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Cell Cycle

Chi Ma, Zhanwei Wang, Manoj Nepal, Kanani Hokutan, Jun Zhang, Herbert Yu, Peiwen Fei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: Cell Cycle
Srijita Dhar, Robert M Brosh
Timely recruitment of DNA damage response proteins to sites of genomic structural lesions is very important for signaling mechanisms to activate appropriate cell cycle checkpoints but also repair the altered DNA sequence to suppress mutagenesis. The eukaryotic cell is characterized by a complex cadre of players and pathways to insure genomic stability in the face of replication stress or outright genomic insult by endogenous metabolites or environmental agents. Among the key performers are molecular motor DNA unwinding enzymes known as helicases that sense genomic perturbations and separate structured DNA strands so that replacement of a damaged base or sugar-phosphate backbone lesion can occur efficiently...
September 13, 2018: Cell Cycle
Jaewoo Choi, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Luca Busino
Protein phosphorylation regulates a variety of cellular signaling pathways and fundamental mechanisms in cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that the mRNA decay factor Roquin2 is phosphorylated at tyrosine residue in position 691 in vivo. This phosphorylation disrupts the interaction with KLHL6, the E3 ligase for Roquin2. Furthermore, we establish that the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14 specifically interacts with Roquin2 through its phosphatase domain and dephosphorylates Roquin2 tyrosine 691. Overexpression of PTPN14 promotes Roquin2 degradation in a KLHL6-dependant manner by promoting interaction with KLHL6...
September 13, 2018: Cell Cycle
Daishi Chen, Wei Ma, Zhaoyang Ke, Fei Xie
Circular RNA (circRNA) is shown to participate in various tumors, including lung cancer. Although a few circRNAs involved in lung cancer are reported, whether circRNA negatively regulates lung cancer development remains elusive. In this study, we showed hsa_circ_100395 expression was decreased in lung cancer tissues. Besides, hsa_circ_100395 level was inversely correlated with TNM stage and metastases in lung cancer and low hsa_circ_100395 expression in patients predicted poor prognosis. Overexpression of hsa_circ_100395 dramatically inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, arrested cell-cycle progression and reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro...
September 13, 2018: Cell Cycle
K Pham, A Kan, L Whitehead, R J Hennessy, K Rogers, P D Hodgkin
Recent studies using direct live cell imaging have reported that individual B lymphocytes have correlated transit times between their G1 and S/G2/M phases. This finding is in contradiction with the influential model of Smith and Martin that assumed the bulk of the total cell cycle time variation arises in the G1 phase of the cell cycle with little contributed by the S/G2/M phase. Here we extend these studies to examine the relation between cell cycle phase lengths in two B lymphoma cell lines. We report that transformed B lymphoma cells undergo a short G1 period that displays little correlation with the time taken for the subsequent S/G2/M phase...
September 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Shalini Srivastava, Dulal Panda
Centrosomal proteins play important roles in the spindle assembly and the segregation of chromosomes in the eukaryotic cells. STARD9, a recently identified centrosomal protein, was reported to influence the spindle pole assembly. However, the role of STARD9 in maintaining the stability and organization of microtubules are not known. Here, we show that STARD9 regulates the assembly and dynamics of both interphase and mitotic microtubules. The knockdown of STARD9 in HeLa or HCT116 cells with siRNA or shRNA induced a strong depolymerization of the interphase microtubules...
September 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Huafeng Zhang, Wengang Wang, Ning Li, Peng Li, Ming Liu, Junwei Pan, Dan Wang, Junwei Li, Yuanyuan Xiong, Lei Xia
Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually results in neurological damage. DGCR5 is closely related to neurological disorders, and this study aims to explore its role in neuronal apoptosis in acute SCI. The ASCI model was established in rats, and the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring was used to assess the neurological function. The expression of RNA and protein was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. The oxygenglucose deprivation (OGD) was performed upon neurons and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry...
