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Experimental Psychology

Rebecca Lawson, Henna Ajvani, Stefano Cecchetto
Detection of regularities (e.g., symmetry, repetition) can be used to investigate object and shape perception. Symmetry and nearby lines may both signal that one object is present, so moving lines apart may disrupt symmetry detection, while repetition may signal that multiple objects are present. Participants discriminated symmetrical/irregular and repeated/irregular pairs of lines. For vision, as predicted, increased line separation disrupted symmetry detection more than repetition detection. For haptics, symmetry and repetition detection were similarly disrupted by increased line separation; also, symmetry was easier to detect than repetition for one-handed exploration and for body midline-aligned stimuli, whereas symmetry was harder to detect than repetition with two-handed exploration of stimuli oriented across the body...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
Julia L Feldman, Antonio L Freitas
The study of the conflict-adaptation effect, in which encountering information-processing conflict attenuates the disruptive influence of information-processing conflicts encountered subsequently, is a burgeoning area of research. The present study investigated associations among performance measures on a Stroop-trajectory task (measuring Stroop interference and conflict adaptation), on a Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST; measuring cognitive flexibility), and on self-reported measures of self-regulation (including impulsivity and tenacity)...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
Steven Glautier, Tamaryn Menneer, Hayward J Godwin, Nick Donnelly, José A Aristizabal
Previous work showed that prior experience with discriminations requiring configural solutions (e.g., biconditional discrimination) confers an advantage for the learning of new configural discriminations (e.g., negative patterning) in comparison to prior experience with elemental discriminations. This effect is well established but its mechanism is not well understood. In the studies described below we assessed whether the saliences of configural and element cues were affected by prior training. We observed positive transfer to a new configural discrimination after configural pre-training but we were unable to find evidence for changes in cue salience using a signal-detection task...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Belinda Pletzer, Andrea Scheuringer, TiAnni Harris
The unit-decade compatibility effect has challenged the model of holistic number magnitude processing, suggesting decomposed processing of multi-digit numbers. Recent evidence confirms that decomposed processing of decade and unit magnitudes occurs in parallel. However, the mode of presentation of multi-digit numbers may affect the processing mode (holistic vs. decomposed, parallel vs. sequential). We therefore investigated in two studies, whether presentation mode (vertical, horizontal, or consecutive) or the distance between two vertically presented numbers affects the unit-decade compatibility effect during number comparison...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Marek A Vranka, Štěpán Bahník
Previous choice blindness studies showed that people sometimes fail to notice when their choice is changed. Subsequently, they are willing to provide reasons for the manipulated choice which is the opposite of the one they made just seconds ago. In the present study, participants first made binary judgments about the wrongness of described behaviors and then were shown an opposite answer during a second reading of some of the descriptions. Half of the participants saw the answer during the second presentation of the description and the other half saw it only after the presentation...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Xinlin Zhou, Chaoran Shen, Leinian Li, Dawei Li, Jiaxin Cui
Previous studies have demonstrated existence of a mental line for symbolic numbers (e.g., Arabic digits). For nonsymbolic number systems, however, it remains unresolved whether a spontaneous spatial layout of numerosity exists. The current experiment investigated whether SNARC-like (Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes) effects exist in approximate processing of numerosity, as well as of size and density. Participants were asked to judge whether two serially presented stimuli (i.e., dot arrays, pentagons) were the same regarding numbers of dots, sizes of the pentagon, or densities of dots...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Ortal Nitzan-Tamar, Bracha Kramarski, Eli Vakil
Various tools have been designed to classify the wholistic/analytic cognitive style, based mostly on behavioral data that reveals little about how these processes function. The main goal of this study is to characterize patterns of eye movements (EM) that are typical of learners with tendencies toward wholistic/analytic styles. Forty students completed the E-CSA-W/A test, while their EM were simultaneously monitored. The results revealed that the overall response time of the wholist group was lower in both tasks...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Michael Greenstein, Nancy Franklin, Jessica Klug
A common finding in the source monitoring literature is that greater similarity impairs source discriminability. Experiments traditionally manipulate similarity overtly by describing or showing sources with explicitly differentiable features. However, people may also infer source characteristics themselves, which should also affect discriminability. Two studies examined inferred source characteristics by capitalizing on the out-group homogeneity effect, whereby in-group members are conceptualized as more diverse than out-group members...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Nick Perham, John E Marsh, Martin Clarkson, Rosie Lawrence, Patrik Sörqvist
When solving mental arithmetic problems, one can easily be distracted by someone speaking in the background and this distraction is greater if the speech comprises numbers. We explored the basis of this disruption by asking participants to solve mental addition problems (e.g., "45 + 17 = ?") in three different conditions: background speech comprising numbers in ascending order (e.g., "61, 62, 63, 64, 65"), background speech comprising numbers in descending order (e.g., "65, 64, 63, 62, 61"), and quiet. Performance was best in quiet, worse in the descending numbers condition, and poorest in the ascending numbers condition...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Christina Bermeitinger, Dirk Wentura
In response priming, responses are typically faster and more accurate if the prime calls for the same response as the target (i.e., compatible trials) than when primes and targets trigger different responses (i.e., incompatible trials). With moving rows-of-dots as primes for static arrow targets, participants instead responded faster to incompatible targets with longer SOAs (stimulus onset asynchrony, > 200 ms). Until now, it is unclear whether this effect is specific to the material. In the present research, a single moving dot was used as a prime...
