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DNA Repair

Hui-Ju Hsieh, Guang Peng
DNA replication is essential for cell proliferation. Any obstacles during replication cause replication stress, which may lead to genomic instability and cancer formation. In this review, we summarize the physiological DNA replication process and the normal cellular response to replication stress. We also outline specialized therapies in clinical trials based on current knowledge and future perspectives in the field.
November 22, 2016: DNA Repair
Vikash Jha, Hong Ling
Human Y-family DNA polymerase kappa (polκ) is specialized to bypass bulky lesions in DNA in an error-free way, thus protecting cells from carcinogenic bulky DNA adducts. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is one of the most ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and an environmental carcinogen. BP covalently modifies DNA and generates mutagenic, bulky adducts. The major BP adduct formed in cells is 10S (+)-trans-anti-BP-N(2)-dG adduct (BP-dG), which is associated with cancer. The molecular mechanism of how polκ replicates BP-dG accurately is not clear...
November 19, 2016: DNA Repair
Bárbara Alcaraz Silva, Trevor J Jones, John P Murnane
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that are required to protect chromosome ends. Dysfunctional telomeres are recognized as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and elicit the activation of a DNA damage response (DDR). We have previously reported that DSBs near telomeres are poorly repaired, resulting in a high frequency of large deletions and gross chromosome rearrangements (GCRs). Our previous genetic studies have demonstrated that this sensitivity of telomeric regions to DSBs is a result of excessive processing...
November 5, 2016: DNA Repair
Agnes Toth, Lili Hegedus, Szilvia Juhasz, Lajos Haracska, Peter Burkovics
Inappropriate repair of UV-induced DNA damage results in human diseases such as Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which is associated with an extremely high risk of skin cancer. A variant form of XP is caused by the absence of Polη, which is normally able to bypass UV-induced DNA lesions in an error-free manner. However, Polη is highly error prone when replicating undamaged DNA and, thus, the regulation of the proper targeting of Polη is crucial for the prevention of mutagenesis and UV-induced cancer formation...
October 29, 2016: DNA Repair
Zhiger Akishev, Sabira Taipakova, Botagoz Joldybayeva, Caroline Zutterling, Izat Smekenov, Alexander A Ishchenko, Dmitry O Zharkov, Amangeldy K Bissenbaev, Murat Saparbaev
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases are important DNA repair enzymes involved in two overlapping pathways: DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision (BER) and AP endonuclease-initiated nucleotide incision repair (NIR). In the BER pathway, AP endonucleases cleave DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases, whereas in NIR, the same AP endonucleases incise DNA 5' to a wide variety of oxidized bases. The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains three genes encoding homologues of major human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1): Arp, Ape1L and Ape2...
October 29, 2016: DNA Repair
Marie-Chantal Grégoire, Julien Massonneau, Frédéric Leduc, Mélina Arguin, Marc-André Brazeau, Guylain Boissonneault
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent a major threat to the genetic integrity of the cell. Knowing both their genome-wide distribution and number is important for a better assessment of genotoxicity at a molecular level. Available methods may have underestimated the extent of DSBs as they are based on markers specific to those undergoing active repair or may not be adapted for the large diversity of naturally occurring DNA ends. We have established conditions for an efficient first step of DNA nick and gap repair (NGR) allowing specific determination of DSBs by end labeling with terminal transferase...
October 29, 2016: DNA Repair
Marcus J Calkins, Vladimir Vartanian, Nichole Owen, Guldal Kirkali, Pawel Jaruga, Miral Dizdaroglu, Amanda K McCullough, R Stephen Lloyd
Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA base damage are thought to be central mediators of UV-induced carcinogenesis and skin aging. However, increased steady-state levels of ROS-induced DNA base damage have not been reported after chronic UV exposure. Accumulation of ROS-induced DNA base damage is governed by rates of lesion formation and repair. Repair is generally performed by Base Excision Repair (BER), which is initiated by DNA glycosylases, such as 8-oxoguanine glycosylase and Nei-Endonuclease VIII-Like 1 (NEIL1)...
