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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412287/changes-in-rat-respiratory-system-produced-by-exposure-to-exhaust-gases-of-combustion-of-glycerol
#2
Daniel Silveira Serra, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Walter Araujo Zin, José Henrique Leal-Cardoso, Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante
The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo...
April 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396201/pharmacological-but-not-genetic-alteration-of-neural-epo-modifies-the-co2-h-central-chemosensitivity-in-postnatal-mice
#3
Sofien Laouafa, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Florine Jeton, Elizabeth Elliot-Portal, Rose Tam, Laurence Bodineau, Nicolas Voituron, Jorge Soliz
Cerebral erythropoietin (Epo) plays a crucial role for respiratory control in newborn rodents. We showed previously that soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR: an Epo antagonist) reduces basal ventilation and hypoxic hyperventilation at postnatal day 10 (P10) and in adult mice. However, at these ages (P10 and adulthood), Epo had no effect on central chemosensitivity. Nevertheless, it is known that the sensitivity to CO2/H(+) during the mammalian respiratory network maturation process is age-dependent. Accordingly, in this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that cerebral Epo is involved in the breathing stimulation induced by the activation of central CO2/H(+) chemoreceptors at earlier postnatal ages...
April 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396202/newborn-blood-gas-derangements-of-children-born-extremely-preterm-and-neurocognitive-dysfunctions-at-age-10-years
#4
Alan Leviton, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl C K Kuban
Among 740 children born extremely preterm, we evaluated the relationship between the highest and lowest quartiles of the distributions of PaO2 and PaCO2, as well as the lowest quartile of pH on one day, and separately on two days, and the risk of neurocognitive, language, and behavioral dysfunctions at age 10 years. Children who had hypoxemia, hyperoxemia, hypocapnia, hypercapnia, and acidemia, sometimes on only one day, and sometimes on two or more days, were more likely than others to have a high illness severity score (within the first 12 postnatal hours), and 10 years later to have multiple dysfunctions...
April 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396200/nasal-highflow-eliminates-co2-from-lower-airways
#5
Jens Bräunlich, Friederike Goldner, Hubert Wirtz
INTRODUCTION: Nasal highflow (NHF) has a growing evidence in treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure. There are preliminary data available about use in acute and chronic type-II-respiratory failure. Unfortunately underlying mechanisms of NHF are not well understood. Increase in airway pressure seems too small to explain the observed reduction in hypercapnia. Most interesting effects are wash-out of upper airways and reduction of functional dead space. There are no data available about a wash-out of lower airways...
April 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385647/-early-evolution-of-the-diaphragm-in-caseids-the-diaphragm-as-an-adaptation-to-mixed-aquatic-terrestrial-lifestyle
#6
LETTER
T Similowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363683/validity-of-thoracic-respiratory-inductive-plethysmography-in-high-body-mass-index-subjects
#7
Yann Rétory, Pascal David, Carole de Picciotto, Pauline Niedzialkowski, Marcel Bonay, Michel Petitjean
We aim to evaluate thoracic respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in high body mass index (BMI) subjects with a pneumotachometer (PT) as a reference. We simultaneously evaluated spontaneous breathing by RIP and PT in 10 low and 10 high BMI subjects at rest and in moderate exercise. We then recorded RIP amplitude with different excursions mimicking respiratory thoracic deformation, with different sizes of RIP belts surrounding cylinders of different perimeters with or without deformable foam simulating adipose tissue...
March 28, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347890/microrna-328-is-involved-in-wound-repair-process-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#8
Beata Narożna, Wojciech Langwinski, Claire Jackson, Peter Lackie, John W Holloway, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz
Our aim was to investigate the role of microRNA on epithelial wound repair by global microRNA silencing. We have also analysed the influence of five miRNAs (miR-328, miR-342, miR-411, miR-609, miR-888, previously identified) on wound repair in 16HBE14o-bronchial epithelial cell line. Cells were transfected with siRNAs against human DROSHA and DICER1 or miRNA mimics or inhibitors. Wounding assays were performed and the cells were observed using time-lapse microscopy. The area of damage was calculated at chosen time points, followed by data analysis...