March 2016: Experimental Psychology
Solène Ambrosi, Patrick Lemaire, Agnès Blaye
Dynamic, trial-by-trial modulations of inhibitory control are well documented in adults but rarely investigated in children. Here, we examined whether 5-to-7 year-old children, an age range when inhibitory control is still partially immature, achieve such modulations. Fifty three children took flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks. Above and beyond classic congruency effects, the present results showed two crucial findings. First, we found evidence for sequential modulations of congruency effects in these young children in the three conflict tasks...
March 2016: Experimental Psychology
Luisa Lugli, Giulia Baroni, Roberto Nicoletti, Carlo Umiltà
In the Simon effect performance is faster and more accurate when the task-irrelevant spatial dimension of the stimulus corresponds to the location of the response, compared to when they do not correspond. In the prosaccade-antisaccade effect the latencies of saccades away from the stimulus location (i.e., antisaccades) are slower than the latencies of saccades toward the stimulus location (i.e., prosaccades). Because these two effects share a similar basis, the study of the Simon effect with saccadic eye movements needs to be decoupled from the prosaccade-antisaccade effect...
March 2016: Experimental Psychology
Simon J Bennett, Nicolas Benguigui
We examined spatial estimation of accelerating objects (-8, -4, 0, +4, or +8 deg/s(2)) during occlusion (600, 1,000 ms) in a spatial prediction motion task. Multiple logistic regression indicated spatial estimation was influenced by these factors such that participants estimated objects with positive acceleration to reappear behind less often than those with negative acceleration, and particularly after the longer occlusion. Individual-participant logistic regressions indicated spatial estimation was better predicted by a first-order extrapolation of the occluded object motion based on pre-occlusion velocity rather than a second-order extrapolation that took account of object acceleration...
March 2016: Experimental Psychology
Jeffrey S Wood, Matthew Haigh, Andrew J Stewart
Participants had their eye movements recorded as they read vignettes containing implied promises and threats. We observed a reading time penalty when participants read the word "threat" when it anaphorically referred to an implied promise. There was no such penalty when the word "promise" was used to refer to an implied threat. On a later measure of processing we again found a reading time penalty when the word "threat" was used to refer to a promise, but also when the word "promise" was used to refer to a threat...
March 2016: Experimental Psychology
James R Schmidt, Jan De Houwer
We investigate the processes involved in human contingency learning using the color-word contingency learning paradigm. In this task, participants respond to the print color of neutral words. Each word is frequently presented in one color. Results show that participants respond faster and more accurately to words presented in their expected color. In Experiment 1, we observed better performance for high- relative to medium-frequency word-color pairs, and for medium- relative to low-frequency pairs. Within the medium-frequency condition, it did not matter whether the word was predictive of a currently-unpresented color, or the color was predictive of a currently-unpresented word...
March 2016: Experimental Psychology
Karl Christoph Klauer, Manuel Becker, Adriaan Spruyt
We replicated and extended a study by Spruyt and Hermans (2008) in which picture primes engendered an evaluative-priming effect on the pronunciation of target words. As preliminary steps, we assessed data reproducibility of the original study, conducted Pilot Study I to identify highly semantically related prime-target pairs, reanalyzed the original data excluding such pairs, conducted Pilot Study II to demonstrate that we can replicate traditional associative priming effects in the pronunciation task, and conducted Pilot Study III to generate relatively unrelated sets of prime pictures and target words...
January 2016: Experimental Psychology
Fabien Mathy, Jacob Feldman
This study of supervised categorization shows how different kinds of category representations are influenced by the order in which training examples are presented. We used the well-studied 5-4 category structure of Medin and Schaffer (1978) , which allows transfer of category learning to new stimuli to be discriminated as a function of rule-based or similarity-based category knowledge. In the rule-based training condition (thought to facilitate the learning of abstract logical rules and hypothesized to produce rule-based classification), items were grouped by subcategories and randomized within each subcategory...
January 2016: Experimental Psychology
Michael Forster, Helmut Leder, Ulrich Ansorge
According to the processing fluency theory, higher ease of processing a stimulus leads to higher feelings of fluency and more positive evaluations. However, it is unclear whether feelings of fluency are positive or an unspecific activation and whether feelings of fluency are directly attributed to the stimulus even without much positive feelings. In two experiments, we tested how variations in the ease of processing influenced feelings of fluency and affect, in terms of evaluations (Exp. 1) and physiological responses (Exp...
January 2016: Experimental Psychology
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