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Experimental Psychology

Asya Matushanskaya, Andreas Mädebach, Matthias M Müller, Jörg D Jescheniak
Prominent speech production models view lexical access as a competitive process. According to these models, a semantically related distractor picture should interfere with target picture naming more strongly than an unrelated one. However, several studies failed to obtain such an effect. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference is obtained, when the distractor picture is sufficiently processed. Participants named one of two pictures presented in close temporal succession, with color cueing the target...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
Roberto Limongi, Angélica M Silva
The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
Stefan Künzell, Dominicus Sießmeir, Harald Ewolds
A continuous pursuit-tracking task is the typical experimental paradigm to investigate implicit motor learning. Implicit motor learning is proven by a greater improvement in tracking of a repeated segment of a target path compared to random segments ( Pew, 1974 ). Recently, doubts about the validity of results obtained with this paradigm have been raised. Improved tracking of a repeated segment might simply be due to the characteristics of that particular segment. In response to these doubts, we seek to improve the continuous tracking task...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
Ian Neath, Matthew R Kelley, Aimée M Surprenant
Serial position functions are so ubiquitous that researchers frequently use buffer items to control for primacy and recency effects regardless of the memory task. However, most theories offer different explanations for different types of tests. In contrast, the relative distinctiveness principle offers one explanation for all tasks: items with fewer close neighbors will generally be more distinct and therefore better remembered than items with more close neighbors. An experiment assessed two predictions of this account...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
Bastien Trémolière, Marie-Ève Gagnon, Isabelle Blanchette
Although the detrimental effect of emotion on reasoning has been evidenced many times, the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In the present paper, we explore the cognitive load hypothesis as a potential explanation. In an experiment, participants solved syllogistic reasoning problems with either neutral or emotional contents. Participants were also presented with a secondary task, for which the difficult version requires the mobilization of cognitive resources to be correctly solved...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
Irmgard de la Vega, Verena Eikmeier, Rolf Ulrich, Barbara Kaup
The existence of a lateral mental timeline is well established; in left-to-right writing cultures, past is associated with the left, future with the right. Accordingly, participants respond faster with the left to past, and with the right to future. Recent studies indicate that this association does not reverse when participants respond with their hands crossed. We investigated the role of instruction for this association in a crossed-hands paradigm. Participants classified the temporal reference of words by pressing a key on the left with their right hand, or a key on the right with their left...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
Laura Mieth, Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner
The present study serves to test how positive and negative appearance-based expectations affect cooperation and punishment. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with partners who either cooperated or defected. Then they were given a costly punishment option: They could spend money to decrease the payoffs of their partners. Aggregated over trials, participants spent more money for punishing the defection of likable-looking and smiling partners compared to punishing the defection of unlikable-looking and nonsmiling partners, but only because participants were more likely to cooperate with likable-looking and smiling partners, which provided the participants with more opportunities for moralistic punishment...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
Manuel Perea, Ana Marcet, Marta Vergara-Martínez
In masked priming lexical decision experiments, there is a matched-case identity advantage for nonwords, but not for words (e.g., ERTAR-ERTAR <  ertar-ERTAR; ALTAR-ALTAR = altar-ALTAR). This dissociation has been interpreted in terms of feedback from higher levels of processing during orthographic encoding. Here, we examined whether a matched-case identity advantage also occurs for words when top-down feedback is minimized. We employed a task that taps prelexical orthographic processes: the masked prime same-different task...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
Charles A Doan, Ronaldo Vigo
Several empirical investigations have explored whether observers prefer to sort sets of multidimensional stimuli into groups by employing one-dimensional or family-resemblance strategies. Although one-dimensional sorting strategies have been the prevalent finding for these unsupervised classification paradigms, several researchers have provided evidence that the choice of strategy may depend on the particular demands of the task. To account for this disparity, we propose that observers extract relational patterns from stimulus sets that facilitate the development of optimal classification strategies for relegating category membership...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
Piotr Styrkowiec