March 25, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341290/the-cessation-of-breathing-in-the-chicken-embryo-during-cold-hypometabolism
#9
Ryoji Ide, Satoko Tomita Ide, Jacopo P Mortola
The avian embryo toward end-incubation combines gas exchange through the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and pulmonary ventilation (V˙E). The main experiments examined breathing activity during cold-hypometabolism. Chicken embryos close to hatching were prepared for simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) and carbon dioxide production ( [Formula: see text] ; open-flow methodology) and breathing frequency (f; barometric technique). As ambient (Ta) and egg temperature (Tegg) dropped, breathing eventually ceased at ∼18°C, when [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were 22-28% of the normothermic values...
March 21, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336390/is-parasternal-intercostal-emg-an-accurate-surrogate-of-respiratory-neural-drive-and-biomarker-of-dyspnea-during-cycle-exercise-testing
#10
Andrew H Ramsook, Reid A Mitchell, Tyson Bell, Suzanne Calli, Chris Kennedy, Jenny Lehmann, Matt Thompson, Joseph H Puyat, Jordan A Guenette
Recent evidence suggests that surface electromyography of the parasternal intercostals (EMGpara) can be a non-invasive alternative to diaphragmatic EMG (EMGdi) for estimating neural respiratory drive (NRD) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-respiratory muscles influence EMGpara by having subjects place their hands on (Hon) and off (Hoff) the handlebars during cycling-based CPET. Ten healthy adults performed an incremental cycling test until volitional exhaustion...
March 20, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330778/intratracheal-lps-administration-attenuates-the-acute-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-role-of-brainstem-il-1%C3%AE-receptors
#11
A P Ribeiro, C A Mayer, C G Wilson, R J Martin, P M MacFarlane
Perinatal inflammation and infection are commonly associated with various respiratory morbidities in preterm infants including apnea of prematurity. In this study, we investigated whether pulmonary inflammation via intra-tracheal micro-injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into neonatal rats modifies respiratory neural control via an IL-1β receptor-dependent mechanism. Prior to an intra-tracheal micro-injection of LPS (1mg/kg), 10day old (Postnatal age, P10) rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracisternal (i...
March 19, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323205/modelling-mixing-within-the-dead-space-of-the-lung-improves-predictions-of-functional-residual-capacity
#12
Chris D Harrison, Phi Anh Phan, Cathy Zhang, Daniel Geer, Andrew D Farmery, Stephen J Payne
Routine estimation of functional residual capacity (FRC) in ventilated patients has been a long held goal, with many methods previously proposed, but none have been used in routine clinical practice. This paper proposes three models for determining FRC using the nitrous oxide concentration from the entire expired breath in order to improve the precision of the estimate. Of the three models proposed, a dead space with two mixing compartments provided the best results, reducing the mean limits of agreement with the FRC measured by whole body plethysmography by up to 41%...
March 18, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323203/the-association-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-pulmonary-diffusing-capacity
#13
Gerald S Zavorsky, James M Smoliga
Pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DL,NO) and carbon monoxide (DL,CO) measured at rest (mL/min/mmHg) is strongly associated with aerobic capacity (cardiorespiratory fitness or peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) measured in L/min. Data from healthy, non-obese individuals from various studies (n=121 males and 81 females) were combined to examine this association. Subjects that were above the upper limit of normal (ULN, 97.5th percentile for age and sex and height) for DL,NO and DLCO had a higher median VO2peak compared to subjects below the ULN (Above the ULN=4...
March 18, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323204/nitric-oxide-uptake-in-the-lung-it-is-about-time-that-clinicians-use-this-test-routinely
#14
EDITORIAL
Gerald S Zavorsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300726/a-computational-comparison-of-the-multiple-breath-washout-and-forced-oscillation-technique-as-markers-of-bronchoconstriction
#15
Brody H Foy, David Kay
Many types of lung disease lead to constriction of airways within the conducting zone, causing increases in airway resistance and ventilation heterogeneity (VH). The multiple-breath washout (MBW) and forced oscillation technique (FOT) are two clinical measures of small airway bronchoconstriction. Within this study computational modelling of the MBW and FOT was applied to the analysis of thousands of bronchoconstriction scenarios in the conducting zone of the lungs. The simulations show that MBW indices primarily respond to the severity of constriction, while FOT indices may be able to distinguish between constrictions at differing airway depths...
