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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

Nozomu H Nakamura, Masaki Fukunaga, Yoshitaka Oku
Pupil diameter fluctuation throughout the respiratory cycle is autonomically controlled in the resting state, as pupils dilate during inspiration and constrict during expiration. Furthermore, pupil size is differentially modulated by cognitive states between task engagement and disengagement. To determine whether respiratory-dependent fluctuations in pupil size are maintained during a cognitive task, we employed healthy human subjects performing a delayed matching-to-sample task with a short delay and measured their pupil sizes and R wave-to-R wave intervals (RRIs)...
July 15, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Isato Fukushi, Shigefumi Yokota, Yasumasa Okada
The hypothalamus is a higher center of the autonomic nervous system and maintains essential body homeostasis including respiration. The paraventricular nucleus, perifornical area, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and lateral and posterior hypothalamus are the primary nuclei of the hypothalamus critically involved in respiratory control. These hypothalamic nuclei are interconnected with respiratory nuclei located in the midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord. We provide an extensive review of the role of the above hypothalamic nuclei in the maintenance of basal ventilation, and modulation of respiration in hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions, during dynamic exercise, in awake and sleep states, and under stress...
July 12, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Sara Invitto, Antonio Calcagnì, Giulia Piraino, Vincenzo Ciccarese, Michela Balconi, Marina De Tommaso, Domenico Maurizio Toraldo
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is characterized by snoring associated with repeated apnea and/or obstructive hypopnea. The nasal airways of OSA patients, measured via acoustic rhinometry, could be significantly narrower than healthy subjects and this reduced nasal structure can impair olfactory function. The relationship between nasal structure and olfactory function, assessed via behavioral test results, indicates that there is a high prevalence of nasal airflow problems. Based on these assumptions, the purpose of this study was to carry out an assessment of olfactory perception in OSA patients through the Chemosensory Event-Related Potentials (CSERP), investigating the N1 component and the Late Positive Component (LPC)...
July 10, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Clarissa B Magalhães, Nathalia V Casquilho, Mariana N Machado, Douglas R Riva, Leonardo H Travassos, José Henrique Leal-Cardoso, Rodrigo S Fortunato, Débora S Faffe, Walter A Zin
Acute lung injury (ALI) remains a major cause of mortality. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, eugenol reduces cyclooxygenase-2 expression, NF-κB activation, and inflammatory mediators. We examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action of eugenol in an in vivo model of LPS-induced lung injury. Lung mechanics and histology were analyzed in mice 24 h after LPS exposure, with and without eugenol treatment at different doses. Additional animals, submited to the same protocol, were treated with eugenol at 150 mg/kg to determine its effect on inflammatory cytokines (ELISA) and oxidative markers...
July 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Antonio Sarmento, Guilherme Fregonezi, Mario Emílio Teixeira Dourado-Junior, Andrea Aliverti, Armele Dornelas de Andrade, Verônica Franco Parreira, Vanessa Resqueti
AIM: To assess thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) and the presence of paradoxical motion in middle stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationships with chest wall tidal volume (VT,CW ), breathing pattern and cough peak flow (CPF). METHODS: Phase angle (θ) between upper (RCp) and lower ribcage (RCa) and abdomen (AB), as well as percentage of inspiratory time for the lower ribcage (IPRCa ) and abdomen (IPAB ) moving in opposite directions were quantified using optoelectronic plethysmography in 12 ALS patients during quiet breathing and coughing...
June 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
David Forsberg, Eric Herlenius
The role of astrocytes in the modulation of breathing has emerged. Within the two major respiratory control centers, the inspiration generating preBötzinger Complex and the chemosensitive parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus, rhythmically active astrocytes have been discovered. These are connected in glial subnetworks that intermingle with the neuronal network. Furthermore, astrocytes modify overall respiratory network behavior through gliotransmitter release, especially during hypoxic and hypercapnic stress...
June 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Eric F Lucking, Kevin H Murphy, David P Burns, Anirudh V Jaisimha, Kevin J Barry-Murphy, Pardeep Dhaliwal, Barry Boland, Mark G Rae, Ken D O'Halloran
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition disturbing major brain networks, including those pivotal to the motor control of breathing. The aim of this study was to examine respiratory control in the TgF344-AD transgenic rat model of AD. At 8-11 months of age, basal minute ventilation and ventilatory responsiveness to chemostimulation were equivalent in conscious wild-type (WT) and TgF344-AD rats. Under urethane anesthesia, basal diaphragm and genioglossus EMG activities were similar in WT and TgF344-AD rats...
June 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ran Arieli, Soliman Khatib, Jacob Vaya
Decompression illness (DCI) is the main risk associated with scuba diving. Some divers ("bubblers") are more sensitive to DCI than others ("non-bubblers"). We found that there are active hydrophobic spots (AHS) on the luminal aspect of ovine blood vessels, which contain the surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). DPPC leaks from the lung into the plasma, settling on the blood vessel to create AHS. These are the main source of gas micronuclei from which bubbles develop after decompression...
June 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Edward J Zuperku, Astrid G Stucke, John G Krolikowski, Jack Tomlinson, Francis A Hopp, Eckehard A Stuth
Neurons in a subregion of the medial parabrachial (PB) complex control expiratory duration (TE) and the inspiratory on-switch. To better understanding the underlying mechanisms, this study aimed to determine the types of medullary neurons in the rhythmogenic preBötzinger/ Bötzinger Complex (preBötC/BötC) and adjacent areas that receive synaptic inputs from the PB subregion and whether these inputs are excitatory or inhibitory in nature. Highly localized electrical stimuli in the PB subregion combined with multi-electrode recordings from respiratory neurons and phrenic nerve activities were used to generate stimulus-to-spike event histograms to detect correlations in decerebrate, vagotomized dogs during isocapnic hyperoxia...
