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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502893/the-effect-of-exhalation-flow-on-endogenous-particle-emission-and-phospholipid-composition
#1
Per Larsson, Björn Bake, Anita Wallin, Oscar Hammar, Ann-Charlotte Almstrand, Mona Lärstad, Evert Ljungström, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Anna-Carin Olin
Exhaled particles constitute a micro-sample of respiratory tract lining fluid. Inhalations from low lung volumes generate particles in small airways by the airway re-opening mechanism. Forced exhalations are assumed to generate particles in central airways by mechanisms associated with high air velocities. To increase knowledge on how and where particles are formed, different breathing manoeuvres were compared in 11 healthy volunteers. Particles in the 0.41-4.55μm diameter range were characterised and sampled...
May 11, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495570/effect-of-chronic-heart-failure-in-older-rats-on-respiratory-muscle-and-hindlimb-blood-flow-during-submaximal-exercise
#2
Joshua R Smith, K Sue Hageman, Craig A Harms, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
Submaximal exercise diaphragm blood flow (BF) is elevated in young chronic heart failure (CHF) rats, while it is unknown if this occurs in older animals. Respiratory and hindlimb muscle BFs (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise (20m/min, 5% grade) in older healthy (n=7) and CHF (n=6) Fischer 344X Brown Norway rats (27-29 mo old). Older CHF, compared to healthy, rats had greater (p<0.01) left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and right ventricle and lung weight (normalized to body weight)...
May 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487171/an-in-vitro-study-examining-the-duration-between-deep-inspirations-on-the-rate-of-renarrowing
#3
Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Katherine Lortie, David Marsolais, Nicolas Flamand, Ynuk Bossé
The factors altering the bronchodilatory response to a deep inspiration (DI) in asthma are important to decipher. In this in vitro study, we investigated the effect of changing the duration between DIs on the rate of force recovery post-DI in guinea pig bronchi. The airway smooth muscle (ASM) within the main bronchi were submitted to length oscillation that simulated tidal breathing in different contractile states during 2, 5, 10 or 30min prior to a larger length excursion that simulated a DI. The contractile states of ASM were determined by adding either methacholine or isoproterenol...
May 6, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479116/assisted-vital-capacity-to-assess-recruitment-level-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#4
Dante B Santos, Aurélien Boré, Lorena Del Amo Castrillo, Matthieu Lacombe, Line Falaize, David Orlikowski, Frédéric Lofaso, Hélène Prigent
Respiratory muscle weakness and chest wall abnormalities in neuromuscular diseases (NMD) may lead to decreased pulmonary volumes. We assessed the reversibility of vital capacity (VC) reduction with mechanical In-Exsufflation (MI-E). We evaluated the effects of positive inspiratory and negative expiratory pressures on spirometric variables under passive (without patients' participation) and active (with active participation) application in 47 NMD patients. VC, inspiratory capacity (IC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were measured during maneuvers without and with MI-E assistance, delivering inspiratory assistance (+40cmH2O), expiratory assistance (-40cmH2O) and both (±40cmH2O)...
May 4, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467885/diving-and-pulmonary-physiology-surfactant-binding-protein-lung-fluid-and-cardiopulmonary-test-changes-in-professional-divers
#5
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Cristina Banfi, Denise Brusoni, Massimo Mapelli, Stefania Ghilardi, Ante Obad, Darija Bakovic-Kramaric, Zeljko Dujic, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Alteration of breathing pattern ranging from an increase of respiratory rate to overt hyperventilation during and after SCUBA diving is frequently reported and is associated with intrathoracic fluid overload. This study was undertaken to assess breathing efficiency after diving and the association with damage of alveolar cells. Ventilation efficiency (VE/VCO2) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) before and 2h after a standard protocol dive has been analyzed in twelve professional males divers (39...
April 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467884/impairment-of-pulmonary-diffusion-correlates-with-hypoxemic-burden-in-central-sleep-apnea-heart-failure-patients
#6
Henrik Fox, Britta Koerber, Thomas Bitter, Dieter Horstkotte, Olaf Oldenburg
PURPOSE: Central sleep apnea (CSA) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) are highly prevalent in heart failure (HF) and are linked to increased mortality. Impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity [DLCO] and [KCO]) have been suggested to play a key role in CSA-CSR pathophysiology. This study investigated the relationship between HF, CSR, DLCO and KCO in well-characterized HF patients. METHODS: This prospective study included HF patients with CSR, all patients underwent full overnight polysomnography (PSG) and lung function testing...
