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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

Sevda C Aslan, William B McKay, Goutam Singh, Alexander V Ovechkin
Maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure values (PImax and PEmax ) are indirect measures of respiratory muscle strength that, in healthy adults, are known to be significantly lower in women compared to men. In part, sex differences in breathing kinematics, lung size, body composition, muscle mass, and muscle fiber composition are thought to be responsible for these effects. However, it is not known whether respiratory muscle activation during maximum respiratory efforts is also sex-specific. In this study, we addressed whether respiratory multi-muscle activation patterns during PImax and PEmax efforts are different between healthy women and men...
September 15, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ömer Faruk Yilmaz, Mustafa Özdal
The combined effects of swimming on the inspiratory muscles and pulmonary functions are not well known. The aim of the present study was to determine the acute, chronic, and combined effects of swimming on the pulmonary functions and respiratory muscles of competitive swimmers. Thirty males (15 in the experimental group [EG] and 15 in the control group [CG]) participated in this study. The EG subjects participated in an 8-week swim training program and performed 1 day before and after an 8-week 100-m swimming event...
September 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Ynuk Bossé
A certain amount of time is required to achieve a maximal contraction from airway smooth muscle (ASM) and stretches of substantial magnitude, such as the ones imparted by deep inspirations (DIs), interfere with contraction. The duration of ASM contraction without interference may thus affect its shortening, its mechanical response to DIs and the overall toll it exerts on the respiratory system. In this study, the effect of changing the interval between DIs on the dynamics of ASM was examined in vitro. Isolated bronchi derived from guinea pigs were held isotonically and stimulated to both contract and relax, in a randomized order, in response to 10-5 M of methacholine and 10-6 M of isoproterenol, respectively...
September 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Vincent Jounieaux, Daniel O Rodenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Astrid Bergmann, Thomas Schilling, Göran Hedenstierna, Kerstin Ahlgren, Anders Larsson, Moritz Kretzschmar, Alf Kozian, Thomas Hachenberg
BACKGROUNDː: One-lung ventilation (OLV) may result in lung injury due to increased mechanical stress and tidal recruitment. As a result, a pulmonary inflammatory response is induced. The present randomized, controlled, animal experiment was undertaken to assess the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP) on diffuse alveolar damage and immune response after OLV. METHODSː: Fourteen piglets (26 ± 2 kg) were randomized to control (n = 7) and RIP group (n = 7). For RIP, a blood pressure cuff at hind limb was inflated up to 200 mmHg for 5 min and deflated for another 5 min, this being done four times before OLV...
August 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Giorgia Spinazzola, Giuliano Ferrone, Flora Cipriani, Cosimo Tommaso Caputo, Marco Rossi, Giorgio Conti
It is unknown which is the best ventilatory approach in patients scheduled for gynecological robotic surgery in Deep Trendelenburg position in terms of respiratory mechanics. 40 patients were enrolled: 20 patients received a standard ventilation and 20 patients received a protective ventilation. Gas exchanges, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of respiratory mechanics. In both groups, there was a significant reduction of static compliance between Baseline and Extubation Time (p < 0...
August 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Zohra M Kakall, E Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M J Farnham, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E Nedoboy, Paul M Pilowsky
Autonomic reflex responses are critical in restoring changes to circulatory factors reduced beyond the domain of homeostasis. Intermittent hypoxia triggers repeated activation of chemoreflexes, resulting in baroreflex dysfunction and widespread changes in cellular and neuronal activity regulated by sensory/motor pathways. Hypoglycaemia initiates a rapid neurally-mediated counter-regulatory response. This counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia increases plasma adrenaline levels, liver glycogenolysis, and thus blood glucose levels...
August 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Lin Gao, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo
Acute oxygen sensing is essential for humans under hypoxic environments or pathologic conditions. This is achieved by the carotid body (CB), the key arterial chemoreceptor, along with other peripheral chemoreceptor organs, such as the adrenal medulla (AM). Although it is widely accepted that inhibition of K+ channels in the plasma membrane of CB cells during acute hypoxia results in the activation of cardiorespiratory reflexes, the molecular mechanisms by which the hypoxic signal is detected to modulate ion channel activity are not fully understood...
August 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ran Arieli
Decompression bubbles can develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. These are the nanobubbles which appear on active hydrophobic spots (AHS) found on the luminal aspect of all blood vessels. Following decompression, with the propagation of blood along the arterial tree, diffusion parameters cause increased transfer of nitrogen from the tissue into the artery, and more so if perfusion is low. Taravana is a neurological form of decompression illness (DCI) prevalent in repeated breath-hold diving. A nanobubble on an AHS in a distal artery of the brain may receive an influx of nitrogen after each dive until it occludes the arterial blood flow...
August 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Chloé Richard, Waheed Shabbir, Pasquale Ferraro, Chantal Massé, Yves Berthiaume
While alveolar liquid clearance (ALC) mediated by the β2 -adrenergic receptor (β2 -AR) plays an important role in lung edema resolution in certain models of lung injury, in more severe lung injury models, this response might disappear. Indeed, we have shown that in an ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury model, β2 -agonists do not enhance ALC. The objective of this study was to determine if downregulation of the β2 -AR could explain the lack of response to β2 -agonists in this lung injury model. In an in vivo canine model of lung transplantation, we observed no change in β2 -AR concentration or affinity in the injured transplanted lungs compared to the native lungs...
