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Cell Cycle

Dandan Chen, Ping Tang, Linxiang Liu, Fang Wang, Haizhou Xing, Ling Sun, Zhongxing Jiang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on multiple myeloma (MM) development and the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BMSCs from C57BL/6 J mice were isolated and the third passage was used for subsequent experiments. Additionally, a series of in vitro transwell coculture assays were performed to explore the effects of BMSCs on the proliferation of MM cells 5TGM1 and CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, a 5TGM1-induced MM mice model was established...
May 21, 2018: Cell Cycle
Birgit Eisenhaber, Swati Sinha, Wing-Cheong Wong, Frank Eisenhaber
Distant homology relationships among proteins with many transmembrane regions (TMs) are difficult to detect as they are clouded by the TMs' hydrophobic compositional bias and mutational divergence in connecting loops. In the case of several GPI lipid anchor biosynthesis pathway components, the hidden evolutionary signal can be revealed with dissectHMMER, a sequence similarity search tool focusing on fold-critical, high complexity sequence segments. We find that a sequence module with 10 TMs in PIG-W, described as acyl transferase, is homologous to PIG-U, a transamidase subunit without characterized molecular function, and to mannosyltransferases PIG-B, PIG-M, PIG-V and PIG-Z...
May 15, 2018: Cell Cycle
Yang Yang, Yanzhe Gao, Anastasia Zlatanou, Satoshi Tateishi, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Igor B Rogozin, Cyrus Vaziri
Mutagenesis is a hallmark and enabling characteristic of cancer cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RAD18 and its downstream effectors, the 'Y-family' Trans-Lesion Synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases, confer DNA damage tolerance at the expense of DNA replication fidelity. Thus, RAD18 and TLS polymerases are attractive candidate mediators of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. The skin cancer-propensity disorder xeroderma pigmentosum-variant (XPV) is caused by defects in the Y-family DNA polymerase Pol eta (Polη). However it is unknown whether TLS dysfunction contributes more generally to other human cancers...
May 8, 2018: Cell Cycle
Yan Mei, Jun-Ping Yang, Yan-Hong Lang, Li-Xia Peng, Ming-Ming Yang, Qin Liu, Dong-Fang Meng, Li-Sheng Zheng, Yuan-Yuan Qiang, Liang Xu, Chang-Zhi Li, Wen-Wen Wei, Ting Niu, Xing-Si Peng, Qin Yang, Fen Lin, Hao Hu, Hong-Fa Xu, Bi-Jun Huang, Li-Jing Wang, Chao-Nan Qian
It is believed that the alteration of tissue microenvironment would affect cancer initiation and progression. However, little is known in terms of the underlying molecular mechanisms that would affect the initiation and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we use two murine mammary tumor models with different speeds of tumor initiation and progression for whole genome expression profiling to reveal the involved genes and signaling pathways. The pathways regulating PI3K-Akt signaling and Ras signaling were activated in Fvb mice and promoted tumor progression...
May 1, 2018: Cell Cycle
Simone Fulda
Necroptosis represents a form of programmed cell death that can be engaged by various upstream signals, for example by ligation of death receptors, by viral sensors or by pattern recognition receptors. It depends on several key signaling proteins, including the kinases Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP)1 and RIP3 and the pseudokinase mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Necroptosis has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathophysiological conditions and is disturbed in many human diseases...
April 25, 2018: Cell Cycle
Shamir Cassim, Valérie-Ann Raymond, Layla Dehbidi-Assadzadeh, Pascal Lapierre, Marc Bilodeau
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a metabolically heterogeneous cancer and the use of glucose by HCC cells could impact their tumorigenicity. Dt81Hepa1-6 cells display enhanced tumorigenicity compared to parental Hepa1-6 cells. This increased tumorigenicity could be explained by a metabolic adaptation to more restrictive microenvironments. When cultured at high glucose concentrations, Dt81Hepa1-6 displayed an increased ability to uptake glucose (P<0.001), increased expression of 9 glycolytic genes, greater GTP and ATP (P<0...
