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Cancer Biology & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886304/the-roles-of-vasohibin-and-its-family-members-beyond-angiogenesis-modulators
#1
Hua Du, Jing Zhao, Ling Hai, Jing Wu, Hua Yi, Yonghong Shi
Vasohibin-1 is an intrinsic angiogenesis inhibitor, and is expressed in endothelial cells via induction by pro-angiogenesis factors. It is known to inhibit several processes of angiogenesis, with different mechanisms from extrinsic angiogenesis inhibitors. Vasohibin-2 is mainly expressed by mononuclear cells which have been mobilized from bone marrow. It not only promotes angiogenesis, but also modulates the releases of FGF-2 and VEGF, which are the two major inducers for vasohibin1. Hypoxic environment induces the expression of hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α with a result of VEGF release nearly in all tumor cell lines and tissues...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886275/preclinical-rationale-for-combination-of-crizotinib-with-mitomycin-c-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-colorectal-cancer
#2
Avital Lev, Safoora Deihimi, Elena Shagisultanova, Joanne Xiu, Amriti R Lulla, David T Dicker, Wafik S El-Deiry
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. We analyzed 26 MSI-High and 558 non-MSI-High CRC tumors. BRCA2 mutations were highly enriched (50%) in MSI-High CRC. Immunohistochemistry showed that BRCA2-mutated MSI-High CRC had high c-MET (64%) expression compared to BRCA-WT (17%). We hypothesized a mechanistic link between BRCA2-deficiency and c-MET overexpression and synergistic interaction between drugs that treat BRCA-deficient tumors (mitomycin C (MMC) or PARP inhibitors) and c-MET inhibitors (crizotinib)...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886272/expression-of-sesn1-uhrf1bp1-and-mir-377-3p-as-prognostic-markers-in-mutated-tp53-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#3
Mariama El Baroudi, Jean-Pascal Machiels, Sandra Schmitz
The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). It represents a known transcription factor that controls different microRNAs (miRNA) and target genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress, apoptosis and response to DNA damage. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas database to investigate the difference in transcriptome and proteome levels between mutated and wild-type TP53 HPV-negative HNSCC. Using different databases and an extensive literature review, we built the transcriptional and post-transcriptional network regulated by TP53...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886271/microrna-signature-in-the-chemoprevention-of-functionally-enriched-stem-and-progenitor-pools-fespp-by-active-hexose-correlated-compound-ahcc
#4
Émilie A Graham, Jean-François Mallet, Majed Jambi, Hiroshi Nishioka, Kohei Homma, Chantal Matar
PURPOSE: Many breast cancer patients use natural compounds in their battle against breast cancer. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC®) is a cultured mushroom mycelium extract shown to favorably modulate the immune system and alleviate cancer burden. Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of highly tumorigenic cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for recurrence. CSCs can be epigenetically regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We hypothesized that AHCC may influence CSCs by modulating tumor-suppressor or oncogenic miRNAs...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886266/metastasis-of-esophageal-small-cell-carcinoma-to-the-appendix-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Qianrong Wang, Tao Zhou, Hongfu Sun, Baosheng Li
Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus is characterized by high malignancy with a tendency to metastasize early through lymph and blood circulation. Metastasis of esophageal SCC frequently occurs to distant organs such as liver and lung. However, few cases of appendiceal metastasis have been reported. This paper first presents a pathologically confirmed case with metastasis of esophageal SCC to the appendix. This particular case highlights the importance of pathological diagnosis and provides new evidence of appendiceal metastasis from esophageal SCC...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886265/microvesicles-releasing-by-oral-cancer-cells-enhance-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-via-shh-rhoa-signaling-pathway
#6
Xiao Huaitong, Feng Yuanyong, Tao Yueqin, Zhao Peng, Shang Wei, Song Kai
The present study aimed to investigate the significance of hedgehog signaling pathway in association with clinicopathology parameters and its effect on angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The expression of Sonic Hh (Shh) and Gli1 were done on primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in OSCC samples from 80 patients by immunohistochemical analysis. The western blot was used to examine the expression of Shh in OSCC cell lines and OSCC-derived microvesicles (MVs). The role of Shh carried by MVs to induce endothelial cell angiogenesis was further investigated by matrigel assay...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881163/exploiting-poly-i-c-to-induce-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#7
Francesca Bianchi, Samantha Pretto, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
