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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

Ahmed M Al-Jumaily, Sherif Ashaat, Bryn Martin, Rachael Pohle-Krauza, Matthew Krauza, Adrian Dan, John Zografakis
Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea patients. In obese patients the severity of this risk can be reduced by bariatric surgery. This pilot study investigates the perioperative effects of bariatric surgery on obstructive sleep apnea and on the physical and biomechanical characteristics of the upper airway. Polysomnography and computer tomography data for 10 morbid obese patients promoted for bariatric surgery were conducted before surgery and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively for assessment of the oropharyngeal anatomy, and subsequent three-dimensional modelling of the airway...
January 12, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Juraj Mokry, Anna Urbanova, Martin Kertys, Daniela Mokra
A group of 11 enzyme families of metalophosphohydrolases called phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is responsible for a hydrolysis of intracellular cAMP and cGMP. Xanthine derivatives (methylxanthines) inhibit PDEs without selective action on their single isoforms and lead to many pharmacological effects, e.g. bronchodilation, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, and thus they can modulate the cough reflex. Contrary, selective PDE inhibitors have been developed to inhibit PDE isoforms with different pharmacological effects based on their tissue expression...
January 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ha-Kyeong Won, Sol-Ji Yoon, Woo-Jung Song
Cough is a physiological reflex to protect airways against aspiration, but also it is one of the most frequent problems that lead patients to seek medical care. Chronic cough is more prevalent in the elderly than younger subjects, and more challenging to manage due to frequent comorbidities and possible side effects from drug treatment. Meanwhile, cough reflex does not decrease with natural aging but is often impaired by pathologic conditions like stroke. The impairment in cough reflex may lead to fatal complication like aspiration pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Hisham Alshaer, Aditya Pandya, Igor Zivanovic, Carolina Gonzaga Carvalho, Clodagh Ryan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared to usual care in stroke patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) over one month reduces delta and alpha oscillations on quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) in association with improvements in cognitive or functional outcomes. METHODS: Spectral EEG analysis was performed in patients with subacute stroke and OSA randomized to usual care or CPAP treatment from a previous study...
January 9, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Natalia Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, Lea Kovacikova, Tomas Buday, Kamil Biringer, Jana Sivakova, Vladimir Calkovsky, Martina Antosova, Jana Plevkova
Chronic hypersensitivity cough syndrome affects mainly postmenopausal women; however, the pathogenesis of cough hypersensitivity in this demographic is not entirely understood. The role of sex hormones in cough has never been studied in detail; however, sex hormones seem to play an important role in the lung health of women.
January 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Yang Liu, Jennifer Mitchell, Yitung Chen, Woosoon Yim, Wenxiao Chu, Robert C Wang
Up to 14% of the U.S. population is estimated to have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), while the outcomes of the treatments have variable results. In the current study, a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction modeling was applied to simulate the upper airway to identify the precise location, severity, and characteristic of airway collapse. This was accomplished using Simpleware® and ANSYS® software applied to a 3-D rendering of the airway in a real patient with severe OSA. During this simulation, areas which are prone to collapse and precipitate apneic episodes were identified at the tip of the soft palate and the base of the tongue, with intrathoracic pressure as low as -1370 Pa...
January 6, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
E Oppersma, J Doorduin, J G van der Hoeven, P H Veltink, H W H van Hees, L M A Heunks
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute respiratory failure may develop respiratory acidosis. Metabolic compensation by bicarbonate production or retention results in posthypercapnic alkalosis with an increased arterial bicarbonate concentration. The hypothesis of this study was that elevated plasma bicarbonate levels decrease respiratory drive and minute ventilation. METHODS: In an intervention study in 10 healthy subjects the ventilatory response using a hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) test was assessed, before and after administration of high dose sodium bicarbonate...
January 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Eva Kovacova, Tomas Buday, Robert Vysehradsky, Jana Plevkova
Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown aetiology characterized by presence of non-caseating granulomatous inflammation.Cough is a common and significant symptom in sarcoidosis, reducing quality of life.Objective 24 h cough monitoring proved that sarcoidosis patients have significantly higher cough frequency compared to controls and their cough has diurnal variation, it is gender-specific and shows racial differences. It correlates with the presence of inflammation in the airways, but is not influenced by the X-ray staging of the disease, nor the degree of airway obstruction...
January 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Michal Hennel, Jana Harsanyiova, Fei Ru, Tomas Zatko, Mariana Brozmanova, Alzbeta Trancikova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
The structure of primary afferent nerve terminals profoundly influences their function. While the complex vagal airway nerve terminals (stretch receptors, cough receptors and neuroepithelial bodies) were thoroughly characterized, much less is known about the structure of airway nerves that do not form distinct complex terminals (often termed free nerve fibers). We selectively induced expression of GFP in vagal afferent nerves in the mouse by transfection with AAV-GFP virus vector and visualized nerve terminals in the trachea by whole organ confocal imaging...
January 3, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Kok Suen Cheng, Ray P S Han, Poh Foong Lee
The study aims to study the effects of short duration deep breathing on the EEG power with topography based on parallel group randomized controlled trial design which was lacking in prior reports. 50 participants were split into 4 groups: control (CONT), deep breathing (DB) for 5 (DB5), 7 (DB7), and 9 (DB9) minutes. EEG recordings were obtained during baseline, deep breathing session, after deep breathing, and a follow-up session after 7 days of consecutive practice. Frontal theta power of DB5 and DB9 was significantly larger than that of CONT after the deep breathing session (p = 0...
