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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

Egil Henriksen, Jonas Selmeryd, Pär Hedberg
Recent findings suggest that left atrial (LA) function is more strongly related to adverse prognosis than LA volumes. We aimed to evaluate the associations between LA volumes and Doppler filling indices with LA function. Echocardiographic LA volumes (LAVs), mitral valve early (MV-E) and late (MV-A) peak flow velocities, and mitral atrioventricular plane tissue-Doppler early (TD-e') and late (TD-a') peak velocities were obtained in 320 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) free from atrial fibrillation and more than moderate valvular disease...
July 1, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Maria Perissiou, Tom G Bailey, Mark Windsor, Anthony S Leicht, Jonathan Golledge, Christopher D Askew
Short-term changes in arterial stiffness with exercise are proposed to better reflect vascular impairments than resting measures alone and are suggested as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular risk in older adults. Arterial stiffness indices are reliable at rest, but the time-course and reliability of postexercise changes in arterial stiffness in older adults are unknown. The precision of postexercise changes in arterial stiffness should be determined prior to their use in large prospective trials. This study assessed the between-day reliability of the changes in pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx75) and reflection magnitude (RM) following an exercise bout in older adults...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Louise Rundqvist, Jan Engvall, Maria Faresjö, Peter Blomstrand
The aims of the study were to explore the temporal change of cardiac function after peak exercise in adolescents, and to investigate how these functional changes relate to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). The cohort consisted of 27 endurance-trained adolescents aged 13-19 years, and 27 controls individually matched by age and gender. Standard echocardiography and colour tissue Doppler were performed at rest, and immediately after as well as 15 min after a maximal cardio pulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Harvey N Mayrovitz
Inter-arm systolic blood pressure differences (SBP-DIFF) ≥ 10 mmHg have been reported useful to predict future cardiovascular-related morbidities. Although well studied in patients, there is little information on healthy young adults and the role of hand-dominance as a factor affecting SBP-DIFF. As dominant arms (DOM) tend to have greater girth and muscle development than nondominant arms (NDOM) it was reasoned that cuff pressures needed to obtain SBP may be greater on DOM causing DOM SBP to be greater...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Zachary W Bell, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: Studies examining perceptual and arterial occlusion responses between blood flow restricted exercise and high load exercise often prescribe an arbitrary number of repetitions, making it difficult for direct comparisons. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare these protocols when performed to volitional failure. METHODS: Individuals completed four exercise conditions varying in load and pressure: (i) 15% 1RM; no restrictive pressure, (ii) 15% 1RM; 40% arterial occlusion pressure, (iii) 15% 1RM; 80% arterial occlusion pressure, and (iv) 70% 1RM; no pressure...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Murat Kara, Ayşe Merve Ata, Bayram Kaymak, Levent Özçakar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Adam M Burton, Matt S Stock
INTRODUCTION: Echo intensity reflects both intramuscular adiposity and fibrous tissue content. Recently, equations that allow investigators to estimate the percentage of intramuscular fat for individual muscles via measurements of echo intensity and subcutaneous fat were created. However, as the trial-to-trial consistency of these values has not been reported in the literature, it is unclear if they can be used to track changes during physical activity and/or nutritional interventions...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Eero A Haapala, Aapo Veijalainen, Urho M Kujala, Taija Finni
The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term reproducibility of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) and augmentation index (AIx%) assessed by the non-invasive oscillometric device. Altogether of 55 (19 boys, 36 girls) adolescents 16-19-years-of-age participated in the study. PWVao and AIx% were measured during the same laboratory visit at 2 min intervals using the Arteriograph™ device. Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak ) was assessed by the maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis...
June 3, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ikumi Sugahara, Misaki Doi, Rinko Nakayama, Kazushige Sasaki
Compression stockings are known to be effective in reducing peripheral oedema or leg swelling by increasing tissue pressure and venous blood flow. While previous studies on compression stockings have focused on its prolonged, preventive effect on leg swelling, the aim of this study was to investigate an acute effect of wearing compression stockings on lower leg swelling and muscle stiffness. Twenty healthy women aged 18-23 years participated in the experiment conducted in the evening, in which they wore below-knee graduated compression stockings and rested in a seated position for 30 min...
