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Cancer Biology & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418285/a-new-predictive-tool-for-postoperative-radiotherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Daniel K Lee, William D Figg
The standard treatments for localized prostate cancer include surgical resection and/or radiotherapy. Recently in 2016, Zhao et al. described a tool to predict which patients will most likely gain from postoperative radiotherapy. Such a method can personalize treatment plan by maximizing benefit but minimizing harm.
April 18, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402723/constitutional-3p26-3-terminal-microdeletion-in-an-adolescent-with-neuroblastoma
#2
Annalisa Pezzolo, Angela Rita Sementa, Margherita Lerone, Martina Morini, Marzia Ognibene, Raffaella Defferrari, Katia Mazzocco, Massimo Conte, Anna Rita Gigliotti, Alberto Garaventa, Vito Pistoia, Luigi Varesio
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common and often lethal cancer of early childhood that accounts for 10% of pediatric cancer mortality. Incidence peaks in infancy and then rapidly declines, with less than 5% of cases diagnosed in children and adolescents ≥10 years. There is increasing evidence that NB has unique biology and an chronic disease course in older children and adolescents, but ultimately dismal survival. METHODS: We describe a rare constitutional 3p26...
April 12, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402230/downregulation-of-lncrna-anril-inhibits-proliferation-induces-apoptosis-and-enhances-radiosensitivity-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-through-regulating-mir-125a
#3
Xigang Hu, Huijuan Jiang, Xiaojun Jiang
Increasing evidence demonstrated that long non-coding RNA ANRIL serves as a fatal oncogene in many cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, little is known whether ANRIL regulated NPC cell radioresistance. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the expression of lncRNA ANRIL and miR-125a in NPC tissues and cell lines. MTT assay was conducted to measure the cell viability of CNE2 and HONE1 cells. The apoptotic rate of CNE2 and HONE1 cells was determined by flow cytometry analysis...
April 12, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394698/generation-of-therapeutic-immunoconjugates-via-residue-specific-conjugation-technology-respect-utilizing-a-native-cysteine-in-the-light-chain-framework-of-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#4
Earl F Albone, Jared L Spidel, Xin Cheng, Young Chul Park, Sara Jacob, Andrew Z Milinichik, Ben Vassen, Janet Butler, J Bradford Kline, Luigi Grasso
The conjugation of toxins, dyes, peptides, or proteins to monoclonal antibodies is often performed via free thiol groups generated by either partial reduction methods or engineering free cysteine residues into the antibody sequence. Antibodies from the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus have an additional intrachain disulfide bond, whereby the light chain variable kappa domain is bridged to the constant kappa region between cysteine residues at positions 80 and 171, respectively. Chimerization of rabbit antibodies with human constant domains allows for the generation of a free thiol group at the light chain position 80 (C80) that can be utilized for site-specific conjugation...
April 10, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387539/expression-of-phosphorylated-hippo-pathway-kinases-mst1-2-and-lats1-2-in-her2-positive-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-neoadjuvant-therapy
#5
Cristiana Ercolani, Anna Di Benedetto, Irene Terrenato, Laura Pizzuti, Luigi Di Lauro, Domenico Sergi, Francesca Sperati, Simonetta Buglioni, Maria Teresa Ramieri, Lucia Mentuccia, Teresa Gamucci, Letizia Perracchio, Edoardo Pescarmona, Marcella Mottolese, Maddalena Barba, Patrizia Vici, Ruggero De Maria, Marcello Maugeri-Saccà
The Hippo kinases MST1/2 and LATS1/2 inhibit the oncoproteins TAZ/YAP and regulate T cell function. Hippo kinases also cooperate with the ATR-Chk1 and ATM-Chk2 pathways, central orchestrators of the DNA damage response (DDR). We hypothesized that MST1/2 and LATS1/2 localization differently impacts the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in breast cancer, being protective when expressed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, whereas representing molecular determinants of chemoresistance when present in the nucleus as a consequence of their cooperation with the DDR...
