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Cell Cycle

Raghavendra Vadla, Devyani Haldar
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells, but the mechanisms are not well understood. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) controls cell growth and proliferation and plays a critical role in metabolic reprogramming in glioma. mTORC2 regulates cellular processes such as cell survival, metabolism, and proliferation by phosphorylation of AGC kinases. Components of mTORC2 are shown to localize to the nucleus, but whether mTORC2 modulates epigenetic modifications to regulate gene expression is not known...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
Jaroslav Slamecka, Steven McClellan, Anna Wilk, Javier Laurini, Elizabeth Manci, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen
Fetal stem cells are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been suggested to be broadly multipotent with some features of pluripotency. Their clinical potential has been documented but their upgrade to full pluripotency could open up a wide range of cell-based therapies particularly suited for pediatric tissue engineering, longitudinal studies or disease modeling. Here we describe episomal reprogramming of mesenchymal stem cells from the human amnion to pluripotency (AM-iPSC) in chemically defined conditions...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
Zsofia Turi, Marketa Senkyrikova, Martin Mistrik, Jiri Bartek, Pavel Moudry
Ribosome biogenesis is an energy consuming process which takes place mainly in the nucleolus. By producing ribosomes to fuel protein synthesis, it is tightly connected with cell growth and cell cycle control. Perturbation of ribosome biogenesis leads to the activation of p53 tumor suppressor protein promoting processes like cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence. This ribosome biogenesis stress pathway activates p53 through sequestration of MDM2 by a subset of ribosomal proteins (RPs), thereby stabilizing p53...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
Mei-Yao He, Guang Wang, Sha-Sha Han, Ke Li, Ya Jin, Meng Liu, Zhen-Peng Si, Ju Wang, Guo-Sheng Liu, Xuesong Yang
Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has been known to affect the embryonic development of various systems, including cardiovascular and nervous systems. However, whether this disease could have a negative impact on embryonic respiratory system remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in lung development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes in the morphological structure of the lung. Immunostaining and Western blotting showed that proliferation increased and apoptosis decreased in PGDM...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
Hyun Jung Lee, Adesuwa Ewere, Miguel F Diaz, Pamela L Wenzel
Physical forces associated with tumor growth and drainage alter cancer cell invasiveness and metastatic potential. We previously showed that fluid frictional force, or shear stress, typical of lymphatic flow induces YAP1/TAZ activation in prostate cancer cells to promote motility dependent upon YAP1 but not TAZ. Here, we show that shear stress elevates TAZ protein levels and promotes TAZ nuclear localization. Increased TAZ activity drives increased DNA synthesis and induces AMOTL2, ANKRD1, and CTGF gene transcription independently of YAP1...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
Igor B Rogozin, Alexander Goncearenco, Artem G Lada, Subhajyoti De, German Nudelman, Anna R Panchenko, David N Cooper, Youri I Pavlov
DNA polymerase (pol) η is a specialized error-prone polymerase with at least two quite different and contrasting cellular roles: to mitigate the genetic consequences of solar UV irradiation, and promote somatic hypermutation in the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. Misregulation and mistargeting of pol η can compromise genome integrity. We explored whether the mutational signature of pol η could be found in datasets of human somatic mutations derived from normal and cancer cells. A substantial excess of single and tandem somatic mutations within known pol η mutable motifs was noted in skin cancer as well as in many other types of human cancer, suggesting that somatic mutations in A:T bases generated by DNA polymerase η are a common feature of tumorigenesis...
November 15, 2017: Cell Cycle
Jixiang Chen, Yaocheng Sun, Xiao Xu, Dawei Wang, Junbo He, Hailang Zhou, Ying Lu, Jian Zeng, Fengyi Du, Aihua Gong, Min Xu
Recent studies show that YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) preferentially binds to m(6)A-containing mRNA regulates localization and stability of the bound mRNA. However, the role of YTHDF2 in pancreatic cancers remains to be elucidated. Here, we find that YTHDF2 expression is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with normal tissues at both mRNA and protein levels, and is higher in clinical patients with later stages of pancreatic cancer, indicating that YTHDF2 possesses potential clinical significance for diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancers...
November 14, 2017: Cell Cycle
Pandi Hu, Kaifeng Guan, Yue Feng, Changping Ma, Huibin Song, Yang Li, Xuanyan Xia, Jialian Li, Fenge Li
Numerous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell growth, apoptosis and spermatogenesis. Our previous study showed that miR-638 was differentially expressed in sexually immature and mature testes of Large White boars. Here we reported that sperm-associated antigen 1 (SPAG1) was a direct target gene of miR-638. Moreover, miR-638 inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle, and promoted apoptosis of porcine immature Sertoli cells. Key genes including phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (p-PI3K) and phosphorylated serine/ threonine kinase (p-AKT) in PI3K/AKT pathway as well as cell cycle factors including c-MYC, cyclin-D1 (CCND1), cyclin-E1 (CCNE1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) were all significantly down-regulated after overexpression of miR-638 or RNAi of SPAG1...
November 9, 2017: Cell Cycle
Rui-Huan Gan, Hua Wei, Jing Xie, Dan-Ping Zheng, Er-Ling Luo, Xiao-Yu Huang, Jian Xie, Yong Zhao, Lin-Can Ding, Bo-Hua Su, Li-Song Lin, Da-Li Zheng, You-Guang Lu
OBJECTIVES: Notch1 regulates tumor biology in a complex, context-dependent manner. The roles of Notch1 in tongue cancer are still controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of Notch1 in tongue cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of Notch1 was tested between tongue cancer and normal samples by using immunohistochemistry. Tongue cancer cells were transfected with siRNA or plasmid, respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion ability were tested in appropriate ways...