June 28, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Annette Pisanski, Silvia Pagliardini
Breathing at rest is typically characterized by three phases: active inspiration, post-inspiration (or stage 1 expiration), and passive expiration (or stage 2 expiration). Breathing during periods of increased respiratory demand, on the other hand, engages active expiration through recruitment of abdominal muscles in order to increase ventilation. It is currently hypothesized that different phases of the respiratory rhythm are driven by three coupled oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex, driving inspiration, the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), driving active expiration and the post-inspiratory Complex, driving post-inspiration...
June 19, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ken D O'Halloran, David P Burns
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal neuromuscular disease associated with respiratory-related morbidity and mortality. Herein, we review recent work by our group exploring deficits and compensation in the respiratory control network governing respiratory homeostasis in a pre-clinical model of DMD, the mdx mouse. Deficits at multiple sites of the network provide considerable challenges to respiratory control. However, our work has also revealed evidence of compensatory neuroplasticity in the motor drive to breathe enhancing diaphragm muscle activity during increased chemical drive...
June 19, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Tracy L Baker, Stephen M Johnson, Jyoti J Watters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Melania Marques, Pedro R Genta, Ali Azarbarzin, Scott A Sands, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Ludovico Messineo, David P White, Andrew Wellman
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that preferential retropalatal as compared to retroglossal collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnea was due to a narrower retropalatal area and a higher retropalatal compliance. Patients with a greater retropalatal compliance would exhibit a recognizable increase in negative effort dependence (NED). METHODS: Fourteen patients underwent upper airway endoscopy with simultaneous recordings of airflow and pharyngeal pressure during natural sleep...
June 18, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Alyssa Huff, Trevor A Day, Mason English, Mitchell D Reed, Shaelynn Zouboules, Gurkarn Saran, Jack K Leacy, Carli Mann, Joel D B Peltonen, Ken D O'Halloran, Mingma T Sherpa, Teresa Pitts
Swallow and breathing are highly coordinated behaviors reliant on shared anatomical space and neural pathways. Incremental ascent to high altitudes results in hypoxia/hypocapnic conditions altering respiratory drive, however it is not known whether these changes also alter swallow. We examined the effect of incremental ascent (1,045 m, 3,440 m and 4,371 m) on swallow motor pattern and swallow-breathing coordination in seven healthy adults. Submental surface electromyograms (sEMG) and spirometry were used to evaluate swallow triggered by saliva and water infusion...
June 16, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Shaoxiong Huang, Tingting Wang, Xiangmin Zhang, Chen-Wen Yen, Jiuxing Liang, Lingzi Zeng, Yuxi Luo
The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which the Electroencephalogram (EEG) and oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) are involved in the progressive respiratory restoration process in patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Twenty-five SAHS patients were enrolled in the analysis. The respiratory events scored from polysomnography (PSG) recordings were divided into two groups as follows: the events followed by secondary events (SREs), which failed to recover stable breathing and those that spontaneously restored stable ventilation (N-SREs)...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Jing Ren, Yong Sun, Gang Li, Xiao-Jue Zhu, Jin-Guo Cui
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a common chronic respiratory disease that has exhibited a rising global incidence in recent years. Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of BA. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in BA. The present study investigated whether TNF-α, IL-8 and ECP were associated with the clinical stages and severity of BA and the efficacy of glucocorticoids in the treatment of BA...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Isabel Cristina Muñoz, Alher Mauricio Hernández, Yessika María Ortega, Miguel Ángel Mañanas
The hypothesis of this study is that muscular activity measured through surface electromyography (sEMG) is useful to estimate the work of breathing (WOB) and respiratory mechanics. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were non-invasively ventilated, and an airflow resistor was attached to the airway circuit. sEMG signals from diaphragm, intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed and compared with WOB changes. The airway resistance was increased from a median of 9.58 to 22.51 cmH2 O/L/s adding a resistance of 20 cmH2 O/L/s, achieving the lower compliance too...
June 7, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Candace N Receno, Katelynn E Roffo, Marisa C Mickey, Keith C DeRuisseau, Lara R DeRuisseau
The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters were obtained utilizing unrestrained barometric plethysmography (UBP). Breathing traces were analyzed with Ponemah software for breathing frequency, tidal volume (TV), and minute ventilation (MV)...
June 7, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Caitlin C Jorgenson, Kirsten E Coffman, Bruce D Johnson
The single breath hold maneuver for measuring lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) incorporates multiple sources of variability. This study examined how changes in intrathoracic pressure, inhalation time, and breath hold time affect DLCO, DLNO, alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) at rest and during submaximal exercise. Thirteen healthy subjects (mean ± SD; age = 26 ± 3y) performed duplicate tests at rest and during submaximal exercise...
June 6, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Marcelo A Holanda, Mirizana Alves-de-Almeida, José W O Lima, Tauily C D Taunay, Francisco A A Gondim, Renesa P R Cavalcanti, Francisco J A Mont'Alverne, Nancy Delma S V C Sousa, Mayron F Oliveira, Eanes D B Pereira
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the acute effects of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and on cognitive functions in COPD. METHODS: Nine non-hypercapnic stable COPD and twelve healthy controls were enrolled. CBF (transcranial Doppler), cognitive tests and cardiorespiratory response were performed at baseline, during one hour of NIV and after 30 min. RESULTS: Both groups had an increase in tidal volume and reduction in respiratory rate during NIV, but only controls showed PaCO2 reductions (41...
May 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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