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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219747/is-pulmonary-diffusion-capacity-for-nitric-oxide-dl-no-likely-to-become-a-routine-pulmonary-function-test
#1
Irene Steenbruggen, Frans de Jongh
DL,CO measurements are often used to evaluate and monitor lung diseases as well as cardiovascular diseases. Whether the combination of DL,CO and DL,NO will improve the management of cardiovascular diseases needs to be investigated. It is hoped that the standardization of the DL,NO measurement will facilitate research. Scientific evidence that DL,NO can provide more accurate information than DL,CO alone, can take away the barriers that prevents DL,NO to become a routine test in pulmonology.
February 17, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215596/sex-specific-respiratory-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-caffeine-administration-in-newborn-rats
#2
REVIEW
Hayet Kouchi, NagaPraveena Uppari, Vincent Joseph, Aida Bairam
Caffeine is widely used for the treatment of apnea of prematurity (AoP) but whether this effect varies with sex is unknown. To shed some light on this question, we present a summary of data obtained on the effects of caffeine on the respiratory chemoreflexes and apnea frequency in 1- and 12-days old male and female rats. Caffeine was either administered as a single acute injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) or for 10 consecutive days (7.5mg/kg/day between 3-12days of life by gavage, simulating its clinical use). Acute caffeine had little effects on breathing in 1-day old male and female rats...
February 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215595/gas-exchange-kinetics-following-concentric-eccentric-isokinetic-arm-and-leg-exercise
#3
U Drescher, S Mookerjee, A Steegmanns, A Knicker, U Hoffmann
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of exercise velocity (60, 150, 240 deg·s(-1)) and muscle mass (arm vs leg) on changes in gas exchange and arterio-venous oxygen content difference (avDO2) following high-intensity concentric-eccentric isokinetic exercise. METHODS: Fourteen subjects (26.9±3.1years) performed a 3×20-repetition isokinetic exercise protocol. Recovery beat-to-beat cardiac output (CO) and breath-by-breath gas exchange were recorded to determine post-exercise half-time (t1/2) for oxygen uptake (V'O2pulm), carbon dioxide output (V'CO2pulm), and ventilation (V'E)...
February 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214605/the-effect-of-sitting-and-calf-activity-on-leg-fluid-and-snoring
#4
Bhajan Singh, Azadeh Yadollahi, Owen Lyons, Hisham Alshaer, TDouglas Bradley
Prolonged sitting may promote leg fluid retention that redistributes to the neck during sleep and contributes to snoring. This could be attenuated by calf activity while sitting. In 16 healthy non-obese subjects we measured leg fluid volume (LFV) below the knees using bioelectrical impedance while sitting for 4hours, snoring using a portable BresoDx™ device, and Mallampati grade. Using a double cross-over study design, subjects were randomized to one of two arms and crossed-over one week later: control arm - no calf exercise while sitting; intervention arm - calf contraction against a pedal resistance while sitting...
February 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214604/the-measurement-of-dlno-and-dlco-a-manufacturer-s-perspective
#5
X Giraud, N N Le-Dong, K Hogben, J B Martinot
The simultaneous measurement of the lung transfer factor for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) is now available as a powerful method for studying the alveolar-capillary gas exchange. However, application of the DLNO-CO technique in daily settings is still limited by some technical drawbacks. This paper provides a manufacturer's overview of the measuring principles, technical challenges and current available solutions for implementing the DLNO-CO measurement in to a marketed device. This includes the recent developments in technology for NO sensors, latest findings on NO uptake and new statistical methods...
February 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213202/determinants-of-cough-effectiveness-in-patients-with-respiratory-muscle-weakness
#6
Franco Laghi, Veeranna Maddipati, Timothy Schnell, W Edwin Langbein, Martin J Tobin
Experiments were undertaken to mechanistically define expiratory-muscle contribution to effectiveness of cough while controlling glottic movement. We hypothesized that electrical abdominal-muscle stimulation in patients with respiratory-muscle weakness produces effective coughs only when glottic closure accompanies coughs. In ten spinal-cord-injury patients, esophago-gastric pressure and airflow were recorded during solicited-coughs, coughs augmented by abdominal-muscle stimulation, and passive open-glottis exhalations...
February 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213201/respiratory-load-perception-in-overweight-and-asthmatic-children
#7
Victoria MacBean, Lorna Wheatley, Alan C Lunt, Gerrard F Rafferty
Overweight asthmatic children report greater symptoms than normal weight asthmatics, despite comparable airflow obstruction. This has been widely assumed to be due to heightened perception of respiratory effort. Three groups of children (healthy weight controls, healthy weight asthmatics, overweight asthmatics) rated perceived respiratory effort throughout an inspiratory resistive loading protocol. Parasternal intercostal electromyogram was used as an objective marker of respiratory load; this was expressed relative to tidal volume and reported as a ratio of the baseline value (neuroventilatory activity ratio (NVEAR))...
