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Cancer Biology & Therapy

Xinyao Li, Zhengchang He, Bingqing Cheng, Qin Fang, Dan Ma, Tingting Lu, Danna Wei, Xingyi Kuang, Sishi Tang, Jie Xiong, Jishi Wang
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of adult lymphoma. It is a group of malignant tumors with a large number of clinical manifestations and prognoses. Therefore, it is necessary to explore its unknown potential therapeutic targets. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) is a novel drug for the treatment of DLBCL, however pan-HDACis cannot be ignored because of their clinical efficacy. By contrast, specific HDACi is well-tolerated, and LMK-235 is a novel HDACi that is a specific inhibitor of HDAC4 and HDAC5...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Gang Yuan, Qiuli Liu, Dali Tong, Gaolei Liu, Yuting Yi, Jun Zhang, Yao Zhang, Lin-Ang Wang, Luofu Wang, Rongrong Chen, Yanfang Guan, Xin Yi, Weihua Lan, Jun Jiang
Von Hippel-Landau (VHL) disease is characterized by malignant and benign tumors in multiple organs. Sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been clinically available for treating sporadic patients with recurrent or unresectable and metastatic clear renal cell carcinomas (cRCCs) and metastatic lesions of the lung, but its effect on VHL disease-associated tumors remains poorly understood. This retrospective case series examined the effect of sunitinib on RCC, hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with confirmed VHL...
June 27, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Rumeesa Rais, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
PARP1 inhibitors are approved therapeutic agents in ovarian carcinomas, and have clinical activity in some breast cancers. As a single agent, niraparib killed ovarian and mammary tumor cells via an ATM-AMPK-ULK1 pathway which resulted in mTOR inactivation and the formation of autophagosomes, temporally followed by autolysosome formation. In parallel, niraparib activated a CD95-FADD-caspase 8 pathway, and collectively these signals caused tumor cell death that was suppressed by knock down of Beclin1, ATG5, CD95, FADD or AIF; or by expression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL or dominant negative caspase 9...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Xiaoming Ouyang, Ashley Barling, Aletha Lesch, Jeffrey W Tyner, Gabrielle Choonoo, Christina Zheng, Sophia Jeng, Toni M West, Daniel Clayburgh, Sara A Courtneidge, Shannon K McWeeney, Molly Kulesz-Martin
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) currently only has one FDA-approved cancer intrinsic targeted therapy, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab, to which only approximately 10% of tumors are sensitive. In order to extend therapy options, we subjected patient-derived HNSCC cells to small-molecule inhibitor and siRNA screens, first, to find effective combination therapies with an EGFR inhibitor, and second, to determine a potential mechanistic basis for repurposing the FDA approved agents for HNSCC...
June 1, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Wan Wang, Lidong Liao, Yujun Wang, Hui Li, Zili Suo, Kai Long, Peixiao Tang
The PI3K/mTOR pathway is one of the most frequently aberrantly activated pathways in human malignancies, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and contributes to resistance to antitumor therapies. Thus, PI3K/mTOR is an attractive target for the development of antitumor agents. In this study, we evaluated the preclinical effects of a novel inhibitor SN202. We examined Akt/mTOR activities in renal cancer cells after SN202 treatment. The preclinical effects of SN202 on tumor growth were evaluated in renal cancer cells in vitro and in murine xenografts in vivo...
May 25, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Yi Yang, Qiaobin Guan, Li Guo, Chenyang Han
OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to investigate the tumor vessel-associated CD105 expression in monocytes from tumor tissue and peripheral blood (PB) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in order to provide support and reference for clinical pharmaceutical therapy. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with advanced HCC who were administered with sunitinib were collected. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was utilized to assess the CD105 expression in tumor tissue, and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression of CD105 of monocytes in tumor tissue and PB, as well as the mRNA expression of TGFβ1, Smad1-4 in tumor tissue...
May 25, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
O Morgan Hall, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Phoebe A Huang, Douglas K Price, William D Figg
Numerous growth-inducing signaling pathways have been implicated in the development of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, but their cross-talk with androgen receptor functions remains poorly understood. A recent study published in Science Signaling by Chen et al. 1 has identified a novel androgen-mediated signaling axis driven by loss of SPDEF and gain of TGFBI to facilitate metastasis, which may explain the acquisition of resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. These findings suggest that therapeutic inhibition of androgen signaling may inadvertently promote castrate resistance by inhibiting tumor suppressive functions of the androgen receptor...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Fangxuan Li, Yang Zhao, Lijuan Wei, Shixia Li, Juntian Liu
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells(Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells(MDSCs) represent two immunosuppressive cell populations that are important in the establishment and maintenance of cancer immune tolerance. MDSCs can express IDO and promote immune tolerance via expansion of Treg cell. METHOD: We use needle biopsy breast cancer tissues prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NCT) staining for CD33, Foxp3 and IDO by immunohistochemistry to evaluate whether they were correlated with subsequent treatment responses in breast cancer...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Ryuji Yamaguchi, Guy Perkins
In cancer immunotherapy, cytotoxic T or NK cells need to engage cancer cells to initiate the killing. However, in clinical studies and in mouse models, some solid tumors are found with no lymphocytes. It is likely that these tumors will be resistant to all sorts of immunotherapies. Thus, restoring lymphocytic infiltration will be vital to the success of immunotherapies on solid tumors. In order to understand the complex interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells, we propose to establish animal models for studying the tumor microenvironment and to develop and test therapies to restore lymphocytic infiltration of tumors Without lymphocytes infiltrating tumors, all immunotherapies on solid tumors become ineffective...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Shanmugasundaram Ganapathy-Kanniappan
