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Experimental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219262/individual-differences-in-the-flexibility-of-peripersonal-space
#1
Samuel B Hunley, Arwen M Marker, Stella F Lourenco
The current study investigated individual differences in the flexibility of peripersonal space (i.e., representational space near the body), specifically in relation to trait claustrophobic fear (i.e., fear of suffocating or being physically restricted). Participants completed a line bisection task with either a laser pointer (Laser condition), allowing for a baseline measure of the size of one's peripersonal space, or a stick (Stick condition), which produces expansion of one's peripersonal space. Our results revealed that individuals high in claustrophobic fear had larger peripersonal spaces than those lower in claustrophobic fear, replicating previous research...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219261/the-role-of-embodiment-and-individual-empathy-levels-in-gesture-comprehension
#2
Karine Jospe, Agnes Flöel, Michal Lavidor
Research suggests that the action-observation network is involved in both emotional-embodiment (empathy) and action-embodiment (imitation) mechanisms. Here we tested whether empathy modulates action-embodiment, hypothesizing that restricting imitation abilities will impair performance in a hand gesture comprehension task. Moreover, we hypothesized that empathy levels will modulate the imitation restriction effect. One hundred twenty participants with a range of empathy scores performed gesture comprehension under restricted and unrestricted hand conditions...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219260/automatic-retrieval-of-newly-instructed-cue-task-associations-seen-in-task-conflict-effects-in-the-first-trial-after-cue-task-instructions
#3
Nachshon Meiran, Maayan Pereg
Novel stimulus-response associations are retrieved automatically even without prior practice. Is this true for novel cue-task associations? The experiment involved miniblocks comprising three phases and task switching. In the INSTRUCTION phase, two new stimuli (or familiar cues) were arbitrarily assigned as cues for up-down/right-left tasks performed on placeholder locations. In the UNIVALENT phase, there was no task cue since placeholder's location afforded one task but the placeholders were the stimuli that we assigned as task cues for the following BIVALENT phase (involving target locations affording both tasks)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219259/the-role-of-cognitive-load-in-intentional-forgetting-using-the-think-no-think-task
#4
Saima Noreen, Jan W de Fockert
We investigated the role of cognitive control in intentional forgetting by manipulating working memory load during the think/no-think task. In two experiments, participants learned a series of cue-target word pairs and were asked to recall the target words associated with some cues or to avoid thinking about the target associated with other cues. In addition to this, participants also performed a modified version of the n-back task which required them to respond to the identity of a single target letter present in the currently presented cue word (n = 0 condition, low working memory load), and in either the previous cue word (n = 1 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 1) or the cue word presented two trials previously (n = 2 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 2)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219258/competent-and-warm
#5
Karolina Hansen, Tamara Rakić, Melanie C Steffens
Most research on ethnicity has focused on visual cues. However, accents are strong social cues that can match or contradict visual cues. We examined understudied reactions to people whose one cue suggests one ethnicity, whereas the other cue contradicts it. In an experiment conducted in Germany, job candidates spoke with an accent either congruent or incongruent with their (German or Turkish) appearance. Based on ethnolinguistic identity theory, we predicted that accents would be strong cues for categorization and evaluation...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219257/gestalt-effects-in-visual-working-memory
#6
Patrycja Kałamała, Aleksandra Sadowska, Wawrzyniec Ordziniak, Adam Chuderski
Four experiments investigated whether conforming to Gestalt principles, well known to drive visual perception, also facilitates the active maintenance of information in visual working memory (VWM). We used the change detection task, which required the memorization of visual patterns composed of several shapes. We observed no effects of symmetry of visual patterns on VWM performance. However, there was a moderate positive effect when a particular shape that was probed matched the shape of the whole pattern (the whole-part similarity effect)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219256/experimental-psychology
#7
Christoph Stahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059032/when-sufficiently-processed-semantically-related-distractor-pictures-hamper-picture-naming
#8
Asya Matushanskaya, Andreas Mädebach, Matthias M Müller, Jörg D Jescheniak
Prominent speech production models view lexical access as a competitive process. According to these models, a semantically related distractor picture should interfere with target picture naming more strongly than an unrelated one. However, several studies failed to obtain such an effect. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference is obtained, when the distractor picture is sufficiently processed. Participants named one of two pictures presented in close temporal succession, with color cueing the target...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059031/temporal-prediction-errors-affect-short-term-memory-scanning-response-time
#9
Roberto Limongi, Angélica M Silva
The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059030/list-of-reviewers-2016
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059029/validation-of-the-continuous-tracking-paradigm-for-studying-implicit-motor-learning
#11
Stefan Künzell, Dominicus Sießmeir, Harald Ewolds
A continuous pursuit-tracking task is the typical experimental paradigm to investigate implicit motor learning. Implicit motor learning is proven by a greater improvement in tracking of a repeated segment of a target path compared to random segments ( Pew, 1974 ). Recently, doubts about the validity of results obtained with this paradigm have been raised. Improved tracking of a repeated segment might simply be due to the characteristics of that particular segment. In response to these doubts, we seek to improve the continuous tracking task...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059028/three-semantic-serial-position-functions-at-the-same-time
#12
Ian Neath, Matthew R Kelley, Aimée M Surprenant