February 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213200/validation-of-a-quantitative-method-to-measure-neural-respiratory-drive-in-children-during-sleep
#8
Sandra Ya-Chu Chuang, Arthur Teng, Jane Elizabeth Butler, Simon Charles Gandevia, Hiran Selvadurai, Adam Jaffe
AIMS: Quantitatively measure and validate analysis of neural respiratory drive (NRD) using a commercial polysomnography system in children during sleep. METHOD: Surface electromyogram of the diaphragm (sEMGdi) recorded from primary snoring children were analysed. A subset was re-analysed to assess intra- and inter-investigator reproducibility. Effects of different band pass filter settings (20-100Hz vs 10-1000Hz) on sEMGdi amplitude were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean sEMGdi from 45 children aged 4...
February 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215906/does-diurnal-variation-in-cough-reflex-testing-exist-in-healthy-young-adults
#9
Sarah Perry, Maggie-Lee Huckabee
The aim of this study was to investigate whether diurnal variation in cough reflex sensitivity exists in healthy young adults when a tidal-breathing method is used. Fifty-three participants (19-37 years) underwent cough reflex testing on two occasions: once in the morning (between 9 am - midday) and once in the afternoon (between 2-5 pm). The order of testing was counter-balanced. Within each assessment, participants inhaled successively higher citric acid concentrations via a facemask, with saline solution randomly interspersed to control for a placebo response...
February 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189710/ovarian-steroids-act-as-respiratory-stimulant-and-antioxidant-against-the-causes-and-consequences-of-sleep-apnea-in-women
#10
REVIEW
Ryma Boukari, Sofien Laouafa, Alexandra Ribon-Demars, Aida Bairam, Vincent Joseph
Evidence supports the importance of ovarian hormones as potential tools against sleep apneas in women. On one hand, progesterone is largely acknowledged as being a respiratory stimulant that reduces the frequency of apneas, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies in mice showed that the respiratory effects of progesterone are mediated by at least two classes of progesterone receptors, including the nuclear (nPR) and membrane receptors (mPR). Some of these receptors (nPR) have sex-specific effects on the frequency of apneas recorded during sleep in mice, while mPRβ acts in males as well as in females...
February 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189709/dynamics-of-acid-base-and-hematological-regulation-in-day-15-chicken-embryos-gallus-gallus-domesticus-exposed-to-graded-hypercapnia-and-hypoxia
#11
Casey A Mueller, Hiroshi Tazawa, Warren W Burggren
Most experiments examining acid-base regulation of chicken embryos have employed static, single time point measurements rather than dynamic, multiple time point measurements that might reveal additional components of developing acid-base regulation. Thus, we studied blood acid-base balance and hematology of day 15 chicken embryos under 24h exposure to graded hypercapnia (1%-7% CO2) accompanied by graded hypoxia (20% O2 down to 13% O2). Across all hypercapnic/hypoxic environments, respiratory acidosis occurred 2h after exposure in proportion to the magnitude of hypercapnia...
February 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189708/the-relationship-between-respiratory-system-impedance-and-lung-function-in-asthmatics-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
Takahiro Kamada, Masahiro Kaneko, Hiromi Tomioka
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to elucidate the relationship between the annual changes in respiratory system impedance, measured by FOT, and lung function tests in patients with asthma. METHODS: Between March 2011 and March 2012, asthma outpatients who attended Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital were recruited. Lung function tests, FOT were conducted every 6 months until March 2016. The relationships between annual parameter changes were evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Sixty-four patients were completed this study...
February 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159632/respiratory-and-locomotor-muscle-implications-on-the-vo2-slow-component-and-the-vo2-excess-in-young-trained-cyclists
#13
Ferid Oueslati, Jan Boone, Zouhair Tabka, Said Ahmaidi
We investigated the impact of ramp and constant-load exercise on (i) respiratory muscle fatigue and locomotor muscle oxygenation, (ii) their relationship with the excess VO2 and VO2 slow component (SC). Fourteen male cyclists performed two tests to exhaustion: an incremental ramp and a constant-load exercise with continuous monitoring of expired gases and oxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle on two separate days. Maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure measurements were taken at rest and post- exercise...
January 31, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159631/respiratory-adaptations-to-a-combination-of-oxygen-deprivation-and-extreme-carbon-dioxide-concentration-in-nematodes
#14
Maria Pilz, Karin Hohberg, Hardy Pfanz, Christiane Wittmann, Willi E R Xylander
To examine physiological adaptations to the two combined stressors O2 deprivation and extreme CO2 concentrations, we compared respiratory responses of two nematode species occurring in natural CO2 springs. The minimum O2 concentration allowing maintenance of respiration in both species was 0.0176μmol O2ml(-1) (corresponds to 1.4% O2 in air). After exposure to anoxia, individuals resumed respiration immediately when O2 was added, but on a lower level compared to control and without showing a respiratory overshoot...
