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Experimental Psychology

Moyun Wang, Pengfei Yin
The covariation and causal power account for causal induction make different predictions for what is transferred in causal generalization across contexts. Two experiments tested these predictions using hypothetical scenarios in which the effect of an intervention was evaluated between (Experiment 1) or within (Experiment 2) groups. Each experiment contained a manipulation of ΔP, power and their combination. Both experiments found that causal transfer was determined by ΔP rather than causal power. The overall transfer pattern supports ΔP transfer account rather than the other transfer accounts...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
Amandine E Rey, Rémy Versace, Gaën Plancher
To prevent forgetting in working memory, the attentional refreshing is supposed to increase the level of activation of memory traces by focusing attention. However, the involvement of memory traces reactivation in refreshing relies in the majority on indirect evidence. The aim of this study was to show that refreshing relies on the reactivation of memory traces by investigating how the reactivation of an irrelevant trace prevents the attentional refreshing to take place, and (2) the memory traces reactivated are sensorial in nature...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
Peter Wühr, Christian Frings, Herbert Heuer
We tested the hypothesis that selective response preparation, based on reliable response cues, reduces response conflict in an Eriksen flanker task. Previous studies of this issue produced inconclusive results because presenting an always valid response cue before the stimulus display turns a choice-response task into a simple-response task, in which full processing of the actual stimulus display is no longer necessary. We conducted two experiments in which we matched stimulus processing in conditions without cues and with reliable cues as far as possible...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
Leonardo Martin, Caitlin Mills, Sidney K D'Mello, Evan F Risko
Material re-exposure (e.g., re-reading) is a popular mnemonic strategy, however, its utility has been questioned. We extend research on re-reading to re-watching - an emerging mnemonic technique given the increased use of recorded lectures today (e.g., in online courses). Consistent with findings from recent investigations of re-reading, there were no benefits of massed re-watching on memory for lecture material and re-watching increased rates of mind wandering. We discuss implications for understanding the cognitive consequences of re-exposure-based mnemonics...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, David Dignath, Markus Janczyk
Cognitive control refers to the ability to make correct decisions concurrent to distracting information, and to adapt to conflicting stimulus configurations, eventually promoting goal-directed behavior. Previous research has linked individual differences in cognitive control to psychopathological conditions such as anxiety. However, a link with uncertainty tolerance (UT) has not been tested so far, although both constructs describe cognitive and behavioral performance in ambiguous situations, thus they share some similarities...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Yanchi Zhang, Zhe Pan, Kai Li, Yongyu Guo
Protecting one's positive self-image from damage is a fundamental need of human beings. Forgetting is an effective strategy in this respect. Individuals show inferior recall of negative feedback about themselves but unimpaired recognition of self-related negative feedback. This discrepancy may imply that individuals retain negative information but forget that the information is associated with the self. In two experiments, participants judged whether two-character trait adjectives (positive or negative) described themselves or others...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Omar D Pérez, René San Martín, Fabián A Soto
Several contemporary models anticipate that the summation effect is modulated by the similarity between the cues forming a compound. Here, we explore this hypothesis in a series of causal learning experiments. Participants were presented with two visual cues that separately predicted a common outcome and later asked for the outcome predicted by the compound of the two cues. Similarity was varied between groups through changes in shape, spatial position, color, configuration, and rotation. In variance with the predictions of these models, we observed similar and strong levels of summation in both groups across all manipulations of similarity...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Ulrich Ansorge, Florian Engel, Anni Siener, Tamara Strini
In the current study, we tested if stimulus-response (SR) compatibility effects of spatially ambiguous words depend on a semantic priming context. Although many words, including spatial words, can take on several meanings, this is an open question. From Experiments 1 to 3, we manipulated the likelihood that the vertical meaning of the German particles auf and ab was processed by (1) instructing the processing of vertical meaning in Experiment 1, but not in Experiments 2 and 3, and (2) by using verbs that either primed (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not prime (Experiments 1-3) the targets' vertical meanings...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Jingyi Lu, Xuesong Shang, Bingjie Li
Decisions made for others reflect not only decision-makers' cognitive and emotional states but also decision-makers' interpersonal concerns. People who make choices for others will potentially be blamed for unappealing outcomes by others. Therefore, we hypothesize that individuals will seek sure gains (which increase individuals' responsibility for desirable outcomes) and avoid sure losses (which decrease individuals' responsibility for undesirable outcomes) when making risky decisions for others more than when making such decisions for themselves...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Hidehito Honda, Itsuki Fujisaki, Toshihiko Matsuka, Kazuhiro Ueda
The modern Japanese writing system comprises different scripts, such as Kanji, Hiragana, and Katakana. These scripts differ greatly in both typicality and frequency of usage. In two experimental studies using names of cities or prefectures in Japan as target stimuli, we examined two hypotheses, the typicality hypothesis and fluency hypothesis, in order to assess effects of Japanese script on psychological processes. It was found that Kanji names induced typical thinking in a participant's description of a location, whereas Katakana names induced rather nontypical thinking...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Jiushu Xie, Xiao Zhong, Yanhui Xiang, Ruiming Wang, Jun Zhang, Jiawei Xie, Lei Mo
The Theory of universal grammar suggests that human languages may share some similarities at the phonological level. Based on this hypothesis, we further propose a language generalization effect (LGE) and hypothesize that people may inherit the universal phonological features from their native languages and then transfer them to foreign languages. To test this hypothesis, in two experiments, participants listened to a pair of normal and syllable reversed recordings (Experiments 1a-1d) or normal and phonemic reversed recordings (Experiments 2a-2d) in unknown and native languages and reported their similarities...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Sung-Ho Kim, Jeong-Yoon Choi
Here we report a new ambiguous continuous motion display, in which two objects appear at the diagonally opposite corners of an imaginary square, move along the diagonal axis toward each other, and after meeting in the center, shift their trajectories to the other two diagonal corners. This display can be seen as two objects' colliding and bouncing off each other, with two competing interpretations of trajectory configuration requiring either vertical or horizontal integration of trajectory segments. Despite the fact that both percepts are equally plausible, the current study revealed a perceptual preference toward a vertical integration interpretation...
