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Cancer Biology & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812434/-pemetrexed-sildenafil-via-autophagy-dependent-hdac-down-regulation-enhances-the-immunotherapy-response-of-nsclc-cells
#1
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
Pemetrexed is an approved therapeutic in NSCLC and ovarian cancer. Our studies focused on the ability of [pemetrexed + sildenafil] exposure to alter the immunogenicity of lung and ovarian cancer cells. Treatment of lung and ovarian cancer cells with [pemetrexed + sildenafil] in vitro rapidly reduced the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2 and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increased the expression of Class I MHCA. In a cell-specific fashion, some cells also released the immunogenic nuclear protein HMGB1 into the extracellular environment...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812429/metastatic-colon-adenocarcinoma-has-a-significantly-elevated-expression-of-il-10-compared-to-primary-colon-adenocarcinoma-tumors
#2
Michelle H Townsend, Abigail M Felsted, Stephen R Piccolo, Richard A Robison, Kim L O'Neill
Classical anti-inflammatory cytokines are known to play a role in both cancer progression as well as cancer elimination. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β in patients with colon adenocarcinoma and metastatic colon adenocarcinoma utilizing immunohistochemical assays to determine the expression of the cytokines between various malignant tissues. We found tissues stained with TGF-β showed no significant upregulation within malignant tumors when compared to normal tissue controls. We observed high levels of TGF-β presence in most tissues similar to GAPDH expression...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812426/the-expression-of-etar-in-liver-cirrhosis-and-liver-cancer
#3
Juhong Deng, Yu Huang, Ran Tao, Xiangxue Fan, Hongyue Zhang, Hongyan Kong, Qiqing Song, Jiaquan Huang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the expression of endothelin receptors in liver diseases and discuss its role in the process of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the expressions of ETAR, ETBR and α-SMA in tissue samples using western blotting analysis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence was used to locate ETAR expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs), we calculated the percentage of positive cells and then analyzed its relation with clinical indexes...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812423/a-study-on-different-therapies-and-prognosis-related-factors-for-101-patients-with-sclc-and-brain-metastases
#4
Ying Liu, Xian-Hong Liu, Ying Wang, Jing Zhu, Ying Xin, Kai Niu, Sheng Wang, Ying Cheng
OBJECTIVE: There is a need to explore multi-discipline general treatment modes to improve the survival period of patients with SCLC and brain metastases undergoing standard radiotherapy treatment. METHODS: A total of 101 patients with SCLC and brain metastases were included into this study. These patients were classified into four groups, based on different treatment modes: chemotherapy group, brain radiotherapy group, brain radiotherapy combined with sequential chemotherapy, and chemotherapy combined with sequential brain radiotherapy...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799829/radiotherapy-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-cell-apoptosis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-via-the-atm-and-smad-pathways
#5
Ming-Yi Li, Jin-Quan Liu, Dong-Ping Chen, Zhou-Yu Li, Bin Qi, Lu He, Yi Yu, Wen-Jin Yin, Meng-Yao Wang, Ling Lin
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck which is harmful to human's health. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of NPC and it induces immediate cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism remains unknown. Evidences suggested the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and Smad pathway are two of the important crucial mediators in the function of radiotherapy. In this study, we carried out in vitro assays with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells and in vivo assays with nude mice to investigate the role of the ATM and Smad pathways in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy...
August 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795902/rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-breast-report-of-a-rare-malignancy
#6
Yufen Yuan, Junna Hou, Yunbao Pan
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an uncommon type of soft-tissue malignancy which mainly influences children. RMS rarely occurs in breast and little of the clinical behavior and treatment strategies were reported. Here, we describe a case of adult female patient with breast RMS. A 34-years-old Chinese woman visited to our hospital complaining palpable mass in her left breast. Seven months ago, the patient was diagnosed as lymphocytic mastitis and received surgical excision in the left breast. Five months later, she noticed a palpable mass again in the left breast...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758856/clinicopathological-characteristics-and-experience-in-the-treatment-of-giant-retroperitoneal-liposarcoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Xiangyu Zeng, Weizhen Liu, Xiuli Wu, Jinbo Gao, Peng Zhang, Xiaoming Shuai, Kaixiong Tao
Retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS) is a rare tumor, especailly those over 20 kg that are called "giant liposarcoma", whose characteristics and treatments remain relatively unknown. Herein, we report a giant RPLS measuring 65 × 45 × 30 cm in diameter and 31 kg in weight, which we successfully performed complete excision through interdisciplinary cooperation. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged without complications. Afterwards he underwent radiotherapy and had no evidence of tumor recurrence or symptoms of metastasis at 3-month CT scan and 8-month follow-up...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726535/mismatch-repair-deficient-metastatic-colon-cancer-and-urothelial-cancer-a-case-report-of-sequential-immune-checkpoint-therapy