October 28, 2016: DNA Repair
Jill M Beaver, Yanhao Lai, Shantell J Rolle, Yuan Liu
DNA base lesions and base excision repair (BER) within trinucleotide repeat (TNR) tracts modulate repeat instability through the coordination among the key BER enzymes DNA polymerase β, flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and DNA ligase I (LIG I). However, it remains unknown whether BER cofactors can also alter TNR stability. In this study, we discovered that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cofactor of BER, promoted CAG repeat deletion and removal of a CAG repeat hairpin during BER in a duplex CAG repeat tract and CAG hairpin loop, respectively...
October 22, 2016: DNA Repair
Layal Ishak, Amandine Moretton, Isabelle Garreau-Balandier, Mathilde Lefebvre, Serge Alziari, Philippe Lachaume, Frédéric Morel, Géraldine Farge, Patrick Vernet, Pascal Dubessay
BACKGROUND: Poly-ADP ribosylation (PARylation) is a post translational modification, catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) family. In Drosophila, PARP-I (human PARP-1 ortholog) is considered to be the only enzymatically active isoform. PARylation is involved in various cellular processes such as DNA repair in case of base excision and strand-breaks. OBSERVATIONS: Strand-breaks (SSB and DSB) are detrimental to cell viability and, in Drosophila, that has a unique PARP family organization, little is known on PARP involvement in the control of strand-breaks repair process...
October 21, 2016: DNA Repair
Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Fernando Cardozo-Pelaez
Somatic instability of CAG repeats has been associated with the clinical progression of CAG repeat diseases. Aging and DNA repair processes influence the somatic stability of CAG repeat in disease and in mouse models. However, most of the studies have focused on genetically engineered transgenic repeats and little is known about the stability of naturally polymorphic CAG repeats. To study whether age and/or DNA repair activity have an effect on the somatic stability of CAG repeats, we analyzed variations of the length of naturally polymorphic CAG repeats in the striatum of young and aged WT and ogg1 KO mice...
October 15, 2016: DNA Repair
Rosa M Pascale, Christy Joseph, Gavinella Latte, Matthias Evert, Francesco Feo, Diego F Calvisi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent and deadly disease worldwide. The absence of effective therapies when the tumor is surgically unresectable leads to an extremely poor outcome of HCC patients. Thus, it is mandatory to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of HCC in order to develop novel therapeutic strategies against this pernicious tumor. Mounting evidence indicates that suppression of the DNA damage response machinery might be deleterious for the survival and growth of the tumor cells. In particular, DNA dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a major player in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair process, seems to represent a valuable target for innovative anti-neoplastic therapies in cancer...
October 15, 2016: DNA Repair
Jospeh Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: DNA Repair
Michael Tsabar, Wade M Hicks, Olga Tsaponina, James E Haber
Homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway in eukaryotes that repairs a double-strand break (DSB) by copying homologous sequences from a sister chromatid, a homologous chromosome or an ectopic location. Recombination is challenged by the packaging of DNA into nucleosomes, which may impair the process at many steps, from resection of the DSB ends to the re-establishement of nucleosomes after repair. However, nucleosome dynamics during DSB repair have not been well described, primarily because of a lack of well-ordered nucleosomes around a DSB...
September 28, 2016: DNA Repair
Amrita Singh, Navneet Singh, Digambar Behera, Siddharth Sharma
XRCC1 is a scaffold protein that provides for interaction of DNA polymerase, DNA ligase and damaged DNA. Genotyping was done for the five non-synonymous and synonymous variants of XRCC1 i.e. XRCC1, Arg(194)Trp, Pro(206)Pro, Arg(280)His, Arg(399)Gln, Gln(632)Gln. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association of XRCC1 with lung cancer, followed by data mining analysis which included both Multi-dimensionality reduction (MDR) and Classification and Regression tree (CART) analysis so as to find possible interaction between SNPs on XRCC1 gene...
