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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

Panagiota Sotiriou, Evangelia Kouidi, Asterios Karagiannis, Nikolaos Koutlianos, Parashos Geleris, Vasileios Vassilikos, Asterios Deligiannis
BACKGROUND: Structural and functional arterial adaptations with regard to the type and level of training in young athletes are understudied. Our research aimed at evaluating them in two types of exercise (dynamic and static) and two levels of engagement (high and recreational). METHODS: A total of 76 volunteers formed five groups. Group A included 17 high-level dynamic sports athletes 30·9 ± 6·4 years old, group B 14 recreational ones aged 28·7 ± 6·2 years, group C 15 high-level static sports athletes 26·4 ± 3·9 years old and group D 16 recreational ones, aged 25·8 ± 4·8 years...
November 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Katarzyna Wdowiak-Okrojek, Paulina Wejner-Mik, Jarosław D Kasprzak, Piotr Lipiec
PURPOSE: The assessment of temporal changes in systolic and diastolic regional left ventricle function by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) after successful reperfusion therapy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: A total of 97 consecutive patients admitted with AMI and treated with successful percutaneous coronary intervention were included in this study. On days 1, 2, 3, 7, 30 and 180 following admission patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography with subsequent measurement of systolic longitudinal strain (SLS), systolic longitudinal strain rate (SRS) and early diastolic longitudinal strain rate (SRe) in left ventricular segments by speckle tracking technique...
November 7, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
A Werther Evaldsson, A Ingvarsson, J G Smith, G Rådegran, A Roijer, J Waktare, E Ostenfeld, C Meurling
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) systolic function is an important determinant of outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Conventional echocardiographic measures of RV are mainly based on longitudinal contractility. Recently, measurement of RV global longitudinal strain derived from multiple windows (RVGLS) has emerged as an option but has not been well evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate which echocardiographic RV function parameter correlates best with RV ejection fraction derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (RVEFCMR )...
October 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Adriano Machado de Lacerda, Sergio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Bianca Gutfilen, Léa Mirian Barbosa da Fonseca, Flávia Paiva Proença Lobo Lopes, Elise Tonomura, Mário Vaisman, Patrícia de Fátima Dos Santos Teixeira
It has been suggested that technetium-99m (99mTc)-anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) scintigraphy (SCI) may be a useful diagnostic tool in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). This study evaluated whether orbit total radioactivity uptake on SCI could be used to predict corticosteroid therapy (CorT) responses in active-GO patients. A longitudinal study of patients with active GO defined by Clinical Active Score (CAS) >3/7 was done. Clinical, laboratory and SCI evaluations were performed at baseline and 3 months after concluding intravenous CorT...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Matthew M Schubert, Rebekah F Seay, Katie K Spain, Holly E Clarke, James K Taylor
Accurate measures of body composition (BC) are essential for performance and health. In addition to accuracy, BC measures should be practical and be minimally invasive to maximize their utility. The purpose of the present study was to compare the day-to-day variability and validity of four common laboratory-based body composition assessments to a criterion four-compartment model. Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (BP), multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (MF-BIA) and underwater weighing (UWW) were performed twice in a sample of 32 young men and women...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Alain Boussuges, Fabienne Brégeon, Philippe Blanc, Jean-Marie Gil, Laurent Poirette
BACKGROUND: M-mode ultrasonography might be useful for detecting hemidiaphragm paralysis. The objective of the present study was to describe the motion recorded by M-mode ultrasonography of both diaphragmatic leaves in patients with a pre-established diagnosis of hemidiaphragm paralysis. METHODS: A study was conducted in 26 patients (18 men, 8 women) with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. They were referred to two different rehabilitation centres after thoracic surgery in 23 cases and cardiac interventional procedures in three cases...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Pauliina Kangas, Antti Tikkakoski, Marko Uitto, Jari Viik, Heidi Bouquin, Onni Niemelä, Jukka Mustonen, Ilkka Pörsti
Impaired heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence regarding alterations of HRV in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains elusive. In order to examine HRV in MetS, we subjected 501 volunteers without atherosclerosis, diabetes or antihypertensive medication, mean age 48 years, to passive head-up tilt. The subjects were divided to control men (n = 131), men with MetS (n = 121), control women (n = 191) and women with MetS (n = 58) according to the criteria by Alberti et al...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Henric Nilsson, Eva Nylander, Sabina Borg, Éva Tamás, Kristofer Hedman
Aortic valve surgery is the definitive treatment for aortic stenosis (AS). No specific recommendation is available on how exercise training should be conducted and evaluated after aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study aimed to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on exercise capacity following AVR. In addition to our primary outcome variable, peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2 ), the effect on submaximal cardiopulmonary variables including oxygen uptake kinetics (tau), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was evaluated...