#8
Pooja Ghatalia, Rajeswari Nagarathinam, Harry Cooper, Daniel M Geynisman, Wafik S El-Deiry
A major recent advance in cancer therapy involves the use of immune checkpoint therapy for tumors with mismatch repair deficiency, as they have a high tumor mutation load and neoantigen burden. Approximately 4% of advanced colorectal cancer harbors a mismatch repair deficiency. When mismatch repair deficiency exists in the germline, there is increased susceptibility to a variety of cancers including colorectal cancer, uterine cancer, urothelial carcinoma, and skin cancer. Herein we report the case of a 62-year-old man with mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma and a history of sebaceous carcinomas...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718729/the-novel-autophagy-inhibitor-elaiophylin-exerts-antitumor-activity-against-multiple-myeloma-with-mutant-tp53-in-part-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-apoptosis
#9
Gaoxiang Wang, Pan Zhou, Xing Chen, Lei Zhao, Jiaqi Tan, Yang Yang, Yong Fang, Jianfeng Zhou
Elaiophylin is a natural compound and a novel and potent inhibitor of late stage autophagy with outstanding antitumor activity in human ovarian cancer cells. However, the possible biologic effects and functional linkage between elaiophylin and multiple myeloma (MM) have not been explored. This study aimed to assess the effect of elaiophylin on MM cells with mutant TP53 and the possible molecular mechanism. The results suggested that elaiophylin exerted anti-myeloma activity by inducing apoptosis and proliferation arrest...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718695/enhanced-procoagulant-activity-of-platelets-after-chemotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Ruishuang Ma, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Jin Zhou, Jialan Shi
The procoagulant status of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after chemotherapy is poorly characterized and the role of platelets in hypercoagulative state of NSCLC is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the procoagulant activity (PCA) of platelets in NSCLC before and after chemotherapy. The subjects were 52 patients newly diagnosed with NSCLC. The patients had decreased clotting time compared with healthy subjects, and the thrombin-antithrombin complex increased 2.5 fold after chemotherapy...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696813/liposomal-prednisolone-phosphate-potentiates-the-antitumor-activity-of-liposomal-5-fluorouracil-in-c26-murine-colon-carcinoma-in-vivo
#11
Laura Patras, Bianca Sylvester, Lavinia Luput, Alina Sesarman, Emilia Licarete, Alina Porfire, Dana Muntean, Denise Minerva Drotar, Alexandra Doina Rusu, Andras-Laszlo Nagy, Cornel Catoi, Ioan Tomuta, Laurian Vlase, Manuela Banciu, Marcela Achim
The antitumor efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is hindered not only by the low therapeutic index, but also by tumor cell resistance to this cytotoxic drug. Therefore, to enhance the 5-FU antitumor activity, the present research employed a novel tumor-targeted therapy based on the co-administration of 5-FU encapsulated in long-circulating liposomes (LCL-5-FU) together with liposomal prednisolone phosphate (LCL-PLP), a formulation with known anti-angiogenic actions on C26 murine colon carcinoma cells...
July 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696156/the-igf-1r-akt-pathway-has-opposing-effects-on-nutlin-3a-induced-apoptosis
#12
Batzaya Davaadelger, Ricardo E Perez, Yalu Zhou, Lei Duan, Steven Gitelis, Carl G Maki
Nutlin-3a is a small molecule MDM2 antagonist and potent activator of wild-type p53. Nutlin-3a disrupts MDM2 binding to p53, thus increasing p53 levels and allowing p53 to inhibit proliferation or induce cell death. Factors that control sensitivity to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis are incompletely understood. In this study we isolated cisplatin-resistant clones from MHM cells, an MDM2-amplified and p53 wild-type osteosarcoma cell line. Cisplatin resistance in these clones resulted in part from heightened activation of the IGF-1R/AKT pathway...
July 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692379/macrocyclic-peptides-decrease-c-myc-protein-levels-and-reduce-prostate-cancer-cell-growth
#13
Archana Mukhopadhyay, Laura E Hanold, Hamsa Thayele Purayil, Solomon A Gisemba, Sanjeewa N Senadheera, Jane V Aldrich
The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC50 values ranging from 2...
July 10, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692326/deletion-of-eif2%C3%AE-lysine-stretches-creates-a-dominant-negative-that-affects-the-translation-and-proliferation-in-human-cell-line-a-tool-for-arresting-the-cell-growth
#14
Gabrielle Dias Salton, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia Laurino, Nicolás Oliveira Mega, Andrés Delgado-Cañedo, Niclas Setterblad, Maryvonnick Carmagnat, Ricardo Machado Xavier, Elizabeth Cirne-Lima, Guido Lenz, João Antonio Pêgas Henriques, Jomar Pereira Laurino
BACKGROUND: Eukaryote initiation factor 2 subunit β (eIF2β) plays a crucial role in regulation protein synthesis, which mediates the interaction of eIF2 with mRNA. eIF2β contains evolutionarily conserved polylysine stretches in amino-terminal region and a zinc finger motif in the carboxy-terminus. METHODS: The gene eIF2β was cloned under tetracycline transcription control and the polylysine stretches were deleted by site-directed mutagenesis (eIF2βΔ3K). The plasmid was transfected into HEK 293 TetR cells...