April 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362192/ovarian-metastasis-from-lung-adenocarcinoma-with-alk-positive-rearrangement-detected-by-next-generation-sequencing-a-case-report-and-literatures-review
#6
Xuquan Jing, Feng Li, Xue Meng, Zhitong Liu, Jinming Yu, Bo Liu
Ovarian metastasis is an exceptionally rare condition in lung adenocarcinoma patients and is often difficult to distinguish from primary ovarian carcinoma. ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) tyrosine kinase inhibitors elicit a significant objective response rate and are well-tolerated in advanced ALK-positive lung cancer. Hence, we report a case of a 41-year-old woman with ovarian metastases from NSCLC. After receiving a 6 course first line chemotherapy and 8 course maintenance therapy, the patient suffered acute abdominal pain, so surgery was performed...
March 31, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362190/hpv-epigenetic-mechanisms-related-to-oropharyngeal-and-cervix-cancers
#7
Marina Di Domenico, Giancarlo Giovane, Soumaya Kouidhi, Rosamaria Iorio, Maurizio Romano, Francesco De Francesco, Antonia Feola, Camilla Siciliano, Luigi Califano, Antonio Giordano
Human Papilloma Virus infection is very frequent in humans and is mainly transmitted sexually. The majority of infections are transient and asymptomatic, however, if the infection persists, it can occur with a variety of injuries to skin and mucous membranes, depending on the type of HPV involved. Some types of HPV are classified as high oncogenic risk as associated with the onset of cancer. The tumors most commonly associated with HPV are cervical and oropharyngeal cancer, epigenetic mechanisms related to HPV infection include methylation changes to host and viral DNA and chromatin modification in host species...
March 31, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358223/ameliorative-effects-of-pyrazinoic-acid-against-oxidative-and-metabolic-stress-manifested-in-rats-with-dimethylhydrazine-induced-colonic-carcinoma
#8
Anil K Sahdev, Vinit Raj, Ashok K Singh, Amit Rai, Amit K Keshari, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Umesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Dinesh Kumar, Sneha Nath, Anand Prakash, Sudipta Saha
Pyrazinoic acid (PA) is structurally similar to nicotinic acid which acts on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR109A). GPR109A expresses in colonic and intestinal epithelial sites, and involves in DNA methylation and cellular apoptosis. Therefore, it may be assumed that PA has similar action like nicotinic acid and may be effective against colorectal carcinoma (CRC). CRC was produced via subcutaneous injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at 40 mg/kg body weight once in a week for four weeks. After that, PA was administered orally at two doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg daily for 15 days to observe the antiproliferative effect...
March 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353401/effect-of-nk-cell-immunotherapy-on-immune-function-in-patients-with-hepatic-carcinoma-a-preliminary-clinical-study
#9
Zilin Qin, Jibing Chen, Jianying Zeng, Lizhi Niu, Silun Xie, Xiaohua Wang, Yingqing Liang, Zhenyi Wu, Mingjie Zhang
We investigated the effectiveness of adoptive transfer of KIR ligand-mismatched highly activated nature killer (HANK) cells in patients with hepatic carcinoma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained and cultured in vitro to induce expansion and activation of HANK cells. After 12 days of culture, the cells were divided into three parts and infused intravenously on days 13 to 15. The patients (n = 16) were given one to six courses of immunotherapy. No side effects were observed. The lymphocyte subsets and cytokine, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels were measured 1 day before treatment and 1 month after the final infusion: the absolute number of total T cells and NK cells and the IL-2 and TNF-β levels were significantly higher, and the TK1 and CTC levels were significantly lower at 1 month after treatment...
