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Cancer Biology & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144842/a-novel-fiber-chimeric-conditionally-replicative-adenovirus-ad5-f35-for-tumor-therapy
#1
Ming Yang, Chun Sheng Yang, WenWen Guo, JianQin Tang, Qian Huang, ShouXin Feng, AiJun Jiang, XiFeng Xu, Guan Jiang, Yan Qun Liu
Significant progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer; however, significant challenges remain. Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), which not only kill cancer cells, but also serve as vectors to express therapeutic genes, are a novel and effective method to treat cancer. However, most adenoviruses are Ad5, which infect cells through the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). The transduction efficacy of Ad5 is restricted because of the absent or low expression of CAR on several cancer cells...
November 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131691/a-new-mutation-of-the-cdh1-gene-in-a-patient-with-an-aggressive-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-of-the-stomach
#2
Laura Caggiari, Gianmaria Miolo, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Mariangela De Zorzi, Lara Alessandrini, Giuseppe Corona, Renato Cannizzaro, Davide Adriano Santeufemia, Antonio Cossu, Angela Buonadonna, Valli De Re
Germline mutations in CDH1, the gene coding for the E-cadherin adhesion protein, are known to cause hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. We identified a new truncating germline mutation (p.Asp538Thrfs*19) in exon 11 of the CDH1 gene in a 41-year-old male with a diffuse gastric cancer. Although he had no parental history of gastric cancer, the co-segregation study in the family detected the same mutation in his healthy 31-year-old brother. The mutation affects one of the extracellular repeat (CAD repeats) domains which is essential for the homophilic binding specificity that directs "E-cadherin" to bind with itself each others...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059002/deactivation-of-cisplatin-resistant-human-lung-ovary-cancer-cells-with-pyropheophorbide-%C3%AE-methyl-ester-photodynamic-therapy
#3
Guanhua Qian, Li Wang, Xueling Zheng, Tinghe Yu
The aim of this study was to determine whether photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone or combined with cisplatin (DDP), can deactivate cisplatin-resistant cancer cells. Human cancer cell lines A549 and SKOV3, and chemoresistant sublines A549/DDP and SKOV3/DDP, were subjected to PDT, DDP, or PDT combined with DDP. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed, and then intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proteins related to apoptosis were determined. PDT caused cell death, and PDT combined with DDP led to the highest percentage of dead cells in 4 cell lines; similar results were detected in ROS; a quantification evaluation manifested that the combined effect was addition...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053398/the-involvement-of-lncrnas-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Li Duguang, He Jin, Qian Xiaowei, Xu Peng, Wang Xiaodong, Li Zhennan, Qian Jianjun, Yao Jie
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant tumors that are difficult to diagnose at its early stage and there is no effective therapy. Recent studies uncovered that many non-protein-coding RNAs including the class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in various types of tumors and they are potent regulators of tumor progression and metastasis. LncRNA can mediate tumor initiation, proliferation, migration and metastasis through modulating epigenetic modification, alternative splicing, transcription, and protein translation...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053396/embryonic-stem-cell-secreted-factors-decrease-invasiveness-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-through-regulome-modulation
#5
Elizabeth Tarasewicz, Robert S Oakes, Misael O Aviles, Joelle Straehla, Kathryn M Chilton, Joseph T Decker, Jia Wu, Lonnie D Shea, Jacqueline S Jeruss
Stem cell microenvironments decrease the invasiveness of cancer cells, and elucidating the mechanisms associated with disease regression could further the development of targeted therapies for aggressive cancer subtypes. To this end, we applied an emerging technology, TRanscriptional Activity CEll aRray (TRACER), to investigate the reprogramming of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells in conditions that promoted a less aggressive phenotype. The repressive environment was established through exposure to mouse embryonic stem cell conditioned media (mESC CM)...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053395/overexpression-of-hn1l-promotes-cell-malignant-proliferation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Lei Li, Ting-Ting Zeng, Bao-Zhu Zhang, Yan Li, Ying-Hui Zhu, Xin-Yuan Guan
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a progressive malignant disease, involving the activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressors. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel oncogene hematopoietic- and neurologic-expressed sequence 1-like (HN1L) in human NSCLC. Overexpression of HN1L was frequently detected in primary NSCLC compared with their non-tumor counterparts (P < 0.001), which was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.022). In addition, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that upregulation of HN1L correlated with worse overall survival (P = 0...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053388/some-chemotherapeutics-treated-colon-cancer-cells-display-a-specific-phenotype-being-a-combination-of-stem-like-and-senescent-cell-features
#7
H Was, J Czarnecka, A Kowalczyk, K Barszcz, T Bernas, K Piwocka, B Kaminska
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death among cancer patients in the Northern countries. CRC can reappear a long time after treatment. Recent clinical studies demonstrated that, in response to chemotherapy, cancer cells may undergo stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), which typically results in growth arrest. Nonetheless, these senescent cells were reported to divide in an atypical manner and thus contribute to cancer re-growth. Therefore, we examined if SIPS escape may follow treatment with chemotherapeutics used clinically: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin (OXA) and irinotecan (IRINO)...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020502/persistence-of-dna-adducts-hypermutation-and-acquisition-of-cellular-resistance-to-alkylating-agents-in-glioblastoma
#8
R J Head, M F Fay, L Cosgrove, K Y C Fung, D Rundle-Thiele, J H Martin
Glioblastoma is a lethal form of brain tumour usually treated by surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent. Key to the success of this multimodal approach is maintaining apoptotic sensitivity of tumour cells to the alkylating agent. This initial treatment likely establishes conditions contributing to development of drug resistance as alkylating agents form the O(6)-methylguanine adduct. This activates the mismatch repair (MMR) process inducing apoptosis and mutagenesis...