TLR3 belong to the Toll-like receptors family, it is mainly expressed on immune cells where it senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiates innate immune response. TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) was developed to mimic pathogens infection and boost immune system activation to promote anti-cancer therapy. Accordingly, TLR agonists were included in the National Cancer Institute list of immunotherapeutic agents with the highest potential to cure cancer. Besides well known effects on immune cells, poly(I:C) was also shown, in experimental models, to directly induce apoptosis in cancer cells expressing TLR3...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881161/leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-gastric-cancer-successfully-treated-by-the-intrathecal-methotrexate-plus-temozolomide-and-simultaneous-radiotherapy-case-report-and-literatures-review
#8
Yangyang Liu
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from gastrointestinal cancer is rare. A 56-year-old man with complaint of upper abdominal pain exhibited adenocarcinoma upon histopathologic examination of biopsy specimens. At the end of adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient was affected by hearing loss. Malignant cells were observed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology. Therefore, the patient received intrathecal methotrexate and oral temozolomide chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The progress-free survival was approximately 11 months...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881160/effective-treatment-of-aggressive-fibromatosis-with-celecoxib-guided-by-genetic-testing
#9
Shanshan Yang, Xufu Wang, Haiping Jiang, Yongjie Wang, Zhuokun Li, Haijun Lu
Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) or desmoid tumors is an aggressive fibroblastic proliferation which is locally invasive but can not metastasize. The treatment of AF is challenging. Surgery was the main treatment modality for AF in the past, other strategies including radiotherapy, systemic therapies and wait-and-see policy. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and targeted therapies has demonstrated good results. In the case report, a 39-year-old man presented with progressive chest wall pain...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876975/mir-129-2-mediates-down-regulation-of-progesterone-receptor-in-response-to-progesterone-in-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Mukul Godbole, Pratik Chandrani, Nilesh Gardi, Hemant Dhamne, Kuldeep Patel, Neelima Yadav, Sudeep Gupta, Rajendra Badwe, Amit Dutt
OBJECTIVE: Hormonal therapy is an important component of first line of treatment for breast cancer. Response to hormonal therapy is influenced by the progesterone receptor (PR)-status of breast cancer patients. However as an early effect, exposure to progesterone decreases expression of PR in breast cancer cells. An understanding of the mechanism underlying down-regulation of PR could help improve response to hormonal therapy. METHODS: We performed small RNA sequencing of breast cancer cells for identification of microRNAs targeting PR in response to progesterone treatment...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857668/malat1-mir-124-capn4-axis-regulates-proliferation-invasion-and-emt-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#11
Baoyuan Shi, Yandan Wang, Fengfang Yin
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 (Metastasis-associated lung Adenocarcinoma transcript-1) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the regulation of cancer progression and metastasis. However, little is known about MALAT1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) pathogenesis and progression. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to measure the expression of MALAT1, miR-124 and Capn4 mRNA in NPC cell lines. The protein level of Capn4 was examined by western blot analysis...
August 31, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853983/identification-of-wee1-as-a-target-to-make-akt-inhibition-more-effective-in-melanoma
#12
Omer F Kuzu, Raghavendra Gowda, Arati Sharma, Mohammad A Noory, Gregory Kardos, SubbaRao V Madhunapantula, Joseph J Drabick, Gavin P Robertson
AKT3 is one of the major therapeutic targets in melanoma but clinically targeting AKT3 alone seems to be an ineffective therapeutic approach. To identify unique strategies to enhance the efficacy of targeting AKT3, a screen was undertaken where AKT3 was co-targeted with a panel of kinases important in melanoma development. The screen identified WEE1 as the most potent target that when inhibited along with AKT3 would enhance the efficacy of targeting AKT3 in melanoma. RNAi mediated inhibition of AKT3 and WEE1 synergistically inhibited the viability of melanoma cells leading to a 65-75% decrease in tumor development...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829677/braf-mutation-as-a-novel-driver-of-eosinophilic-cystitis
#13
Michael Y Choi, Igor F Tsigelny, Amelie Boichard, Åge A Skjevik, Ahmed Shabaik, Razelle Kurzrock
Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare manifestation of hypereosinophilia and a cause of morbidity, including dysuria and hematuria. Although some cases can be attributed to infection or allergy, most cases are assessed to be idiopathic and treated with corticosteroids. However, hypereosinophilia can also be due to actionable clonal molecular alterations in the haematopoietic cells, similar to other myeloproliferative neoplasms. Common mutations associated with eosonophilic syndromes are of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α or β or c-kit, though other pathogenic mutations have been found by next generation sequencing...