March 29, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346042/decreased-expression-of-aldh5a1-predicts-prognosis-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#10
Xun Tian, Yingyan Han, Lan Yu, Bo Luo, Zheng Hu, Xiong Li, Zongyuan Yang, Xin Wang, Wanqiu Huang, Hui Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Ding Ma
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family, member A1 (ALDH5A1) belongs to the superfamily of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). However, the prognostic value of ALDH5A1 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ALDH5A1 and the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer (OC). We compared the expression of ALDH5A1 in OC to that innormal controls, using GSE40595 profiling data. Tissue microarray analysis was conducted for192 OC patients, 14 adjacent normal ovary tissues, and 2 normal ovary tissues...
March 27, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281917/brd4-inhibitor-ibet-upregulates-p27kip-cip-protein-stability-in-neuroendocrine-tumor-cells
#11
Lei Wang, Smita Matkar, Gengchen Xie, Chiying An, Xin He, Xiangchen Kong, Xiuheng Liu, Xianxin Hua
The prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has recently been increasing. Although various drugs such as Octreotide and its analogs show certain efficacy, NETs in many patients progress and metastasize. It is desirable to develop new interventions to improve the therapy. Here we show that human neuroendocrine tumor BON cells are resistant to several drugs commonly used for NET therapy, including Octreotide that activates somatostatin receptor-induced anti-proliferation, and Capecitabine and Temozolimide that damage DNA...
March 10, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278071/the-expression-of-asparaginyl-endopeptidase-promotes-growth-potential-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#12
Qinyi Zhu, Meiling Tang, Xipeng Wang
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common and lethal cancer-related death among females in the world. Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) is a member of C13 family peptidases and expressed in the extracellular matrix and tumor cells. The aim of this article is to explore the function of asparaginyl endopeptidase in epithelial ovarian cancer. The expression of AEP was examined in 20 EOC samples, 3 EOC metastasis samples, 6 fallopian tube metastasis samples, 4 peritoneum metastasis samples and 20 benign ovarian tumor samples by immunohistochemistry...
March 3, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278075/piecing-the-puzzle-together-docetaxel-cycles-and-current-considerations-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#13
Hannah E Feinman, Douglas K Price, William D Figg
Docetaxel is the current first line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but there is no standard number of docetaxel cycles given to patients. In their post hoc analysis of the Mainsail study, de Morrée et al. show that the number of docetaxel cycles administered to a patient is a significant factor contributing to overall survival. These findings warrant further investigation into the standardization of the number of docetaxel cycles administered.
February 25, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278074/a-clinical-study-of-21-patients-with-hemophagocytic-syndrome-in-295-cases-diagnosed-with-nasal-type-extranodal-nature-killer-t-cell-lymphoma
#14
Na Li, Li Zhang, Jie Liu, Jing Zhang, Hua-Wei Weng, Hong-Yu Zhuo, Li-Qun Zou
Nasal type, extranodal nature killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (NK/T-LAHS) is a rare and fatal disorder with extremely poor prognosis. To investigate its clinical characteristics and risk factors, we retrospectively analyzed 295 patients with nasal type, extranodal nature killer/T cell lymphoma, of which 21 were diagnosed with hemophagocytic syndrome, with a cumulative incidence of 7.1%. The most frequently clinical characteristics were fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, liver dysfunction, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia and evaluated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level...
February 25, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278073/sequential-development-of-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-post-immunochemotherapy-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#15
Jing-Wen Wang, Jia-Yan Chen, Chen Lu, Xi Tang
Reports of sequential occurrence of two or more types of lymphoma are rare, especially when they involve different cell lineages. Herein, we report a rare case of sequential development of peripheral t-cell lymphoma following treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. In a 73-year-old Chinese male patient, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was diagnosed in September 2011 based on the result of a tongue biopsy. Afterwards, he received rituximab combined with chemotherapy and local radiotherapy. Though he achieved completed remission, he had a new symptom of one enlarged left inguinal lymph node in November of 2015...