October 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020498/lncrna-ccat1-mir-130a-3p-axis-increases-cisplatin-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-line-by-targeting-sox4
#9
Baoli Hu, Haifeng Zhang, Zuopei Wang, Feng Zhang, Haitao Wei, Li Li
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene and promote chemoresistance in several cancers. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism of CCAT1 in cisplatin (DDP) resistance of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of CCAT, miR-130a-3p, or sex-determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4) mRNA. Luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), and qRT-PCR analysis were carried out to explore the potential targets of CCAT1 or miR-130a-3p...
October 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956730/inactivation-of-mir-100-combined-with-arsenic-treatment-enhances-the-malignant-transformation-of-beas-2b-cells-via-stimulating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#10
Jia Yang, Zhijun Chen, Xinyi Wang, Mo Xu, Haoshu Fang, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Yi Ding, Juan Li, Siying Wang
Chronic arsenic treatment induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promotes tumorigenicity, but the mechanism is unclear. MiR-100 has been shown to be involved in this biological process. In this study, we hypothesize that inactivation of miR-100 combined with low concentration of arsenic exposure could promote the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cell) by promoting EMT. To test this hypothesis, BEAS-2B cells were treated with low-dose of As2O3 chronically, and lentiviral vectors were used to mediate the inhibition of miR-100 expression...
September 28, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886304/the-roles-of-vasohibin-and-its-family-members-beyond-angiogenesis-modulators
#11
Hua Du, Jing Zhao, Ling Hai, Jing Wu, Hua Yi, Yonghong Shi
Vasohibin-1 is an intrinsic angiogenesis inhibitor, and is expressed in endothelial cells via induction by pro-angiogenesis factors. It is known to inhibit several processes of angiogenesis, with different mechanisms from extrinsic angiogenesis inhibitors. Vasohibin-2 is mainly expressed by mononuclear cells which have been mobilized from bone marrow. It not only promotes angiogenesis, but also modulates the releases of FGF-2 and VEGF, which are the two major inducers for vasohibin1. Hypoxic environment induces the expression of hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α with a result of VEGF release nearly in all tumor cell lines and tissues...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853983/identification-of-wee1-as-a-target-to-make-akt-inhibition-more-effective-in-melanoma
#12
Omer F Kuzu, Raghavendra Gowda, Arati Sharma, Mohammad A Noory, Gregory Kardos, SubbaRao V Madhunapantula, Joseph J Drabick, Gavin P Robertson
AKT3 is one of the major therapeutic targets in melanoma but clinically targeting AKT3 alone seems to be an ineffective therapeutic approach. To identify unique strategies to enhance the efficacy of targeting AKT3, a screen was undertaken where AKT3 was co-targeted with a panel of kinases important in melanoma development. The screen identified WEE1 as the most potent target that when inhibited along with AKT3 would enhance the efficacy of targeting AKT3 in melanoma. RNAi mediated inhibition of AKT3 and WEE1 synergistically inhibited the viability of melanoma cells leading to a 65-75% decrease in tumor development...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099264/co-targeting-pi3k-mtor-and-igf1r-with-small-molecule-inhibitors-for-treating-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma
#13
Caitlin D May, Sharon M Landers, Svetlana Bolshakov, XiaoYan Ma, Davis R Ingram, Christine M Kivlin, Kelsey L Watson, Ghadah A Al Sannaa, Angela D Bhalla, Wei-Lien Wang, Alexander J Lazar, Keila E Torres
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPSs) are aggressive mesenchymal malignancies with no definitive cell of origin or specific recurrent genetic hallmarks. These tumors are largely chemoresistant; thus, identification of potential therapeutic targets is necessary to improve patient outcome. Previous studies demonstrated that high expression of activated protein kinase B (AKT) in patients with UPS corresponds to poor disease-specific survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) signaling using a small molecule inhibitor reduced UPS cell proliferation and motility and xenograft growth; however, increased phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) indicated the potential for adaptive resistance following treatment through compensatory receptor activation...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934010/down-regulation-of-klf5-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-inhibit-gastric-cancer-cells-progression-by-ccl5-ccr5-axis
#14
Tingsong Yang, Min Chen, Xiaohu Yang, Xiaobing Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Yingying Sun, Bin Xu, Jie Hua, Zhigang He, Zhenshun Song
