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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625661/resting-limb-muscle-perfusion-during-inspiratory-muscle-loading-in-hypoxia-and-normoxia
#1
Hannes Klenze, Thomas Christian Köhler, Franziska Farquharson, Stephan Walterspacher, Daniel Duerschmied, Kai Roecker, Hans-Joachim Kabitz, David Johannes Walker
INTRODUCTION: Fatiguing of respiratory muscles reduces peripheral muscle perfusion. Further, acute hypoxia enhances respiratory muscle fatigue. This study investigated the effects of inspiratory muscle loading (IML) on resting locomotor muscle perfusion in hypoxia compared to normoxia. METHODS: Ten subjects completed two study days of fatiguing IML (blinded, randomized) in normobaric hypoxia (targeted oxygen saturation 80%) and normoxia, respectively. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the gastrocnemius muscle and popliteal doppler ultrasonography were used to monitor muscle perfusion...
June 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624507/effect-of-pyridostigmine-on-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-respiratory-muscle-of-mdx-mice
#2
Gabriela de Cássia Sousa Amancio, Andrea Grabe-Guimarães, Dridi Haikel, Johan Moreau, Neila Marcia Silva Barcellos, Alain Lacampagne, Stefan Matecki, Olivier Cazorla
The current work was conducted to verify the contribution of neuromuscular transmission defects at the neuromuscular junction to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy disease progression and respiratory dysfunction. We tested pyridostigmine and pyridostigmine encapsulated in liposomes (liposomal PYR), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to improve muscular contraction on respiratory muscle function in mdx mice at different ages. We evaluated in vivo with the whole-body plethysmography, the ventilatory response to hypercapnia, and measured in vitro diaphragm strength in each group...
June 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606767/model-identifies-causes-of-nasal-drying-during-pressurised-breathing
#3
David E White, Roy J Nates, Jim Bartley
Patients nasally breathing pressurised air frequently experience symptoms suggestive of upper airway drying. While supplementary humidification is often used for symptom relief, the cause(s) of nasal drying symptoms remains speculative. Recent investigations have found augmented air pressure affects airway surface liquid (ASL) supply and inter-nasal airflow apportionment. However the influence these two factors have on ASL hydration is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine how ASL supply and airflow apportionment affect ASL hydration status for both ambient and pressurised air breathing conditions...
June 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583413/effect-of-pulmonary-hyperinflation-on-central-blood-volume-an-mri-study
#4
Tanja Mijacika, Kasper Kyhl, Daria Frestad, F Otto Barak, Ivan Drvis, Niels H Secher, Zeljko Dujic, Per Lav Madsen
Pulmonary hyperinflation attained by glossopharyngeal insufflation (GPI) challenges the circulation by compressing the heart and pulmonary vasculature. Our aim was to determine the amount of blood translocated from the central blood volume during GPI. Cardiac output and cardiac chamber volumes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in twelve breath-hold divers at rest and during apnea with GPI. Pulmonary blood volume was determined from pulmonary blood flow and transit times for gadolinium during first-pass perfusion after intravenous injection...
June 3, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571976/reliability-of-the-diaphragmatic-compound-muscle-action-potential-evoked-by-cervical-magnetic-stimulation-and-recorded-via-chest-wall-surface-emg
#5
Joseph F Welch, Robyn L Mildren, Martin Zaback, Bruno Archiza, Grayson P Allen, A William Sheel
INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of the phrenic nerve via cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) elicits a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) that allows for assessment of diaphragm activation. The reliability of CMS to evoke the CMAP recorded by chest wall surface EMG has yet to be comprehensively examined. METHODS: CMS was performed on healthy young males (n=10) and females (n=10). Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the right and left hemi-diaphragm between the 6-8th intercostal spaces...
May 29, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554819/interstitial-lung-fluid-balance-in-healthy-lowlanders-exposed-to-high-altitude
#6
Bryan J Taylor, Glenn M Stewart, Jan W Marck, Douglas T Summerfield, Amine N Issa, Bruce D Johnson
We aimed to assess lung fluid balance before and after gradual ascent to 5150m. Lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO) and ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) were assessed in 12 healthy lowlanders at sea-level, and on Day 1, Day 5 and Day 9 after arrival at Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). EBC was reached following an 8-day hike at progressively increasing altitudes starting at 2860m. DLCO was unchanged from sea-level to Day 1 at EBC, but increased on Day 5 (11±10%) and Day 9 (10±9%) vs...
