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Experimental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268677/not-all-anchors-weigh-equally
#1
Michael Greenstein, Alexandra Velazquez
The anchoring bias is a reliable effect wherein a person's judgments are affected by initially presented information, but it is unknown specifically why this effect occurs. Research examining this bias suggests that elements of both numeric and semantic priming may be involved. To examine this, the present research used a phenomenon wherein people treat numeric information presented differently in Arabic numeral or verbal formats. We presented participants with one of many forms of an anchor that represented the same value (e...
November 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268676/the-role-of-representation-strength-of-the-prime-in-subliminal-visuomotor-priming
#2
Yongchun Wang, Yonghui Wang, Peng Liu, Meilin Di, Yanyan Gong, Mengge Tan
This study investigated the role of representation strength of the prime in subliminal visuomotor priming in two experiments. Prime/target compatibility (compatible and incompatible) and preposed object type (jumbled lines, strong masking; and rectangular outlines, weak masking) were manipulated in Experiment 1. A significant negative compatibility effect (NCE) was observed in the rectangle condition, whereas no compatibility effect was found in the line condition. However, when a new variable, prime duration, was introduced in Experiment 2, the NCE was reversed with an increase in the prime duration in the rectangle condition, whereas the NCE was maintained in the line condition...
November 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268675/the-role-of-visual-distractors-in-the-simon-effect
#3
Luisa Lugli, Stefania D'Ascenzo, Roberto Nicoletti, Carlo Umiltà
The Simon effect lies on the automatic generation of a stimulus spatial code, which, however, is not relevant for performing the task. Results typically show faster performance when stimulus and response locations correspond, rather than when they do not. Considering reaction time distributions, two types of Simon effect have been individuated, which are thought to depend on different mechanisms: visuomotor activation versus cognitive translation of spatial codes. The present study aimed to investigate whether the presence of a distractor, which affects the allocation of attentional resources and, thus, the time needed to generate the spatial code, changes the nature of the Simon effect...
November 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268673/can-methodological-considerations-challenge-the-dissociation-of-the-perceptual-and-motor-inhibitory-processes
#4
Justine Magnard, Gilles Berrut, Christophe Cornu, Thibault Deschamps
Using an original conflict task paradigm, Nassauer and Halperin (2003) argued that inhibition ability can be classified into two distinct perceptual and motor inhibitory processes. The current study examined the robustness of this paradigm by raising two major methodological points: the amount of information that needs to be processed and the task order (fixed vs. random). Sixty young adults performed the original or modified tasks. Overall, a decrease in the amount of information had the effect of removing the stimulus conflict on some subtests...
November 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268672/you-are-right
#5
Kerstin Dittrich, Lydia Puffe, Karl Christoph Klauer
In the social Simon task, two participants perform a spatial compatibility task together, each of them responding to only one stimulus (e.g., one participant reacts to red, the other to green stimuli). Participants show joint spatial compatibility effects (SCEs), that is, they respond faster when their go-stimulus appears on their half of the screen. Effects are absent when the same go/no-go task is performed without a coactor. Joint SCEs were originally explained in terms of shared task representations, but recent research suggests that effects result from spatial response coding: in joint go/no-go tasks, participants perceive themselves as the right/left participant operating a right/left response key...
November 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268671/at-the-boundaries-of-misattribution
#6
Rebecca Weil, Tomás A Palma, Bertram Gawronski
Priming effects in the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) have been explained by a misattribution of prime-related affect to neutral targets. However, the measure has been criticized for being susceptible to intentional use of prime-features in judgments of the targets. To isolate the contribution of unintentional processes, the present research expanded on the finding that positive affect can be misattributed to familiarity (i.e., positivity-familiarity effect). To the extent that prime-valence is deemed irrelevant for judgments of target-familiarity, positivity-familiarity effects in the AMP could potentially rule out intentional use of the primes...