August 29, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Killen Harold Briones Claudett, Michelle Grunauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Warren R Ruehland, Peter D Rochford, John Trinder, Jo Spong, Fergal J O'Donoghue
Respiratory related evoked potentials (RREP) were used to examine respiratory stimulus gating. RREPs produced by consciously detected vs. undetected loads, near the detection threshold, were compared. Participants (n = 17) were instrumented with EEG and a nasal mask connected to a loading manifold, which presented a range of mid-inspiratory resistive loads, plus a control, in a random block design. Participants were cued prior to the stimulus and signalled detection by a button press. There were statistically significant differences in peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1 RREP peak for detected (mean ± SD; 3...
August 18, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Andrew H Ramsook, Reid A Mitchell, Jordan A Guenette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Michal Mestanik, Andrea Mestanikova, Peter Langer, Marian Grendar, Alexander Jurko, Nikola Sekaninova, Nadezda Visnovcova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is an index of cardiovagal regulation, emotional and cognitive processing. RSA is quantified using heart rate variability (HRV) spectral analysis at respiratory-linked high-frequency band (HF-HRV) using Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) or autoregressive (AR) method, both requiring resampling of recordings - a potential source of error. We hypothesized that rarely used HRV time-frequency analysis with Lomb-Scargle periodogram (LSP) without resampling could be more sensitive to detect neurocardiac response to posture change than FFT and AR...
August 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ying-Jie Peng, Vladislav V Makarenko, Anna Gridina, Irina Chupikova, Xiuli Zhang, Ganesh K Kumar, Aaron P Fox, Nanduri R Prabhakar
The role of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) derived H2 S in the hypoxic and anoxic responses of the carotid body (CB) were examined. Experiments were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, wild type and CSE knockout mice on C57BL/6 J background. Hypoxia (pO2  = 37 ± 3 mmHg) increased the CB sensory nerve activity and elevated H2 S levels in rats. In contrast, anoxia (pO2  = 5 ± 4 mmHg) produced only a modest CB sensory excitation with no change in H2 S levels. DL-propargylglycine (DL-PAG), a blocker of CSE, inhibited hypoxia but not anoxia-evoked CB sensory excitation and [Ca2+ ]i elevation of glomus cells...
August 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
F A Fernandez, R Martin-Martin, I García-Camacha, D Juarez, P Fidel, J M González-Ravé
The current study aimed to analyze the effects of physical conditioning inclusion on apnea performance after a 22-week structured apnea training program. Twenty-nine male breath-hold divers participated and were allocated into: (1) cross-training in apnea and physical activity (CT; n = 10); (2) apnea training only (AT; n = 10); and control group (CG; n = 9). Measures were static apnea (STA), dynamic with fins (DYN) and dynamic no fins (DNF) performance, body composition, hemoglobin, vital capacity (VC), maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), resting metabolic rate, oxygen saturation, and pulse during a static apnea in dry conditions at baseline and after the intervention...
August 3, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Neira Polet Camacho-Hernández, Jonathan Julio Lorea-Hernández, Fernando Peña-Ortega
Inflammation inhibits the expression of some, but not all forms of respiratory motor plasticity. For example, systemic application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the phrenic long-term facilitation induced by moderate-intermittent hypoxia in vivo. There are multiple pro-inflammatory processes triggered by the systemic application of LPS, including neuroinflammation in the CNS. Considering that microglia can be activated by the systemic application of LPS, it is likely that this cell type influences the response of the respiratory circuits to intermittent hypoxia (IH)...
July 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Cintia Laura Pereira de Araujo, Ivy Reichert Vital da Silva, Gustavo Pereira Reinaldo, Pâmela Krause Peccin, Daniela Pochmann, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira, Viviane Rostirola Elsner, Pedro Dal Lago
BACKGROUND: COPD physiopathology involves multiple pathways and evidence indicates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important biomarker associated with parameters of COPD severity. This study aimed to analyze the time course of the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) on BDNF levels and on functional status in COPD patients. METHODS: Patients were enrolled in a 24-session PRP. Exercise capacity, dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and the BODE index were assessed at baseline and after the PRP...
July 29, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Kirsten E Coffman, Glenn M Stewart, Alex R Carlson, Courtney M Wheatley, Bruce D Johnson
Extravascular lung water (EVLW) increases in healthy adults upon exposure to high altitude, likely due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Older individuals experience increased PVR during exercise, which may be exacerbated by trekking at high altitude. This study aimed to determine whether EVLW development is greater in older versus younger adults during graded altitude exposure. Fourteen younger (32 ± 6y) and 12 older (58 ± 5y) healthy adults completed an 11-day trek of Mount Kilimanjaro...
July 26, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Paul Allen Williams, Clarissa Dalton, Christopher G Wilson
We hypothesize that developmental changes in motoneuron volume or surface area in the hypoglossal motor nucleus (XII) can alter the biophysical properties that contribute to motor output. We used the Golgi-Cox technique to stain developing hypoglossal motoneurons (XII MNs) at three postnatal ages (P3, 10, & 17). We removed Sprague-Dawley rat pup brains, processed, sectioned, stained, imaged, and performed 3D reconstructions to quantify the morphometrics of XII MNs. We then used the simulation environment, NEURON, to model the biophysical properties from digitally reconstructed neurons and compared our results to previously published experiments...
July 26, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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