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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

S T Bittar, P S Pfeiffer, H H Santos, M S Cirilo-Sousa
This study analysed the effect of low-intensity (LI) exercises with blood flow restriction (BFR) on bone metabolism compared with high-intensity (HI) exercises without BFR. The following databases were searched using the keywords therapeutic occlusion training OR BFR training OR vascular occlusion training OR KAATSU training OR ischaemia training AND osteogenesis OR bone biomarkers OR bone metabolic marker OR bone mass OR bone turnover OR osteoporosis OR osteopenia: PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Science Direct, Cochrane and Google Scholar...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Reidar Winter, Per Lindqvist, Florence H Sheehan
BACKGROUND: We developed a transthoracic echo simulator that measures technical skill in image acquisition in terms of the deviation angle between an acquired image and the anatomically correct plane for that view. We studied whether this metric reflects the clinical experience of providers. METHODS: Attendees at an echo course or at the annual meeting of the Swedish Heart Association were invited to test themselves on the simulator by scanning a mannequin and acquiring four views in 15 min: parasternal long axis (pLAX) in patient 1, apical four chamber and apical long axis (aLAX) in patient 2 and pLAX in patient 3...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ricardo S Oliveira, Alan R Barker, Florian Debras, Alexandra O'Doherty, Craig A Williams
Improvements in the autonomic and vascular systems are implicated in cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is composed of vascular and autonomic components. This study aimed to investigate between- and within-day reliability of BRS and its autonomic and vascular determinants in adolescents. Thirteen male adolescents (14·1 ± 0·5 y) participated in this study. For between-day reliability, participants completed four experimental visits separated by a minimum of 48-h. For within-day reliability, participants repeated BRS assessments three times in the morning with one hour between the measures...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M Batterham, Greg Atkinson
Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) is a ratio that is deemed to accurately normalize stroke volume (SV) to end-diastolic volume (EDV). Ratios are now well-recognized for not normalizing the numerator, in this case SV, consistently for the denominator, EDV. We aimed to provide the first allometric-based scrutiny of the conventional assumptions that underpin the EF ratio. We allometrically modelled untransformed SV and EDV measurements from 112 preclinical heart failure patients in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and 864 chronic heart failure patients in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) study...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
J E Jakobsgaard, M Christiansen, P Sieljacks, J Wang, T Groennebaek, F de Paoli, K Vissing
This study ascertains the ability of bodyweight blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise training to promote skeletal muscle adaptations of significance for muscle accretion and metabolism. Six healthy young individuals (three males and three females) performed six weeks of bodyweight BFR training. Each session consisted of five sets of sit-to-stand BFR exercise to volitional failure with 30-second inter-set recovery. Prior to, and at least 72 h after training, muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis to assess changes in fibre type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell (SC) and myonuclei content and capillarization, as well as mitochondrial protein expression...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
C R C Fontenelle, P Mannarino, F B D O Ribeiro, M A Milito, A C P Carvalho, L L Menegaldo, L F Oliveira
PURPOSE: Shear modulus (μ) is directly correlated to the tissue stiffness and can predict the tendon ultimate force to failure. With the knee extended 0° (K0), semitendinosus tendon (ST) is tensioned while patellar tendon (PT) is relaxed. At 80o , knee flexion (K80) tendons present an opposite stress pattern; however, the relation between ST and PT μ in both situations was not studied yet. METHOD: We accessed the μ of the ST and PT at 0o and 80o knee flexion by supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) elastography from 18 healthy males...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Sally M Abilmona, Ashraf S Gorgey
PURPOSE: Skeletal muscle atrophy and poor dietary habits may contribute to increased adiposity and impaired metabolic health after spinal cord injury (SCI). The relative association of trunk muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) versus dietary habits to central adiposity and impaired metabolic health after SCI remains unclear. METHODS: Twenty-two men with motor complete SCI completed five-day dietary recalls for 4 weeks. Trunk muscle CSAs as well as visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
S Kjellberg, E Viklund, P D Robinson, O Zetterström, A-C Olin, P Gustafsson
Nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2 MBW) is a sensitive method to identify peripheral airway involvement in asthma, but is a time-consuming test. The N2 vital capacity single breath (VC SBW) test offers greater time efficiency, but concordance with N2 MBW is poorly understood. The prevalence of peripheral airway abnormality was determined by N2 MBW and N2 SBW tests in 194 asthmatic subjects aged 18-1 years. N2 MBW data were related to findings in 400 healthy controls, aged 17-71 years, while N2 SBW data were compared to findings in 224 healthy controls, aged 15-65 years, to derive equipment-specific reference values...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Markos Klonizakis, Stephen M Bianchi, Marie Gernigon, Pierre Abraham, Shah Nawaz
OBJECTIVE: Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic condition most commonly presenting with intermittent claudication (IC). Intermittent claudication limits walking ability and may negatively affect health-related quality of life. Treadmill assessment of maximal walking distance (MWD) is the gold standard to assess PAD symptom severity. Despite being a well-established and reproducible tool, it may be inappropriate (due to frailty or fear) for some patients and only describes maximal abilities for a single walk test...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith, Meghan K Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Emerging research demonstrates that aerobic-based physical activity is favourably associated with episodic memory function. Despite resistance exercises being associated with a multitude of health outcomes, independent of aerobic physical activity, less research has examined the effects of resistance exercise on episodic memory function. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to examine the extent to which resistance exercise may be associated with episodic memory function...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
Much of the literature examining blood flow restriction in the lower body uses cuffs of differing widths. It is currently unknown whether similar relative pressures using cuffs of differing widths elicit the same blood flow response. PURPOSE: To examine the hemodynamic responses to relative pressures using two commonly used cuffs (10 and 12 cm). METHODS: In a random order over two laboratory visits, one cuff was applied to the right proximal thigh of the participant (men = 17, women = 14), and arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) was measured...