April 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Michael Daskalakis, David Brocks, Yi-Hua Sheng, Md Saiful Islam, Alzbeta Ressnerova, Yassen Assenov, Till Milde, Ina Oehme, Olaf Witt, Ashish Goyal, Alexander Kühn, Mark Hartmann, Dieter Weichenhan, Manfred Jung, Christoph Plass
Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTis) or histone deacetylases (HDACis) are epigenetic drugs which are investigated since decades. Several have been approved and are applied in the treatment of hematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies, although their mode of action has not been fully understood. Two recent findings improved mechanistic insights: i) activation of human endogenous retroviral elements (HERVs) with concomitant synthesis of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), and ii) massive activation of promoters from long terminal repeats (LTRs) which originated from past HERV invasions...
April 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Hailun Zheng, Xiquan Ke, Dapeng Li, Qiangwu Wang, Jianchao Wang, Xiaoyang Liu, Min Deng, Xiaojing Deng, Yongju Xue, Yu Zhu, Qizhi Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. In China, the situation is even worse as cancer incidence and mortality continue to increase rapidly. Although tremendous progress has been made toward HCC treatments, the benefits for liver cancer patients are still limited. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and develop novel therapeutic methods. Neuronally expressed developmentally downregulated 4 (NEDD4), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, plays a critical role in the development and progression of various types of human cancers...
April 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Ramona Madalina Babes, Ioana Teodora Tofolean, Roxana Gabriela Sandu, Oana Elena Baran, Vlad Cosoreanu, Maria Teodora Ilie, Alexandru Ionut Duta, Maria Catalina Ceausescu, Paul Mihai Ciucur, Simona Costache, Constanta Ganea, Irina Baran
Human leukemia Jurkat T cells were analyzed for apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry, using the Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) standard assay, and a simple PI staining in Triton X-100/digitonin-enriched PI/RNase buffer, respectively. Cells treated with doxorubicin or menadione displayed a very strong correlation between the apoptotic cell fraction measured by the Annexin V/PI assay, and the weight of a secondary cell population that emerged on the forward scatter (FS)/PI plot, as well as on the side scatter (SS)/PI and FL1/PI plots generated from parallel cell cycle recordings...
April 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Kentaro Igarashi, Kei Kawaguchi, Tasuku Kiyuna, Kentaro Miyake, Masuyo Miyake, Shukuan Li, Qinghong Han, Yuying Tan, Ming Zhao, Yunfeng Li, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Arun S Singh, Irmina A Elliott, Tara A Russell, Mark A Eckardt, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman
In the present study, a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of recurrent cisplatinum (CDDP)-resistant metastatic osteosarcoma was treated with Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R), which decoys chemoresistant quiescent cancer cells to cycle, and recombinant methioninase (rMETase), which selectively traps cancer cells in late S/G2 , and chemotherapy. The PDOX models were randomized into the following groups 14 days after implantation: G1, control without treatment; G2, CDDP (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i...
April 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Jiong Ren, Cai-Zhi Tang, Xu-Dong Li, Zhi-Bin Niu, Bo-Yang Zhang, Tao Zhang, Mei-Jiao Gao, Xin-Ze Ran, Yong-Ping Su, Feng-Chao Wang
Although the regulatory network of G2/M phase transition has been intensively studied in mammalian cell lines, the identification of morphological and molecular markers to identify G2/M phase transition in vivo remains elusive. In this study, we found no obvious morphological changes between the S phase and G2 phase in mice intestinal epithelial cells. The G2 phase could be identified by Brdu incorporation resistance, marginal and scattered foci of histone H3 phosphorylated at Ser10 (pHH3), and relatively intact Golgi ribbon...
April 10, 2018: Cell Cycle
Wen-Juan Yi, Meng-Yun Su, Ying Shi, Shan Jiang, Shi-Zheng Xu, Tie-Chi Lei
Melanosomes are membrane-bound intracellular organelles that are uniquely generated by melanocytes (MCs) in the basal layer of human epidermis. Highly pigmented mature melanosomes are transferred from melanocytes (MCs) to keratinocytes (KCs), and then positioned in the supra-nuclear region to ensure protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, the molecular mechanism underlying melanosome (or melanin pigment) transfer remains enigmatic. Emerging evidence shows that exo-/endo-cytosis of the melanosome core (termed melanocore) has been considered as the main transfer manner between MCs and KCs...
