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Cancer Biology & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771621/tissue-preservation-with-mass-spectroscopic-analysis-implications-for-cancer-diagnostics
#1
O Morgan Hall, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757697/molecular-drivers-of-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-new-roads-to-resistance
#2
Phoebe A Huang, Douglas K Price, William D Figg
Numerous growth-inducing signaling pathways have been implicated in the development of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, but their cross-talk with androgen receptor functions remains poorly understood. A recent study published in Science Signaling by Chen et al. 1 has identified a novel androgen-mediated signaling axis driven by loss of SPDEF and gain of TGFBI to facilitate metastasis, which may explain the acquisition of resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. These findings suggest that therapeutic inhibition of androgen signaling may inadvertently promote castrate resistance by inhibiting tumor suppressive functions of the androgen receptor...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737910/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-novel-folate-targeted-theranostic-nanoemulsion-of-docetaxel-for-imaging-and-improved-anticancer-activity-against-ovarian-cancers
#3
Niravkumar R Patel, Aleksandr Piroyan, Srinivas Ganta, Allison B Morse, Katie M Candiloro, April L Solon, Abbegail H Nack, Corin A Galati, Collete Bora, Marisa A Maglaty, Shane W O'Brien, Samuel Litwin, Barbara Davis, Denise C Connolly, Timothy P Coleman
Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer related deaths for women in USA. The high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer is due to diagnosis at later stages of disease and the high recurrence rate of 60-80%. Recurrent ovarian cancers are more likely to present as multidrug resistance (MDR) leading to unfavorable response from 2nd and 3rd line chemotherapy. Nanoemulsions (NEs) are emerging as an attractive drug delivery system to overcome MDR challenges. NEs can also minimize exposure of therapeutic cargo to normal tissues potentially reducing side effects...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723108/animal-models-for-studying-tumor-microenvironment-tme-and-resistance-to-lymphocytic-infiltration
#4
Ryuji Yamaguchi, Guy Perkins
In cancer immunotherapy, cytotoxic T or NK cells need to engage cancer cells to initiate the killing. However, in clinical studies and in mouse models, some solid tumors are found with no lymphocytes. It is likely that these tumors will be resistant to all sorts of immunotherapies. Thus, restoring lymphocytic infiltration will be vital to the success of immunotherapies on solid tumors. In order to understand the complex interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells, we propose to establish animal models for studying the tumor microenvironment and to develop and test therapies to restore lymphocytic infiltration of tumors Without lymphocytes infiltrating tumors, all immunotherapies on solid tumors become ineffective...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723104/turning-cancer-s-metabolic-plasticity-into-fragility-an-evolving-paradigm
#5
Shanmugasundaram Ganapathy-Kanniappan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723101/breast-cancer-in-an-18-year-old-female-a-fatal-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Maciej Jóźwik, Renata Posmyk, Marcin Jóźwik, Andrzej Semczuk, Magdalena Gogiel-Shields, Marta Kuś-Słowińska, Magdalena Garbowicz, Mark Klukowski, Jacek Wojciechowicz
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy in both pre- and postmenopausal women. However, it is exceedingly rare in very young patients, and especially in adolescents. Herein, we report a case of an 18-year-old female diagnosed with invasive BC. The proband had been found to be negative for BC in close family members. A common BC genetic screening test for the Polish population did not detect any known founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene. Further evaluation identified a p.Ile157Thr (I157T) mutation in the CHEK2 gene, a p...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723088/molecular-alterations-associated-with-chronic-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-and-chewing-tobacco-in-normal-oral-keratinocytes
#7
Pavithra Rajagopalan, Krishna Patel, Ankit P Jain, Vishalakshi Nanjappa, Keshava K Datta, Tejaswini Subbannayya, Kiran K Mangalaparthi, Anjali Kumari, Malini Manoharan, Coral Karunakaran, Sakthivel Murugan, Bipin Nair, T S Keshava Prasad, Premendu P Mathur, Ravi Gupta, Rohit Gupta, Arati Khanna-Gupta, Joseph Califano, David Sidransky, Harsha Gowda, Aditi Chatterjee
(250 words) Tobacco usage is a known risk factor associated with development of oral cancer. It is mainly consumed in two different forms (smoking and chewing) that vary in their composition and methods of intake. Despite being the leading cause of oral cancer, molecular alterations induced by tobacco are poorly understood. We therefore sought to investigate the adverse effects of cigarette smoke/chewing tobacco exposure in oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT1). OKF6/TERT1 cells acquired oncogenic phenotype after treating with cigarette smoke/chewing tobacco for a period of 8 months...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708817/montelukast-inhibits-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-translation-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#8
Caixia Tang, Hu Lei, Jinfu Zhang, Meng Liu, Jin, Hao Luo, Hanzhang Xu, Yingli Wu
Through regulating the expression of hundreds of genes, hypoxia-inducible factor -1(HIF-1) plays a critical role in hypoxic adaption of cancer cells and is considered as a target for cancer therapy. Here we show that montelukast, a clinical leukotriene receptor antagonist for the treatment of asthma, inhibits hypoxia or CoCl2 -induced HIF-1α activation and reduces its protein expression in prostate cancer cells. However, the other two leukotriene receptor antagonists, pranlukast and zafirlukast, cannot decrease HIF-1α protein, which indicates that montelukast-induced downregulation of HIF-1α is not mediated by leukotriene receptor...
