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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive and practical measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system function, mainly the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations of heart rate. A low HRV has been shown to be indicative of compromised cardiovascular health. Interventions that enhance HRV are therefore beneficial to cardiovascular health. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has been proposed as an alternative time-efficient exercise intervention for the improvement of cardiovascular health. In this review, we discuss the effect of WBV both acute and after training on HRV...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Sebastian Völz, Bert Andersson, Charlotta Ljungman, Li-Ming Gan, Bengt Rundqvist, Sara Svedlund
Renal denervation (RDN) is a potential modality in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and has shown beneficial effect on a variety of cardiovascular surrogate markers. Coronary flow reserve, as assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TDE-CFR) is impaired in patients with hypertension and is an independent predictor of cardiac morbidity. However, data on the effect of RDN on TDE-CFR are scarce. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of RDN on TDE-CFR. Twenty-six consecutive patients with RH (9 female and 17 male; mean age 62 ± 8 years; mean number of antihypertensive drugs 4·2 ± 1·6) underwent bilateral RDN...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
One of the most amazing aspects of the human brain is its ability to learn information and use it to change behaviour. A key neurotrophin that influences memory function is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This review briefly discusses the mechanistic role that BDNF may play in facilitating learning and memory. We also describe the role of exercise on this relationship. As discussed herein, BDNF may influence memory via BDNF-induced alterations in membrane receptor expression and translocation, as well as activating several pathways (PLC-y, PI3K, ERK) that act together to facilitate cellular effects that influence synaptic plasticity...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ulrika Pahlm, Felicia Seemann, Henrik Engblom, Tom Gyllenhammar, Sigrun Halvorsen, Henrik Steen Hansen, David Erlinge, Dan Atar, Einar Heiberg, Håkan Arheden, Marcus Carlsson
Sixty percent of stroke volume (SV) is generated by atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) in a healthy left ventricle (LV). The aims were to determine the effect of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on AVPD and contribution of AVPD to SV and to study the relationship between AVPD and infarct size (IS) and location. Patients from CHILL-MI and MITOCARE studies with cardiovascular magnetic resonance within a week of STEMI (n = 177, 59 ± 11 years) and healthy controls (n = 20, 62 ± 11 years) were included...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Roger Kölegård, Cristina Da Silva, Christoph Siebenmann, Michail E Keramidas, Ola Eiken
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is usually performed with the subject/patient lying in the left lateral position (LLP), because the acoustic window is better in this than in the supine position (SP). The aim was to investigate cardiac responses to rotational changes of position in the transversal plane, from SP to LLP while horizontal, and from leaning on the back (HUT-LB) to leaning on the left side (HUT-LL) while tilted 60° head-up from the horizontal. METHODS: Healthy men (n = 12) underwent 10-min HUT provocations...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
H L Aaltonen, J K Jakobsson, S Diaz, S Zackrisson, E Piitulainen, J Löndahl, P Wollmer
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often based on spirometry, which is not sensitive to early emphysema. We have recently described a method for assessing distal airspace dimensions by measuring recovery of nanoparticles in exhaled air after a single-breath inhalation followed by breath-hold. Recovery refers to the non-deposited particle fraction. The aim of this study was to explore differences in the recovery of exhaled nanoparticles in subjects with COPD and never-smoking controls...
April 10, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Reza Kaboteh, David Minarik, Mariana Reza, May Sadik, Elin Trägårdh
Bone Scan Index (BSI) is a validated imaging biomarker to objectively assess tumour burden in bone in patients with prostate cancer, and can be used to monitor treatment response. It is not known if BSI is significantly altered when images are acquired at a time difference of 1 h. The aim of this study was to investigate if automatic calculation of BSI is affected when images are acquired 1 hour apart, after approximately 3 and 4 h. We prospectively studied patients with prostate cancer who were referred for bone scintigraphy according to clinical routine...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ulku Karabulut, Murat Karabulut, Eric G James
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of isometric exercises performed during whole-body vibration (WBV) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on arterial elasticity and hemodynamic variables. METHODS: Eight male subjects performed static upper body (UB) and lower body (LB) exercises on a vibration platform with and without BFR. During BFR sessions, BFR cuffs were placed on the arms or legs and inflated to a target pressure. Exercises consisted of eight 45-s sets for UB, and ten 1-min sets for LB...