April 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Kei Kawaguchi, Kentaro Miyake, Qinghong Han, Shukuan Li, Yuying Tan, Kentaro Igarashi, Thinzar M Lwin, Takashi Higuchi, Tasuku Kiyuna, Masuyo Miyake, Hiromichi Oshiro, Michael Bouvet, Michiaki Unno, Robert M Hoffman
Pancreatic cancer is a recalcitrant disease. Gemcitabine (GEM) is the most widely-used first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, but most patients eventually fail. Transformative therapy is necessary to significantly improve the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients. Our and other's previous work has demonstrated tumors have an elevated requirement for methionine and are susceptible to methionine restriction. The present study used a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer to determine the efficacy of recombinant methioninase (rMETase) to effect methionine restriction and thereby overcome GEM-resistance...
April 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Sarah M Misenko, Dharm S Patel, Joonyoung Her, Samuel F Bunting
'BRCAness' is a term used to describe cancer cells that behave similarly to tumors with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The BRCAness phenotype is associated with hypersensitivity to chemotherapy agents including PARP inhibitors, which are a promising class of recently-licensed anti-cancer treatments. This hypersensitivity arises because of a deficiency in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway for DNA double-strand break repair. To gain further insight into how genetic modifiers of HR contribute to the BRCAness phenotype, we created a new mouse model of BRCAness by generating mice that are deficient in BLM helicase and the Exo1 exonuclease, which are involved in the early stages of HR...
April 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
Tesfaye Worku, Kai Wang, Duncan Ayers, Di Wu, Zia Ur Rehman, Hao Zhou, Liguo Yang
Recent findings suggest that ephrinA5 (Efna5) has a novel role in female mouse fertility, in addition to its well-defined role as a neurogenesis factor. Nevertheless, its physiological roles in ovarian granulosa cells (GC) have not been determined. In this study, mouse GC were cultured and transfected with ephrin A5 siRNA and negative control to determine the effects of Efna5 on GC apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle progression, and related signaling pathways. To understand the mode signaling, the mRNA expression levels of Efna5 receptors (Eph receptor A5, Eph receptor A3, Eph receptor A8, and Eph receptor B2) were examined...
April 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
Michael Shaofei Zhang, Maiko Furuta, Alexei Arnaoutov, Mary Dasso
RCC1 associates to chromatin dynamically within mitosis and catalyzes Ran-GTP production. Exogenous RCC1 disrupts kinetochore structure in Xenopus egg extracts (XEEs), but the molecular basis of this disruption remains unknown. We have investigated this question, utilizing replicated chromosomes that possess paired sister kinetochores. We find that exogenous RCC1 evicts a specific subset of inner KT proteins including Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) and the chromosome passenger complex (CPC). We generated RCC1 mutants that separate its enzymatic activity and chromatin binding...
April 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
Omid Tavana, Hongbin Sun, Wei Gu
Inhibition of Mdm2 function is a validated approach to restore p53 activity for cancer therapy; nevertheless, inhibitors of Mdm2 such as Nutlin-3 have certain limitations, suggesting that additional targets in this pathway need to be further elucidated. Our finding that the Herpesvirus-Associated Ubiquitin-Specific Protease (HAUSP, also called USP7) interacts with the p53/Mdm2 protein complex, was one of the first examples that deubiquitinases (DUBs) exhibit a specific role in regulating protein stability. Here, we show that inhibitors of HAUSP and Nutlin-3 can synergistically activate p53 function and induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells...
April 4, 2018: Cell Cycle
Ruoyao Chen, Michael Overholtzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Cell Cycle
Ashley E Culver-Cochran, Daniel T Starczynowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Cell Cycle
Yansen Li, Zhanlong Shen, Bo Wang, Chunxiang Ye, Zhiyong Lai, Hongpeng Jiang, Zhu Wang, Kewei Jiang, Yingjiang Ye, Shan Wang
Increasing evidence has shown that abnormal expression of lncRNAs is involved in various biological behaviors and major cellular pathways of human cancers. However, the role of lncRNAs in the progression of gastric cancer has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression levels of linc-GPR65-1 using Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and found that linc-GPR65-1 was significantly up-regulated in 50 gastric cancer tissues compared to the corresponding normal tissues...
April 2, 2018: Cell Cycle
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