638058/efficacy-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-as-a-practical-and-minimally-intrusive-technique-to-aid-functional-fitness-among-adults-with-obesity
#19
A M Edwards, D Graham, S Bloxham, G P Maguire
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) as a non-intrusive and practical intervention to stimulate improved functional fitness in adults with obesity. As excess adiposity of the chest impedes the mechanics of breathing, targeted re-training of the inspiratory muscles may ameliorate sensations of breathlessness, improve physical performance and lead to greater engagement in physical activity. METHODS: Sixty seven adults (BMI=36 ±6...
September 13, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756650/breath-holding-test-in-evaluation-of-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-in-healthy-subjects
#20
Nikita Trembach, Igor Zabolotskikh
: The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of using a breath-holding test in assessing the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex compared with the single-breath carbon dioxide test. The study involved 48 healthy volunteers between the ages of 18-29 years. The breath-holding test was performed followed by the single-breath carbon dioxide test on the next day. A month after the first tests, these tests were repeated to evaluate their reproducibility The coefficient of variability in the single-breath carbon dioxide test ranged from 0 to 32% with a mean of 10±7%...
January 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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