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Cell Cycle

L H Gallo, J Ko, D J Donoghue
Ubiquitination serves as a degradation mechanism of proteins, but is involved in additional cellular processes such as activation of NFκB inflammatory response and DNA damage repair. We highlight the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, E3 ubiquitin ligases and Deubiquitinases that support the metastasis of a plethora of cancers. E3 ubiquitin ligases also modulate pluripotent cancer stem cells attributed to chemotherapy resistance. We further describe mutations in E3 ubiquitin ligases that support tumor proliferation and adaptation to hypoxia...
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Michalis Fragkos, Valeria Naim
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis...
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Chuandong Fan, Xinjiang Wang
p53 is regulated by heterodimer E3 ligase Mdm2-Mdm4 via RING domain interaction. Mdm2 transcripts undergo alternative splicing, and Mdm2 splice isoforms are increased in cancer and induced by DNA damage. Although two major Mdm2 splice isoforms that do not bind to p53 were reported to impact the p53 pathway, the underlying biochemical mechanisms were not understood. Here, we show that these Mdm2 splice isoforms ubiquitinate Mdm2 and Mdm4 in vitro and regulate the activity of Mdm2-Mdm4 E3 complex in cells. The Mdm2 isoforms are capable of promoting p53 ubiquitination in the absence of Mdm2 or Mdm4...
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Melissa Jean Wilking-Busch, Mary Ann Ndiaye, Wei Huang, Nihal Ahmad
Melanoma is cancer of melanin-containing melanocyte cells. This neoplasm is one of the most deadly forms of skin cancer, and currently available therapeutic options are insufficient in significantly improve outcomes for many patients. Therefore, novel targets are required to effectively manage this neoplasm. Several sirtuins have previously been found to be upregulated in melanoma, so in this study, the expression profile of SIRT2 was determined. Employing a tissue microarray containing benign nevi, primary melanomas, and lymph node metastases, we have found that the tissue from lymph node metastases appears to have a significant upregulation of SIRT2 relative to primary tumors across the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and whole cell data...
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Jean Schneikert, Thorsten Stiewe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Cédric Deluz, Daniel Strebinger, Elias T Friman, David M Suter
The ability of some transcription factors to remain bound to specific genes on condensed mitotic chromosomes has been suggested to play a role in their rapid transcriptional reactivation upon mitotic exit. We have recently shown that SOX2 and OCT4 remain associated to mitotic chromosomes, and that depletion of SOX2 at the mitosis-G1 (M-G1) transition impairs its ability to maintain pluripotency and drive neuroectodermal commitment. Here we report on the role of SOX2 at the M-G1 transition in regulating transcriptional activity of embryonic stem cells...
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Dana Branzei, Andrea Ciliberto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Deborah L Croteau, Evandro Fei Fang, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Cell Cycle
Kohshiro Fukushima, Mian Wang, Yoko Naito, Toshihiro Uchihashi, Yorika Kato, Satomi Mukai, Norikazu Yabuta, Hiroshi Nojima
Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) harbors a consensus phosphorylation motif (Y412) for c-Src; however, its physiological significance remains elusive. Here, we show that GAK is phosphorylated by c-Src not only at Y412 but also at Y1149. An anti-GAK-pY412 antibody recognized the shifted band of GAK during M phase. Immunofluorescence (IF) showed that GAK-pY412/pY1149 signals were present in the nucleus during interphase, translocated to chromosomes at prophase and prometaphase, moved to centrosomes at metaphase, and finally translocated to chromosomes at the end of telophase, when nuclear membrane formation was almost complete...
January 31, 2017: Cell Cycle
Shogo Wada, Zoltan Arany
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Cell Cycle
Alyssa A La Belle, William P Schiemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
Dong Fang, Haiyun Gan, Heping Wang, Hui Zhou, Zhiguo Zhang
Chondroblastoma is a cartilaginous tumor that typically arises under 25 years of age (80%). Recent studies have identified a somatic and heterozygous mutation at the H3F3B gene in over 90% chondroblastoma cases, leading to a lysine 36 to methionine replacement (H3.3K36M). In human cells, H3F3B gene is one of two genes that encode identical H3.3 proteins. It is not known how H3.3K36M mutant proteins promote tumorigenesis. We and others have shown that, the levels of H3K36 di- and tri-methylation (H3K36me2/me3) are reduced dramatically in chondroblastomas and chondrocytes bearing the H3...