April 30, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708815/pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-inhibitors-inhibit-the-growth-of-melanoma-cells-with-mtor-h2189y-mutations-in-vitro
#9
Xiaowen Wu, Jiayi Yu, Junya Yan, Jie Dai, Lu Si, Zhihong Chi, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Meng Ma, Huan Tang, Tianxiao Xu, Huan Yu, Yan Kong, Jun Guo
mTOR is an important therapeutic target in many types of cancers. In melanoma, the mTOR nonsynonymous mutation rate is up to 10.4%. However, mTOR inhibitors have shown limited effects in clinical trials of melanoma. Because mTOR mutations are distributed, not selecting patients with specific mTOR mutations may be the main reason for therapeutic failures. Our previous research found that mutations in the mTOR P2213S and S2215Y kinase domains resulted in gain-of-function and were sensitive to specific inhibitors...
April 30, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672195/hypoxia-mediated-mir-212-3p-downregulation-enhances-progression-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-through-upregulation-of-rab1a
#10
Panzhang Hou, Yi Kang, Jianchao Luo
Rab1a, a member RAS oncogene family, has been reported playing important role in tumor proliferation and migration. However, the role of Rab1a in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is not clear. In this study, we found Rab1a was overexpressed in ICC tissues both in mRNA and protein level. Kaplan-meier analysis showed that high expression of Rab1a was associated with poor prognosis of ICC patients. Suppression of Rab1a led to lower proliferation rate and migration ability both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting process of cell cycle and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667486/lncrna-adpgk-as1-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-progression-through-activating-zeb1-mediated-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#11
Suzhen Song, Weihua Yu, Sen Lin, Mingbao Zhang, Teng Wang, Shuang Guo, Hongbo Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ADP dependent glucokinase antisense RNA 1 (ADPGK-AS1)/ miR-205-5p/ zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) on PC cells. METHODS: Differentially expressed lncRNAs and miRNAs in pancreatic cancer (PC) were identified by microarray analysis. In silico ceRNA analysis was conducted to find out the interactions among lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was utilized to examine the expression of miR-205-5p and lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 in PC and non-cancerous cells...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658816/a-mixed-treatment-comparison-of-toxicity-of-gemcitabine-combined-with-different-targeted-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-or-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Penpa Dorjee, Zi-Wen Long
The mixed treatment comparison study was performed in order to compare the toxicities of Gemcitabine and different targeted drug combinations in the treatment of advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC). Searches were performed from the inception of PubMed and Cochrane Library databases to February 2017. This study included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Gemcitabine and different targeted drug combinations in the treatment of advanced/metastatic PC. Odds ratio (OR) values were calculated by direct and indirect comparisons, and the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) were drawn...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652548/ca125-suppresses-amatuximab-immune-effector-function-and-elevated-serum-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-clinical-response-in-first-line-mesothelioma-patients
#13
Nicholas C Nicolaides, Charles Schweizer, Elizabeth B Somers, Wenquan Wang, Shawn Fernando, Erin N Ross, Luigi Grasso, Raffit Hassan, J Bradford Kline
The tumor-shed antigen CA125 has recently been found to bind certain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and suppress immune-effector mediated killing through perturbation of the Fc domain with CD16a and CD32a Fc-γ activating receptors on immune-effector cells. Amatuximab is a mAb targeting mesothelin whose mechanism of action utilizes in part antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). It is being tested for its therapeutic activity in patients with mesothelioma in combination with first line standard-of-care...
April 13, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630434/nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase-b-promotes-osteosarcoma-proliferation-through-c-myc
#14
Shijie Li, Tu Hu, Ting Yuan, Dongdong Cheng, Qingcheng Yang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common primary bone tumors and has a high disablity rate and case-fatality rate. The protracted stagnancy of the chemotherapy program and surgical technology for OS treatment prompted us to focus on the mechanisms of cancer carcinogenesis progression in OS. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NME2) is a type of nucleoside diphosphate kinase that plays an important role in cellular processes. In this study, we report overexpression of NME2 in OS cell lines and correlate this overexpression with the clinicopathologic features of osteosarcoma...
