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Experimental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922999/pattern-of-near-transfer-effects-following-working-memory-training-with-a-dual-n-back-task
#1
Anna Soveri, Eric P A Karlsson, Otto Waris, Petra Grönholm-Nyman, Matti Laine
In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the pattern of near transfer effects of working memory (WM) training with an adaptive auditory-visuospatial dual n-back training task in healthy young adults. The results revealed significant task-specific transfer to an untrained single n-back task, and more general near transfer to a WM updating composite score plus a nearly significant effect on a composite score measuring interference control in WM. No transfer effects were seen on Active or Passive WM composites...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922998/risk-preferences-in-surrogate-decision-making
#2
Eleonore Batteux, Eamonn Ferguson, Richard J Tunney
There is growing evidence that decisions made on behalf of other people differ from the decisions we make for ourselves because we are less affected by the subjective experience of their outcome. As a result, the decisions we make for other people can be more optimal. This experiment investigated surrogate decision making using a probability discounting task where participants made choices between risky and sure options. Psychological distance between the decision maker and the recipient was manipulated by having participants make decisions for themselves, their friend, and another unknown participant...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922997/how-social-and-refractory-is-the-social-psychological-refractory-period
#3
Peter Wühr, Herbert Heuer
The social psychological refractory period (PRP) effect refers to an increase in RT to the second of two successive stimuli when another person responds to the first stimulus (shared dual-task condition) rather than when a single person responds to both stimuli (individual dual-task condition). We investigated (a) whether a social PRP effect would occur without explicit instruction concerning task priority and (b) whether there are crosstalk effects in the shared dual-task situation. We observed a strong PRP effect together with a small crosstalk effect in the individual dual-task condition, but in the shared dual-task condition both effects were absent...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922996/split-second-trustworthiness-detection-from-faces-in-an-economic-game
#4
Wim De Neys, Astrid Hopfensitz, Jean-François Bonnefon
Economic interactions often imply to gauge the trustworthiness of others. Recent studies showed that when making trust decisions in economic games, people have some accuracy in detecting trustworthiness from the facial features of unknown partners. Here we provide evidence that this face-based trustworthiness detection is a fast and intuitive process by testing its performance at split-second levels of exposure. Participants played a Trust game, in which they made decisions whether to trust another player based on their picture...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922995/effects-of-process-and-outcome-accountability-on-idea-generation
#5
Jan Alexander Häusser, Johanna Ute Frisch, Stella Wanzel, Stefan Schulz-Hardt
Previous research on the effects of outcome and process accountability on decision making has neglected the preceding phase of idea generation. We conducted a 2 (outcome accountability: yes vs. no) × 2 (process accountability: yes vs. no) experiment (N = 147) to test the effects of accountability on quantity and quality of generated ideas in a product design task. Furthermore, we examined potential negative side effects of accountability (i.e., stress and lengthened decision making). We found that (a) outcome accountability had a negative effect on quantity of ideas and (b) process accountability extended the idea generation process...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922994/two-attributes-of-number-meaning
#6
Michael Wiemers, Harold Bekkering, Oliver Lindemann
Many studies demonstrated interactions between number processing and either spatial codes (effects of spatial-numerical associations) or visual size-related codes (size-congruity effect). However, the interrelatedness of these two number couplings is still unclear. The present study examines the simultaneous occurrence of space- and size-numerical congruency effects and their interactions both within and across trials. In a magnitude judgment task physically small or large digits were presented left or right from screen center...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922993/an-exploratory-tms-study-on-prefrontal-lateralization-in-valence-categorization-of-facial-expressions
#7
Chiara Ferrari, Lucile Gamond, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Converging neuroimaging and patient data suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in emotional processing. However, it is still not clear whether the DLPFC in the left and right hemisphere is differentially involved in emotion recognition depending on the emotion considered. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the possible causal role of the left and right DLPFC in encoding valence of positive and negative emotional facial expressions. Participants were required to indicate whether a series of faces displayed a positive or negative expression, while TMS was delivered over the right DLPFC, the left DLPFC, and a control site (vertex)...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662612/the-effect-of-cognitive-control-on-different-types-of-auditory-distraction
#8
Raoul Bell, Jan P Röer, John E Marsh, Dunja Storch, Axel Buchner
Deviant as well as changing auditory distractors interfere with short-term memory. According to the duplex model of auditory distraction, the deviation effect is caused by a shift of attention while the changing-state effect is due to obligatory order processing. This theory predicts that foreknowledge should reduce the deviation effect, but should have no effect on the changing-state effect. We compared the effect of foreknowledge on the two phenomena directly within the same experiment. In a pilot study, specific foreknowledge was impotent in reducing either the changing-state effect or the deviation effect, but it reduced disruption by sentential speech, suggesting that the effects of foreknowledge on auditory distraction may increase with the complexity of the stimulus material...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633625/on-the-inability-to-ignore-useless-advice
#9
Thomas Schultze, Andreas Mojzisch, Stefan Schulz-Hardt
Research in the judge-advisor-paradigm suggests that advice is generally utilized less than it should be according to its quality. In a series of four experiments, we challenge this widely held assumption. We hypothesize that when advice quality is low, the opposite phenomenon, namely overutilization of advice, occurs. We further assume that this overutilization effect is the result of anchoring: advice serves as an anchor, thus causing an adjustment toward even useless advice. The data of our four experiments support these hypotheses...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633624/the-automatic-mapping-of-magnitude-to-temporal-order-is-space-dependent