In an elegant report, Corbet et al 1 recently demonstrated the much needed insight to exploit cancer's metabolic reprogramming for potential therapeutic intervention. In brief, the findings underscore the principle that abrogation of mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism upregulates glycolysis, and sensitizes cancer cells to radiation. Distinctive from the conventional approach of inhibition/ down-regulation of glycolysis, this emerging paradigm of forced-upregulation of glycolysis (i.e., a "hyperglycolytic" phenotype) concomitant with a reduced mitochondrial capacity turns the metabolic plasticity into vulnerability that may have implications in therapeutic targeting...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Pavithra Rajagopalan, Krishna Patel, Ankit P Jain, Vishalakshi Nanjappa, Keshava K Datta, Tejaswini Subbannayya, Kiran K Mangalaparthi, Anjali Kumari, Malini Manoharan, Karunakaran Coral, Sakthivel Murugan, Bipin Nair, T S Keshava Prasad, Premendu P Mathur, Ravi Gupta, Rohit Gupta, Arati Khanna-Gupta, Joseph Califano, David Sidransky, Harsha Gowda, Aditi Chatterjee
Tobacco usage is a known risk factor associated with development of oral cancer. It is mainly consumed in two different forms (smoking and chewing) that vary in their composition and methods of intake. Despite being the leading cause of oral cancer, molecular alterations induced by tobacco are poorly understood. We therefore sought to investigate the adverse effects of cigarette smoke/chewing tobacco exposure in oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT1). OKF6/TERT1 cells acquired oncogenic phenotype after treating with cigarette smoke/chewing tobacco for a period of 8 months...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Caixia Tang, Hu Lei, Jinfu Zhang, Meng Liu, Jin Jin, Hao Luo, Hanzhang Xu, Yingli Wu
Through regulating the expression of hundreds of genes, hypoxia-inducible factor -1(HIF-1) plays a critical role in hypoxic adaption of cancer cells and is considered as a target for cancer therapy. Here we show that montelukast, a clinical leukotriene receptor antagonist for the treatment of asthma, inhibits hypoxia or CoCl2 -induced HIF-1α activation and reduces its protein expression in prostate cancer cells. However, the other two leukotriene receptor antagonists, pranlukast and zafirlukast, cannot decrease HIF-1α protein, which indicates that montelukast-induced downregulation of HIF-1α is not mediated by leukotriene receptor...
April 30, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Panzhang Hou, Yi Kang, Jianchao Luo
Rab1a, a member RAS oncogene family, has been reported playing important role in tumor proliferation and migration. However, the role of Rab1a in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is not clear. In this study, we found Rab1a was overexpressed in ICC tissues both in mRNA and protein level. Kaplan-meier analysis showed that high expression of Rab1a was associated with poor prognosis of ICC patients. Suppression of Rab1a led to lower proliferation rate and migration ability both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting process of cell cycle and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Niravkumar R Patel, Aleksandr Piroyan, Srinivas Ganta, Allison B Morse, Katie M Candiloro, April L Solon, Abbegail H Nack, Corin A Galati, Collete Bora, Marisa A Maglaty, Shane W O'Brien, Samuel Litwin, Barbara Davis, Denise C Connolly, Timothy P Coleman
Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer related deaths for women in USA. The high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer is due to diagnosis at later stages of disease and the high recurrence rate of 60-80%. Recurrent ovarian cancers are more likely to present as multidrug resistance (MDR) leading to unfavorable response from 2nd and 3rd line chemotherapy. Nanoemulsions (NEs) are emerging as an attractive drug delivery system to overcome MDR challenges. NEs can also minimize exposure of therapeutic cargo to normal tissues potentially reducing side effects...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Maciej Jóźwik, Renata Posmyk, Marcin Jóźwik, Andrzej Semczuk, Magdalena Gogiel-Shields, Marta Kuś-Słowińska, Magdalena Garbowicz, Mark Klukowski, Jacek Wojciechowicz
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy in both pre- and postmenopausal women. However, it is exceedingly rare in very young patients, and especially in adolescents. Herein, we report a case of an 18-year-old female diagnosed with invasive BC. The proband had been found to be negative for BC in close family members. A common BC genetic screening test for the Polish population did not detect any known founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene. Further evaluation identified a p.Ile157Thr (I157T) mutation in the CHEK2 gene, a p...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Xiaowen Wu, Jiayi Yu, Junya Yan, Jie Dai, Lu Si, Zhihong Chi, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Meng Ma, Huan Tang, Tianxiao Xu, Huan Yu, Yan Kong, Jun Guo
mTOR is an important therapeutic target in many types of cancers. In melanoma, the mTOR nonsynonymous mutation rate is up to 10.4%. However, mTOR inhibitors have shown limited effects in clinical trials of melanoma. Because mTOR mutations are distributed, not selecting patients with specific mTOR mutations may be the main reason for therapeutic failures. Our previous research found that mutations in the mTOR P2213S and S2215Y kinase domains resulted in gain-of-function and were sensitive to specific inhibitors...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Suzhen Song, Weihua Yu, Sen Lin, Mingbao Zhang, Teng Wang, Shuang Guo, Hongbo Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ADP dependent glucokinase antisense RNA 1 (ADPGK-AS1)/ miR-205-5p/ zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) on PC cells. METHODS: Differentially expressed lncRNAs and miRNAs in pancreatic cancer (PC) were identified by microarray analysis. In silico ceRNA analysis was conducted to find out the interactions among lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was utilized to examine the expression of miR-205-5p and lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 in PC and non-cancerous cells...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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