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Endocrine Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898875/enteroendocrine-cells-metabolic-relays-between-microbes-and-their-host
#1
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Gut bacteria exert a variety of metabolic functions unavailable to the host and are increasingly seen as a virtual organ located inside our gastrointestinal tract. Scattered in our intestinal epithelium, enteroendocrine cells (EECs) regulate several aspects of the host's physiology and translate signals coming from the gut microbiota through their hormonal secretions. In this chapter, we will assess the interplay between the gut microbiota and EEC and its consequences for the physiology of the host. We will first describe alterations of different populations of EEC in germ-free animals...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873390/gastrointestinal-hormones-induced-the-birth-of-endocrinology
#2
Martin Wabitsch
The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873389/treatment-of-diabetes-and-obesity-by-rationally-designed-peptide-agonists-functioning-at-multiple-metabolic-receptors
#3
Noushafarin Khajavi, Heike Biebermann, Matthias Tschöp, Richard DiMarchi
Obesity and its comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes constitute major worldwide health threats, and the identification of an effective medical intervention has emerged as a global priority. The limited effectiveness of historical, anti-obesity treatments is commonly attributed to the complexity of the disease and the redundancy of metabolic regulatory mechanisms that sustain body weight. At the forefront of obesity research is the development of combinational drug therapies that simultaneously target multiple regulatory pathways, which promote dysfunctional metabolism...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873388/gastrointestinal-endocrinology-in-bariatric-surgery
#4
Martin Wabitsch
The long-lasting weight-reducing effect of bariatric surgical procedures cannot simply be explained by the malabsorption of nutrients and the subsequent energy deficit due to this malabsorption. Clinical studies have shown that the reorganization of the anatomy of the gut and the subsequent alterations of gastrointestinal physiology have a large impact on the secretion and function of gastrointestinal hormones, which regulate hunger and satiety. These changes have been named the BRAVE effect: <under>b</under>ile flow alteration, <under>r</under>eduction of gastric size, <under>a</under>natomical gut rearrangement and altered flow of nutrients, <under>v</under>agal manipulation, and <under>e</under>nteric gut modulation...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873387/just-a-gut-feeling-central-nervous-effects-of-peripheral-gastrointestinal-hormones
#5
Christian L Roth, Robert Patrick Doyle
Despite greater health education, obesity remains one of the greatest health challenges currently facing the world. The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents and the rising rates of prediabetes and diabetes are of particular concern. A deep understanding of regulatory pathways and development of new anti-obesity drugs with increased efficacy and safety are of utmost necessity. The 2 major biological players in the regulation of food intake are the gut and the brain as peptides released from the gut in response to meals convey information about the energy needs to brain centers of energy homeostasis...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873386/development-of-sweet-taste-perception-implications-for-artificial-sweetener-use
#6
Allison C Sylvetsky, Ellen M Conway, Sheetal Malhotra, Kristina I Rother
Humans have an innate liking for sweetness, which may have an evolutionary basis. Sweetness typically signals the presence of calories and nutrients and thus, universal liking for sweet taste once served to support survival. In the modern food supply, however, sweetness is often delivered via added sugars and sweeteners devoid of other beneficial nutrients. Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) provide sweetness with no or few calories, and therefore may offer a potential strategy to maintain food and beverage palatability, while reducing the caloric content...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873385/ghrelin-and-growth
#7
Reena Perchard, Peter E Clayton
Ghrelin is a pleiotropic hormone, whose effect on growth hormone secretion, through the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor, is one of its many actions. Relationships between GHS receptor gene variants and human height, both in healthy individuals and in patients with growth disorders have been identified. These include constitutional delay in growth and puberty, idiopathic short stature, and isolated growth hormone deficiency. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of ghrelin in growth.