April 9, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624473/preferential-allelic-deletion-of-rbsp3-limd1-and-cdc25a-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-implication-in-cancer-screening-and-early-detection
#15
Shreya Sarkar, Chinmay Kumar Panda
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the leading cancers in terms of incidence and mortality. However, no reliable marker till date accurately predicts its progression when altered in healthy tissues. The study aims to identify alleles of microsatellites adjacent to important cell cycle regulatory, tumor suppressor genes altered in early head and neck lesions, viz. RBSP3, LIMD1 and CDC25A, which undergo frequent deletion and can be used for population screening and early detection. DNA for tumors and normal tissues was isolated from 143 patients in different stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
April 6, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621426/tumor-infiltrating-treg-mdsc-and-ido-expression-associated-with-outcomes-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-of-breast-cancer
#16
Fangxuan Li, Yang Zhao, Lijuan Wei, Shixia Li, Juntian Liu
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells(Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells(MDSCs) represent two immunosuppressive cell populations that are important in the establishment and maintenance of cancer immune tolerance. MDSCs can express IDO and promote immune tolerance via expansion of Treg cell. METHOD: We use needle biopsy breast cancer tissues prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NCT) staining for CD33, Foxp3 and IDO by immunohistochemistry to evaluate whether they were correlated with subsequent treatment responses in breast cancer...
April 5, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611764/lenalidomide-combined-with-r-gdp-in-a-patient-with-refractory-cd5-positive-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-a-promising-response-and-review
#17
Yaping Zhang, Xinfeng Wang, Yifei Liu, Chunfeng Sun, Wenyu Shi, Hongming Huang
CD5-positive (CD5+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with poor survival compared with CD5-negative DLBCL. The clinical characteristics of CD5+ DLBCL are different from both CD5-negative DLBCL and other CD5+ B cell lymphomas. There is currently no promising chemotherapy for CD5+ DLBCL. Herein, we report a 49-year-old Asian male with refractory CD5+ DLBCL. He complained of aggravated abdominal pain and weight loss. Computed tomography scan revealed abdominal masses, widespread lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and intussusception of the ileocecal junction with bowel wall thickening...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611762/-guaiol-regulates-autophagic-cell-death-depending-on-mtor-signaling-in-nsclc
#18
Xiaohui Yang, Jiabei Zhu, Jianchun Wu, Nan Huang, Zhongqi Cui, Yingbin Luo, Fenyong Sun, Qiuhui Pan, Yan Li, Qingyuan Yang
(-)-Guaiol, a sesquiterpene alcohol with the guaiane skeleton, has been found in many Chinese medicinal plants and been reported to comprise various guaiane natural products that are well known for their antibacterial activities. Previously, we have shown its antitumor activity by inducing autophagy in NSCLC cells. However, its potential mechanism in inducing autophagy is still under our investigation. Here, data from our western blotting assays showed that, in NSCLC cells, (-)-Guaiol significantly blocked the mTORC2-AKT signaling by suppressing mTOR phosphorylation at serine 2481 (S2481) to induce autophagy, illustrated by the increasing ratio of LC3II/I...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595404/association-between-genetic-variants-in-p53-binding-sites-and-risks-of-osteosarcoma-in-a-chinese-population-a-two-stage-case-control-study
#19
Jingzhe Zhang, Li Kai, Wenlong Zhang, Yu Yin, Wenjun Wang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common bone malignancies in children and adolescents. To date, inaugural mechanism of OS was considered as a complex process and was still not clear. The p53 gene, most important tumor suppressors, was associated with risk of many tumors, including OS. In current study, we evaluated the relationship between genetic variation of the p53 binding site and the OS susceptibility through a two-stage case-control study in Chinese population. We found that rs1295925 (OR = 0.85; 95 CI = 0...
March 29, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584567/preliminary-clinical-application-of-an-aromatase-inhibitor-and-a-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-combination-for-inoperable-endometrial-cancer-patients-with-comorbidities-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Mengting Dong, Su Jiang, Wenyan Tian, Ye Yan, Chao Gao, Jinping Gao, Yan Sheng, Yingmei Wang, Fengxia Xue
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer (EC) occurs most commonly after menopause. A proportion of patients present with advanced age and comorbidities, and become ineligible for surgery. The optimal treatment strategy of these patients remains a clinical challenge. Aromatase inhibitor (AI) combined with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) possesses profound effect in suppressing the estrogen level, has become a valid treatment in the breast cancer. However, the combined use of an AI and a GnRH-a in EC has rarely been studied...
March 27, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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