June 3, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ari Mänttäri, Jaana Suni, Harri Sievänen, Pauliina Husu, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Heli Valkeinen, Kari Tokola, Tommi Vasankari
BACKGROUND: The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is cost-effective and well-documented field test for assessing functional exercise capacity and response to medical interventions in diverse patient groups, and predicting cardiorespiratory fitness among healthy people. OBJECTIVE: Assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) have great potential in public health monitoring to predict future health, early retirement and ability to independent living...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Iben Rix, Julie Steen Pedersen, Heidi Storgaard, Lise Lotte Gluud
PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about 25% of the population worldwide. NAFLD may be viewed as the hepatological manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome due to diabetes or obesity have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This narrative review describes cardiometabolic effects of antidiabetic drugs in NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and manually scanned bibliographies in trial databases and reference lists in relevant articles...
May 29, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive and practical measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system function, mainly the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations of heart rate. A low HRV has been shown to be indicative of compromised cardiovascular health. Interventions that enhance HRV are therefore beneficial to cardiovascular health. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has been proposed as an alternative time-efficient exercise intervention for the improvement of cardiovascular health. In this review, we discuss the effect of WBV both acute and after training on HRV...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Sebastian Völz, Bert Andersson, Charlotta Ljungman, Li-Ming Gan, Bengt Rundqvist, Sara Svedlund
Renal denervation (RDN) is a potential modality in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and has shown beneficial effect on a variety of cardiovascular surrogate markers. Coronary flow reserve, as assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TDE-CFR) is impaired in patients with hypertension and is an independent predictor of cardiac morbidity. However, data on the effect of RDN on TDE-CFR are scarce. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of RDN on TDE-CFR. Twenty-six consecutive patients with RH (9 female and 17 male; mean age 62 ± 8 years; mean number of antihypertensive drugs 4·2 ± 1·6) underwent bilateral RDN...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
One of the most amazing aspects of the human brain is its ability to learn information and use it to change behaviour. A key neurotrophin that influences memory function is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This review briefly discusses the mechanistic role that BDNF may play in facilitating learning and memory. We also describe the role of exercise on this relationship. As discussed herein, BDNF may influence memory via BDNF-induced alterations in membrane receptor expression and translocation, as well as activating several pathways (PLC-y, PI3K, ERK) that act together to facilitate cellular effects that influence synaptic plasticity...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ulrika Pahlm, Felicia Seemann, Henrik Engblom, Tom Gyllenhammar, Sigrun Halvorsen, Henrik Steen Hansen, David Erlinge, Dan Atar, Einar Heiberg, Håkan Arheden, Marcus Carlsson
Sixty percent of stroke volume (SV) is generated by atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) in a healthy left ventricle (LV). The aims were to determine the effect of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on AVPD and contribution of AVPD to SV and to study the relationship between AVPD and infarct size (IS) and location. Patients from CHILL-MI and MITOCARE studies with cardiovascular magnetic resonance within a week of STEMI (n = 177, 59 ± 11 years) and healthy controls (n = 20, 62 ± 11 years) were included...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Roger Kölegård, Cristina Da Silva, Christoph Siebenmann, Michail E Keramidas, Ola Eiken
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is usually performed with the subject/patient lying in the left lateral position (LLP), because the acoustic window is better in this than in the supine position (SP). The aim was to investigate cardiac responses to rotational changes of position in the transversal plane, from SP to LLP while horizontal, and from leaning on the back (HUT-LB) to leaning on the left side (HUT-LL) while tilted 60° head-up from the horizontal. METHODS: Healthy men (n = 12) underwent 10-min HUT provocations...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Brittany A Edgett, Jacob T Bonafiglia, James P Raleigh, Mario P Rotundo, Matthew D Giles, Jonathan P Whittall, Brendon J Gurd
This study investigated whether VO2 peak is reproducible across repeated tests before (PRE) and after (POST) training, and whether variability across tests impacts how individual responses are classified following 3 weeks of aerobic exercise training (cycle ergometry). Data from 45 young healthy adults (age: 20·1 ± 0·9 years; VO2 peak, 42·0 ± 6·7 ml·min-1 ) from two previously published studies were utilized in the current analysis. Non-responders were classified as individuals who failed to demonstrate an increase or decrease in VO2 peak that was greater than 2·0 times the typical error of measurement (107 ml·min-1 ) away from zero, while responders and adverse responders were above and below this cut-off, respectively...
July 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Metin Yildiz, Serian Doma
The effects of effortful swallowing and solid meal ingestions on heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined previously. The effects of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term HRV and reliability of HRV analysis have not been studied before. The effect of saliva swallowing on HRV analyses parameters [meanRRI, SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal), LF (low frequency), HF (high frequency) powers, LH/HF] and the reliability of LF and HF powers were investigated by frequency, time-frequency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses...
July 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Frank Bour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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