November 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173141/too-tasty-to-be-ignored
#7
Sebastian Dummel, Ronald Hübner
Recent research has shown that even non-salient stimuli (colored circles) can gain attentional weight, when they have been loaded with some value through previous reward learning. The present study examined such value-based attentional weighting with intrinsically rewarding food stimuli. Different snacks were assumed to have different values for people due to individual food preferences. Participants indicated their preferences toward various snacks and then performed a flanker task with these snacks: they had to categorize a target snack as either sweet or salty; irrelevant flanker snacks were either compatible or incompatible with the target category...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173140/the-mere-exposure-instruction-effect
#8
Pieter Van Dessel, Gaëtan Mertens, Colin Tucker Smith, Jan De Houwer
The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173139/walking-back-to-the-future
#9
Jonna Loeffler, Markus Raab, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
Embodied cognition frameworks suggest a direct link between sensorimotor experience and cognitive representations of concepts ( Shapiro, 2011 ). We examined whether this holds also true for concepts that cannot be directly perceived with the sensorimotor system (i.e., temporal concepts). To test this, participants learned object-space (Exp. 1) or object-time (Exp. 2) associations. Afterwards, participants were asked to assign the objects to their location in space/time meanwhile they walked backward, forward, or stood on a treadmill...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173138/are-emotions-abstract-or-concrete
#10
Xu Xu, Chunyan Kang, Kaia Sword, Taomei Guo
The ability to identify and communicate emotions is essential to psychological well-being. Yet research focusing exclusively on emotion concepts has been limited. This study examined nouns that represent emotions (e.g., pleasure, guilt) in comparison to nouns that represent abstract (e.g., wisdom, failure) and concrete entities (e.g., flower, coffin). Twenty-five healthy participants completed a lexical decision task. Event-related potential (ERP) data showed that emotion nouns elicited less pronounced N400 than both abstract and concrete nouns...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173137/testing-hypotheses-about-social-targets
#11
Roberta Capellini, Simona Sacchi, Paolo Cherubini
The information search process is a critical cognitive activity in many domains, such as in legal investigations and criminal judgments. Previous research focused on leading strategies, in particular on the use of open and matching questions. The present research aimed to explore the use of asymmetric questions, namely dichotomous queries for which the "yes" and "no" answers are not equally diagnostic, during social hypothesis testing. In Study 1 (N = 253) participants were asked to select questions to assess a social target on some moral and nonmoral attributes...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922999/pattern-of-near-transfer-effects-following-working-memory-training-with-a-dual-n-back-task
#12
Anna Soveri, Eric P A Karlsson, Otto Waris, Petra Grönholm-Nyman, Matti Laine
In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the pattern of near transfer effects of working memory (WM) training with an adaptive auditory-visuospatial dual n-back training task in healthy young adults. The results revealed significant task-specific transfer to an untrained single n-back task, and more general near transfer to a WM updating composite score plus a nearly significant effect on a composite score measuring interference control in WM. No transfer effects were seen on Active or Passive WM composites...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922998/risk-preferences-in-surrogate-decision-making
#13
Eleonore Batteux, Eamonn Ferguson, Richard J Tunney
There is growing evidence that decisions made on behalf of other people differ from the decisions we make for ourselves because we are less affected by the subjective experience of their outcome. As a result, the decisions we make for other people can be more optimal. This experiment investigated surrogate decision making using a probability discounting task where participants made choices between risky and sure options. Psychological distance between the decision maker and the recipient was manipulated by having participants make decisions for themselves, their friend, and another unknown participant...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922997/how-social-and-refractory-is-the-social-psychological-refractory-period
#14
Peter Wühr, Herbert Heuer
The social psychological refractory period (PRP) effect refers to an increase in RT to the second of two successive stimuli when another person responds to the first stimulus (shared dual-task condition) rather than when a single person responds to both stimuli (individual dual-task condition). We investigated (a) whether a social PRP effect would occur without explicit instruction concerning task priority and (b) whether there are crosstalk effects in the shared dual-task situation. We observed a strong PRP effect together with a small crosstalk effect in the individual dual-task condition, but in the shared dual-task condition both effects were absent...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922996/split-second-trustworthiness-detection-from-faces-in-an-economic-game