July 2018: Experimental Psychology
Anja Franziska Ernst, Rink Hoekstra, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Andrew Gelman, Don van Ravenzwaaij
As a research field expands, scientists have to update their knowledge and integrate the outcomes of a sequence of studies. However, such integrative judgments are generally known to fall victim to a primacy bias where people anchor their judgments on the initial information. In this preregistered study we tested the hypothesis that people anchor on the outcome of a small initial study, reducing the impact of a larger subsequent study that contradicts the initial result. Contrary to our expectation, undergraduates and academics displayed a recency bias, anchoring their judgment on the research outcome presented last...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Antonia Krefeld-Schwalb
It is well established in the working memory literature, that performance can be improved by cueing attention toward the position of a to-be-tested item, even after that item's presentation. This retro-cue benefit is often characterized as the joint outcome of two different effects: facilitation of recall and memory strengthening at the cued position. While the latter has been mainly explained by increased context-content binding, competing hypotheses exist to explain the facilitation of recall. The present study focuses on two of these hypotheses: the removal of non-cued information and the protection of cued information against interference...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Tom Mercer
Retroactive interference occurs when new information disrupts the retention of an existing representation, but its effects on visual short-term memory remain poorly understood. The present study examined three factors predicted to influence domain-specific retroactive interference, including the type of distractor, its temporal position, and the length of the retention interval. Participants compared target and test objects over a brief interval that either was unfilled or contained a similar or dissimilar distractor occurring 200 ms or 1...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Kit W Cho
Words rated for their survival relevance are remembered better than when rated using other well-known memory mnemonics. This finding, which is known as the survival advantage effect and has been replicated in many studies, suggests that our memory systems are molded by natural selection pressures. In two experiments, the present study used a visual search task to examine whether there is likewise a survival advantage for our visual systems. Participants rated words for their survival relevance or for their pleasantness before locating that object's picture in a search array with 8 or 16 objects...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Rocío Linares, Santiago Pelegrina
Focus switching in working memory involves accessing an object in the focus of attention in order to retrieve its content. Objects in working memory can be viewed as consisting of two types of information: contents (e.g., numerical information) and contexts (e.g., cues to retrieve the contents). This study examined the extent to which content retrieval and context access may be separated. Three experiments were carried out in which object switching and content retrieval were manipulated. In addition, the alternation between the retrieval operations was also manipulated...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Attila Krajcsi, Gábor Lengyel, Ákos Laczkó
Interference between number magnitude and other properties can be explained by either an analogue magnitude system interfering with a continuous representation of the other properties or by discrete, categorical representations in which the corresponding number and property categories interfere. In this study, we investigated whether parity, a discrete property which supposedly cannot be stored on an analogue representation, could interfere with number magnitude. We found that in a parity decision task the magnitude interfered with the parity, highlighting the role of discrete representations in numerical interference...
March 2018: Experimental Psychology
Francesco Margoni, Janet Geipel, Constantinos Hadjichristidis, Luca Surian
Younger (21-39 years) and older (63-90 years) adults were presented with scenarios illustrating either harmful or helpful actions. Each scenario provided information about the agent's intention, either neutral or valenced (harmful/helpful), and the outcome of his or her action, either neutral or valenced. Participants were asked to rate how morally good or bad the agent's action was. In judging harmful actions, older participants relied less on intentions and more on outcomes compared to younger participants...
March 2018: Experimental Psychology
Erik Marsja, Gregory Neely, Jessica K Ljungberg
It has been suggested that deviance distraction is caused by unexpected sensory events in the to-be-ignored stimuli violating the cognitive system's predictions of incoming stimuli. The majority of research has used methods where the to-be-ignored expected (standards) and the unexpected (deviants) stimuli are presented within the same modality. Less is known about the behavioral impact of deviance distraction when the to-be-ignored stimuli are presented in different modalities (e.g., standard and deviants presented in different modalities)...
March 2018: Experimental Psychology
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