It was well known that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were an essential factor in tumor progression. However, the actual mechanism of stromal fibroblasts activation and tumor promoting effects remain unclear. Here, we showed that KLF5 expression was more frequently observed in gastric cancer-associated fibroblasts compared with normal mucosal fibroblasts. Moreover, KLF5 expression in tumor stroma was closely associated with clinicopathological features such as tumor size, invasion depth, cell grade and lymph node metastasis, as well as poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886272/expression-of-sesn1-uhrf1bp1-and-mir-377-3p-as-prognostic-markers-in-mutated-tp53-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#15
Mariama El Baroudi, Jean-Pascal Machiels, Sandra Schmitz
The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). It represents a known transcription factor that controls different microRNAs (miRNA) and target genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress, apoptosis and response to DNA damage. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas database to investigate the difference in transcriptome and proteome levels between mutated and wild-type TP53 HPV-negative HNSCC. Using different databases and an extensive literature review, we built the transcriptional and post-transcriptional network regulated by TP53...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886271/microrna-signature-in-the-chemoprevention-of-functionally-enriched-stem-and-progenitor-pools-fespp-by-active-hexose-correlated-compound-ahcc
#16
Émilie A Graham, Jean-François Mallet, Majed Jambi, Hiroshi Nishioka, Kohei Homma, Chantal Matar
PURPOSE: Many breast cancer patients use natural compounds in their battle against breast cancer. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC®) is a cultured mushroom mycelium extract shown to favorably modulate the immune system and alleviate cancer burden. Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of highly tumorigenic cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for recurrence. CSCs can be epigenetically regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We hypothesized that AHCC may influence CSCs by modulating tumor-suppressor or oncogenic miRNAs...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886265/microvesicles-releasing-by-oral-cancer-cells-enhance-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-via-shh-rhoa-signaling-pathway
#17
Xiao Huaitong, Feng Yuanyong, Tao Yueqin, Zhao Peng, Shang Wei, Song Kai
The present study aimed to investigate the significance of hedgehog signaling pathway in association with clinicopathology parameters and its effect on angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The expression of Sonic Hh (Shh) and Gli1 were done on primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in OSCC samples from 80 patients by immunohistochemical analysis. The western blot was used to examine the expression of Shh in OSCC cell lines and OSCC-derived microvesicles (MVs). The role of Shh carried by MVs to induce endothelial cell angiogenesis was further investigated by matrigel assay...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881163/exploiting-poly-i-c-to-induce-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#18
Francesca Bianchi, Samantha Pretto, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
TLR3 belong to the Toll-like receptors family, it is mainly expressed on immune cells where it senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiates innate immune response. TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) was developed to mimic pathogens infection and boost immune system activation to promote anti-cancer therapy. Accordingly, TLR agonists were included in the National Cancer Institute list of immunotherapeutic agents with the highest potential to cure cancer. Besides well known effects on immune cells, poly(I:C) was also shown, in experimental models, to directly induce apoptosis in cancer cells expressing TLR3...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881161/leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-gastric-cancer-successfully-treated-by-the-intrathecal-methotrexate-plus-temozolomide-and-simultaneous-radiotherapy-case-report-and-literatures-review
#19
Yangyang Liu
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from gastrointestinal cancer is rare. A 56-year-old man with complaint of upper abdominal pain exhibited adenocarcinoma upon histopathologic examination of biopsy specimens. At the end of adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient was affected by hearing loss. Malignant cells were observed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology. Therefore, the patient received intrathecal methotrexate and oral temozolomide chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The progress-free survival was approximately 11 months...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881160/effective-treatment-of-aggressive-fibromatosis-with-celecoxib-guided-by-genetic-testing
#20
Shanshan Yang, Xufu Wang, Haiping Jiang, Yongjie Wang, Zhuokun Li, Haijun Lu
Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) or desmoid tumors is an aggressive fibroblastic proliferation which is locally invasive but can not metastasize. The treatment of AF is challenging. Surgery was the main treatment modality for AF in the past, other strategies including radiotherapy, systemic therapies and wait-and-see policy. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and targeted therapies has demonstrated good results. In the case report, a 39-year-old man presented with progressive chest wall pain...
October 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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