May 26, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554818/effect-of-portable-non-invasive-ventilation-environmental-conditions-on-everyday-activities
#7
Anna Bajema, Anne L Swinbourne, Marion Gray, Anthony S Leicht
The current study examined the effect of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) within environments of differing temperature and humidity on several physiological and perceptual responses while performing six activities of daily living (i.e. putting on shirt/shoes/trousers, vacuuming, hanging towels, and walking on a treadmill). Sixteen healthy participants completed the activities of varying difficulty within four experimental conditions: with and without NIV; and in temperate (22°C, 40% relative humidity) and hot-humid environments (32°C, 70% relative humidity)...
May 26, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552790/short-term-expiratory-muscle-strength-training-attenuates-sleep-apnea-and-improves-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Yu-Chi Kuo, Ting-Ting Song, Jeffrey R Bernard, Yi-Hung Liao
This study investigated the effects of 5 weeks of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on sleep apnea, sleep quality, and respiratory muscle strength in patients with different levels of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Twenty-five outpatients who received a diagnosis of OSA participated in the study and were assigned to either the EMST group (n=13) or control group (CTRL, n=12). The training intensity for the EMST group was 75% of the maximum static expiratory (PEmax) score (5days/week). The PEmax, apnea-hypoapnea index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores were evaluated before and after the treatment...
May 25, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552789/dynamic-ventilatory-responses-of-females-and-males-to-acute-isocapnic-and-poikilocapnic-hypoxia
#9
Lauren Rispen, Derek Marks, Simon Green
The human ventilatory response during acute hypoxia appears to be biphasic (growth and decay), but the effect of sex on the size and timing of this response is not known. We studied the effects of 15minutes of poikilocapnic and isocapnic hypoxia (FiO2≈0.10) on ventilation (V̇i) in 14 healthy female and 13 healthy male subjects. Parameters (amplitudes, time delays, time constants) describing individual V̇i responses were estimated using a biexponential function. There were no significant effects of sex on any of these parameters...
May 25, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
May 24, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549897/daily-acute-intermittent-hypoxia-improves-breathing-function-with-acute-and-chronic-spinal-injury-via-distinct-mechanisms
#11
B J Dougherty, J Terada, S R Springborn, S Vinit, P M MacFarlane, G S Mitchell
Daily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH) elicits respiratory plasticity, enhancing respiratory motor output and restoring breathing capacity after incomplete cervical spinal injuries (cSCI). We hypothesized that dAIH-induced functional recovery of breathing capacity would occur after both acute (2 weeks) and chronic (8 weeks) cSCI, but through distinct cellular mechanisms. Specifically, we hypothesized that dAIH-induced breathing recovery would occur through serotonin-independent mechanisms 2wks post C2 cervical hemisection (C2Hs), versus serotonin-dependent mechanisms 8wks post C2Hs...
May 24, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536067/relationship-between-quantitative-and-descriptive-methods-of-studying-blood-flow-through-intrapulmonary-arteriovenous-anastomoses-during-exercise
#12
Joseph W Duke, Jonathan E Elliott, Steven S Laurie, Thomas Voelkel, Igor M Gladstone, Mathews B Fish, Andrew T Lovering
Several methods exist to study intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) in humans. Transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography (TTSCE), i.e., bubble scores, is minimally-invasive, but cannot be used to quantify the magnitude of blood flow through IPAVA (QIPAVA). Radiolabeled macroaggregates of albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) have been used to quantify QIPAVA in humans, but this requires injection of radioactive particles. Previous work has shown agreement between (99m)Tc-MAA and TTSCE, but this has not been tested simultaneously in the same group of subjects...
May 20, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502893/the-effect-of-exhalation-flow-on-endogenous-particle-emission-and-phospholipid-composition
#13
Per Larsson, Björn Bake, Anita Wallin, Oscar Hammar, Ann-Charlotte Almstrand, Mona Lärstad, Evert Ljungström, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Anna-Carin Olin
Exhaled particles constitute a micro-sample of respiratory tract lining fluid. Inhalations from low lung volumes generate particles in small airways by the airway re-opening mechanism. Forced exhalations are assumed to generate particles in central airways by mechanisms associated with high air velocities. To increase knowledge on how and where particles are formed, different breathing manoeuvres were compared in 11 healthy volunteers. Particles in the 0.41-4.55μm diameter range were characterised and sampled...
May 11, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495570/effect-of-chronic-heart-failure-in-older-rats-on-respiratory-muscle-and-hindlimb-blood-flow-during-submaximal-exercise
#14
Joshua R Smith, K Sue Hageman, Craig A Harms, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
Submaximal exercise diaphragm blood flow (BF) is elevated in young chronic heart failure (CHF) rats, while it is unknown if this occurs in older animals. Respiratory and hindlimb muscle BFs (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise (20m/min, 5% grade) in older healthy (n=7) and CHF (n=6) Fischer 344X Brown Norway rats (27-29 mo old). Older CHF, compared to healthy, rats had greater (p<0.01) left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and right ventricle and lung weight (normalized to body weight)...