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873384/role-of-incretin-hormones-in-bowel-diseases
#8
Tamara Zietek, Nadine Waldschmitt, Eva Rath
Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) have been studied extensively for their ability to regulate gastrointestinal motility and insulin release by secretion of peptide hormones. In particular, the L cell-derived incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 has gained enormous attention due to its insulinotropic action and relevance in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Yet, accumulating data indicates a critical role for EEC and incretins in metabolic adaptation and in orchestrating immune responses beyond blood glucose control. EEC actively sense the lamina propria and luminal environment including the microbiota via receptors and transporters, subsequently mediating signals by secreting hormones and cytokines...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873383/incretins-and-their-endocrine-and-metabolic-functions
#9
Jochen Seufert
Incretins are hormones secreted into the blood stream from the gut mucosa in response to nutrient intake. They have been characterized based on their capacity to lower blood glucose levels. The more potent reduction of blood glucose coupled to a more intensive stimulation of insulin secretion, in response to oral glucose uptake, as compared to intravenous glucose infusion has further been termed the "incretin effect." As a prototype incretin hormone, the biology of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been intensively studied...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#10
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873381/the-changing-concept-of-gut-endocrinology
#11
Jens F Rehfeld
Gastrointestinal hormones are released from enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are expressed, which make the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body. At present, it is feasible to conceive the hormones under 5 headings: the structural homology groups most hormones into 9 families, each of which is assumed to originate from a single gene. Today's hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated maturation of the prohormone...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824893/beta-cell-replacement-pancreas-and-islet-cell-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Nadja Niclauss, Raphael Meier, Benoît Bédat, Ekaterine Berishvili, Thierry Berney
Pancreas and islet transplantation are 2 types of beta-cell replacement therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Since 1966, when pancreas transplantation was first performed, it has evolved to become a highly efficient procedure with high success rates, thanks to advances in surgical technique and immunosuppression. Pancreas transplantation is mostly performed as simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation in patients with end-stage nephropathy secondary to diabetes. In spite of its efficiency, pancreas transplantation is still a major surgical procedure burdened by high morbidity, which called for the development of less invasive and hazardous ways of replacing beta-cell function in the past...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824869/treatment-goals-in-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Melmer, Markus Laimer
The quality of glycaemic control in diabetes mellitus relies on accurate individualization of available treatment options. Treatment targets depend on the type and duration of diabetes, the patients' abilities and characteristics and the individual risk for acute and/or late-stage complications. These complications include hypoglycaemia, which can be severe and life threatening, hyperglycaemia, which is a main factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and macrovascular and microvascular disease, both of which are hallmark features of diabetes-associated constraints...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824829/diabetes-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Sarah E Holden
Diabetes and cancer are common conditions, affecting 384 million and 33 million people worldwide, respectively. Therefore, there is great potential for overlap, with people with diabetes also developing cancer and vice versa. However, people with diabetes may be at increased risk of developing cancer when compared with the general population. This is due to both shared risk factors associated with the two diseases and the metabolic derangements associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and oxidative stress...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824745/the-diabetic-foot-the-never-ending-challenge
#15
REVIEW
Bettina Peter-Riesch
Diabetes, a major public health concern, is increasing in prevalence worldwide. A diabetic patient has an up to 25% lifetime risk of developing a foot ulcer condition that predisposes that patient to lower-extremity amputation. The underlying pathology is diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) associated with deformities of foot anatomy due to motor neuropathy. Trauma, often secondary to ill-fitting shoes, precipitates skin breakdown, whereas PAD determines the prognosis for healing...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824664/hypertension-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
REVIEW
Jeppe Skov, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Per Løgstrup Poulsen
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DN is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease, and it markedly enhances the risk of cardiovascular events. An elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, increased blood pressure (BP), and a continual loss of renal function are characteristics of DN. Screening for microalbuminuria is central to diabetes care, and antihypertensive agents are used for the primary prevention and treatment of DN. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers play central roles and have protective properties beyond their BP-lowering effects...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824524/novelties-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Ebneter, Martin S Zinkernagel
Although diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a leading cause of vision loss, the last decade has brought significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of this common complication of diabetes mellitus. First, optical coherence tomography allows for noninvasive imaging of the retina, in particular, the macula, with very high resolution, thus facilitating the management of diabetic macular edema. In addition, recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of DR, in particular, the key role of cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have led to the development of anti-VEGF antibodies for intraocular use...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824439/genetics-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Alena Stančáková, Markku Laakso
Genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Linkage analysis, candidate gene approaches, genome-wide association studies, and sequencing have been used in the identification of common, low-frequency and rare variants for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified >80 common variants for type 2 diabetes, with small effect sizes (risk of type 2 diabetes increased by 5-40%). Almost all of these variants regulate insulin secretion, and only a few regulate insulin sensitivity...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824436/diabetes-technology
#19
REVIEW
Andreas Pfützner
Diabetes technology is an evolving field. The research started with the development of blood glucose meters for patient self-testing and the introduction of insulin pen injection devices. Modern devices employ new technological features, such as the use of computer simulations and mathematical algorithms, connectivity and signal transfer, and the use of modern (space research-derived) materials. With these innovations, the goal to develop an artificial pancreas by closing the loop between a continuous glucose sensor and a continuous insulin-delivering device via insulin delivery algorithms is coming closer to reality...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824366/genetic-defects-of-the-%C3%AE-cell-that-cause-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Caroline M Stekelenburg, Valerie M Schwitzgebel
Individuals with higher-than-normal blood sugar levels used to be diagnosed as having either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We now know that a wide range of different factors can cause diabetes, including single gene defects, which account for at least 1% of all diabetes cases and up to 4% of cases in the pediatric population. However, misdiagnosis remains common due to the considerable clinical overlap between the different diabetes forms. Monogenic diabetes onset can occur shortly after birth, as observed in neonatal diabetes mellitus, or any time later in life...
2016: Endocrine Development
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