November 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
Xiangpeng Dai, Zhiwei Wang, Wenyi Wei
Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are frequently overexpressed in various human cancers, therefore have been clinically pursed as attractive therapeutic anti-cancer targets. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism(s) underlying aberrant BET overexpression in human cancers. Recently, we reported that prostate cancer-derived SPOP mutants fail to interact with and promote BRD4 degradation, leading to accumulation of BRD4 in prostate cancer cells. As a result, prostate cancer cells harboring SPOP mutations are more resistant to BET inhibitors...
November 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Jianjiao Wang, Fenggang Zhou, Yang Li, Qingsong Li, Zhichao Wu, Lili Yu, Fei Yuan, Jie Liu, Yu Tian, Yu Cao, Yan Zhao, Yongri Zheng
Glioma remains one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers in central nervous system. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in gliomas. However, therapeutic benefits of TMZ could be very limited and all patients would finally suffer from tumor progression as the tumors develop resistance to TMZ. In this study, we aim to investigate the underlying mechanism of chemoresistance in glioma cell line and to identify whether there is still a close link between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and TMZ resistance in gliomas...
November 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Joseph R Pomerening
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Prerna Malaney, Emily Palumbo, Jonathan Semidey-Hurtado, Jamaal Hardee, Katherine Stanford, Jaymin J Kathiriya, Deepal Patel, Zhi Tian, Diane Allen-Gipson, Vrushank Davé
PTEN phosphorylation at its C-terminal (C-tail) serine/threonine cluster negatively regulates its tumor suppressor function. However, the consequence of such inhibition and its downstream effects in driving lung cancer remain unexplored. Herein, we ascertain the molecular mechanisms by which phosphorylation compromises PTEN function, contributing to lung cancer. Replacement of the serine/threonine residues with alanine generated PTEN-4A, a phosphorylation-deficient PTEN mutant, which suppressed lung cancer cell proliferation and migration...
November 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Jantina A Manning, Tanya L Henshall, Sharad Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
Michelle C C Lim, Gunter Maubach, Michael Naumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
Chenzhe Feng, Fang Ma, Chunhong Hu, Jin-An Ma, Jingjing Wang, Yang Zhang, Fang Wu, Tao Hou, Shun Jiang, Yapeng Wang, Yeqian Feng
Cisplatin (DDP) -based chemotherapy is a standard strategy for cervical cancer, while chemoresistance remains a huge challenge. Copper transporter protein 1 (CTR1), a copper influx transporter required for high affinity copper (probably reduced Cu I) transport into the cell, reportedly promotes a significant fraction of DDP internalization in tumor cells. In the present study, we evaluated the function of CTR1 in the cell proliferation of cervical cancer upon DDP treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been regarded as essential regulators of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, as well as chemoresistance...
November 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
Tsutomu Shimura, Megumi Sasatani, Hidehiko Kawai, Kenji Kamiya, Junya Kobayashi, Kenshi Komatsu, Naoki Kunugita
Ionizing radiation (IR) elevates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in response to the energy requirement for DNA damage responses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) released during mitochondrial OXPHOS may cause oxidative damage to mitochondria in irradiated cells. In this paper, we investigated the association between nuclear DNA damage and mitochondrial damage following IR in normal human lung fibroblasts. In contrast to low-doses of acute single radiation, continuous exposure of chronic radiation or long-term exposure of fractionated radiation (FR) induced persistent Rad51 and γ-H2AX foci at least 24 hours after IR in irradiated cells...
November 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
Per Hydbring, Yinan Wang, Roman L Bogorad, Hao Yin, Daniel G Anderson, Cheng Li, Piotr Sicinski
By performing nine genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) screens, we recently uncovered a new class of miRNAs, which target multiple cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Systemic delivery of selected cell cycle-targeting miRNAs to mouse xenograft models resulted in potent anti-tumorigenic effects without affecting animals' health. Here, we provide an in-depth description of our miRNA screening methodology, analyses of selected cell cycle-targeting miRNAs, and discuss why miRNA therapy might be a viable therapeutic option for cancer patients...
November 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
Valérie Lang, Fabienne Aillet, Wendy Xolalpa, Sonia Serna, Laurie Ceccato, Rosa G Lopez-Reyes, Maria Paz Lopez-Mato, Radosław Januchowski, Niels-Christian Reichardt, Manuel S Rodriguez
DNA damage activated by Adriamycin (ADR) promotes ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis by stimulating both the activity of ubiquitylating enzymes and the proteasome. In ADR-resistant breast cancer MCF7 (MCF7(ADR)) cells, protein ubiquitylation is significantly reduced compared to the parental MCF7 cells. Here, we used tandem ubiquitin-binding entities (TUBEs) to analyze the ubiquitylation pattern observed in MCF7 or MCF7(ADR) cells. While in MCF7, the level of total ubiquitylation increased up to six-fold in response to ADR, in MCF7(ADR) cells only a two-fold response was found...
November 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
Yuan Zhang, Sylvie Giacchetti, Alexandre Parouchev, Eva Hadadi, Xiaomei Li, Robert Dallmann, Helena Xandri-Monje, Lucie Portier, Rene Adam, Françis Lévi, Sandrine Dulong, Yunhua Chang
Everolimus (EV), a rapamycin analogue mTOR inhibitor, is used in the clinic to treat Estrogen positive (ER(+)) breast cancer in order to avoid the resistance to hormonotherapy. Here, we investigated whether EV efficacy varied according to administration timing by using the ER(+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 as model system. Our results showed that instead of apoptosis, EV induced a G0/G1 phase blockage of MCF-7 cells. Following serum shock, MCF-7 cells displayed a statistically significant 24h rhythm of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) activity, but perturbed circadian clock genes oscillations...
November 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
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