January 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
Meng Wang, Chuncheng Liu, Yang Su, Kuo Zhang, Yuying Zhang, Min Chen, Mengxu Ge, Lijie Gu, Tianyu Lu, Ning Li, Zhengquan Yu, Qingyong Meng
miRNAs are increasingly being implicated as key regulators of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. miRNA-34c appears to play a crucial role in cancer pathogenesis wherein it exerts its effect as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of miR-34c in myoblast proliferation remains poorly understood. Here, we found that overexpression miR-34c inhibited myoblasts proliferation by reducing the protein and mRNA expression of cell cycle genes. In contrast, blocking the function of miR-34c promoted myoblasts proliferation and increased the protein and mRNA expression of cell cycle genes...
January 26, 2017: Cell Cycle
Li Che, Maria G Pilo, Antonio Cigliano, Gavinella Latte, Maria M Simile, Silvia Ribback, Frank Dombrowski, Matthias Evert, Xin Chen, Diego F Calvisi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most frequent primary tumor of the liver, is an aggressive cancer type with limited treatment options. Cumulating evidence underlines a crucial role of aberrant lipid biosynthesis (a process known as de novo lipogenesis) along carcinogenesis. Previous studies showed that suppression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major enzyme responsible for de novo lipogenesis, is highly detrimental for the in vitro growth of HCC cell lines. To assess whether de novo lipogenesis is required for liver carcinogenesis, we have generated various mouse models of liver cancer by stably overexpressing candidate oncogenes in the mouse liver via hydrodynamic gene delivery...
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
John F Dankert, Julia K Pagan, Natalia G Starostina, Edward T Kipreos, Michele Pagano
FEM1A, FEM1B, and FEM1C are evolutionarily-conserved VHL-box proteins, the substrate recognition subunits of CUL2-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Here, we report that FEM1 proteins are ancient regulators of Stem-Loop Binding Protein (SLBP), a conserved protein that interacts with the stem loop structure located in the 3' end of canonical histone mRNAs and functions in mRNA cleavage, translation and degradation. SLBP levels are highest during S-phase coinciding with histone synthesis. The ubiquitin ligase complex SCF(cyclin F) targets SLBP for degradation in G2 phase; however, the regulation of SLBP during other stages of the cell cycle is poorly understood...
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
Yu-Wei Chang, Yi-Shuian Huang
Vinexin is a SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein that has diverse roles in cell adhesion, signal transduction, gene regulation and stress granule assembly. In this study, we found that vinexin localizes at the midbody during cell division and facilitates cytokinesis. Knockdown of vinexin in HeLa cells delayed the mitotic cell cycle progression and increased the time of cell abscission and the failure to resolve the cytoplasmic bridge. Midbody-localized vinexin is essential for recruiting rhotekin to this structure for cytokinesis because overexpression of a vinexin mutant without a rhotekin-binding motif or knockdown of rhotekin also impaired cytokinetic abscission and increased the number of cells arrested at the midbody stage...
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
Jialiang Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
Akari Yoshimura, Masayuki Seki, Takemi Enomoto
WRNIP1 interacts with WRN helicase, which is defective in the premature aging disease Werner syndrome. WRNIP1 belongs to the AAA+ ATPase family and is conserved from Escherichia coli to human. The protein contains an ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain at the N terminus and an ATPase domain in the middle region. In addition to WRN, WRNIP1 interacts with proteins involved in multiple cellular pathways, including RAD18, monoubiquitylated PCNA, DNA polymerase δ, RAD51, and ATMIN. Mgs1, the yeast homolog of WRNIP1, may act downstream of ubiquitylation of PCNA to mobilize DNA polymerase δ...
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
Rajesh Somasundaram, Tobias Strid, Mikael Sigvardsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
Vadim L Zorin, Andrey A Pulin, Ilya I Eremin, Ivan N Korsakov, Alla I Zorina, Natalia V Khromova, Olga I Sokova, Konstantin V Kotenko, Pavel B Kopnin
Difficulties related to the obtainment of stem/progenitor cells from skeletal muscle tissue make the search for new sources of myogenic cells highly relevant. Alveolar mucosa might be considered as a perspective candidate due to availability and high proliferative capacity of its cells. Human alveolar mucosa cells (AMC) were obtained from gingival biopsy samples collected from 10 healthy donors and cultured up to 10 passages. AMC matched the generally accepted multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells criteria and possess population doubling time, caryotype and immunophenotype stability during long-term cultivation...
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
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