April 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456608/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-worsens-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-rats
#7
Rudolf K Braun, Oleg Broytman, Felix M Braun, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Andrew Clithero, Dhruvangkumar Modi, David F Pegelow, Marlowe Eldridge, Mihaela Teodorescu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to increased mortality in pulmonary fibrosis. Its key feature, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), can lead to oxidative stress and inflammation, known to lead to fibrotic pathology in other organs. We tested the effects of CIH in an animal model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Sprague Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with bleomycin (Blm) or saline (Sal), and exposed to CIH or normal air (Norm) for 9 or 30 days. Pulmonary function was tested and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular analyses...
April 27, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445779/the-acute-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-centrally-injected-arachidonic-acid-the-mediation-of-prostaglandin-e-d-and-f2%C3%AE
#8
Leman Gizem Erkan, Burcin Altinbas, Gokcen Guvenc, Begum Aydin, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Arachidonic acid (AA), which is released from synaptic membrane phospholipid by neuroreceptor-initiated activation of phospholipase A2, is abundant in the brain and works as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Recently we reported that centrally injected AA generated pressor and hyperventilation effects by activating thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway. The present study was designed to investigate the mediation of other metabolites of AA such as prostaglandin (PG) D, PGE and PGF2α alongside TXA2 in the AA-evoked cardiorespiratory effects in anaesthetized rats...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445778/the-impact-of-bilateral-vagotomy-on-the-physostigmine-induced-airway-constriction-in-ferrets
#9
Burim Neziri, Armond Daci, Shaip Krasniqi, Ramadan Sopi, Musa A Haxhiu
Vagal innervations have a great role in the respiratory function and are the main route of signal transmission from respiratory neural centers into the trachea and others conducting airways. We have investigated the role of central mechanisms related to vagal neural pathways and the cholinergic outflow in tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and lung mechanics parameters. Parameters of lung mechanics such as lung resistance (RL), dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and pressure in bypassed tracheal segment (Ptseg) were measured before and after vagotomy and asphyxia test...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442444/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-prenatal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-induced-impairment-of-respiratory-responses-to-hypercapnia-in-neonatal-rats
#10
Senfeng Zhang, Fang Lei, Fusheng Zhao, Xiang Yan, Wen Wang, Yu Zheng
The present study was designed to investigate whether H2S could improve the respiratory responses to hypercapnia blunted by prenatal CSE in neonatal rats in vivo. Respiratory activities were recorded with head-out body plethysmography. The results showed that during baseline, respiratory frequency (FR), tidal volume (VT) and minute ventilation (VE) were similar among tested groups; frequency of spontaneous apnea (FSA), not post-sigh apnea (FPA), was significantly elevated by prenatal CSE. During hypercapnia, the increases in FR and VE were significantly reduced, but VT was not markedly different, in CSE group; both FSA and FPA were decreased, although FSA remained higher in CSE group...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442443/real-time-imaging-of-mechanically-and-chemically-induced-atp-release-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#11
Kota Takahashi, Satoru Ito, Kishio Furuya, Shuichi Asano, Masahiro Sokabe, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts as an inflammatory mediator of pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the effects of mechanical and chemical stimuli on ATP release from primary normal human lung fibroblasts. We visualized the ATP release from fibroblasts in real time using a luminescence imaging system while acquiring differential interference contrast cell images with infrared optics. Immediately following a single uniaxial stretch for 1s, ATP was released from a certain population of cells and spread to surrounding spaces...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442445/cyclic-mechanical-stretch-induced-oxidative-stress-occurs-via-a-nox-dependent-mechanism-in-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#12
Toru Tanaka, Yoshinobu Saito, Kuniko Matsuda, Koichiro Kamio, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Arata Azuma, Akihiko Gemma
Cyclic mechanical stretching (CMS) of the alveolar epithelium is thought to contribute to alveolar epithelial injury through an increase in oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of CMS-induced oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). A549 cells were subjected to CMS, and the levels of 8-isoprostane and 3-nytrotyrosine were measured. Twenty-four hours of CMS induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-isoprostane and 3-nytrotyrosine. Although CMS did not increase the xanthine oxidase activity or the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, it upregulated the expression of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) 2, 4, 5 and DUOX2...