December 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Yi-Han Hsiao, Ching-Min Tseng, Kang-Cheng Su, Wen-Chian Chen, Mo-Tzu Wu, Yu-Chung Wu, Shi-Chuan Chang, Yu-Chin Lee, Yu Ru Kou, Diahn-Warng Perng
The effects of long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) have not been evaluated in a model with simultaneous lung inflammation and small airway remodeling induced by cigarette smoke (CS). We exposed the mice to CS for four weeks with daily treatment with a LAMA (glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237) or its vehicle. Human bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) and lung fibroblasts were exposed to CS extract (CSE) or acetylcholine with or without NVA237 treatment. We found that NVA237, but not its vehicle, suppressed elevations in inflammatory score, epithelial thickness, and peribronchial collagen deposition in CS-exposed mice...
December 28, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Anu K Kaskinen, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Laura Martelius, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
Measurement of dynamic lung compliance during breathing requires measurement of esophageal pressure, whereas static respiratory system compliance (Crs) method requires several airway occlusions. Despite their precision these compliance methods are cumbersome and not suitable for evaluation of pulmonary system in intensive care. The current ventilators display dynamic Crs, which, however, is seldom utilized in clinical practice. We studied the feasibility of ventilator-derived dynamic Crs measurement in pulmonary evaluation after congenital cardiac surgery in children...
December 27, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Nikita Trembach, Igor Zabolotskikh
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects with high body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We studied 26 healthy men with obesity and 23 healthy men without obesity. All participants performed the breath-holding test in the morning, and the single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2) test on the next day. RESULTS: The sensitivity of peripheral chemoreceptors to CO2 did not differ between two groups (P = 0...
December 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Michael B La Monica, David H Fukuda, Tristan M Starling-Smith, Ran Wang, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of moderate normobaric hypoxia on the parameters of the work-time relationship in the upper body. METHODS: Twenty-one recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test in both normobaric hypoxia (H) and normoxia (N) to exhaustion on an arm ergometer to determine V̇O2peak and peak power output (PPO). Each participant completed four constant work-rate (CWR) arm-cranking tests at 90-120% PPO in both environmental conditions...
December 13, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Estelle B Gauda, Zankhana Master
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) occurs frequently in premature infants who have apnea of prematurity. Immaturity of the respiratory network from low central respiratory drive and the greater contribution of the carotid body on baseline breathing leads to respiratory instability in premature infants presenting as apnea and periodic breathing. During the 2nd week after birth, the smallest and the youngest premature infants have increased frequency of apnea and periodic breathing and associated oxygen desaturations that can persist for weeks after birth...
December 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Adrianne G Huxtable, Elizabeth Kopp, Brendan J Doughtery, Jyoti J Watters, Gordon S Mitchell
Although inflammation is prevalent in many clinical disorders challenging breathing, we are only beginning to understand the impact of inflammation on neural mechanisms of respiratory control. We recently demonstrated one form of respiratory motor plasticity is extremely sensitive to even mild inflammation induced by a single night (8 h) of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1), mimicking aspects of obstructive sleep apnea. Specifically, phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is abolished by IH-1, but restored by high doses of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen...
December 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Amin Mokhtari-Zaer, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Allergic asthma during early life period has been reported to be associated with neurochemical and behavioral disorders, including anxiety and depression. We aimed to determine the effects of exercise on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as lung and hippocampus oxidative stress in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized juvenile rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups including control (non-exercised and non-sensitized), Exe (exercise and non-sensitized); OVA (non-exercised and OVA-sensitized); and OVA+Exe (exercised and OVA-sensitized)...
December 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ying Zou, Wei Wang, Hongyu Jin, Xinshi Nie, Jiahuan Xu, Ying Liu, Jian Kang
Genioglossus activity maintains the patency of the upper airway. 5-HT neurons in the raphe nucleus regulate genioglossus activity. In order to study the influence of 5-HT1A receptors in dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN) on genioglossus EMG during normoxia, adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: the artificial cerebrospinal fluid group (ACSF group), the low-concentration of 5-HT1A receptors agonist 8-OH-DPAT group (0.1mM group), the mid-concentration 8-OH-DPAT group (0.4mM group) and the high-concentration 8-OH-DPAT group (1...
December 2, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Kun-Ze Lee, Wenlin Liao
Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is an X-linked gene encoding a serine-threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in CDKL5 cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms, including early-onset seizures, motor dysfunction, autistic features and sleep breathing abnormalities in patients. It remains to be addressed whether loss of CDKL5 causes respiratory dysfunction in mice. Here, we examined the respiratory pattern of male Cdkl5-/y mice at 1-3 months of age during resting breathing and respiratory challenge (i...
December 2, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Guillaume Mesuret, Julia Dannenberg, Mauricio Arnoldt, Anja-Annett Grützner, Marcus Niebert, Swen Hülsmann
The glycine receptor α3 subunit is known to be a target for cAMP/PKA-mediated phosphorylation and regulation. Mice that lack this subunit are apparently normal but the 5-HT1A-receptor mediated modulation of respiratory network activity is disturbed. Since the intracellular cAMP-concentration is reduced in mice that lack the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene, we aimed to test if the α3 subunit of the glycine receptor is involved in the development of the breathing phenotype of MeCP2-deficient mice (Mecp2-/y)...
December 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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