January 31, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143779/anti-asthmatic-activity-of-osthole-in-an-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-murine-model
#15
Jingjing Wang, Yunhe Fu, Zhengkai Wei, Xuexiu He, Mingyu Shi, Jinhua Kou, Ershun Zhou, Weijian Liu, Zhengtao Yang, Changming Guo
Osthole, an active coumarin extracted from the dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, is known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we investigated and illuminated the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of osthole in an experimental model of allergic asthma. Our results show that osthole treatment significantly reduced the OVA-induced increase in serum IgE and inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and decreased the recruitment of inflammatory cells in BALF and the lung...
January 28, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137700/effects-on-breathing-of-agonists-to-%C3%AE-opioid-or-gabaa-receptors-dialyzed-into-the-ventral-respiratory-column-of-awake-and-sleeping-goats
#16
Thomas M Langer, Suzanne E Neumueller, Emma Crumley, Nicholas J Burgraff, Sawan Talwar, Matthew R Hodges, Lawrence Pan, Hubert V Forster
Pulmonary ventilation (V̇I) in awake and sleeping goats does not change when antagonists to several excitatory G protein-coupled receptors are dialyzed unilaterally into the ventral respiratory column (VRC). Concomitant changes in excitatory neuromodulators in the effluent mock cerebral spinal fluid (mCSF) suggest neuromodulatory compensation. Herein, we studied neuromodulatory compensation during dialysis of agonists to inhibitory G protein-coupled or ionotropic receptors into the VRC. Microtubules were implanted into the VRC of goats for dialysis of mCSF mixed with agonists to either μ-opioid (DAMGO) or GABAA (muscimol) receptors...
January 27, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126479/positive-airway-pressure-therapy-in-heart-failure-patients-long-term-effects-on-lung-function
#17
Henrik Fox, Susanne Witzel, Thomas Bitter, Dieter Horstkotte, Olaf Oldenburg
PURPOSE: The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with heart failure (HF) is high. Positive airway pressure (PAP) is first-choice therapy, but recent data indicates that PAP therapy may increase mortality in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) and predominant central sleep apnea (CSA). This study investigated long-term effects of PAP therapy on pulmonary function, including respiratory muscle strength. All patients underwent multichannel cardiorespiratory polysomnography (PSG) and comprehensive lung function testing at baseline and follow-up (mean 588±43days)...
January 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119150/vascular-katp-channels-mitigate-severe-muscle-o2-delivery-utilization-mismatch-during-contractions-in-chronic-heart-failure-rats
#18
Clark T Holdsworth, Scott K Ferguson, Trenton D Colburn, Alexander J Fees, Jesse C Craig, Daniel M Hirai, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
The vascular ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel is a mediator of skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation (PO2mv) during contractions in health. We tested the hypothesis that KATP channel function is preserved in chronic heart failure (CHF) and therefore its inhibition would reduce PO2mv and exacerbate the time taken to reach the PO2mv steady-state during contractions of the spinotrapezius muscle. Moreover, we hypothesized that subsequent KATP channel activation would oppose the effects of this inhibition. Muscle PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured during 180s of 1-Hz twitch contractions (∼6V) under control, glibenclamide (GLI, KATP channel antagonist; 5mg/kg) and pinacidil (PIN, KATP channel agonist; 5mg/kg) conditions in 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats with CHF induced via myocardial infarction (coronary artery ligation, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure: 18±1mmHg)...
January 22, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109943/regional-ventilation-during-phonation-in-professional-male-and-female-singers
#19
Louisa Traser, Jana Knab, Matthias Echternach, Hannah Fuhrer, Bernhard Richter, Hartmut Buerkle, Stefan Schumann
The respiratory system is a central part of voice production, but details in breath control during phonation are not yet fully understood. This study therefore aims to investigate regional ventilation of the lungs during phonation. It was analyzed in 11 professional singers using electrical impedance tomography during breathing and phonation with maximum phonation time. Our results show differences in impedance changes between phonation and exhalation in the courses of time and amplitude normalized curves. Furthermore, differences related to gender and professionalism were found in the temporal and spatial profiles of regional ventilation...
January 18, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109942/effect-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-on-tidal-expiratory-flow-limitation-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-copd-patients
#20
Elpida P Theodorakopoulou, Sofia-Antiopi Gennimata, Maria Harikiopoulou, Georgios Kaltsakas, Anastasios Palamidas, Antonia Koutsoukou, Charis Roussos, Epameinondas N Kosmas, Petros Bakakos, Nickolaos G Koulouris
We hypothesized that severe COPD patients who present with the disadvantageous phenomenon of Expiratory Flow Limitation (EFL) may benefit as COPD patients without EFL do after implementation of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) program. Forty-two stable COPD patients were studied at rest and during exercise. EFL and dynamic hyperinflation (DH) were documented using the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique and inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuvers, respectively. Patient centered outcomes were evaluated by the Saint-George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the mMRC dyspnea scale...
January 18, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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