February 25, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278072/chronic-inflammation-confers-to-the-metabolic-reprogramming-associated-with-tumorigenesis-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Dingding Qu, Liangliang Shen, Shaoqing Liu, Huichen Li, Yongzheng Ma, Ruohan Zhang, Kaichun Wu, Libo Yao, Jipeng Li, Jian Zhang
It's well known that microenvironment inflammatory signals could promote cancer development and progression. In colorectal cancer (CRC), chronic inflammation is a major driving mechanism for the development of CRC in patients having long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though it has been addressed that cancer cells ferment much of their glucose supply into lactate regardless of the presence of oxygen, it is unclear whether cell metabolism has been reprogramed during the process from IBD to CRC. Herein, with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model, we found that inflammation upregulated key glycolytic enzymes expression via activation of STAT3/c-Myc signaling pathway...
February 25, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278078/presence-of-novel-compound-bcr-abl-mutations-in-late-chronic-and-advanced-phase-imatinib-sensitive-cml-patients-indicates-their-possible-role-in-cml-progression
#17
Afia Muhammad Akram, Zafar Iqbal, Tanveer Akhtar, Ahmed Mukhtar Khalid, Muhammad Farooq Sabar, Mahmood Hussain Qazi, Zeba Aziz, Nadia Sajid, Aamer Aleem, Mahmood Rasool, Muhammad Asif, Saleh Aloraibi, Khaled Aljamaan, Mudassar Iqbal
BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutations are well known for causing resistance against tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In recent years, compound BCR-ABL mutations have emerged as a new threat to CML patients by causing higher degrees of resistance involving multiple TKIs, including ponatinib. However, there are limited reports about association of compound BCR-ABL mutations with disease progression in imatinib (IM) sensitive CML patients. Therefore, we investigated presence of ABL-KD mutations in chronic phase (n = 41), late chronic phase (n = 33) and accelerated phase (n = 16) imatinib responders...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278077/anti-angiogenic-treatment-promotes-triple-negative-breast-cancer-invasion-via-vasculogenic-mimicry
#18
Huizhi Sun, Danfang Zhang, Zhi Yao, Xian Lin, Jiameng Liu, Qiang Gu, Xueyi Dong, Fang Liu, Yi Wang, Nan Yao, Siqi Cheng, Linqi Li, Shuya Sun
Agents that target angiogenesis have shown limited efficacy for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in clinical trials. Along with endothelium-dependent vessels, there is also vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in the microcirculation of malignant tumors. The role of VM is not completely understood regarding anti-angiogenic treatment. In this study, human TNBC MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T and non-TNBC MCF-7 and BT474 tumor-bearing mice were treated with sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic drug, using a clinically relevant schedule...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278082/caspase-8-polymorphisms-contribute-to-the-prognosis-of-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma-patients-after-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#19
Di Liu, Wen Xu, Xi Ding, Yang Yang, Yanlin Lu, Ke Fei, Bo Su
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in China, and about 60% of the cases are diagnosed with histological adenocarcinoma. The caspase 8 (CASP8) gene is a critical initiator of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. To explore the relationship between tagSNPs or haplotypes of CASP8 and the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients of China, we recruited 555 advanced adenocarcinoma patients. We extracted the genomic DNA from patients' peripheral blood samples and sequenced tagSNPs of CASP8...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368741/molecular-targeting-of-vegf-vegfr-signaling-by-the-anti-vegf-monoclonal-antibody-bd0801-inhibits-the-growth-and-induces-apoptosis-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Lin Liu, Shukui Qin, Yinghui Zheng, Li Han, Minmin Zhang, Nuo Luo, Zhengcao Liu, Ning Gu, Xiaoyi Gu, Xiaojin Yin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths with 750,000 newly diagnosed cases each year. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy constitute the main treatment modalities for HCC, but liver cirrhosis and damage often occur. Molecular targeted drugs have been recently developed to treat HCC. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) autocrine signaling is closely related to the growth, progression, and metastasis of HCC, making the VEGF/VEGFR axis an ideal target for the development of molecular targeted agents...
March 4, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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