October 8, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Michael Y Henein, Erik Tossavainen, Roman A'roch, Stefan Söderberg, Per Lindqvist
AIMS: Non-invasive estimation of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) during stress is important for explaining exertional symptoms in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to evaluate ability of Doppler echocardiographic measures of elevated LVFP with passive leg lifting (PLL) in patients with suspected HF. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with clinical signs of HF who underwent simultaneous Doppler echocardiography and right heart catheterization (RHC) at rest and during PLL were consecutively investigated...
October 8, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
May Sadik, Erica Lind, Eirini Polymeri, Olof Enqvist, Johannes Ulén, Elin Trägårdh
BACKGROUND: 18F-FDG-PET/CT has become a standard for assessing treatment response in patients with lymphoma. A subjective interpretation of the scan based on the Deauville 5-point scale has been widely adopted. However, inter-observer variability due to the subjectivity of the interpretation is a limitation. Our main goal is to develop an objective and automated method for evaluating response. The first step is to develop and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-based method, for the automated quantification of reference levels in the liver and mediastinal blood pool in patients with lymphoma...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Daria Frestad Bechsgaard, Ida Gustafsson, Jesper James Linde, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Eva Prescott, Jens Dahlgaard Hove
PURPOSE: Combined coronary CT angiography and CT perfusion (CTP) is a novel, non-invasive, 'one-stop' diagnostic tool to rule out ischaemia in patients suspected for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the normal myocardial perfusion pattern by static CTP in humans is poorly described. We aimed to investigate global and regional myocardial perfusion during rest and adenosine-induced hyperaemia in asymptomatic women without history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Using a 320-row CT scanner with a static protocol, semi-quantitative assessment of rest and stress CTP was performed in 34 asymptomatic middle-aged women without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis) or history of CHD, and with normal exercise stress test and left ventricular (LV) function...
September 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Melissa Mazor, Betty J Smoot, Judy Mastick, Grace Mausisa, Steven M Paul, Kord M Kober, Charles Elboim, Komal Singh, Yvette P Conley, Gabby Mickevicius, Jennifer Field, Heather Hutchison, Christine Miaskowski
Given the paucity of information on local tissue water (LTW) in the upper extremity and trunk of women after breast cancer surgery, the purpose of this study was to compare tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values between the affected and unaffected sides of breast cancer survivors with and without upper extremity lymphoedema (LE). Differences in LTW were assessed using the TDC method for three sites in the upper limbs, three sites in the lateral thorax and two sites on the back. Additional measures included demographic and clinical characteristics, arm circumference and bioimpedance analysis...
September 12, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Simon Nichols, Alasdair F O'Doherty, Claire Taylor, Andrew L Clark, Sean Carroll, Lee Ingle
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic heart failure, there is a positive linear relationship between skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak ); an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. We investigated the association between SMM and V˙O2peak in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) without a diagnosis of heart failure. METHODS: Male patients with CHD underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing and dual X-ray absorptiometry assessment...