Previous research indicated that congruency between stimulus location and response position (spatial stimulus-response correspondence [SRC]) and stimulus motion and response movement congruency (motion SRC) are distinct SRC phenomena. This study further explored this issue and tested whether these two SRC effects are independent. This was conducted by investigating these two SRC effects in a single task. A stimulus with leftward or rightward motion was presented on the left or the right side of the screen and the participant had to move the joysticks held with the left and right hands leftward or rightward in response to the stimulus color...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
Melissa Tapia, Kirkwood Meyers, Rachel Richardson, Rodica Ghinescu, Todd R Schachtman
Many studies have examined competition between cues for learning. Research examining cue competition has used cues that predict the occurrence of an outcome, or, in some rare cases, competition between cues that predict the absence of an outcome (predicting that an outcome explicitly will not occur). Alternatively, learned irrelevance occurs when a cue lacks the ability to predict the occurrence or absence of an outcome. Using an Eriksen flanker task, the present study evaluated competition among cues that do not have predictive value, that is, competition for learning that an outcome is unpredictable...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
Rebecca Lawson, Henna Ajvani, Stefano Cecchetto
Detection of regularities (e.g., symmetry, repetition) can be used to investigate object and shape perception. Symmetry and nearby lines may both signal that one object is present, so moving lines apart may disrupt symmetry detection, while repetition may signal that multiple objects are present. Participants discriminated symmetrical/irregular and repeated/irregular pairs of lines. For vision, as predicted, increased line separation disrupted symmetry detection more than repetition detection. For haptics, symmetry and repetition detection were similarly disrupted by increased line separation; also, symmetry was easier to detect than repetition for one-handed exploration and for body midline-aligned stimuli, whereas symmetry was harder to detect than repetition with two-handed exploration of stimuli oriented across the body...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
Julia L Feldman, Antonio L Freitas
The study of the conflict-adaptation effect, in which encountering information-processing conflict attenuates the disruptive influence of information-processing conflicts encountered subsequently, is a burgeoning area of research. The present study investigated associations among performance measures on a Stroop-trajectory task (measuring Stroop interference and conflict adaptation), on a Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST; measuring cognitive flexibility), and on self-reported measures of self-regulation (including impulsivity and tenacity)...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
Steven Glautier, Tamaryn Menneer, Hayward J Godwin, Nick Donnelly, José A Aristizabal
Previous work showed that prior experience with discriminations requiring configural solutions (e.g., biconditional discrimination) confers an advantage for the learning of new configural discriminations (e.g., negative patterning) in comparison to prior experience with elemental discriminations. This effect is well established but its mechanism is not well understood. In the studies described below we assessed whether the saliences of configural and element cues were affected by prior training. We observed positive transfer to a new configural discrimination after configural pre-training but we were unable to find evidence for changes in cue salience using a signal-detection task...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Belinda Pletzer, Andrea Scheuringer, TiAnni Harris
The unit-decade compatibility effect has challenged the model of holistic number magnitude processing, suggesting decomposed processing of multi-digit numbers. Recent evidence confirms that decomposed processing of decade and unit magnitudes occurs in parallel. However, the mode of presentation of multi-digit numbers may affect the processing mode (holistic vs. decomposed, parallel vs. sequential). We therefore investigated in two studies, whether presentation mode (vertical, horizontal, or consecutive) or the distance between two vertically presented numbers affects the unit-decade compatibility effect during number comparison...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Marek A Vranka, Štěpán Bahník
Previous choice blindness studies showed that people sometimes fail to notice when their choice is changed. Subsequently, they are willing to provide reasons for the manipulated choice which is the opposite of the one they made just seconds ago. In the present study, participants first made binary judgments about the wrongness of described behaviors and then were shown an opposite answer during a second reading of some of the descriptions. Half of the participants saw the answer during the second presentation of the description and the other half saw it only after the presentation...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
Xinlin Zhou, Chaoran Shen, Leinian Li, Dawei Li, Jiaxin Cui
Previous studies have demonstrated existence of a mental line for symbolic numbers (e.g., Arabic digits). For nonsymbolic number systems, however, it remains unresolved whether a spontaneous spatial layout of numerosity exists. The current experiment investigated whether SNARC-like (Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes) effects exist in approximate processing of numerosity, as well as of size and density. Participants were asked to judge whether two serially presented stimuli (i.e., dot arrays, pentagons) were the same regarding numbers of dots, sizes of the pentagon, or densities of dots...
June 2016: Experimental Psychology
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