March 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288844/forced-vital-capacity-and-not-central-chemoreflex-predicts-maximal-hyperoxic-breath-hold-duration-in-elite-apneists
#16
Anthony R Bain, Otto F Barak, Ryan L Hoiland, Ivan Drvis, Damian M Bailey, Zeljko Dujic, Tanja Mijacika, Antoinette Santoro, Daniel K DeMasi, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
The determining mechanisms of a maximal hyperoxic apnea duration in elite apneists have remained unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that maximal hyperoxic apnea duration in elite apneists is related to forced vital capacity (FVC) but not the central chemoreflex (for CO2). Eleven elite apneists performed a maximal dry static-apnea with prior hyperoxic (100% oxygen) pre-breathing, and a central chemoreflex test via a hyperoxic re-breathing technique (hyperoxic-hypercapnic ventilatory response: HCVR); expressed as the increase in ventilation (pneumotachometry) per increase in arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2; radial artery)...
March 11, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286249/immediate-effects-of-respiratory-muscle-stretching-on-chest-wall-kinematics-and-electromyography-in-copd-patients
#17
Rafaela Barros de Sá, Maíra Florentino Pessoa, Ana Gabriela Leal Cavalcanti, Shirley Lima Campos, César Amorim, Armèle Dornelas de Andrade
This study evaluated the immediate effects of respiratory muscle stretching on chest wall kinematics and electromyographic activity in COPD patients. 28 patients with COPD were randomized into two groups: 14 to the treatment group (TG) and 14 to the control group (CG). The TG underwent a stretching protocol of the rib cage muscles, while the CG remained at rest under similar conditions. After a single session, TG increased the tidal volume of the pulmonary rib cage (Vrcp) (p=0.020) and tidal volume of abdominal rib cage (Vrca) (p=0...
March 10, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279732/intra-individual-variability-in-cerebrovascular-and-respiratory-chemosensitivity-can-we-characterize-a-chemoreflex-reactivity-profile
#18
Kennedy J Borle, Jamie R Pfoh, Lindsey M Boulet, Maria Abrosimova, Michael M Tymko, Rachel J Skow, Amy Varner, Trevor A Day
Intra-individual variability in the magnitude of human cerebrovascular and respiratory chemoreflex responses is largely unexplored. By comparing response magnitudes of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR; middle and posterior cerebral arteries; MCA, PCA), central (CCR; CO2) and peripheral respiratory chemoreflexes (PCR; CO2 and O2), we tested the hypothesis that a within-individual reactivity magnitude profile could be characterized. The magnitudes of CVR and CCR were tested with hyperoxic rebreathing and PCR magnitudes were tested through transient respiratory tests (TT-CO2, hypercapnia; TT-N2, hypoxia)...
March 6, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274780/analysis-of-heart-rate-and-oxygen-uptake-kinetics-studied-by-two-different-pseudo-random-binary-sequence-work-rate-amplitudes
#19
U Drescher, J Koschate, T Schiffer, S Schneider, U Hoffmann
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR), pulmonary (V˙O2pulm) and predicted muscular (V˙O2musc) oxygen uptake between two different pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) amplitudes both below anaerobic threshold. METHODS: Eight healthy individuals performed two PRBS WR protocols implying changes between 30W and 80W and between 30W and 110W. HR and V˙O2pulm were measured beat-to-beat and breath-by-breath, respectively...
March 6, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259748/the-blood-transfer-conductance-for-co-and-no
#20
Colin Borland, J Michael B Hughes, Hervé Guénard
Nitric oxide was introduced over 30 years ago as a test gas for alveolar capillary diffusion. As for CO its transfer has been interpreted according to the Roughton Forster relationship: 1/DL=1/DM+1/θVc. There has been disagreement, since the first measurements of DLNO, over whether θNO is infinite and thus DLNO=DMNO. There is overwhelming in vitro evidence that θNO is finite yet several groups (Coffman et al., 2017; Tamhane et al., 2001) use an infinite value in vivo. They also assume that DMNO is greater than twice DMCO, making DMCO less than that predicted by the physical laws of diffusion...
March 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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