Serial position functions are so ubiquitous that researchers frequently use buffer items to control for primacy and recency effects regardless of the memory task. However, most theories offer different explanations for different types of tests. In contrast, the relative distinctiveness principle offers one explanation for all tasks: items with fewer close neighbors will generally be more distinct and therefore better remembered than items with more close neighbors. An experiment assessed two predictions of this account...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059027/cognitive-load-mediates-the-effect-of-emotion-on-analytical-thinking
#13
Bastien Trémolière, Marie-Ève Gagnon, Isabelle Blanchette
Although the detrimental effect of emotion on reasoning has been evidenced many times, the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In the present paper, we explore the cognitive load hypothesis as a potential explanation. In an experiment, participants solved syllogistic reasoning problems with either neutral or emotional contents. Participants were also presented with a secondary task, for which the difficult version requires the mobilization of cognitive resources to be correctly solved...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059026/the-mental-timeline-in-a-crossed-hands-paradigm
#14
Irmgard de la Vega, Verena Eikmeier, Rolf Ulrich, Barbara Kaup
The existence of a lateral mental timeline is well established; in left-to-right writing cultures, past is associated with the left, future with the right. Accordingly, participants respond faster with the left to past, and with the right to future. Recent studies indicate that this association does not reverse when participants respond with their hands crossed. We investigated the role of instruction for this association in a crossed-hands paradigm. Participants classified the temporal reference of words by pressing a key on the left with their right hand, or a key on the right with their left...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832736/facial-likability-and-smiling-enhance-cooperation-but-have-no-direct-effect-on-moralistic-punishment
#15
Laura Mieth, Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner
The present study serves to test how positive and negative appearance-based expectations affect cooperation and punishment. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with partners who either cooperated or defected. Then they were given a costly punishment option: They could spend money to decrease the payoffs of their partners. Aggregated over trials, participants spent more money for punishing the defection of likable-looking and smiling partners compared to punishing the defection of unlikable-looking and nonsmiling partners, but only because participants were more likely to cooperate with likable-looking and smiling partners, which provided the participants with more opportunities for moralistic punishment...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832735/does-top-down-feedback-modulate-the-encoding-of-orthographic-representations-during-visual-word-recognition
#16
Manuel Perea, Ana Marcet, Marta Vergara-Martínez
In masked priming lexical decision experiments, there is a matched-case identity advantage for nonwords, but not for words (e.g., ERTAR-ERTAR <  ertar-ERTAR; ALTAR-ALTAR = altar-ALTAR). This dissociation has been interpreted in terms of feedback from higher levels of processing during orthographic encoding. Here, we examined whether a matched-case identity advantage also occurs for words when top-down feedback is minimized. We employed a task that taps prelexical orthographic processes: the masked prime same-different task...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832734/constructing-and-deconstructing-concepts
#17
Charles A Doan, Ronaldo Vigo
Several empirical investigations have explored whether observers prefer to sort sets of multidimensional stimuli into groups by employing one-dimensional or family-resemblance strategies. Although one-dimensional sorting strategies have been the prevalent finding for these unsupervised classification paradigms, several researchers have provided evidence that the choice of strategy may depend on the particular demands of the task. To account for this disparity, we propose that observers extract relational patterns from stimulus sets that facilitate the development of optimal classification strategies for relegating category membership...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832733/space-and-motion-stimulus-response-correspondence-src-effects-in-a-single-task
#18
Piotr Styrkowiec
Previous research indicated that congruency between stimulus location and response position (spatial stimulus-response correspondence [SRC]) and stimulus motion and response movement congruency (motion SRC) are distinct SRC phenomena. This study further explored this issue and tested whether these two SRC effects are independent. This was conducted by investigating these two SRC effects in a single task. A stimulus with leftward or rightward motion was presented on the left or the right side of the screen and the participant had to move the joysticks held with the left and right hands leftward or rightward in response to the stimulus color...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832732/learned-irrelevance-and-cue-competition-using-an-eriksen-flanker-task
#19
Melissa Tapia, Kirkwood Meyers, Rachel Richardson, Rodica Ghinescu, Todd R Schachtman
Many studies have examined competition between cues for learning. Research examining cue competition has used cues that predict the occurrence of an outcome, or, in some rare cases, competition between cues that predict the absence of an outcome (predicting that an outcome explicitly will not occur). Alternatively, learned irrelevance occurs when a cue lacks the ability to predict the occurrence or absence of an outcome. Using an Eriksen flanker task, the present study evaluated competition among cues that do not have predictive value, that is, competition for learning that an outcome is unpredictable...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750520/effects-of-line-separation-and-exploration-on-the-visual-and-haptic-detection-of-symmetry-and-repetition
#20
Rebecca Lawson, Henna Ajvani, Stefano Cecchetto
Detection of regularities (e.g., symmetry, repetition) can be used to investigate object and shape perception. Symmetry and nearby lines may both signal that one object is present, so moving lines apart may disrupt symmetry detection, while repetition may signal that multiple objects are present. Participants discriminated symmetrical/irregular and repeated/irregular pairs of lines. For vision, as predicted, increased line separation disrupted symmetry detection more than repetition detection. For haptics, symmetry and repetition detection were similarly disrupted by increased line separation; also, symmetry was easier to detect than repetition for one-handed exploration and for body midline-aligned stimuli, whereas symmetry was harder to detect than repetition with two-handed exploration of stimuli oriented across the body...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
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