September 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Petr Páral, Kateřina Faltusová, Martin Molík, Nicol Renešová, Luděk Šefc, Emanuel Nečas
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are crucial for lifelong blood cell production. We analyzed the cell cycle and cell production rate in HSPCs in murine hematopoiesis. The labeling of DNA-synthesizing cells by two thymidine analogues, optimized for in-vivo use, enabled determination of the cell cycle flow rate into G2-phase, the duration of S-phase and the average cell cycle time in Sca-1+ and Sca-1- HSPCs. Determination of cells with 2n DNA content labeled in preceding S-phase was then used to establish the cell flow rates in G1-phase...
September 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
K L Thu, I Soria-Bretones, T W Mak, D W Cescon
Deregulation of the cell cycle is a hallmark of cancer that enables limitless cell division. To support this malignant phenotype, cells acquire molecular alterations that abrogate or bypass control mechanisms in signaling pathways and cellular checkpoints that normally function to prevent genomic instability and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Consequently, therapeutic targeting of the cell cycle has long been viewed as a promising anti-cancer strategy. Until recently, attempts to target the cell cycle for cancer therapy using selective inhibitors have proven unsuccessful due to intolerable toxicities and a lack of target specificity...
September 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Ajai Chari, Bart Barlogie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Li Zhang, Wenquan Kang, Xiaolan Lu, Shiyang Ma, Lei Dong, Baicang Zou
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lncRNA CASC11 on gastric cancer (GC) cell progression through regulating miR-340-5p and cell cycle pathway. Expressions of lncRNA CASC11 in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines were determined by qRT-PCR. Differentially expressed lncRNAs, mRNAs and miRNAs were screened through microarray analysis. The relationship among CASC11, CDK1 and miR-340-5p was predicted by TargetScan and validated through dual luciferase reporter assay. Western blot assay examined the protein level of CDK1 and several cell cycle regulatory proteins...
September 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Xiaoyu Chen, Danrui Cui, Yanli Bi, Jianfengpaint Shu, Xiufang Xiong, Yongchao Zhao
Breast cancer is a common type of cancer among female cancer patients and the main cause of cancer-related deaths. During the last decades, targeted therapies for breast cancer have been rapidly developing. Among them, MLN4924, a first-in-class NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, has performed antitumor activity by inactivating the cullin-RING ligases and causing the accumulation of their substrates to induce apoptosis in a number of studies. In this study, we found that MLN4924 activates the AKT pathway in both HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines...
September 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Dorota Piekna-Przybylska, Sanjay B Maggirwar
The population of HIV reservoir in infected person is very small, but extremely long-lived and is a major obstacle for an HIV cure. We previously showed that cells with established HIV latency have deficiencies in DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we investigated ability of HIV-1 to interfere with telomere maintenance, and the effects of targeting telomeres on latently infected cells. Our results show that telomeres are elongated in cultured primary memory CD4+T cells (TCM ) after HIV-1 infection and when virus latency is established...
September 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
Alessandro Berto, Valérie Doye
In metazoans, the assembly of kinetochores on centrometric chromatin and the dismantling of nuclear pore complexes are processes that have to be tightly coordinated to ensure the proper assembly of the mitotic spindle and a successful mitosis. It is therefore noteworthy that these two macromolecular assemblies share a subset of constituents. One of these multifaceted components is Cenp-F, a protein implicated in cancer and developmental pathologies. During the cell cycle, Cenp-F localizes in multiple cellular structures including the nuclear envelope in late G2/early prophase and kinetochores throughout mitosis...