August 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Markos Klonizakis, Stephen M Bianchi, Marie Gernigon, Pierre Abraham, Shah Nawaz
OBJECTIVE: Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic condition most commonly presenting with intermittent claudication (IC). Intermittent claudication limits walking ability and may negatively affect health-related quality of life. Treadmill assessment of maximal walking distance (MWD) is the gold standard to assess PAD symptom severity. Despite being a well-established and reproducible tool, it may be inappropriate (due to frailty or fear) for some patients and only describes maximal abilities for a single walk test...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Johan Petrini, Margareta Ring, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Kenneth Caidahl, Maria J Eriksson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intima-media thickness is a marker for atherosclerosis but is also influenced by shear stress and flow. We evaluated the relation between intima-media thickness of the descending aorta (AoIMT) and the common carotid artery (CIMT) in patients with and without severe aortic valve disease (sAVD). METHODS: A total of 310 patients (233 with sAVD, 77 without) were examined with regard to AoIMT and CIMT using transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasound, respectively, before valvular and/or aortic surgery...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Leo Pekka Malmberg, Paula Kauppi, Mika J Mäkelä
Recent technical recommendations on bronchial challenge testing aim at standardized assessment of provocative dose of causing 20% decrease in FEV1 (PD20). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mode of nebulization on the output of a computerized dosimeter (APS) and to compare PD20 obtained by two different dosimetric systems in vivo. The output of the APS system was tested during continuous nebulization, and using simulated breaths, for intermittent actuations with four different durations...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Timothée Fontolliet, Pietro Gianella, Vincent Pichot, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Paola Gasche-Soccal, Guido Ferretti, Frédéric Lador
The effects of lung afferents denervation on cardiovascular regulation can be assessed on bilateral lung transplantation patients. The high-frequency component of heart rate variability is known to be synchronous with breathing frequency. Then, if heart beat is neurally modulated by breathing frequency, we may expect disappearance of high frequency of heart rate variability in bilateral lung transplantation patients. On 11 patients and 11 matching healthy controls, we measured R-R interval (electrocardiography), blood pressure (Portapres® ) and breathing frequency (ultrasonic device) in supine rest, during 10-min free breathing, 10-min cadenced breathing (0·25 Hz) and 5-min handgrip...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
You Zhong, Qays Almodares, JieFu Yang, Fang Wang, Michael Fu, Magnus C Johansson
PURPOSE: Reduced blood circulation is an important feature of heart failure, and Doppler stroke distance of the left ventricular outflow tract is a measure of forward stroke volume. Several echocardiographic parameters have known prognostic implications in heart failure, but the prognostic implications of stroke distance in relation to other parameters are insufficiently known. The aim was therefore to test the hypothesis that stroke distance is associated with five-year all-cause mortality, independently of other echocardiography variables, and that stroke distance has added long-term prognostic value...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Kenneth H Mertz, Jacob Bülow, Lars Holm
Methods capable of measuring blood flow in a tissue-specific manner are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using bolus injections of SonoVue® is an useful method for assessing postprandial changes in microvascular perfusion in the vastus lateralis muscle. Ten healthy, young subjects were recruited for this study. Six subjects participated in washout and reproducibility protocols to assess washout time of SonoVue® and the reproducibility of the method when measuring microvascular blood volume (MBV)...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Raúl A Borracci, José D Montoya Pulvet, Carlos A Ingino, Mario Fitz Maurice, Alfredo Hirschon Prado, Enrique Dominé
OBJECTIVE: To date, no systematic work has been intended to describe spatio-temporal patterns of cardiac rhythms using only short series of RR intervals, to facilitate visual or computerized-aided identification of EKG motifs for use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to detect and classify eye-catching geometric patterns of Poincaré time-delay plots from different types of cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals. METHODS: Approximately 150-300 representative, consecutive beats were retrieved from 24-h Holter registers of 100 patients with different heart rhythms...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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