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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

Fatemeh Ilka, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
The optimal ventilation strategy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for severe asthma remains unclear. The effect of conventional ventilation (with constant tidal volume and respiratory rate) and variable ventilation (with the same average but variable tidal volume and respiratory rate) on peak airway pressure and airway exacerbation induced by increasing doses of methacholine was compared in a rat model of asthma. The respiratory rate and tidal volume data were obtained from a spontaneously breathing intact rat during immobility using a whole-body plethysmograph...
May 15, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Bo Wang, Wenyang Li, Hongyu Jin, Xinshi Nie, Hui Shen, Erran Li, Wei Wang
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is one of the main features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is also commonly associated with neurocognitive impairments. The present study aimed to elucidate the beneficial effect of curcumin on CIH-induced brain injuries. Male balb/c mice (6 ∼ 8 weeks) were exposed to normoxia or a pattern of CIH (8 h/day, cycles of 180 sec each, hypoxia: 5% O2 for 50 sec, reoxygenation: 21% O2 for 50 sec) for 10 weeks, along with daily curcumin treatment (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, intragastrically) or its vehicle...
May 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Mieczyslaw Pokorski, Malgorzata Poździk, Andrea Mazzatenta
Inflammation, tissue hypoxia, and impaired hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) are the intricately entwined features of diabetes which perpetuate the disease and its sequelae. Hyperglycemia, notably, is an oxygen consuming process due to enhanced cellular metabolism. Oxidative stress underlies diabetic pathogenesis and also is a crucial modulator of the hypoxic chemoreflex. The present study seeks to determine if suppressed ventilation in diabetes could be improved by antioxidant treatment. The study was performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in awake rats...
May 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Katharine L Hamlington, Bradford J Smith, Celia M Dunn, Chantel M Charlebois, Gregory S Roy, Jason H T Bates
Understanding how the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), namely atelectrauma and volutrauma, contribute to the failure of the blood-gas barrier and subsequent intrusion of edematous fluid into the airspace is essential for the design of mechanical ventilation strategies that minimize VILI. We ventilated mice with different combinations of tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and linked degradation in lung function measurements to injury of the alveolar epithelium observed via scanning electron microscopy...
May 6, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Anna Taboni, Giovanni Vinetti, Paolo Bruseghini, Stefano Camelio, Matteo D'Elia, Christian Moia, Guido Ferretti, Nazzareno Fagoni
If, as postulated, the end of the steady state phase (φ2) of cardiovascular responses to apnoea corresponds to the physiological breaking point, then we may hypothesize that φ2 should become visible if exercise apnoeas are performed in pure oxygen. We tested this hypothesis on 9 professional divers by means of continuous recording of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (fH ), stroke volume (QS ), and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during dry maximal exercising apnoeas in ambient air and in oxygen. Apnoeas lasted 45...
May 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Taranpal Bansal, Gulam S Haji, Harry B Rossiter, Mike I Polkey, James H Hull
BACKGROUND: Breathing pattern disorder (BPD) is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea and yet there is currently no reliable objective measure for its diagnosis. We propose that statistical analysis of ventilatory irregularity, quantified by approximate entropy (ApEn), could be used to detect BPD when applied to cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) data. We hypothesized that ApEn of ventilatory variables (tidal volume (VT ), breathing frequency (Bf ), minute ventilation (VE )) would be greater, i...
May 3, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Vasileios Andrianopoulos, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Rainer Gloeckl, Robert Bals, Rembert A Koczulla, Klaus Kenn
Insufficient cerebral blood flow regulation to meet increasing metabolic demand during physical exertion could be associated with cognitive impairment. We compared cerebral oxygen availability during exercise in cognitively impaired (CI) to cognitively normal (CN) COPD patients. Fifty-two patients (FEV1 : 51 ± 16%) were classified as CN or CI according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Patients performed cycle-ergometry at 75% peak capacity with continuous measurement of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy frontal-cortex Tissue oxygen Saturation Index (TSI), cerebral haemoglobin indices (oxy/deoxy/total- Hb), transcutaneous carbon-dioxide partial pressure (TcPCO2 ), and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 )...
May 2, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Rhayssa Ribeiro, Daniella Brandão, Jéssica Noronha, Cibelle Lima, Guilherme Fregonezi, Vanessa Resqueti, Arméle Dornelas de Andrade
Patients with Parkinson's disease often exhibit respiratory disorders and there are no Respiratory Therapy protocols which are suggested as interventions in Parkinson's patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Breathing-Stacking (BS) and incentive spirometer (IS) techniques in volume variations of the chest wall in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). 14 patients with mild-moderate PD were included in this randomized cross-over study. Volume variations of the chest wall were assessed before, immediately after, then 15 and 30 minutes after BS and IS performance by optoelectronic plethysmography...
May 1, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Theodore Dassios, Konstantinos G Dassios, George Dassios
Conventionally, the alveolar surface area (SA ) has been measured by using post-mortem morphometry. Such studies have highlighted that SA in prematurely-born infants is markedly smaller when compared to term-born infants as a result of postnatal impairment or arrest of alveolar development. We herein explore how, non-invasive measurements of the ventilation/perfusion ratio (VA /Q) can be used to estimate SA in prematurely-born surviving, convalescent infants. We also compare SA in prematurely-born infants measured at term-corrected age, to term-born infants using previously published datasets of VA /Q...
April 29, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Yating Huo, Jiawen Xu, Lili Guan, Weiliang Wu, Bingpeng Guo, Yuqiong Yang, Lin Lin, Yonger Ou, Fangfang Jiang, Luqian Zhou, Rongchang Chen
Altered extracellular matrix (ECM) production by airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is an important feature of airway remodeling. Muscarinic receptor agonists contribute to ECM production in vivo, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. This study attempted to investigate the role of methacholine in promoting ECM production by human ASMCs (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. We found that methacholine induced the expression of collagen I protein and multiple ECM genes. β-catenin signaling was activated in this process upon GSK3β phosphorylation, leading to upregulation of total and active β-catenin...
