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DNA Repair

Xiao-Nan Zhao, Karen Usdin
The Fragile X-related disorders (FXDs) are members of a large group of human neurological or neurodevelopmental conditions known as the Repeat Expansion Diseases. The mutation responsible for all of these diseases is an expansion in the size of a disease-specific tandem repeat tract. However, the underlying cause of this unusual mutation is unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vicinity of the FAN1 (MIM* 613534) gene that are associated with variations in the age at onset of a number of Repeat Expansion Diseases...
July 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Nicole L Batenburg, Jian Qin, John R Walker, Xu-Dong Zhu
The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CSB is implicated in a variety of different DNA repair mechanisms, including transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), base excision repair and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. However, how CSB is regulated in these various repair processes is not well understood. Here we report that the first 30 amino acids of CSB along with two phosphorylation events on S10 and S158, previously reported to be required for CSB function in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair, are dispensable for repairing UV-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the regulation of CSB in these two types of repair are carried out by distinct mechanisms...
June 21, 2018: DNA Repair
Arisa Nakazato, Kinumi Kajita, Masato Ooka, Remi Akagawa, Takuya Abe, Shunichi Takeda, Dana Branzei, Kouji Hirota
Prolonged replication arrest on damaged templates is a cause of fork collapse, potentially resulting in genome instability. Arrested replication is rescued by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated template switching. SPARTAN, a ubiquitin-PCNA-interacting regulator, regulates TLS via mechanisms incompletely understood. Here we show that SPARTAN promotes diversification of the chicken DT40 immunoglobulin-variable λ gene by facilitating TLS-mediated hypermutation and template switch-mediated gene-conversion, both induced by replication blocks at abasic sites...
June 18, 2018: DNA Repair
Eric A Josephs, Piotr E Marszalek
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways coordinate the excision and re-synthesis of newly-replicated DNA if a mismatched base-pair has been identified by protein MutS or MutS homologues (MSHs) after replication. DNA excision during MMR is initiated at single-strand breaks (SSBs) in vitro, and several redundant processes have been observed in reconstituted systems which either require a pre-formed SSB in the DNA or require a mismatch-activated nicking endonuclease to introduce a SSB in order to initiate MMR. However, the conditions under which each of these processes may actually occur in living cells have remained obscured by the limitations of current MMR assays...
June 12, 2018: DNA Repair
Youn-Jung Kang, Catherine T Yan
Classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ) is the main pathway for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells. In the absence of c-NHEJ, an alternative end-joining (A-EJ) mechanism resolves DSBs. To date, no A-EJ specific factor has been identified. Instead, this mechanism appears to co-opt proteins involved in more than one DNA repair pathway. These include components of base-excision repair (PARP1/XRCC1/LIG3), interstrand cross-link repair (BRCA1/FANCD2), and DSB response/DNA end-resection (MRE11A/RAD50/RBBP8)...
June 12, 2018: DNA Repair
Sri Lakshmi Chalasani, Ajinkya S Kawale, Konstantin Akopiants, Yaping Yu, Mesfin Fanta, Michael Weinfeld, Lawrence F Povirk
Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) has been implicated in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To assess the consequences of PNKP deficiency for NHEJ of 3'-phosphate-ended DSBs, PNKP-deficient derivatives of HCT116 and of HeLa cells were generated using CRISPR/CAS9. For both cell lines, PNKP deficiency conferred sensitivity to ionizing radiation as well as to neocarzinostatin (NCS), which specifically induces DSBs bearing protruding 3'-phosphate termini. Moreover, NCS-induced DSBs, detected as 53BP1 foci, were more persistent in PNKP -/- HCT116 cells compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts...
May 25, 2018: DNA Repair
Jyotirindra Maity, Biswadip Das, Vilhelm A Bohr, Parimal Karmakar
Impaired autophagy may be associated with normal and pathological aging. Here we explore a link between autophagy and domain function of Werner protein (WRNp). Werner (WRN) mutant cell lines AG11395, AG05229 and normal aged fibroblast AG13129 display a deficient response to tunicamycin mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced autophagy compared to clinically unaffected GM00637 and normal young fibroblast GM03440. Cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated autophagy in WS and normal aged cells is restored after transfection with wild type full length WRN, but deletion of the acidic domain from wild type WRN fails to restore autophagy...