January 21, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Johan Petrini, Margareta Ring, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Kenneth Caidahl, Maria J Eriksson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intima-media thickness is a marker for atherosclerosis but is also influenced by shear stress and flow. We evaluated the relation between intima-media thickness of the descending aorta (AoIMT) and the common carotid artery (CIMT) in patients with and without severe aortic valve disease (sAVD). METHODS: A total of 310 patients (233 with sAVD, 77 without) were examined with regard to AoIMT and CIMT using transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasound, respectively, before valvular and/or aortic surgery...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Leo Pekka Malmberg, Paula Kauppi, Mika J Mäkelä
Recent technical recommendations on bronchial challenge testing aim at standardized assessment of provocative dose of causing 20% decrease in FEV1 (PD20). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mode of nebulization on the output of a computerized dosimeter (APS) and to compare PD20 obtained by two different dosimetric systems in vivo. The output of the APS system was tested during continuous nebulization, and using simulated breaths, for intermittent actuations with four different durations...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Timothée Fontolliet, Pietro Gianella, Vincent Pichot, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Paola Gasche-Soccal, Guido Ferretti, Frédéric Lador
The effects of lung afferents denervation on cardiovascular regulation can be assessed on bilateral lung transplantation patients. The high-frequency component of heart rate variability is known to be synchronous with breathing frequency. Then, if heart beat is neurally modulated by breathing frequency, we may expect disappearance of high frequency of heart rate variability in bilateral lung transplantation patients. On 11 patients and 11 matching healthy controls, we measured R-R interval (electrocardiography), blood pressure (Portapres® ) and breathing frequency (ultrasonic device) in supine rest, during 10-min free breathing, 10-min cadenced breathing (0·25 Hz) and 5-min handgrip...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
You Zhong, Qays Almodares, JieFu Yang, Fang Wang, Michael Fu, Magnus C Johansson
PURPOSE: Reduced blood circulation is an important feature of heart failure, and Doppler stroke distance of the left ventricular outflow tract is a measure of forward stroke volume. Several echocardiographic parameters have known prognostic implications in heart failure, but the prognostic implications of stroke distance in relation to other parameters are insufficiently known. The aim was therefore to test the hypothesis that stroke distance is associated with five-year all-cause mortality, independently of other echocardiography variables, and that stroke distance has added long-term prognostic value...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Kenneth H Mertz, Jacob Bülow, Lars Holm
Methods capable of measuring blood flow in a tissue-specific manner are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using bolus injections of SonoVue® is an useful method for assessing postprandial changes in microvascular perfusion in the vastus lateralis muscle. Ten healthy, young subjects were recruited for this study. Six subjects participated in washout and reproducibility protocols to assess washout time of SonoVue® and the reproducibility of the method when measuring microvascular blood volume (MBV)...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Raúl A Borracci, José D Montoya Pulvet, Carlos A Ingino, Mario Fitz Maurice, Alfredo Hirschon Prado, Enrique Dominé
OBJECTIVE: To date, no systematic work has been intended to describe spatio-temporal patterns of cardiac rhythms using only short series of RR intervals, to facilitate visual or computerized-aided identification of EKG motifs for use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to detect and classify eye-catching geometric patterns of Poincaré time-delay plots from different types of cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals. METHODS: Approximately 150-300 representative, consecutive beats were retrieved from 24-h Holter registers of 100 patients with different heart rhythms...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Erik Aro, Marko Seppänen, Keijo T Mäkelä, Pauliina Luoto, Anne Roivainen, Hannu T Aro
Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings in total hip arthroplasties and hip resurfacing arthroplasties have recently shown a new type of complication: adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD). ARMD is characterized by local severe inflammation and tissue necrosis leading to implant failures. The gluteal muscle region is important for the patient outcome after revision surgery. This prospective positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study was undertaken to evaluate the characteristics of 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG) and [68 Ga]Gallium citrate ([68 Ga]Citrate) PET/CT in ARMD patients...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Juliana P Borges, Alessandro R Nascimento, Gabriella O Lopes, Daniel J M Medeiros-Lima, Marina P Coelho, Pablo M C Nascimento, Daniel A Kopiler, Cristiane Matsuura, Mauro Felippe F Mediano, Eduardo Tibirica
PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of low and high weekly exercise frequencies on microvascular endothelium function and oxidative stress among patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Thirty-four male patients completed a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation programme, from which 23 performed exercise with a high frequency (HF) and 11 with a low frequency (LF). Systemic microvascular blood flow, maximal aerobic capacity, blood lipids, oxidative stress and anthropometric data were assessed prior to and after the cardiac rehabilitation programme...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Per Aagaard, Juan José González-Badillo
Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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