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Cell Cycle

Antonio Abeyta, Maria Castella, Celine Jacquemont, Toshiyasu Taniguchi
Proteins essential for homologous recombination play a pivotal role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks, DNA inter-strand crosslinks and replication fork stability. Defects in homologous recombination also play a critical role in the development of cancer and the sensitivity of these cancers to chemotherapy. RAD51, an essential factor for homologous recombination and replication fork protection, accumulates and forms immunocytochemically detectable nuclear foci at sites of DNA damage. To identify kinases that may regulate RAD51 localization to sites of DNA damage, we performed a human kinome siRNA library screen, using DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci formation as readout...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
Jing Zhang, Miao Tian, Guan-Xiong Yan, Anura Shodhan, Wei Miao
Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
Benjamin L Bryson, Damian J Junk, Rocky Cipriano, Mark W Jackson
Cytokines in the developing tumor microenvironment (TME) can drive transformation and subsequent progression towards metastasis. Elevated levels of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokine Oncostatin M (OSM) in the breast TME correlate with aggressive, metastatic cancers, increased tumor recurrence, and poor patient prognosis. Paradoxically, OSM engages a tumor-suppressive, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent senescence response in normal and non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC)...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
Eva Absmeier, Christian Becke, Jan Wollenhaupt, Karine F Santos, Markus C Wahl
RNA helicase Brr2 is implicated in multiple phases of pre-mRNA splicing and thus requires tight regulation. Brr2 can be auto-inhibited via a large N-terminal region folding back onto its helicase core and auto-activated by a catalytically inactive C-terminal helicase cassette. Furthermore, it can be regulated in trans by the Jab1 domain of the Prp8 protein, which can inhibit Brr2 by intermittently inserting a C-terminal tail in the enzyme's RNA-binding tunnel or activate the helicase after removal of this tail...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
Natsuko Tohgi, Koya Obara, Masateru Yashiro, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that the nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area. HAP stem cells have been previously shown to differentiate to neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth-muscle cells, melanocytes and cardiac-muscle cells in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models, differentiating to Schwann cells and neurons. In previous studies, we established an efficient protocol for the differentiation of cardiac-muscle cells from mouse HAP stem cells...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
Jinliang Wu, Rong Fu, Xiaolei Huang, Yang Xue, Yan Xu, Jiangmin Zhao, Jun Mi
The metabolic reprogramming is indispensible for the fast growth of tumor cells. The metabolism of CAFs is reprogrammed to aerobic glycolysis too. However, it is not clear whether this metabolic reprogramming promotes the growth of CAFs themselves. In this study, we found that the proliferation rate of CAFs was slower than NAFs, which was determined by cell counting, BrdU assay and flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we found TGF-β signaling regulated cell growth of CAF through RNA-sequencing analysis and Western blot, which was further supported by the observation that TGF-β2 was highly expressed in colon cancer tissues...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
Ronadip R Banerjee, Sushant Bhatnagar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Elisa Matas-Rico, Michiel van Veen, Wouter H Moolenaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Matthew E Bechard, Christopher V E Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Aidan M Rose, Owen J Sansom, Gareth J Inman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Hong-Yeoul Ryu, Mark Hochstrasser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
E Di Giacomo, E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, A Fidoamore, D Barone, S Moreno, R Ippoliti, M P Cerù, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are a class of ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids and vitamin D that control the expression of a large number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. The role of PPARs in the CNS has been primarily associated with lipid and glucose metabolism; however, these receptors are also implicated in neural cell differentiation and death, as well as neuronal maturation...
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Fulvio Chiacchiera, Diego Pasini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Cell Cycle
Maria Grazia Cipolleschi, Ilaria Marzi, Elisabetta Rovida, Massimo Olivotto, Persio Dello Sbarba
We previously showed that cellular RedOx state governs the G1-S transition of AH130 hepatoma, a tumor spontaneously reprogrammed to the embryonic stem cell stage. This transition is impaired when the mithocondrial electron transport system is blocked by specific inhibitors (antimycin A) or the respiratory chain is saturated by adding to the cells high concentrations of pyruvate. The antimycin A or pyruvate block is removed by the addition of adequate concentrations of folate (F). This suggests that the G1-S transition of AH130 cells depends on a respiration-linked step of DNA synthesis related to folate metabolism...