May 18, 2018: DNA Repair
Marcus C Parrish, Isaac A Chaim, Zachary D Nagel, Steven R Tannenbaum, Leona D Samson, Bevin P Engelward
It is well established that inflammation leads to the creation of potent DNA damaging chemicals, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Nitric oxide can react with glutathione to create S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which can in turn lead to S-nitrosated proteins. Of particular interest is the impact of GSNO on the function of DNA repair enzymes. The base excision repair (BER) pathway can be initiated by the alkyl-adenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), a monofunctional glycosylase that removes methylated bases...
May 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Evgeny Kiselev, Thomas S Dexheimer, Christophe Marchand, Shar-Yin Naomi Huang, Yves Pommier
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is an ubiquitous DNA repair enzyme present in yeast, plants and animals. It removes a broad range of blocking lesions at the ends of DNA breaks. The catalytic core of TDP1 consists in a pair of conserved histidine-lysine-asparagine (HKN) motifs. Analysis of the human TDP1 (hTDP1) crystal structure reveals potential involvement of additional residues that shape the substrate binding site. In this biochemical study, we analyzed four such conserved residues, tyrosine 204 (Y204), phenylalanine 259 (F259), serine 400 (S400) and tryptophan 590 (W590)...
June 2018: DNA Repair
Raima Das, Sharbadeb Kundu, Shaheen Laskar, Yashmin Choudhury, Sankar Kumar Ghosh
Head and neck cancer (HNC), the sixth most common cancer globally, stands second in India. In Northeast (NE) India, it is the sixth most common cause of death in males and seventh in females. Prolonged tobacco and alcohol consumption constitute the major etiological factors for HNC development, which induce DNA damage. Therefore, DNA repair pathway is a crucial system in maintaining genomic integrity and preventing carcinogenesis. The present work was aimed to predict the consequence of significant germline variants of the DNA repair genes in disease predisposition...
June 2018: DNA Repair
Nathaniel W Holton, Yuval Ebenstein, Natalie R Gassman
Environmental exposures, reactive by-products of cellular metabolism, and spontaneous deamination events result in a spectrum of DNA adducts that if un-repaired threaten genomic integrity by inducing mutations, increasing instability, and contributing to the initiation and progression of cancer. Assessment of DNA adducts in cells and tissues is critical for genotoxic and carcinogenic evaluation of chemical exposure and may provide insight into the etiology of cancer. Numerous methods to characterize the formation of DNA adducts and their retention for risk assessment have been developed...
June 2018: DNA Repair
Maryam Majidinia, Saber Ghazizadeh Darband, Mojtaba Kaviani, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Bahman Yousefi
Despite their simple structure, the Notch family of receptors regulates a wide-spectrum of key cellular processes including development, tissue patterning, cell-fate determination, proliferation, differentiation and, cell death. On the other hand, accumulating date pinpointed the role of non-coding microRNAs, namely miRNAs in cancer initiation/progression via regulating the expression of multiple oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, as such the Notch signaling. It is now documented that these two partners are in one or in the opposite directions and rule together the cancer fate...
June 2018: DNA Repair
Amar Desai, Yan Yan, Stanton L Gerson
The DNA damage response (DDR) is a series of pathways and processes required to repair lesions to DNA. These pathways range from repairing strand breaks to the double helix, damaged bases formed after oxidation or deamination, inaccurate DNA replication resulting in mispaired base alignment, intrastrand crosslinks that trigger cell death, and a plethora of other genomic insults. The DDR is believed to be a critical component of radio and chemoresistance in many cancers as well, with the tumor's ability to repair therapy induced damage being an important tool used to survive traditional chemotherapeutic agents...
June 2018: DNA Repair
Rosario Prados-Carvajal, Ana López-Saavedra, Cristina Cepeda-García, Sonia Jimeno, Pablo Huertas
The appropriate repair of DNA double strand breaks is critical for genome maintenance. Thus, several cellular pathways collaborate to orchestrate a coordinated response. These include the repair of the breaks, which could be achieved by different mechanisms. A key protein involved in the regulation of the repair of broken chromosomes is CtIP. Here, we have found new partners of CtIP involved in the regulation of DNA break repair through affecting DNA end resection. We focus on the splicing complex SF3B and show that its depletion impairs DNA end resection and hampers homologous recombination...
