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July 17, 2018: Cell Cycle
Shao-Yan Lv, Ti-Dong Shan, Xin-Ting Pan, Zi-Bin Tian, Xi-Shuang Liu, Fu-Guo Liu, Xue-Guo Sun, Hui-Guang Xue, Xin-Hua Li, Yue Han, Li-Juan Sun, Li Chen, Ling-Yun Zhang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of the biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the role of the lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 in CRC is not thoroughly understood. In this study, we found that ZEB1-AS1 was markedly upregulated in CRC. ZEB1-AS1 knockdown significantly suppressed CRC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, whereas enhanced expression of ZEB1-AS1 had the opposite effect. Bioinformatics analysis identified miR-181a-5p as a candidate target of ZEB1-AS1...
July 17, 2018: Cell Cycle
Haifeng Qiu, Jing Li, Qiuli Liu, Mei Tang, Yuan Wang
Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR2 signal and exhibits potent anti-tumor effects in human cancers. In this study, we aim to investigate the efficacy of Apatinib in cervical cancer. The protein expression of VEGFR2 and its relationships with clinical parameters were investigated in a panel of cervical cancer patients. In vitro, a series of experiments were performed to detect the effects of Apatinib on the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in cervical cancer cells. Both the immortalized cell lines and primary cultured tissues were used to investigate the synergy between Apatinib and chemotherapeutic drugs...
July 17, 2018: Cell Cycle
Yun Long, Guang Wang, Ke Li, Zong-Yi Zhang, Ping Zhang, Jing Zhang, Xiao-Tan Zhang, Yongping Bao, Xuesong Yang, Peng-Cheng Wang
Inflammation or dysbacteriosis-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) adversely influence the embryonic development of respiratory system. However, the precise pathological mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that LPS exposure caused lung maldevelopment in chick embryos, including higher embryo mortality, increased thickness of alveolar gas exchange zone, and accumulation of PAS+ immature pulmonary cells, accompanied with reduced expression of alveolar epithelial cell markers and lamellar body count...
July 16, 2018: Cell Cycle
Xuehao Li, Xin Zhang, Chunlu Yang, Su Cui, Qiming Shen, Shun Xu
Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib has exhibited notable clinical efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, its therapeutic efficacy is ultimately limited by the development of gefitinib resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the long non-coding RNA, RHPN1-AS1 on gefitinib resistance in NSCLC and explore the underlying mechanisms. In this study, RHPN1-AS1 was observed to be downregulated in gefitinib resistant patients and NSCLC cell lines...
July 15, 2018: Cell Cycle
Nayden G Naydenov, Supriya Joshi, Alex Feygin, Siddharth Saini, Larisa Litovchick, Andrei I Ivanov
Vesicle trafficking regulates epithelial cell migration by remodeling matrix adhesions and delivering signaling molecules to the migrating leading edge. Membrane fusion, which is driven by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor associated receptor (SNARE) proteins, is an essential step of vesicle trafficking. Mammalian SNAREs represent a large group of proteins, but few have been implicated in the regulation of cell migration. Ykt6 is a unique SNARE existing in equilibrium between active membrane-bound and inactive cytoplasmic pools, and mediating vesicle trafficking between different intracellular compartments...
July 15, 2018: Cell Cycle
Alexey G Mittenberg, Valeria O Kuzyk, Sergey V Shabelnikov, Daria P Gorbach, Alla N Shatrova, Olga A Fedorova, Nickolai A Barlev
The proteasome is the key player in targeted degradation of cellular proteins and serves as a therapeutic target for treating several blood malignancies. Although in general, degradation of proteins via the proteasome requires their ubiquitination, a subset of proteins can be degraded independently of their ubiquitination by direct interaction with subunits of the 20S proteasome core. Thus, investigation of the proteasome-associated proteins may help identify novel targets of proteasome degradation and provide important insights into the mechanisms of malignant cell proteostasis...