#15
Wim De Neys, Astrid Hopfensitz, Jean-François Bonnefon
Economic interactions often imply to gauge the trustworthiness of others. Recent studies showed that when making trust decisions in economic games, people have some accuracy in detecting trustworthiness from the facial features of unknown partners. Here we provide evidence that this face-based trustworthiness detection is a fast and intuitive process by testing its performance at split-second levels of exposure. Participants played a Trust game, in which they made decisions whether to trust another player based on their picture...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922995/effects-of-process-and-outcome-accountability-on-idea-generation
#16
Jan Alexander Häusser, Johanna Ute Frisch, Stella Wanzel, Stefan Schulz-Hardt
Previous research on the effects of outcome and process accountability on decision making has neglected the preceding phase of idea generation. We conducted a 2 (outcome accountability: yes vs. no) × 2 (process accountability: yes vs. no) experiment (N = 147) to test the effects of accountability on quantity and quality of generated ideas in a product design task. Furthermore, we examined potential negative side effects of accountability (i.e., stress and lengthened decision making). We found that (a) outcome accountability had a negative effect on quantity of ideas and (b) process accountability extended the idea generation process...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922994/two-attributes-of-number-meaning
#17
Michael Wiemers, Harold Bekkering, Oliver Lindemann
Many studies demonstrated interactions between number processing and either spatial codes (effects of spatial-numerical associations) or visual size-related codes (size-congruity effect). However, the interrelatedness of these two number couplings is still unclear. The present study examines the simultaneous occurrence of space- and size-numerical congruency effects and their interactions both within and across trials. In a magnitude judgment task physically small or large digits were presented left or right from screen center...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922993/an-exploratory-tms-study-on-prefrontal-lateralization-in-valence-categorization-of-facial-expressions
#18
Chiara Ferrari, Lucile Gamond, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Converging neuroimaging and patient data suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in emotional processing. However, it is still not clear whether the DLPFC in the left and right hemisphere is differentially involved in emotion recognition depending on the emotion considered. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the possible causal role of the left and right DLPFC in encoding valence of positive and negative emotional facial expressions. Participants were required to indicate whether a series of faces displayed a positive or negative expression, while TMS was delivered over the right DLPFC, the left DLPFC, and a control site (vertex)...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662612/the-effect-of-cognitive-control-on-different-types-of-auditory-distraction
#19
Raoul Bell, Jan P Röer, John E Marsh, Dunja Storch, Axel Buchner
Deviant as well as changing auditory distractors interfere with short-term memory. According to the duplex model of auditory distraction, the deviation effect is caused by a shift of attention while the changing-state effect is due to obligatory order processing. This theory predicts that foreknowledge should reduce the deviation effect, but should have no effect on the changing-state effect. We compared the effect of foreknowledge on the two phenomena directly within the same experiment. In a pilot study, specific foreknowledge was impotent in reducing either the changing-state effect or the deviation effect, but it reduced disruption by sentential speech, suggesting that the effects of foreknowledge on auditory distraction may increase with the complexity of the stimulus material...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633625/on-the-inability-to-ignore-useless-advice
#20
Thomas Schultze, Andreas Mojzisch, Stefan Schulz-Hardt
Research in the judge-advisor-paradigm suggests that advice is generally utilized less than it should be according to its quality. In a series of four experiments, we challenge this widely held assumption. We hypothesize that when advice quality is low, the opposite phenomenon, namely overutilization of advice, occurs. We further assume that this overutilization effect is the result of anchoring: advice serves as an anchor, thus causing an adjustment toward even useless advice. The data of our four experiments support these hypotheses...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
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