September 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
Ru-Wei Lin, Cheng-Jung Ho, Hsin-Wen Chen, Yu-Hsuan Pao, Li-En Chen, Min-Chi Yang, Shih-Bo Huang, Shiaw Wang, Chung-Hwan Chen, Chihuei Wang
We previously demonstrated that Bim is the main BH3-only protein replacing Bak/Bax from Bcl-xl to activate apoptosis in a p53-independent manner in response to doxorubicin in prostate cancer. However, the comparison of doxorubicin treatment between LNCaP cells carrying p53-wild type and PC3 cells carrying p53-null suggested that p53 might be essential for maximizing apoptosis. Inhibition of ATM did not affect doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of p53 did not affect ABT-263-induced apoptosis and nevertheless, the combination of doxorubicin with ABT-263 induced higher apoptotic responses than did doxorubicin or ABT-263 alone...
September 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
Jianfeng Huang, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, but most studies focus on the molecular alterations in cancer cells and much less is known on the role of cancer metabolism, from a holistic perspective, for tumor initiation and progression. Increasing epidemiological evidence highlights the tremendous impact that cancer progression has on the host metabolism, especially in cachexia. However, how this benefits the tumor still is not completely understood. Here we review current studies on fatty acid oxidation in tumor cells as a potential therapeutic target in cancer, and how the redistribution of lipids from fat reservoirs to the cancer cell in the micro- and macro-environment impacts tumorigenesis by helping the tumor fulfill its energetic demands at the expense of fat...
September 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
Hui Wang, Ming Zhan, Ruimeng Yang, Yongheng Shi, Qiang Liu, Jian Wang
The highly malignant feature and difficulties for early diagnosis are the key reasons contributing to the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. NFE2L3 is a nuclear transcription factor, which has been reported an important biomarker of several tumors. But the role of NFE2L3 in PC remained undefined. Herein, through qPCR and immunohistochemistry, we found a significantly increased NFE2L3 in PC tissues as compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. While reducing NFE2L3 expression suppressed the invasion abilities of PC cells, elevated NFE2L3 was found associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0...
September 8, 2018: Cell Cycle
Martin V Bennetzen, Martin Kosar, Jakob Bunkenborg, Mark Ronald Payne, Jirina Bartkova, Mikael S Lindström, Jiri Lukas, Jens S Andersen, Jiri Bartek, Dorthe Helena Larsen
Ionizing radiation (IR) causes DNA double-strand breaks and activates a versatile cellular response regulating DNA repair, cell-cycle progression, transcription, DNA replication and other processes. In recent years proteomics has emerged as a powerful tool deepening our understanding of this multifaceted response. In this study we use SILAC-based proteomics to specifically investigate dynamic changes in cytoplasmic protein abundance after ionizing radiation (IR); we present in-depth bioinformatics analysis and show that levels of proteins involved in autophagy (cathepsins and other lysosomal proteins), proteasomal degradation (cathepsins and Ubiquitin-related proteins), energy metabolism (mitochondrial proteins) and particularly translation (ribosomal proteins and translation factors) are regulated after cellular exposure to ionizing radiation...
September 8, 2018: Cell Cycle
Wenyi Niu, Bing Sun, Mingying Li, Junwei Cui, Jian Huang, Ligong Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, could lead to kinds of clinical disorders and remains a leading global health problem, resulting in great morbidity and mortality worldwide. Previous studies have firmly demonstrated that M. tuberculosis (M.tb) has evolved to utilize different mechanisms to evade or attenuate the host immune response, such as regulation of immune-related genes by modulation of miRNAs of host or bacteria. However, the knowledge of functions of miRNAs during M.tb infection remains limited...
September 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Quentin Tavernier, Evangeline Bennana, Virginie Poindessous, Celine Schaeffer, Luca Rampoldi, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Nicolas Pallet
Adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress depends on the activation of the sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1), an endoribonuclease that splices the mRNA of the transcription factor XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). To better understand the protein network that regulates the activity of the IRE1 pathway, we systematically screened the proteins that interact with IRE1 and identified a ribonuclease inhibitor called ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1 (RNH1). RNH1 is a leucine-rich repeat domains-containing protein that binds to and inhibits ribonucleases...
September 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
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