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Microbial Cell Factories

Martin Holm Rau, Patricia Calero, Rebecca M Lennen, Katherine S Long, Alex T Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Economically viable biobased production of bulk chemicals and biofuels typically requires high product titers. During microbial bioconversion this often leads to product toxicity, and tolerance is therefore a critical element in the engineering of production strains. RESULTS: Here, a systems biology approach was employed to understand the chemical stress response of Escherichia coli, including a genome-wide screen for mutants with increased fitness during chemical stress...
October 13, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Marion Rauter, Jakub Kasprzak, Karin Becker, Jan Riechen, Sebastian Worch, Anja Hartmann, Martin Mascher, Uwe Scholz, Kim Baronian, Rüdiger Bode, Frieder Schauer, H Matthias Vorbrodt, Gotthard Kunze
BACKGROUND: The non-conventional yeast Arxula adeninivorans uses 1-butanol as a carbon source and has recently attracted attention as a promising organism for 1-butanol production. Alcohol dehydrogenases (adhp) are important catalysts in 1-butanol metabolism, but only Aadh1p from Arxula has been characterized. This enzyme is involved in ethanol synthesis but has a low impact on 1-butanol degradation. RESULTS: In this study, we identified and characterized a second adhp from A...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Jae Ho Shin, Seok Hyun Park, Young Hoon Oh, Jae Woong Choi, Moon Hee Lee, Jae Sung Cho, Ki Jun Jeong, Jeong Chan Joo, James Yu, Si Jae Park, Sang Yup Lee
BACKGROUND: 5-Aminovaleric acid (5AVA) is an important five-carbon platform chemical that can be used for the synthesis of polymers and other chemicals of industrial interest. Enzymatic conversion of L-lysine to 5AVA has been achieved by employing lysine 2-monooxygenase encoded by the davB gene and 5-aminovaleramidase encoded by the davA gene. Additionally, a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing the davB and davA genes has been developed for bioconversion of L-lysine to 5AVA...
October 7, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Ulises Carrasco-Navarro, Rosario Vera-Estrella, Bronwyn J Barkla, Eduardo Zúñiga-León, Horacio Reyes-Vivas, Francisco J Fernández, Francisco Fierro
BACKGROUND: The heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1-mediated signaling pathway regulates the entire developmental program in Penicillium chrysogenum, from spore germination to the formation of conidia. In addition it participates in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis. We aimed to advance the understanding of this key signaling pathway using a proteomics approach, a powerful tool to identify effectors participating in signal transduction pathways. RESULTS: Penicillium chrysogenum mutants with different levels of activity of the Pga1-mediated signaling pathway were used to perform comparative proteomic analyses by 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS...
October 6, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Mario Juhas, James W Ajioka
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli K-12 is a frequently used host for a number of synthetic biology and biotechnology applications and chassis for the development of the minimal cell factories. Novel approaches for integrating high molecular weight DNA into the E. coli chromosome would therefore greatly facilitate engineering efforts in this bacterium. RESULTS: We developed a reliable and flexible lambda Red recombinase-based system, which utilizes overlapping DNA fragments for integration of the high molecular weight DNA into the E...