July 10, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686076/therapeutic-implications-of-bioactive-sphingolipids-a-focus-on-colorectal-cancer
#15
E Ramsay Camp, Logan D Patterson, Mark Kester, Christina Voelkel-Johnson
Therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially a subset known as locally advanced rectal cancer, is challenged by progression and recurrence. Sphingolipids, a lipid subtype with vital roles in cellular function, play an important role in CRC and impact on therapeutic outcomes. In this review we discuss how dietary sphingolipids or the gut microbiome via alterations in sphingolipids influence CRC carcinogenesis. In addition, we discuss the expression of sphingolipid enzymes in the gastro-intestinal tract, their alterations in CRC, and the implications for therapy responsiveness...
July 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686074/simultaneous-targeting-of-atm-and-mcl-1-increases-cisplatin-sensitivity-of-cisplatin-resistant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Fuquan Zhang, Mingjing Shen, Li Yang, Xiaodong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
Development of cisplatin-resistance is an obstacle in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapeutics. To investigate which molecules are associated with cisplatin-resistance, we analyzed expression profiles of several DNA repair and anti-apoptosis associated molecules in parental (A549P and H157P) and cisplatin-resistant (A549CisR and H157CisR) NSCLC cells. We detected constitutively upregulated nuclear ATM and cytosolic Mcl-1 molecules in cisplatin-resistant cells compared to parental cells. Increased levels of phosphorylated ATM (p-ATM) and its downstream molecules, CHK2, p-CHK2, p-53, and p-p53 were also detected in cisplatin-resistant cells, suggesting an activation of ATM signaling in these cells...
July 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678611/successful-treatment-of-advanced-pancreatic-liposarcoma-with-apatinib-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Tao Han, Yuting Luan, Ying Xu, Xiaodan Yang, Jing Li, Ran Liu, Qing Li, Zhendong Zheng
Pancreatic liposarcoma is a malignant tumor originated from the pancreas mesenchymal tissue and mostly presented in skin, subcutaneous, periosteum, and long bone on both sides. Both conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have limited efficacy and poor prognosis for advanced pancreatic liposarcoma. Here, we reported a case of advanced pancreatic liposarcoma and reviewed the literature specific for liposarcoma of the pancreas and discuss the emerging options of treatment. The patient was treated with apatinib and a cross-line rescue therapy combined with paclitaxel after progressive disease...
July 5, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678600/discussing-the-predictive-prognostic-and-therapeutic-value-of-germline-dna-repair-gene-mutations-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-patients
#18
Ralph J Hauke, Tristan M Sissung, William D Figg
Recent trends in cancer therapy have begun emphasizing the use of precision medicine, especially genetic tools, in the evaluation of malignancies and decision-making. Prostate cancer is a malignancy where the benefits and utility of screening and early treatment are still heavily controversial. A recent paper in the New England Journal of Medicine found that patients with metastatic prostate cancer presented germline mutations in DNA-repair genes at a significantly higher incidence than those with localized prostate cancer...
July 5, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678581/downregulation-of-the-ifnar1-chain-of-type-1-interferon-receptor-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-the-haematopoietic-stem-cells
#19
Jun Gui, Bin Zhao, Kaosheng Lyu, Wei Tong, Serge Y Fuchs
Recent studies demonstrated that prolonged exposure of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to type I interferons (IFN) stimulates HSCs entrance into cell cycle, continuous proliferation and eventual exhaustion, which could be prevented by ablation of the Ifnar1 chain of IFN receptor. Given that levels IFNAR1 expression can be robustly affected by IFN-independent ubiquitination and downregulation of IFNAR1 in response to activation of protein kinases such as protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α), we aimed to determine the role of IFNAR1 downregulation in the maintenance of HSCs...
July 5, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665755/depletion-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-abrogates-hypoxia-induced-overexpression-of-stanniocalcin-1-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Elīna Zandberga, Pawel Zayakin, Artūrs Ābols, Dārta Pūpola, Pēteris Trapencieris, Aija Linē
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a pH-regulating enzyme that plays a key role in maintaining an alkaline intracellular pH under hypoxic conditions. It is overexpressed in a variety of solid cancers, including breast cancer (BC), and has been implicated in the migration, invasion and stemness of breast cancer cells. Therefore, CAIX recently emerged as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of BC. In order to gain an insight into the mechanism of action of CAIX inhibitors, we investigated the impact of CAIX knock-down on the transcriptional response to hypoxia in two BC cell lines - MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, by performing a global gene expression analysis...
June 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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