April 4, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ricardo Borges Viana, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, João Pedro Araújo Naves, Victor Silveira Coswig, Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio, Paulo Gentil
PURPOSE: The great popularity of the Tabata Protocol is accompanied by an uncomfortable lack of consistency and criteria in its use, which results in many controversies in the results obtained from its utilization. The purpose of this study was to analyse the studies that based their interventions on the Tabata Protocol and to provide a critical analysis of its use. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. All articles published between 1996 and October 2017 that cited at least one of the original studies of Tabata et al...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
S T Bittar, P S Pfeiffer, H H Santos, M S Cirilo-Sousa
This study analysed the effect of low-intensity (LI) exercises with blood flow restriction (BFR) on bone metabolism compared with high-intensity (HI) exercises without BFR. The following databases were searched using the keywords therapeutic occlusion training OR BFR training OR vascular occlusion training OR KAATSU training OR ischaemia training AND osteogenesis OR bone biomarkers OR bone metabolic marker OR bone mass OR bone turnover OR osteoporosis OR osteopenia: PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Science Direct, Cochrane and Google Scholar...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Reidar Winter, Per Lindqvist, Florence H Sheehan
BACKGROUND: We developed a transthoracic echo simulator that measures technical skill in image acquisition in terms of the deviation angle between an acquired image and the anatomically correct plane for that view. We studied whether this metric reflects the clinical experience of providers. METHODS: Attendees at an echo course or at the annual meeting of the Swedish Heart Association were invited to test themselves on the simulator by scanning a mannequin and acquiring four views in 15 min: parasternal long axis (pLAX) in patient 1, apical four chamber and apical long axis (aLAX) in patient 2 and pLAX in patient 3...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ricardo S Oliveira, Alan R Barker, Florian Debras, Alexandra O'Doherty, Craig A Williams
Improvements in the autonomic and vascular systems are implicated in cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is composed of vascular and autonomic components. This study aimed to investigate between- and within-day reliability of BRS and its autonomic and vascular determinants in adolescents. Thirteen male adolescents (14·1 ± 0·5 y) participated in this study. For between-day reliability, participants completed four experimental visits separated by a minimum of 48-h. For within-day reliability, participants repeated BRS assessments three times in the morning with one hour between the measures...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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May 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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May 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Y Le Mansec, A Nordez, S Dorel, M Jubeau
Reaction time (RT) is classically divided into premotor time (PMT) and electromechanical delay (EMD). However, the determination of the onset of electromyographic activity (EMG) during voluntary contraction remains questionable. In addition, the reliability of RT, PMT and EMD needs to be determined. Twelve participants performed two sessions of RT trials, separated by 5 min. RT was evaluated during voluntary isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, i.e., time between a light signal (stimulus) and the onset of the mechanical response...
March 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Samuel L Buckner, Jeremy P Loenneke, Paul D Loprinzi
Protein consumption and its association with changes in body composition, muscle function and different strategies to optimize the muscle protein synthetic response have received considerable attention. However, we are not aware of any epidemiological study examining the time-of-day consumption (afternoon versus evening) of protein on strength and lean mass. The purpose was to examine the associations between afternoon and evening protein consumption, at different protein thresholds (i.e. 15, 20, 25 and 30 g), in relation to leg lean mass and knee extensor strength in men...
March 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ola Hjelmgren, Lars Johansson, Ulrica Prahl, Caroline Schmidt, Göran M L Bergström
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the size of the lipid-rich necrotic core measured by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and the level of plaque vascularization measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, in human carotid plaques. Further, to compare the size of lipid-rich necrotic core from MRI to plaque echogenicity. METHODS: Thirty-one subjects with carotid plaques underwent standard B-mode ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI. The lipid-rich necrotic core was quantified using MRI...
March 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Adrian P Harrison
Acoustic myography (AMG) enables a detailed and accurate measurement of those muscles involved in a particular movement and is independent of electrical signals between the nerve and muscle, measuring solely muscle contractions, unlike surface electromyography (sEMG). With modern amplifiers and digital sound recording systems, measurements during physical activity both inside and outside a laboratory setting are now possible and accurate. Muscle sound gives a representation of the work of each muscle group during a complex movement, and under certain forms of movement even reveals both concentric and eccentric activity, something that sEMG is incapable of...
March 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Scott J Dankel, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
To investigate the acute responses to blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise across low, moderate and high relative pressures. Muscle thickness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were assessed following exercise with six different BFR pressures: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 90% of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP). There were differences between each time point within each condition for muscle thickness, which increased postexercise [+0·47 (0·40, 0·54) cm] and then trended towards baseline...
March 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Adam H Laursen, Jens Jakob Thune, Martin Hutchings, Philip Hasbak, Andreas Kjaer, Marie B Elming, Rasmus S Ripa
Due to improvements in early detection and treatment of malignant disease, the population of cancer survivors is constantly expanding. Cancer survivors are faced with chemotherapy-related long-term side effects, including irreversible cardiac injury with risk of heart failure (HF). Numerous antineoplastic regimens are associated with risk of cardiac side effects, but anthracyclines in particular carry a severe risk of cardiotoxicity. Currently, serial echocardiographic evaluation of resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the gold standard for monitoring anthracycline-induced cardiac side effects from chemotherapy...
March 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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