May 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487171/an-in-vitro-study-examining-the-duration-between-deep-inspirations-on-the-rate-of-renarrowing
#15
Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Katherine Lortie, David Marsolais, Nicolas Flamand, Ynuk Bossé
The factors altering the bronchodilatory response to a deep inspiration (DI) in asthma are important to decipher. In this in vitro study, we investigated the effect of changing the duration between DIs on the rate of force recovery post-DI in guinea pig bronchi. The airway smooth muscle (ASM) within the main bronchi were submitted to length oscillation that simulated tidal breathing in different contractile states during 2, 5, 10 or 30min prior to a larger length excursion that simulated a DI. The contractile states of ASM were determined by adding either methacholine or isoproterenol...
May 6, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479116/assisted-vital-capacity-to-assess-recruitment-level-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#16
Dante B Santos, Aurélien Boré, Lorena Del Amo Castrillo, Matthieu Lacombe, Line Falaize, David Orlikowski, Frédéric Lofaso, Hélène Prigent
Respiratory muscle weakness and chest wall abnormalities in neuromuscular diseases (NMD) may lead to decreased pulmonary volumes. We assessed the reversibility of vital capacity (VC) reduction with mechanical In-Exsufflation (MI-E). We evaluated the effects of positive inspiratory and negative expiratory pressures on spirometric variables under passive (without patients' participation) and active (with active participation) application in 47 NMD patients. VC, inspiratory capacity (IC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were measured during maneuvers without and with MI-E assistance, delivering inspiratory assistance (+40cmH2O), expiratory assistance (-40cmH2O) and both (±40cmH2O)...
May 4, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467885/diving-and-pulmonary-physiology-surfactant-binding-protein-lung-fluid-and-cardiopulmonary-test-changes-in-professional-divers
#17
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Cristina Banfi, Denise Brusoni, Massimo Mapelli, Stefania Ghilardi, Ante Obad, Darija Bakovic-Kramaric, Zeljko Dujic, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Alteration of breathing pattern ranging from an increase of respiratory rate to overt hyperventilation during and after SCUBA diving is frequently reported and is associated with intrathoracic fluid overload. This study was undertaken to assess breathing efficiency after diving and the association with damage of alveolar cells. Ventilation efficiency (VE/VCO2) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) before and 2h after a standard protocol dive has been analyzed in twelve professional males divers (39...
April 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467884/impairment-of-pulmonary-diffusion-correlates-with-hypoxemic-burden-in-central-sleep-apnea-heart-failure-patients
#18
Henrik Fox, Britta Koerber, Thomas Bitter, Dieter Horstkotte, Olaf Oldenburg
PURPOSE: Central sleep apnea (CSA) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) are highly prevalent in heart failure (HF) and are linked to increased mortality. Impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity [DLCO] and [KCO]) have been suggested to play a key role in CSA-CSR pathophysiology. This study investigated the relationship between HF, CSR, DLCO and KCO in well-characterized HF patients. METHODS: This prospective study included HF patients with CSR, all patients underwent full overnight polysomnography (PSG) and lung function testing...
April 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456608/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-worsens-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-rats
#19
Rudolf K Braun, Oleg Broytman, Felix M Braun, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Andrew Clithero, Dhruvangkumar Modi, David F Pegelow, Marlowe Eldridge, Mihaela Teodorescu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to increased mortality in pulmonary fibrosis. Its key feature, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), can lead to oxidative stress and inflammation, known to lead to fibrotic pathology in other organs. We tested the effects of CIH in an animal model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Sprague Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with bleomycin (Blm) or saline (Sal), and exposed to CIH or normal air (Norm) for 9 or 30 days. Pulmonary function was tested and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular analyses...
April 27, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445779/the-acute-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-centrally-injected-arachidonic-acid-the-mediation-of-prostaglandin-e-d-and-f2%C3%AE
#20
Leman Gizem Erkan, Burcin Altinbas, Gokcen Guvenc, Begum Aydin, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Arachidonic acid (AA), which is released from synaptic membrane phospholipid by neuroreceptor-initiated activation of phospholipase A2, is abundant in the brain and works as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Recently we reported that centrally injected AA generated pressor and hyperventilation effects by activating thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway. The present study was designed to investigate the mediation of other metabolites of AA such as prostaglandin (PG) D, PGE and PGF2α alongside TXA2 in the AA-evoked cardiorespiratory effects in anaesthetized rats...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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