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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923780/effect-of-cpap-on-sleep-spindles-in-patients-with-osa
#1
Ozkan Yetkin, Deniz Aydoagn
OBJECTIVE: Consequences of OSAS include excessive daytime sleepiness, divided sleep architecture, impaired neurocognitive performance, and significant psychosocial disruption. In this study we aimed to evaluate sleep spindles changes before and after PAP treatment in patient with OSA. METHODS: Seventy-three consecutive patients (M/F:61/12) who applied to Sleep Disorders Center of Inonu University Hospital and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled to this study...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923779/selenium-nanoparticles-enhanced-thermal-tolerance-and-maintain-cellular-stress-protection-of-pangasius-hypophthalmus-reared-under-lead-and-high-temperature
#2
Neeraj Kumar, K K Krishnani, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Narendra Pratap Singh
There is strong relation between nutrition and thermal tolerance of fish in terms of improved critical temperature minima (CTmin), lethal temperature minima (LTmin), critical temperature maxima (CTmax), and lethal temperature maxima (LTmax). Fishes act as quantifying indicators to the climate change due to their critical thermal limits in nature and ability to adjust thermal sensitivity to maintain their homeostasis. In the present study, biologically synthesised selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) from fisheries waste (fish gill) was used to evaluate its efficacy for enhancement of thermal tolerance of Pangasius hypophthalmus reared under lead (Pb) and high temperature (34°C) for 72 days...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923778/links-between-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-intermittent-hypoxia-and-diabetes-causes-or-cures
#3
REVIEW
Lisa L Abler, Chad M Vezina
Bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) manifest as urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence and incomplete bladder emptying. Existing treatments ameliorate but do not eliminate most symptoms, leading to financial and personal burdens attributable to sustained medical therapies that may last a lifetime. The purpose of this review is to highlight evidence of causal associations between LUTS and several common comorbidities, including intermittent hypoxia (IH) concomitant with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919369/effect-of-airway-remodeling-and-hyperresponsiveness-on-complexity-of-breathing-pattern-in-rat
#4
Mehdi Eslami-Behroozi, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
The complexity of respiratory dynamics is decreased, in association with disease severity, in patients with asthma. However, the pathophysiological basis of decreased complexity of breathing pattern in asthma is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated bronchoconstriction (using methacholine) on breathing pattern in rats with or without allergen-induced sensitization. Entropy analysis of respiratory variability showed decreased irregularity (less complexity) of respiratory rhythm in this rat model of asthma...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919370/with-age-a-lower-individual-breathing-reserve-is-associated-with-a-higher-maximal-heart-rate
#5
Martin Burtscher, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Faulhaber, Johannes Burtscher
INTRODUCTION: Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax...
September 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917529/bronchoprotective-effect-of-deep-inspirations-in-cough-variant-asthma-a-distinguishing-feature-in-the-spectrum-of-airway-disease
#6
Nastasia Wasilewski, Thomas Fisher, Scott E Turcotte, John T Fisher, M Diane Lougheed
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of deep inspirations (DIs) on airway behaviour in individuals with classic asthma (CA), cough variant asthma (CVA), and methacholine (MCh)-induced cough but normal airway sensitivity (COUGH) during bronchoprovocation. METHODS: Twenty-five adults (18 female; 44.8±12.3years (Mean±SD); n=9 CA, n=9 CVA, and n=7 COUGH) completed two single-dose MCh challenges, with and without DIs. Bronchoprotection was assessed by comparing changes in bronchoconstriction (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, FEF50, FEF25-75), gas trapping (RV, RV/TLC) and impulse oscillometry (IOS) measurements...
September 13, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893610/sex-differences-in-the-respiratory-sympathetic-coupling-in-rats-exposed-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#7
REVIEW
George Miguel P R Souza, Mateus R Amorim, Davi J A Moraes, Benedito H Machado
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disease in which humans face episodes of intermittent hypoxia and it affects men and women. Patients with OSA present hypertension and sympathetic overactivity among several other dysfunctions. Therefore, one important question remains: are the autonomic dysfunctions associated with OSA similar in male and female? This is an unresolved question since sex factors are overlooked in most clinical and experimental studies. Epidemiological data indicate that sex exerts an important influence in the prevalence of OSA and associated comorbidities, such as hypertension...