August 22, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825855/flotilin-1-promotes-the-tumorigenicity-and-progression-of-malignant-phenotype-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Ai Yun Guo, Xu Jun Liang, Rui Jie Liu, Xiao Xiao Li, Wu Bi, Liu Ying Zhou, Can E Tang, Ang Yan, Zhu Chu Chen, Peng Fei Zhang
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for the most common histological subtype of lung cancer which remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The discovery of more sensitive and specific novel target biomarkers for predicting the development and progression of LUAD is imperative. Flotillin-1 (Flot-1) has been reported to have important roles in the progression of several tumor types but not been reported in the progression of LUAD. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of flotillin-1 was upregulated in 5 LUAD cells...
August 21, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812434/-pemetrexed-sildenafil-via-autophagy-dependent-hdac-down-regulation-enhances-the-immunotherapy-response-of-nsclc-cells
#15
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
Pemetrexed is an approved therapeutic in NSCLC and ovarian cancer. Our studies focused on the ability of [pemetrexed + sildenafil] exposure to alter the immunogenicity of lung and ovarian cancer cells. Treatment of lung and ovarian cancer cells with [pemetrexed + sildenafil] in vitro rapidly reduced the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2 and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increased the expression of Class I MHCA. In a cell-specific fashion, some cells also released the immunogenic nuclear protein HMGB1 into the extracellular environment...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812429/metastatic-colon-adenocarcinoma-has-a-significantly-elevated-expression-of-il-10-compared-to-primary-colon-adenocarcinoma-tumors
#16
Michelle H Townsend, Abigail M Felsted, Stephen R Piccolo, Richard A Robison, Kim L O'Neill
Classical anti-inflammatory cytokines are known to play a role in both cancer progression as well as cancer elimination. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β in patients with colon adenocarcinoma and metastatic colon adenocarcinoma utilizing immunohistochemical assays to determine the expression of the cytokines between various malignant tissues. We found tissues stained with TGF-β showed no significant upregulation within malignant tumors when compared to normal tissue controls. We observed high levels of TGF-β presence in most tissues similar to GAPDH expression...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812426/the-expression-of-etar-in-liver-cirrhosis-and-liver-cancer
#17
Juhong Deng, Yu Huang, Ran Tao, Xiangxue Fan, Hongyue Zhang, Hongyan Kong, Qiqing Song, Jiaquan Huang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the expression of endothelin receptors in liver diseases and discuss its role in the process of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the expressions of ETAR, ETBR and α-SMA in tissue samples using western blotting analysis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence was used to locate ETAR expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs), we calculated the percentage of positive cells and then analyzed its relation with clinical indexes...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812423/a-study-on-different-therapies-and-prognosis-related-factors-for-101-patients-with-sclc-and-brain-metastases
#18
Ying Liu, Xian-Hong Liu, Ying Wang, Jing Zhu, Ying Xin, Kai Niu, Sheng Wang, Ying Cheng
OBJECTIVE: There is a need to explore multi-discipline general treatment modes to improve the survival period of patients with SCLC and brain metastases undergoing standard radiotherapy treatment. METHODS: A total of 101 patients with SCLC and brain metastases were included into this study. These patients were classified into 4 groups, based on different treatment modes: chemotherapy group, brain radiotherapy group, brain radiotherapy combined with sequential chemotherapy, and chemotherapy combined with sequential brain radiotherapy...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799829/radiotherapy-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-cell-apoptosis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-via-the-atm-and-smad-pathways
#19
Ming-Yi Li, Jin-Quan Liu, Dong-Ping Chen, Zhou-Yu Li, Bin Qi, Lu He, Yi Yu, Wen-Jin Yin, Meng-Yao Wang, Ling Lin
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck which is harmful to human's health. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of NPC and it induces immediate cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism remains unknown. Evidences suggested the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and Smad pathway are two of the important crucial mediators in the function of radiotherapy. In this study, we carried out in vitro assays with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells and in vivo assays with nude mice to investigate the role of the ATM and Smad pathways in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy...
August 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795902/rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-breast-report-of-a-rare-malignancy
#20
Yufen Yuan, Junna Hou, Yunbao Pan
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an uncommon type of soft-tissue malignancy which mainly influences children. RMS rarely occurs in breast and little of the clinical behavior and treatment strategies were reported. Here, we describe a case of adult female patient with breast RMS. A 34-years-old Chinese woman visited to our hospital complaining palpable mass in her left breast. Seven months ago, the patient was diagnosed as lymphocytic mastitis and received surgical excision in the left breast. Five months later, she noticed a palpable mass again in the left breast...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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