April 28, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Antonio Pagano, Fabio G Numis, Valerio Rosato, Teresa Russo, Giovanni Porta, Giorgio Bosso, Claudia Serra, Mario Masarone, Giuseppe Visone, Fiorella Paladino
Non-invasive ventilation is usually adopted as a support to medical therapy in patients with acute pulmonary edema, but which modality between Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) has better favourable effects is not been yet well known. Aim of this observational study was to provide data on these different non-invasive ventilation modalities in the management of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. One-hundred-fifty-three patients consecutively admitted to the Emergency Room of two different Center were enrolled and randomly assigned to CPAP or PSV...
April 24, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
J Sojak, P Durdik, T Zatko, E O Mohamedova, M Grendar, P Ferenc, D Kantarova, R Pecova
The aim of this study was to determine whether cough sensitivity is changed after adenoidectomy in atopic children with chronic cough.
April 23, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Thomas Radtke, Lukas Böni, Peter Bohnacker, Peter Fischer, Christian Benden, Holger Dressel
We evaluated test-retest reliability of sputum viscoelastic properties in clinically stable patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Data from a prospective, randomized crossover study was used to determine within-subject variability of sputum viscoelasticity (G', storage modulus and G", loss modulus at 1 and 10 rad s-1 ) and solids content over three consecutive visits. Precision of sputum properties was quantified by within-subject standard deviation (SDws ), coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)...
April 21, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Franciele Plachi, Fernanda Machado Balzan, Ricardo Gass, Rui Gustavo Dorneles, Reisi Zambiazi, Danton Pereira da Silva, Paulo R Sanches, Nadine Oliveira Clausell, Danilo C Berton
Reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC) during exercise has been reported in chronic heart failure (CHF). Since inspiratory muscle dysfunction may be present to a variable degree, the assumption that IC reduction during exercise represents an increase in end-expiratory lung volume must be made with caution. This interpretation is flawed if patients develop dynamic inspiratory muscle strength reduction, i.e., progressively lower esophageal (Pes) pressures as the IC maneuvers are repeated. Sixteen CHF patients and 9 age-matched controls performed an incremental exercise test with serial IC and respiratory pressure measurements...
April 16, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
V Stavrou, G Vavougios, E Karetsi, G Adam, Z Daniil, K I Gourgoulianis
AIM: The purpose of our study was to investigate the differences in the finswimmers' physiological characteristics, as far as gender, the swimming style and the different swimming distance are concerned. METHODS: 52 finswimmers participated in our study (Age: 17.4 ± 2.1yrs, BMI: 21.8 ± 2.3, body fat: 12.2 ± 4.7%) and were allocated into groups [Gender: Female vs. Male, swimming style: Bifin vs. Surface, and swimming distance: <200 m vs. ≥200 m]...
April 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Jana Plevkova, Jan Hanacek, Milos Tatar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Priyanka Dhar, Vijay K Sharma, Saroj K Das, Kalpana Barhwal, Sunil K Hota, Shashi B Singh
We studied the differential responses of autonomic function in sea level residents (SLR), acclimatized lowlanders (ALH) in high altitude (HA) and HA natives (HAN) at >3500 m. Out of 771 male volunteers included in this cross-sectional study, SLR, ALH and HAN groups were comprised of 351, 307 and 113 volunteers, respectively. Our results showed persistent sympathetic dominance with significantly reduced (p < 0.05) parasympathetic response in ALH as compared to SLR and HAN populations. This may be attributed to significantly increased (p < 0...
April 9, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Cletus F Adams, Patrick H Geoghegan, Callum J Spence, Mark C Jermy
AIM: The goal of this paper is to quantify upper airway resistance with and without nasal high flow (NHF) therapy. For adults, NHF therapy feeds 30 to 60 L/min of warm humidified air into the nose through short cannulas which do not seal the nostril. NHF therapy has been reported to increase airway pressure, increase tidal volume (Vt ) and decrease respiratory rate (RR), but it is unclear how these findings affect the work done to overcome airway resistance to air flow during expiration...
April 7, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Przemysław Jaźwiec, Paweł Gać, Monika Chaszczewska-Markowska, Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik, Grzegorz Mazur, Rafał Poręba
It has recently been established that carotid bodies play a significant role in the regulation of activities of the cardiovascular system as well as in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension, heart failure and diabetes. Aim of study was to determinate the influence of polymorphisms within genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the volume of the carotid bodies (CB) in patients with hypertension (HTA). The study group consisted of 77 patients with HTA. All patients were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms of genes coding for: angiotensinogen: rs4762, rs5049, rs5051 and rs699; angiotensin-converting enzyme: rs4343; angiotensin receptor type 1 gene (AGTR1): rs5182 and rs5186; and the aldosterone synthase: rs1799998...
April 5, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Susana Aguiar Santos, Michael Czaplik, Jakob Orschulik, Nadine Hochhausen, Steffen Leonhardt
In critically ill patients, correct diagnosis of lung disease is essential for successful therapy. Therefore, this study investigated whether new multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) can detect, monitor and differentiate between pathologies associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For this pilot study, 12 pigs were randomized into an ARDS (bronchoalveolar lavage) group (n=7) and a healthy control group (n=5). Animals were monitored by means of mfEIT. In addition to functional images, a new impaired-ventilation (rImpVent) index was developed and frequency-difference images were computed and analyzed...
March 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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