October 5, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Julia U Brandt, Frank Jakob, Jürgen Behr, Andreas J Geissler, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are well known producers of commercially used exopolysaccharides, such as cellulose and levan. Kozakia (K.) baliensis is a relatively new member of AAB, which produces ultra-high molecular weight levan from sucrose. Throughout cultivation of two K. baliensis strains (DSM 14400, NBRC 16680) on sucrose-deficient media, we found that both strains still produce high amounts of mucous, water-soluble substances from mannitol and glycerol as (main) carbon sources...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Manuel Nieto-Domínguez, Alicia Prieto, Beatriz Fernández de Toro, Francisco Javier Cañada, Jorge Barriuso, Zach Armstrong, Stephen G Withers, Laura I de Eugenio, María Jesús Martínez
BACKGROUND: Glycosides are compounds displaying crucial biological roles and plenty of applications. Traditionally, these molecules have been chemically obtained, but its efficient production is limited by the lack of regio- and stereo-selectivity of the chemical synthesis. As an interesting alternative, glycosidases are able to catalyze the formation of glycosides in a process considered green and highly selective. In this study, we report the expression and characterization of a fungal β-xylosidase in Pichia pastoris...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Hoang-Minh Nguyen, Geir Mathiesen, Elena Maria Stelzer, Mai Lan Pham, Katarzyna Kuczkowska, Alasdair Mackenzie, Jane W Agger, Vincent G H Eijsink, Montarop Yamabhai, Clemens K Peterbauer, Dietmar Haltrich, Thu-Ha Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a potential cell factory because of its GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status and long history of use in food applications. Its possible applications include in situ delivery of proteins to a host, based on its ability to persist at mucosal surfaces of the human intestine, and the production of food-related enzymes. By displaying different enzymes on the surface of L. plantarum cells these could be used as whole-cell biocatalysts for the production of oligosaccharides...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Junhui Zhang, Quanhong Xue, Hui Gao, Hangxian Lai, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Lipopeptides are known as promising microbial surfactants and have been successfully used in enhancing oil recovery in extreme environmental conditions. A biosurfactant-producing strain, Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a, was recently isolated from an oil-contaminated soil in the Ansai oilfield, Northwest China. In this study, we evaluated the crude oil removal efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a and their feasibility for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery...
October 3, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Harvey Milquez-Sanabria, Luis Blanco-Cocom, Liliana Alzate-Gaviria
BACKGROUND: Agro-industrial wastes are an energy source for different industries. However, its application has not reached small industries. Previous and current research activities performed on the acidogenic phase of two-phase anaerobic digestion processes deal particularly with process optimization of the acid-phase reactors operating with a wide variety of substrates, both soluble and complex in nature. Mathematical models for anaerobic digestion have been developed to understand and improve the efficient operation of the process...
October 3, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Mercedes Berlanga, Ricardo Guerrero
In nature, bacteria alternate between two modes of growth: a unicellular life phase, in which the cells are free-swimming (planktonic), and a multicellular life phase, in which the cells are sessile and live in a biofilm, that can be defined as surface-associated microbial heterogeneous structures comprising different populations of microorganisms surrounded by a self-produced matrix that allows their attachment to inert or organic surfaces. While a unicellular life phase allows for bacterial dispersion and the colonization of new environments, biofilms allow sessile cells to live in a coordinated, more permanent manner that favors their proliferation...
October 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Fabián Rueda, Brigitte Gasser, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Mònica Roldán, Sandra Villegas, Verena Puxbaum, Neus Ferrer-Miralles, Ugutz Unzueta, Esther Vázquez, Elena Garcia-Fruitós, Diethard Mattanovich, Antonio Villaverde
BACKGROUND: Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic protein aggregates commonly produced in recombinant bacteria. They are formed by a mixture of highly stable amyloid-like fibrils and releasable protein species with a significant extent of secondary structure, and are often functional. As nano structured materials, they are gaining biomedical interest because of the combination of submicron size, mechanical stability and biological activity, together with their ability to interact with mammalian cell membranes for subsequent cell penetration in absence of toxicity...
October 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Elena Antonov, Steffen Wirth, Tim Gerlach, Ivan Schlembach, Miriam A Rosenbaum, Lars Regestein, Jochen Büchs
BACKGROUND: Pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is considered as a suitable feedstock for the sustainable production of chemicals. However, the recalcitrant nature of cellulose often results in very cost-intensive overall production processes. A promising concept to reduce the costs is consolidated bioprocessing, which integrates in a single step cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion of produced sugars into a valuable product. This approach, however, requires assessing the digestibility of the applied celluloses and, thus, the released sugar amount during the fermentation...