#10
Shachar Ben-Meir, Dana Ganor-Stern, Joseph Tzelgov
Past research has shown that performance in ordinal magnitude tasks is enhanced when stimuli are presented in ascending order, suggesting that magnitude is mapped to temporal order, with small magnitude associated with early and large with late presentation. The present study addresses the automaticity of this effect and its limitations. We used the "same/different" task for numbers (Experiment 1) and physical sizes of shapes (Experiment 2) as well as identity of shapes (Experiment 3). The advantage for stimuli in ascending order was found for both numbers and physical sizes of shapes...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633623/numerical-congruency-effect-in-the-sentence-picture-verification-task
#11
Mia Šetić, Dražen Domijan
In two experiments, we showed that irrelevant numerical information influenced the speed of sentence-picture verification. Participants were asked to verify whether the concept mentioned in a sentence matched the object presented in a subsequent picture. Concurrently, the number word attached to the concept in the sentence and the quantity of objects presented in the picture were manipulated (numerical congruency). The number of objects varied from one to four. In Experiment 1, participants read statements such as three dogs...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633622/search-for-capacity-limited-and-super-capacity-search
#12
Suk Won Han
The present study investigated capacity limitations of visual search. In a series of experiments, participants searched for a singleton target among homogenous distractors, a conjunction target defined by combination of two features, or a feature target among heterogeneous distractors. Using the simultaneous-sequential paradigm, I found that singleton search proceeded in a capacity-unlimited manner. By contrast, the performance of the conjunction search was found to depend on a capacity-limited process. For feature searches, the performance of searching for a specific color was not affected by how the stimuli were presented, while the orientation search performance was enhanced as the number of distractors simultaneously presented with the target increased...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633621/heads-up
#13
Jeffrey B Wagman, Alex Dayer, Alen Hajnal
Possibilities for behavior (i.e., affordances) can be perceived with units spanning anatomical components and external objects. For example, affordances for standing on an inclined surface can be perceived with an object held in the hand or attached to the head. We investigated whether these two person-plus-object perceptual systems exhibit the same pattern of nonlinear phase transitions in perception of this affordance. Blindfolded participants explored an inclined surface with a rod held in the hand or attached to the head and reported whether they could stand on that surface...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633620/reversing-the-manual-digit-bias-in-two-digit-number-comparison
#14
Thomas J Faulkenberry, Alexander Cruise, Samuel Shaki
Though recent work in numerical cognition has supported a strong tie between numerical and spatial representations (e.g., a mental number line), less is known about such ties in multi-digit number representations. Along this line, Bloechle, Huber, and Moeller (2015) found that pointing positions in two-digit number comparison were biased leftward toward the decade digit. Moreover, this bias was reduced in unit-decade incompatible pairs. In the present study, we tracked computer mouse movements as participants compared two-digit numbers to a fixed standard (55)...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633619/the-affect-misattribution-procedure
#15
Sarah Teige-Mocigemba, Manuel Becker, Jeffrey W Sherman, Regina Reichardt, Karl Christoph Klauer
The Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) has been forwarded as one of the most promising alternatives to the Implicit Association Test and the evaluative-priming task for measuring attitudes such as prejudice indirectly. We investigated whether the AMP is indeed able to detect an evaluative out-group bias. In contrast to recent conclusions about the robustness of AMP effects, six out of seven pilot studies indicated that participants did not show any prejudice effects in the AMP. Yet, these pilot studies were not fully conclusive with regard to our research question because they investigated different domains of prejudice, used small sample sizes, and employed a modified AMP version...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497725/factors-guiding-moral-judgment-reason-decision-and-action
#16
Alex Wiegmann, Magda Osman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497724/explaining-moral-behavior
#17
Magda Osman, Alex Wiegmann
In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497723/the-intention-outcome-asymmetry-effect
#18
Arunima Sarin, David A Lagnado, Paul W Burgess
Knowledge of intention and outcome is integral to making judgments of responsibility, blame, and causality. Yet, little is known about the effect of conflicting intentions and outcomes on these judgments. In a series of four experiments, we combine good and bad intentions with positive and negative outcomes, presenting these through everyday moral scenarios. Our results demonstrate an asymmetry in responsibility, causality, and blame judgments for the two incongruent conditions: well-intentioned agents are regarded more morally and causally responsible for negative outcomes than ill-intentioned agents are held for positive outcomes...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497722/moral-severity-is-represented-as-a-domain-general-magnitude
#19
Derek Powell, Zachary Horne
The severity of moral violations can vary by degree. For instance, although both are immoral, murder is a more severe violation than lying. Though this point is well established in Ethics and the law, relatively little research has been directed at examining how moral severity is represented psychologically. Most prominent moral psychological theories are aimed at explaining first-order moral judgments and are silent on second-order metaethical judgments, such as comparisons of severity. Here, the relative severity of 20 moral violations was established in a preliminary study...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497721/scale-effects-in-moral-relevance-assessment
#20
Jonas Nagel, Andrej Rybak
Research on moral judgment often employs bipolar rating scales to assess whether the difference between two contrasted options is judged to be morally relevant. We give an account of how different numbers of response options provided on such scales (odd vs. even) change the meaning of the test question by communicating different implicit presuppositions. We demonstrate experimentally that these changes can qualitatively affect the moral relevance judgments that subjects express in response to a given judgment problem...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
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