July 15, 2018: Cell Cycle
Sarah A Best, Kate D Sutherland
Lung cancer remains one of the world's deadliest cancers, with effective targeted treatment options available for only a small subset of patients. The rapid expansion of cancer genomics in recent years has provided insight into the genetic landscape of all major lung cancer subtypes and led to new discoveries on the heterogeneous biology underlying lung tumorigenesis. Interestingly, these studies have revealed a high frequency of alterations in the Kelch-like ECG-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) - Nuclear factor erythoid - 2 - related factor 2 (NRF2) stress response pathway, for which no targeted treatments are currently available...
July 15, 2018: Cell Cycle
Siti Nur Ain Roesley, John E La Marca, Andrew J Deans, Lisa Mckenzie, Randy Suryadinata, Peter Burke, Marta Portela, Hongyan Wang, Ora Bernard, Boris Sarcevic, Helena E Richardson
The SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex is an important evolutionarily conserved regulator of cell cycle progression. It associates with the Retinoblastoma (pRb)/HDAC/E2F/DP transcription complex to modulate cell cycle-dependent gene expression. The key catalytic component of the SWI/SNF complex in mammals is the ATPase subunit, Brahma (BRM) or BRG1. BRG1 was previously shown to be phosphorylated by the G1 -S phase cell cycle regulatory kinase Cyclin E/CDK2 in vitro, which was associated with the bypass of G1 arrest conferred by BRG1 expression...
July 14, 2018: Cell Cycle
María Soledad Rodríguez Varela, Sofía Mucci, Guillermo Agustín Videla Richardson, Olivia Morris Hanon, Verónica Alejandra Furmento, Santiago Gabriel Miriuka, Gustavo Emilio Sevlever, María Elida Scassa, Leonardo Romorini
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as a short doubling time due to an abbreviated G1 phase. Whether or not the core cell cycle machinery directly regulates the stemness and/or the differentiation potential of hPSCs remains to be determined. To date, several scenarios describing the atypical cell cycle of hPSCs have been suggested, and therefore there is still controversy over how cyclins, master regulators of the cell cycle, are expressed and regulated...
July 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Samy L Habib
One of the first structural changes in diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the renal enlargement. These changes resulted in renal hypertrophy in both glomerular and tubular cells. Shrink in the kidney size, which described as kidney atrophy resulted from the loss of nephrons or abnormal nephron function and lead to loss of the kidney function. On the other hand, increase in kidney size, which described as hypertrophy resulted from increase in proximal tubular epithelial and glomerular cells size. However overtime, tubular atrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis occurs as subsequent changes in tubular cell hypertrophy, which is associated with the infiltration of fibroblast cells into the tubulointerstitial space...
July 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Kilian Simmet, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Eckhard Wolf
Within the mammalian class, formation of the blastocyst is morphologically highly conserved among different species. The molecular and cellular events during preimplantation embryo development have been studied extensively in the mouse as model organism, because multiple genetically defined strains and a plethora of reverse genetics tools are available to dissect specific gene functions and regulatory networks. However, major differences in preimplantation developmental kinetics, implantation, and placentation exist among mammalians, and recent studies in species other than mouse showed, that even regulatory mechanisms of the first lineage differentiation events and maintenance of pluripotency are not always conserved...
July 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Zaur M Kachaev, Lyubov A Lebedeva, Eugene N Kozlov, Ilya Y Toropygin, Paul Schedl, Yulii V Shidlovskii
Paip2 (Poly(A)-binding protein - interacting protein 2) is a conserved metazoan-specific protein that has been implicated in regulating the translation and stability of mRNAs. However, we have found that Paip2 is not restricted to the cytoplasm but is also found in the nucleus in Drosophila embryos, salivary glands, testes, and tissue culture cells. Nuclear Paip2 is associated with chromatin, and in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments it maps to the promoter regions of active genes. However, this chromatin association is indirect, as it is RNA-dependent...
July 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Magdalena Delgado, Timothy C Chambers
We recently reported that primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are susceptible to the microtubule depolymerizing agent vincristine (VCR) in G1 phase. This finding prompted testing another G1 phase-active compound, palbociclib (PCB), a highly selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6), alone and in combination with VCR. PCB used alone caused G1 arrest in ALL cells with no effect on cell viability, and similar results were obtained for the retinoblastoma (RB)-proficient T98G glioblastoma cell line...
