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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453388/susceptibility-of-atm-deficient-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-radiation
#1
Michael Ayars, James Eshleman, Michael Goggins
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is inactivated in a significant minority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and may be predictor of treatment response. We determined if ATM deficiency renders pancreatic cancer cells more sensitive to fractionated radiation or commonly used chemotherapeutics. ATM expression was knocked down in three pancreatic cancer cell lines using ATM-targeting shRNA. Isogenic cell lines were tested for sensitivity to several chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. DNA repair kinetics were analyzed in irradiated cells using the comet assay...
April 28, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441108/novel-clades-of-the-hu-ihf-superfamily-point-to-unexpected-roles-in-the-eukaryotic-centrosome-chromosome-partitioning-and-biologic-conflicts
#2
A Maxwell Burroughs, Gurmeet Kaur, Dapeng Zhang, L Aravind
The HU superfamily of proteins, with a unique DNA-binding mode, has been extensively studied as the primary chromosome-packaging protein of the bacterial superkingdom. Representatives also play a role in DNA-structuring during recombination events and in eukaryotic organellar genome maintenance. However, beyond these well-studied roles, little is understood of the functional diversification of this large superfamily. Using sensitive sequence and structure analysis methods we identify multiple novel clades of the HU superfamily...
April 25, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441080/color-coded-intravital-imaging-demonstrates-a-transforming-growth-factor-beta-tgf-%C3%AE-antagonist-selectively-targets-stromal-cells-in-a-human-pancreatic-cancer-orthotopic-mouse-model
#3
Takashi Murakami, Yukihiko Hiroshima, Kentaro Miyake, Ho Kyoung Hwang, Tasuku Kiyuna, Jonathan C DeLong, Thinzar M Lwin, Ryusei Matsuyama, Ryutaro Mori, Takafumi Kumamoto, Takashi Chishima, Kuniya Tanaka, Yasushi Ichikawa, Michael Bouvet, Itaru Endo, Robert M Hoffman
Pancreatic cancer is a recalcitrant malignancy, partly due to desmoplastic stroma which stimulates tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis, and inhibits chemotherapeutic drug delivery. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) has an important role in the formation of stromal desmoplasia. The present study describes the ability of color-coded intravital imaging to demonstrate the efficacy of a TGF-β inhibitor to target stroma in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. The BxPC-3 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), which also has a high TGF-β expression level, was used in an orthotopic model in transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP)...
April 25, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437168/regulation-of-pten-degradation-and-nedd4-1-e3-ligase-activity-by-numb
#4
Chen Shao, Zhiguo Li, Nihal Ahmad, Xiaoqi Liu
The critical tumor suppressor PTEN is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Ubiquitination of PTEN was reported to control both PTEN stability and nuclear localization. Notably, the HECT E3-ligase NEDD4-1 was identified as the ubiquitin ligase for PTEN, mediating its degradation and down-stream events. However, the mechanisms how NEDD4-1 is regulated by up-stream signaling pathways or interaction with other proteins in promoting PTEN degradation remain largely unclear...
April 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436750/emap-ii-sensitize-u87mg-and-glioma-stem-like-cells-to-temozolomide-via-induction-of-autophagy-mediated-cell-death-and-g2-m-arrest
#5
Qi Yu, Libo Liu, Ping Wang, Yilong Yao, Yixue Xue, Yunhui Liu
Despite the fact that temozolomide (TMZ) has been widely accepted as the key chemotherapeutic agent to prolong the survival of patients with glioblastoma, failure and recurrence cases can still be observed in clinics. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are thought to be responsible for the drug resistance. In this study, we investigate whether endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, can enhance TMZ cytotoxicity on U87MG and GSCs or not. As described in prior research, GSCs have been isolated from U87MG and maintained in the serum-free DMEM/F12 medium containing EGF, b-FGF, and B27...
April 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436707/samhd1-protects-cancer-cells-from-various-nucleoside-based-antimetabolites
#6
Nikolas Herold, Sean G Rudd, Kumar Sanjiv, Juliane Kutzner, Julia Bladh, Cynthia B J Paulin, Thomas Helleday, J I Henter, Torsten Schaller
Recently, we demonstrated that sterile alpha motif and HD domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a major barrier in acute myelogenous leukemic (AML) cells to the cytotoxicity of cytarabine (ara-C), the most important drug in AML treatment. Ara-C is intracellularly converted by the canonical dNTP synthesis pathway to ara-CTP, which serves as a substrate but not an allosteric activator of SAMHD1. Using an AML mouse model, we show here that wild type but not catalytically inactive SAMHD1 reduces ara-C treatment efficacy in vivo...