April 22, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435027/exercise-modulated-epigenetic-markers-and-inflammatory-response-in-copd-individuals-a-pilot-study
#13
Ivy Reichert Vital da Silva, Cintia Laura Pereira de Araujo, Gilson Pires Dorneles, Alessandra Peres, Andreia Luciana Bard, Gustavo Reinaldo, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira, Pedro Dal Lago, Viviane Rostirola Elsner
The study investigated the effects of exercise on epigenetic signals and systemic cytokine levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individuals. Ten participants of a pulmonary rehabilitation program were submitted to 24 sessions of a supervisioned exercise protocol thrice-weekly (90min/session). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after the 1st session, before and after the 24th session. A DNA hypomethylation status was observed after the 1st session when compared at baseline, while global histone H4 acetylation status was unaltered in any time-points evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412287/changes-in-rat-respiratory-system-produced-by-exposure-to-exhaust-gases-of-combustion-of-glycerol
#15
Daniel Silveira Serra, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Walter Araujo Zin, José Henrique Leal-Cardoso, Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante
The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo...
April 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396201/pharmacological-but-not-genetic-alteration-of-neural-epo-modifies-the-co2-h-central-chemosensitivity-in-postnatal-mice
#16
Sofien Laouafa, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Florine Jeton, Elizabeth Elliot-Portal, Rose Tam, Laurence Bodineau, Nicolas Voituron, Jorge Soliz
Cerebral erythropoietin (Epo) plays a crucial role for respiratory control in newborn rodents. We showed previously that soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR: an Epo antagonist) reduces basal ventilation and hypoxic hyperventilation at postnatal day 10 (P10) and in adult mice. However, at these ages (P10 and adulthood), Epo had no effect on central chemosensitivity. Nevertheless, it is known that the sensitivity to CO2/H(+) during the mammalian respiratory network maturation process is age-dependent. Accordingly, in this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that cerebral Epo is involved in the breathing stimulation induced by the activation of central CO2/H(+) chemoreceptors at earlier postnatal ages...
April 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396202/newborn-blood-gas-derangements-of-children-born-extremely-preterm-and-neurocognitive-dysfunctions-at-age-10-years
#17
Alan Leviton, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl C K Kuban
Among 740 children born extremely preterm, we evaluated the relationship between the highest and lowest quartiles of the distributions of PaO2 and PaCO2, as well as the lowest quartile of pH on one day, and separately on two days, and the risk of neurocognitive, language, and behavioral dysfunctions at age 10 years. Children who had hypoxemia, hyperoxemia, hypocapnia, hypercapnia, and acidemia, sometimes on only one day, and sometimes on two or more days, were more likely than others to have a high illness severity score (within the first 12 postnatal hours), and 10 years later to have multiple dysfunctions...
April 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396200/nasal-highflow-eliminates-co2-from-lower-airways
#18
Jens Bräunlich, Friederike Goldner, Hubert Wirtz
INTRODUCTION: Nasal highflow (NHF) has a growing evidence in treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure. There are preliminary data available about use in acute and chronic type-II-respiratory failure. Unfortunately underlying mechanisms of NHF are not well understood. Increase in airway pressure seems too small to explain the observed reduction in hypercapnia. Most interesting effects are wash-out of upper airways and reduction of functional dead space. There are no data available about a wash-out of lower airways...
April 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385647/-early-evolution-of-the-diaphragm-in-caseids-the-diaphragm-as-an-adaptation-to-mixed-aquatic-terrestrial-lifestyle
#19
LETTER
T Similowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363683/validity-of-thoracic-respiratory-inductive-plethysmography-in-high-body-mass-index-subjects
#20
Yann Rétory, Pascal David, Carole de Picciotto, Pauline Niedzialkowski, Marcel Bonay, Michel Petitjean
We aim to evaluate thoracic respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in high body mass index (BMI) subjects with a pneumotachometer (PT) as a reference. We simultaneously evaluated spontaneous breathing by RIP and PT in 10 low and 10 high BMI subjects at rest and in moderate exercise. We then recorded RIP amplitude with different excursions mimicking respiratory thoracic deformation, with different sizes of RIP belts surrounding cylinders of different perimeters with or without deformable foam simulating adipose tissue...
March 28, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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