July 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Ekaterina Titova, Galina Shagieva, Olga Ivanova, Lidiya Domnina, Maria Domninskaya, Olga Strelkova, Natalya Khromova, Pavel Kopnin, Boris Chernyak, Vladimir Skulachev, Vera Dugina
Mitochondria are important regulators of tumour growth and progression due to their specific role in cancer metabolism and modulation of apoptotic pathways. In this paper we describe that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 designed as a conjugate of decyl-triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP+ ) with plastoquinone, suppressed the growth of fibrosarcoma HT1080 and rhabdomyosarcoma RD tumour cells in culture and tumour growth of RD in xenograft nude mouse model. Under the same conditions, no detrimental effect of SkQ1 on cell growth of primary human subcutaneous fibroblasts was observed...
July 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
D V Kopytova, V V Popova, A V Orlova, M M Kurshakova, J V Nikolenko, S G Georgieva, E N Nabirochkina
The general snRNA gene transcription apparatus has been extensively studied. However, the role of coactivators in this process is far from being clearly understood. Here, we have demonstrated that the Drosophila SAGA complex interacts with the PBP complex, the key component of the snRNA gene transcription apparatus, and is present at the promoter regions of the snRNA genes transcribed by both the RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III (U6 snRNA). We show that SAGA interacts with the Brf1 transcription factor, which is a part of the RNA polymerase III transcription apparatus and is present at promoters of a number of Pol III-transcribed genes...
July 11, 2018: Cell Cycle
Heidi L Schmit, Lauren M Kraft, Conor F Lee-Smith, Laura L Lackner
Organelle distribution is regulated over the course of the cell cycle to ensure that each of the cells produced at the completion of division inherits a full complement of organelles. In yeast, the protein Num1 functions in the positioning and inheritance of two essential organelles, mitochondria and the nucleus. Specifically, Num1 anchors mitochondria as well as dynein to the cell cortex, and this anchoring activity is required for proper mitochondrial distribution and dynein-mediated nuclear inheritance. The assembly of Num1 into clusters at the plasma membrane is critical for both of its anchoring functions...
July 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Yuheng Tian, Nali Zhang, Shuwen Chen, Yuan Ma, Yanyan Liu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can actively participate in tumorigenesis in various cancers. However, the involvement of lncRNA long stress induced non-coding transcripts 5 (LSINCT5) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains largely unknown. Here we showed a novel lncRNA signature in NSCLC through lncRNA profiling. Increased LSINCT5 expression positively correlates with malignant clinicopathological features and poor survival. LSINCT5 can promote migration and viability of various NSCLC cells in vitro and also enhance lung cancer progression in vivo...
July 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
Haiyang Feng, Eric M Thompson
Oogenesis in the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, occurs in a large coenocyst in which vitellogenesis precedes oocyte selection in order to adapt oocyte production to nutrient conditions. The animal has expanded CDK1 and Cyclin B paralog complements, with several expressed during oogenesis. Here, we addressed functional redundancy and specialization of CDK1 and cyclin B paralogs during oogenesis and early embryogenesis through spatiotemporal analyses and knockdown assays. CDK1a translocated from organizing centres (OCs) to selected meiotic nuclei at the beginning of the P4 phase of oogenesis, and its knockdown impaired vitellogenesis, nurse nuclear dumping, and entry of nurse nuclei into apoptosis...
July 4, 2018: Cell Cycle
Bolun Wang, Hui Lyu, Shanshan Pei, Deye Song, Jiangdong Ni, Bolin Liu
Cladribine (2CdA), a synthetic purine analog interfering with DNA synthesis, is a medication used to treat hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Entinostat, a selective class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, shows antitumor activity in various human cancers, including hematological malignancies. The therapeutic potential of cladribine and entinostat against multiple myeloma (MM) remains unclear. Here we investigate the combinatorial effects of cladribine and entinostat within the range of their clinical achievable concentrations on MM cells...
July 3, 2018: Cell Cycle
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