June 2018: DNA Repair
Shiladitya Sengupta, Chunying Yang, Muralidhar L Hegde, Pavana M Hegde, Joy Mitra, Arvind Pandey, Arijit Dutta, Abdul Tayyeb Datarwala, Kishor K Bhakat, Sankar Mitra
Posttranslational modifications of DNA repair proteins have been linked to their function. However, it is not clear if posttranslational acetylation affects subcellular localization of these enzymes. Here, we show that the human DNA glycosylase NEIL1, which is involved in repair of both endo- and exogenously generated oxidized bases via the base excision repair (BER) pathway, is acetylated by histone acetyltransferase p300. Acetylation occurs predominantly at Lys residues 296, 297 and 298 located in NEIL1's disordered C-terminal domain...
June 2018: DNA Repair
Yuqin Cai, Iwen Fu, Nicholas E Geacintov, Yingkai Zhang, Suse Broyde
How DNA lesions in nucleosomes are recognized for global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) remains poorly understood, and the roles that histone tails may play remains to be established. Histone H3 and H4 N-terminal tails are of particular interest as their acetylation states are important in regulating nucleosomal functions in transcription, replication and repair. In particular the H3 tail has been the focus of recent attention as a site for the interaction with XPC, the GG-NER lesion recognition factor...
May 2018: DNA Repair
Deniz Ceylan, Gamze Tuna, Güldal Kirkali, Zeliha Tunca, Güneş Can, Hidayet Ece Arat, Melis Kant, Miral Dizdaroglu, Ayşegül Özerdem
Oxidatively-induced DNA damage has previously been associated with bipolar disorder. More recently, impairments in DNA repair mechanisms have also been reported. We aimed to investigate oxidatively-induced DNA lesions and expression of DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy individuals. DNA base lesions including both base and nucleoside modifications were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope-dilution in DNA samples isolated from leukocytes of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (n = 32) and healthy individuals (n = 51)...
May 2018: DNA Repair
Yong-Jie Deng, Lei Feng, Huan Zhou, Xiang Xiao, Feng-Ping Wang, Xi-Peng Liu
In cells, degrading DNA and RNA by various nucleases is very important. These processes are strictly controlled and regulated to maintain DNA integrity and to mature or recycle various RNAs. NanoRNase (Nrn) is a 3'-exonuclease that specifically degrades nanoRNAs shorter than 5 nucleotides. Several Nrns have been identified and characterized in bacteria, mainly in Firmicutes. Archaea often grow in extreme environments and might be subjected to more damage to DNA/RNA, so DNA repair and recycling of damaged RNA are very important in archaea...
May 2018: DNA Repair
Jeffrey R Whiteaker, Lei Zhao, Richard G Ivey, Marilyn Sanchez-Bonilla, Heather D Moore, Regine M Schoenherr, Ping Yan, Chenwei Lin, Akiko Shimamura, Amanda G Paulovich
The Fanconi anemia pathway is an important coordinator of DNA repair pathways and is particularly relevant to repair of DNA inter-strand crosslinks. Central to the pathway is monoubiquitination of FANCD2, requiring the function of multiple proteins in an upstream Fanconi core complex. We present development and analytical characterization of a novel assay for quantification of unmodified and monoubiquitinated FANCD2 proteoforms, based on peptide immunoaffinity enrichment and targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM)...
May 2018: DNA Repair
Eloy Andrés Pérez-Yépez, Héctor Iván Saldívar-Cerón, Olga Villamar-Cruz, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Luis Enrique Arias-Romero
p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a serine/threonine kinase activated by the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. It is located in the chromosome 11q13 and is amplified and/or overexpressed in several human cancer types including 25-30% of breast tumors. This enzyme plays a pivotal role in the control of a number of fundamental cellular processes by phosphorylating its downstream substrates. In addition to its role in the cytoplasm, it is well documented that PAK1 also plays crucial roles in the nucleus participating in mitotic events and gene expression through its association and/or phosphorylation of several transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators and cell cycle-related proteins, including Aurora kinase A (AURKA), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), the forkhead transcription factor (FKHR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), and Snail...
May 2018: DNA Repair
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