September 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890402/lung-responses-in-murine-models-of-experimental-asthma-value-of-house-dust-mite-over-ovalbumin-sensitization
#8
Camille Doras, Ferenc Petak, Sam Bayat, Aurélie Baudat, Christophe Von Garnier, Philippe Eigenmann, Walid Habre
Ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization has limitations in modelling asthma. Thus, we examined the value of allergic sensitization using a purified natural allergen, house dust mite (HDM), over the sensitization performed with OVA. Mice were sham-treated, or sensitized with OVA- or HDM with identical chronology. Airway resistance, tissue damping and elastance were assessed under control conditions and after challenging the animals with methacholine (MCh) and the specific allergen. Inflammatory profile of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was characterized and lung histology was performed...
September 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870869/dysfunctional-breathing-is-more-frequent-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-than-in-asthma-and-in-health
#9
Natalie Law, Laurence E Ruane, Kathy Low, Kais Hamza, Philip G Bardin
Involuntary adaptations of breathing patterns to counter breathlessness may lead to dysfunctional breathing in obstructive lung diseases. However, no studies examining dysfunctional breathing in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been reported. Patients with verified COPD (n=34), asthma (n=37) and a healthy control group (n=41) were recruited. All participants completed the Nijmegen questionnaire for dysfunctional breathing as well as measures of disease activity. Comparisons between groups employed analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni analyses and Pearson correlation for associations...
September 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890403/sex-differences-in-respiratory-muscle-activation-patterns-during-high-intensity-exercise-in-healthy-humans
#10
Reid A Mitchell, Michele R Schaeffer, Andrew H Ramsook, Sabrina S Wilkie, Jordan A Guenette
Although women experience greater ventilatory constraints and have a higher work of breathing during exercise, they are less susceptible to diaphragm fatigue compared to men. The mechanisms for diaphragmatic fatigue resistance in women is unknown but may be related to sex differences in respiratory muscle recruitment. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine if electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm (EMGdi) and extra-diaphragmatic inspiratory muscles differ between sexes during exercise. Forty subjects (21M:19F) completed a constant load cycling test at 85% of maximum work rate until exhaustion, while instrumented with an oesophageal electrode catheter to measure EMGdi and surface electrodes to measure EMG of the sternocleidomastoid (EMGscm) and scalene (EMGsca) muscles...
September 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870868/heme-oxygenase-1-participates-in-the-resolution-of-seawater-drowning-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#11
Jia-Jia Yuan, Xiao-Tong Zhang, Yun-Ting Bao, Xin-Jie Chen, Yuan-Zhao Shu, Jun-Liang Chen, Wei Chen, Bin Du, Qing-Feng Pang
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) participated in the resolution of seawater drowning-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, gross and microscopic morphology of pulmonary tissue, computed tomography images and biochemical indexes were continuously observed from 15min to 15day after seawater drowning. The content and activity of HO-1 were determined by western-blot and spectrophotometric method, respectively. The morphological and biochemical indexes indicated that the seawater drowning could lead to the serious pulmonary hemorrhage and edema...
September 7, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882651/in-cystic-fibrosis-lung-clearance-index-is-sensitive-to-detecting-abnormalities-appearing-at-exercise-in-children-with-normal-spirometry
#12
Riyadh Chelabi, Thibaud Soumagne, Alicia Guillien, Marc Puyraveau, Bruno Degano
Symptom-limited incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed in school-age children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis (CF), all with normal spirometry. Physiological parameters were compared between patients with normal lung clearance index (LCI; n=6) and patients with elevated LCI (n=6). Dyspnoea ratings during exercise were similar in both groups. Although no patient had significant dynamic hyperinflation, end-expiratory lung volumes were higher throughout exercise in patients with elevated LCI...
September 4, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873335/blood-pressure-response-during-normocapnic-hyperpnoea-is-blunted-in-young-women-compared-to-men
#13
Kaori Shimizu, Kanako Goto, Koji Ishida, Mitsuru Saito, Hiroshi Akima, Keisho Katayama
We hypothesized that young women have a lower arterial blood pressure (BP) response to high inspiratory and expiratory muscle contractions with normocapnic hyperpnoea compared to age-matched men. To test this hypothesis, the cardiovascular response during voluntary normocapnic incremental hyperpnoea was evaluated in young women and compared to that of young men. An incremental respiratory endurance test (IRET) was performed as follows: target minute ventilation was initially set to 30% of the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV12) and was increased by 10% MVV12 every 3min...