September 29, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
José M Camacho-Zaragoza, Georgina Hernández-Chávez, Fabian Moreno-Avitia, René Ramírez-Iñiguez, Alfredo Martínez, Francisco Bolívar, Guillermo Gosset
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a plant natural product with many health-protecting effects which makes it an attractive chemical both for academic studies and industrial purposes. However, the low quantities naturally produced by plants as well as the unsustainable procedures of extraction, purification and concentration have prompted many biotechnological approaches to produce this chemical in large quantities from renewable sources. None of these approaches have considered a microbial coculture strategy to produce this compound...
September 29, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Alejandra Mejía-Caballero, Ramón de Anda, Georgina Hernández-Chávez, Simone Rogg, Alfredo Martinez, Francisco Bolívar, Victor M Castaño, Guillermo Gosset
BACKGROUND: Melanins comprise a chemically-diverse group of polymeric pigments whose function is related to protection against physical and chemical stress factors. These polymers have current and potential applications in the chemical, medical, electronics and materials industries. The biotechnological production of melanins offers the possibility of obtaining these pigments in pure form and relatively low cost. In this study, Escherichia coli strains were engineered to evaluate the production of melanin from supplemented catechol or from glycerol-derived catechol produced by an Escherichia coli strain generated by metabolic engineering...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Ya-Ping Xue, Hao Zeng, Xiao-Lu Jin, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Yu-Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Enantiopure 2-hydroxy acids are key intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. We present an enantioselective cascade biocatalysis using recombinant microbial cells for deracemization of racemic 2-hydroxy acids that allows for efficient production of enantiopure 2-hydroxy acids. RESULTS: The method was realized by a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain coexpressing three enzymes: (S)-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase, (R)-2-keto acid reductase and glucose dehydrogenase...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Houyuan Zhao, Liang Wang, Dan Wan, Jianzhao Qi, Rong Gong, Zixin Deng, Wenqing Chen
BACKGROUND: Aurantimycin (ATM), produced by Streptomyces aurantiacus JA 4570, is a potent antimicrobial and antitumor antibiotic. Although the chemical structure of ATM is highly distinctive and features a cyclohexadepsipeptide scaffold attached with a C14 acyl side chain, little is known about its biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism. RESULTS: In this work, we report the identification and characterization of the ATM biosynthetic gene cluster from S. aurantiacus JA 4570...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Hosni Sassi, Frank Delvigne, Tambi Kar, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq, Sebastien Steels, Patrick Fickers
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the non-conventional model yeast species Yarrowia lipolytica has received much attention because it is a useful cell factory for producing recombinant proteins. In this species, expression vectors involving LIP2 and POX2 promoters have been developed and used successfully for protein production at yields similar to or even higher than those of other cell factories, such as Pichia pastoris. However, production processes involving these promoters can be difficult to manage, especially if carried out at large scales in fed-batch bioreactors, because they require hydrophobic inducers, such as oleic acid or methyl oleate...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Kelly Cristina Leite Mulder, Nadiele Tamires Moreira Melo, Lucas Silva Carvalho, Gisele Soares Menino, Eduardo Mulinari, Virgilio H de Castro, Thaila F Dos Reis, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Beatriz Simas Magalhães, Nádia Skorupa Parachin
BACKGROUND: Crude glycerol is the main byproduct of the biodiesel industry. Although it can have different applications, its purification is costly. Therefore, in this study a biotechnological route has been proposed for further utilization of crude glycerol in the fermentative production of lactic acid. This acid is largely utilized in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and chemical industries, making it the hydroxycarboxylic acid with the highest market potential worldwide. Currently, industrial production of lactic acid is done mainly using sugar as the substrate...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Yuanqing Tan, Rong Yao, Rui Wang, Dan Wang, Gejiao Wang, Shixue Zheng
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in living systems. Microorganisms play a pivotal role in the selenium cycle both in life and in environment. Different bacterial strains are able to reduce Se(IV) (selenite) and (or) Se(VI) (selenate) to less toxic Se(0) with the formation of Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). The biogenic SeNPs have exhibited promising application prospects in medicine, biosensors and environmental remediation. These microorganisms might be explored as potential biofactories for synthesis of metal(loid) nanoparticles...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
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