September 28, 2016: DNA Repair
Maryam Majidinia, Bahman Yousefi
The inability of cancer cells in taking care of DNA damages can lead to cancer development and/or progression. Due to the essential role of DNA repair in maintaining genomic stability, tightly controlled regulatory mechanism are required for these processes. Recent studies have shown a myriad of interactions among DNA damage response (DDR) components and miRNAs. While DDR modulates miRNA expression in transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and affects miRNA degradation, miRNAs in turn, directly modulate the expression of multiple proteins in the DDR pathways, or indirectly fine-tune the expression of such proteins...
September 27, 2016: DNA Repair
Melis Kant, Merve Akış, Mehmet Çalan, Tuğba Arkan, Fırat Bayraktar, Miral Dizdaroglu, Hüray İşlekel
Prediabetes is the preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with intermediate state of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia results in a state of oxidative stress, which may contribute to the production of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and long-term complications of diabetes. Novel approaches are required for prevention and treatment of diabetes. New biomarkers that can be used in risk stratification and therapy control as supplementary to current parameters are needed. These biomarkers may facilitate a more individualized and sufficient treatment of diabetes...
September 26, 2016: DNA Repair
Li Fan, Wei Xiao
PCNA plays critical roles in DNA replication and various DNA repair pathways including DNA damage tolerance (DDT). In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DDT (aka DNA postreplication repair, PRR) is achieved by sequential ubiquitination of PCNA encoded by POL30. Our previous studies revealed that two Arabidopsis PCNA genes were able to complement the essential function of POL30 in budding yeast, but failed to rescue the PRR activity. Here we hypothesize that a certain amino acid variation(s) is responsible for the difference, and identified K196 as a critical residue for the PRR activity...
September 22, 2016: DNA Repair
Daniel B Swartzlander, Annie J McPherson, Harry R Powers, Kristin L Limpose, Emily G Kuiper, Natalya P Degtyareva, Anita H Corbett, Paul W Doetsch
DNA damaging agents are a constant threat to genomes in both the nucleus and the mitochondria. To combat this threat, a suite of DNA repair pathways cooperate to repair numerous types of DNA damage. If left unrepaired, these damages can result in the accumulation of mutations which can lead to deleterious consequences including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The base excision repair (BER) pathway is highly conserved from bacteria to humans and is primarily responsible for the removal and subsequent repair of toxic and mutagenic oxidative DNA lesions...
December 2016: DNA Repair
Chao Wang, John R McPherson, Lian-Hui Zhang, Steve Rozen, Kanaga Sabapathy
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which infects cystic fibrosis and cancer patients with compromised immune systems. LasR is a master regulator which controls the virulence of P. aeruginosa in response to bacterial cell-density and host signals. During infection, lasR is frequently mutated, conferring P. aeruginosa a growth advantage in hosts and enhances resistance to widely used antibiotics. However, the mechanistic basis of lasR mutation is not well understood. We have tested here the hypothesis that transcription strength is a contributory determinant of lasR mutagenesis...
October 2016: DNA Repair
E John Tokarsky, Varun V Gadkari, Walter J Zahurancik, Chanchal K Malik, Ashis K Basu, Zucai Suo
3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a byproduct of diesel exhaust, is highly present in the environment and poses a significant health risk. Exposure to 3-NBA results in formation of N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG(C8-)(N)(-ABA)), a bulky DNA lesion that is of particular importance due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. If not repaired or bypassed during genomic replication, dG(C8-)(N)(-ABA) can stall replication forks, leading to senescence and cell death. Here we used pre-steady-state kinetic methods to determine which of the four human Y-family DNA polymerases (hPolη, hPolκ, hPolι, or hRev1) are able to catalyze translesion synthesis of dG(C8-)(N)(-ABA)in vitro...
October 2016: DNA Repair
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