September 2, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870870/-spirometric-lung-age-reference-equations-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Mouna Ben Khelifa, Halima Ben Salem, Raoudha Sfaxi, Souheil Chatti, Sonia Rouatbi, Helmi Ben Saad
The aim of the present paper was to conduct a narrative review of the published norms of the "spirometric" lung-age (SLA). A literature search which covered the period 1970 to June 2017, was conducted using the Pubmed. The search strategy had used the following MeSH words: "Spirometry"[Majr]) AND "Aging"[Majr]. Six original studies have reported equations predicting SLA for adults aged 18-90 years [USA (n=2), Japan (n=2); Australia (n=1) and Tunisia (n=1)]. Their sample sizes varied from 125 to 15238, with a total of 32334 volunteers (11788 men)...
September 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855120/sio2-induced-release-of-svegfrs-from-pulmonary-macrophages
#15
Jie Chao, Yan Lv, Jin Chen, Jing Wang, Honghong Yao
BACKGROUND: The inhalation of silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles causes silicosis, a stubborn pulmonary disease that is characterized by alveolar inflammation during the early stage. Soluble cytokine receptors (SCRs) play important roles in regulating inflammation by either attenuating or promoting cytokine signaling. However, the role of SCRs in silicosis remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Luminex assays revealed increased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR) family levels in the plasma of silicosis patients...
August 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851593/role-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-in-hypoxia-induced-changes-in-task-activity-intracellular-ca-2-and-ventilation-in-mice
#16
Jiaju Wang, James O Hogan, Rui Wang, Carl White, Donghee Kim
Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is a multifunctional enzyme, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of its products. CSE and H2S have recently been proposed to be critical signaling molecules in hypoxia-induced excitation of carotid body (CB) glomus cells and the chemosensory response. Because the role of H2S in arterial chemoreception is still debated, we further examined the role of CSE by studying the effects of hypoxia on TASK K(+) channel activity, cell depolarization, [Ca(2+)]i and ventilation using CSE(+/+) and CSE(-/-) mice...
August 26, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843676/ventilatory-response-to-carbon-monoxide-during-exercise-in-hypoxia-and-hypercapnia
#17
George H Crocker, Jenny Kwon, Philip H Kass, James H Jones
We tested if the addition of CO to inspired gases with different inspired O2 and CO2 fractions (FIO2 and FICO2) stimulates ventilation at rest or during submaximal exercise. We measured minute ventilation (VE) in goats breathing combinations of FIO2 ranging from 0.21 to 0.06 and FICO2 from 0 to 0.05, both with and without inspired CO resulting in carboxyhemoglobin fractions (FHbCO) of 0.02 (no CO added), 0.15, or 0.45. We did this while they stood on a treadmill, walked at 1.4, or trotted at 2.5ms(-1). Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and exercise, alone and in combination, increased ventilation compared to breathing air at rest...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843675/aerosol-furosemide-for-dyspnea-high-dose-controlled-delivery-does-not-improve-effectiveness
#18
Robert B Banzett, Richard M Schwartzstein, Robert W Lansing, Carl R O'Donnell
Published studies have shown great variability in response when aerosolized furosemide has been tested as a palliative treatment for dyspnea. We hypothesized that a higher furosemide dose with controlled aerosol administration would produce consistent dyspnea relief. We optimized deposition by controlling inspiratory flow (300-500mL/s) and tidal volume (15% predicted vital capacity) while delivering 3.4μm aerosol from either saline or 80mg of furosemide. We induced dyspnea in healthy subjects by varying inspired PCO2 while restricting minute ventilation...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826885/sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-control-progress-in-basic-physiology-and-clinical-research
#19
EDITORIAL
Richard Kinkead, Evelyn Schlenker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822818/phrenic-long-term-facilitation-following-intrapleural-ctb-sap-induced-respiratory-motor-neuron-death
#20
Nicole L Nichols, Taylor A Craig, Miles A Tanner
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1(G93A) rats...
August 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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