November 14, 2016: Cell Cycle
Christopher J Derrick, Timothy T Weil
Localised mRNA translation is a widespread mechanism for targeting protein synthesis, important for cell fate, motility and pathogenesis. In Drosophila, the spatiotemporal control of gurken/TGF-α mRNA translation is required for establishing the embryonic body axes. A number of recent studies have highlighted key aspects of the mechanism of gurken mRNA translational control at the dorsoanterior corner of the mid-stage oocyte. Orb/CPEB and Wispy/GLD-2 are required for polyadenylation of gurken mRNA, but mis-localised gurken mRNA in the oocyte is not fully polyadenylated (1) ...
November 14, 2016: Cell Cycle
Wenjing Zhou, Gang Xu, Yunqiu Wang, Ziao Xu, Xiaofei Liu, Xia Xu, Guijie Ren, Keli Tian
Tumors are comprised of malignant cancer cells and stromal cells which constitute the tumor microenvironment (TME). Previous studies have shown that cancer associated fibroblast (CAF) in TME is an important promoter of tumor initiation and progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which CAFs influence the growth of colorectal cancer cells (CRCs) have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, by using a non-contact co-culture system between human colorectal fibroblasts (CCD-18-co) and CRCs (LoVo, SW480, and SW620), we found that fibroblasts existing in tumor microenvironment positively influenced the metabolism of colorectal cancer cells, through its autophagy and oxidative stress pathway which were initially induced by neighboring tumor cells...
November 14, 2016: Cell Cycle
Tatyana S Nekova, Susanne Kneitz, Hermann Einsele, Ralf Bargou, Gernot Stuhler
Small molecule inhibitors targeting CDK1/CDK2 have been clinically proven effective against a variety of tumors, albeit at the cost of profound off target toxicities. To separate potential therapeutic from toxic effects, we selectively knocked down CDK1 or CDK2 in p53 mutated HACAT cells by siRNA silencing. Using dynamic, cell cycle wide proteome arrays, we observed minor changes in overall abundance of proteins critically involved in cell cycle transition despite profound G2/M or G1/S arrest, respectively...
November 10, 2016: Cell Cycle
Alfonso Parrilla, Luca Cirillo, Yann Thomas, Monica Gotta, Lionel Pintard, Anna Santamaria
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is an important mitotic kinase that is crucial for entry into mitosis after recovery from DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest. Plk1 activation is promoted by the conserved protein Bora (SPAT-1 in C. elegans), which stimulates the phosphorylation of a conserved residue in the activation loop by the Aurora A kinase. In a recent article published in Cell Reports, we show that the master mitotic kinase Cdk1 contributes to Plk1 activation through SPAT-1/Bora phosphorylation. We identified 3 conserved Sp/Tp residues that are located in the N-terminal, most conserved part, of SPAT-1/Bora...
November 10, 2016: Cell Cycle
Berati Cerikan, Elmar Schiebel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Cell Cycle
Luc Poncelet, Mutien Garigliany, Kunie Ando, Mathieu Franssen, Daniel Desmecht, Jean-Pierre Brion
The cell cycle-associated neuronal death hypothesis, which has been proposed as a common mechanism for most neurodegenerative diseases, is notably supported by evidencing cell cycle effectors in neurons. However, in naturally occurring nervous system diseases, these markers are not expressed in neuron nuclei but in cytoplasmic compartments. In other respects, the Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) is able to complete its cycle in mature brain neurons in the feline species. As a parvovirus, the FPV is strictly dependent on its host cell reaching the cell cycle S phase to start its multiplication...
November 10, 2016: Cell Cycle
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