April 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426366/notch1-induces-endothelial-senescence-and-promotes-tumor-progression
#7
Juan Rodriguez-Vita, Andreas Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426349/rna-binging-protein-rbm14-regulates-dissociation-and-association-of-non-homologous-end-joining-proteins
#8
Nicholas Simon, Ming Yuan, Mihoko Kai
Defects in DNA damage response (DDR) are associated with multiple diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Emerging evidence indicates involvement of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in DDR. However, functions of the RBPs in DDR pathways remain elusive. We have shown previously that the RNA-binding protein RBM14 is required for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Here we show that RBM14 is required for efficient recruitment of XRCC4 and XLF to chromatin and release of KU proteins from chromatin upon DNA damage...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426347/mismatch-repair-regulates-cdt1-after-uv-damage
#9
Andreas Panagopoulos, Stavros Taraviras, Zoi Lygerou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426320/transient-exposure-to-androgens-induces-a-remarkable-self-sustained-quiescent-state-in-dispersed-prostate-cancer-cells
#10
Anh Thu Bui, Meng-Er Huang, Maryline Havard, Fanny Laurent-Tchenio, François Dautry, Thierry Tchenio
Cellular quiescence is a reversible cell growth arrest that is often assumed to require a persistence of non-permissive external growth conditions for its maintenance. In this work, we showed that androgen could induce a quiescent state that is self-sustained in a cell-autonomous manner through a "hit and run" mechanism in androgen receptor-expressing prostate cancer cells. This phenomenon required the set-up of a sustained redox imbalance and TGFβ/BMP signaling that were dependent on culturing cells at low density...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426283/identification-of-the-proteome-complement-of-humantlk1-reveals-it-binds-and-phosphorylates-nek1-regulating-its-activity
#11
Vibha Singh, Zachary M Connelly, Xinggui Shen, Arrigo De Benedetti
The Tousled Like kinases (TLKs) are involved in numerous cellular functions, including the DNA Damage Response (DDR), but only a handful of substrates have been identified thus far. Through a novel proteomic screen, we have now identified 165 human proteins interacting with TLK1, and we have focused this work on NEK1 because of its known role in the DDR, upstream of ATR and Chk1. TLK1 and NEK1 were found to interact by coIP, and their binding is strengthened following exposure of cells to H2O2. Following incubation with doxorubicin, TLK1 and NEK1 relocalize with nuclear repair foci along with γH2AX...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426281/identification-of-ssea-1-expressing-enhanced-reprogramming-seer-cells-in-porcine-embryonic-fibroblasts
#12
Dong Li, Jan O Secher, Morten Juhl, Kaveh Mashayekhi, Troels T Nielsen, Bjørn Holst, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude, Vanessa J Hall
Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells are the only cells capable of being reprogrammed from a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts. Similarly, there is little research to suggest such cells may exist in embryonic tissues or other species. To address if such a cell population exists in pigs, we investigated porcine embryonic fibroblast populations (pEFs) and identified heterogeneous expression of several key cell surface markers...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426279/combination-of-gemcitabine-and-docetaxel-regress-both-gastric-leiomyosarcoma-proliferation-and-invasion-in-an-imageable-patient-derived-orthotopic-xenograft-ipdox-model
#13
Kei Kawaguchi, Kentaro Igarashi, Takashi Murakami, Tasuku Kiyuna, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Yunfeng Li, Tara A Russell, Arun S Singh, Bartosz Chmielowski, Michiaki Unno, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman
Gastric leiomyosarcoma is a recalcitrant cancer and chemotherapy strategy is controversial. The present study used a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model of gastric leiomyosarcoma to identify an effective therapeutic regimen in order to develop individualized precision medicine for this disease. A gastric leiomyosarcoma obtained from a patient was first grown in transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) in order to stably label the tumor stroma. The RFP-expressing tumor was then passaged orthotopically in the gastric wall of non-transgenic nude mice to establish an imageable PDOX (iPDOX) model...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426275/size-does-matter
#14
Hitoshi Matakatsu, Seth S Blair, Richard G Fehon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426272/temperature-dependent-regulation-of-rdna-condensation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Donglai Shen, Robert V Skibbens
Chromatin condensation during mitosis produces detangled and discrete DNA entities required for high fidelity sister chromatid segregation during mitosis and positions DNA away from the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Regional condensation during G1 also establishes a nuclear architecture through which gene transcription is regulated but remains plastic so that cells can respond to changes in nutrient levels, temperature and signaling molecules. To date, however, the potential impact of this plasticity on mitotic chromosome condensation remains unknown...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418768/lipid-biosynthesis-when-the-cell-cycle-meets-protein-synthesis
#16
Heidi M Blank, Nairita Maitra, Michael Polymenis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402716/preclinical-advances-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treatment
#17
Weining Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402700/characterizing-novel-anti-oncogenic-triterpenoids-from-ganoderma
#18
Xiangmin Li, Yizhen Xie, Burton B Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402166/nrf2-promotes-progression-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-activating-autophagy
#19
Jing Wang, Zhiyan Liu, Tinghua Hu, Lili Han, Shuo Yu, Yu Yao, Zhiping Ruan, Tao Tian, Tianhe Huang, Mincong Wang, Li Jing, Kejun Nan, Xuan Liang
The transcription factor, NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and autophagy have been implicated in the oxidative-stress response during tumor evolution. However, few studies focus on crosstalk between Nrf2 and autophagy in cancer progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we evaluated the effect of Nrf2 on autophagy in NSCLC and their role in development of NSCLC. Effect of Nrf2 on overal survival (OS) of NSCLC patients were evaluated. Cell biological behaviors in response to Nrf2 were evaluated by MTT, colony formation assay and flow cytometry...
April 12, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388353/deficiency-in-dna-damage-response-a-new-characteristic-of-cells-infected-with-latent-hiv-1
#20
Dorota Piekna-Przybylska, Gaurav Sharma, Sanjay B Maggirwar, Robert A Bambara
Viruses can interact with host cell molecules responsible for the recognition and repair of DNA lesions, resulting in dysfunctional DNA damage response (DDR). Cells with inefficient DDR are more vulnerable to therapeutic approaches that target DDR, thereby raising DNA damage to a threshold that triggers apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that 2 Jurkat-derived cell lines with incorporated silent HIV-1 provirus show increases in DDR signaling that responds to formation of double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). We found that phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 (gamma-H2AX), a biomarker of DSBs, and phosphorylation of ATM at Ser1981, Chk2 at Thr68, and p53 at Ser15, part of signaling pathways associated with DSBs, are elevated in these cells...
April 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
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