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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144026/heart-rate-variability-and-implication-for-sport-concussion
#1
REVIEW
Scott A Bishop, Ryan T Dech, Przemyslaw Guzik, J Patrick Neary
Finding sensitive and specific markers for sports-related concussion is both challenging and clinically important. Such biomarkers might be helpful in the management of patients with concussion (i.e. diagnosis, monitoring and risk prediction). Among many parameters, blood flow-pressure metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to gauge concussion outcomes. Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting. While some authors report on differences in the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV during postural manipulations and postexercise conditions, others observe no significant differences in various HRV measures...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115010/gender-aspects-on-exercise-induced-ecg-changes-in-relation-to-scintigraphic-evidence-of-myocardial-ischaemia
#2
Shahnaz Akil, Bo Hedén, Olle Pahlm, Marcus Carlsson, Håkan Arheden, Henrik Engblom
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of exercise-induced ST response in relation to findings by myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS), with focus on gender differences, in patients with suspected or established stable ischemic heart disease. METHODS: MPS findings of 1 021 patients (518 females) were related to the exercise-induced ST response alone (blinded and unblinded to gender) and ST response together with additional exercise stress test (EST) variables (exercise capacity, blood pressure and heart rate response)...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114983/correct-allometric-analysis-is-always-helpful-for-scaling-flow-mediated-dilation-in-research-and-individual-patient-contexts
#3
LETTER
Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M Batterham, Greg Atkinson
McLay et al. (Clin Physiol Funct Imaging (2017); DOI: 10.1111/cpf.12465) recently examined whether the allometric scaling of flow-mediated dilation influenced the mean difference between samples of young and older adults compared with the traditional percentage change approach. They also explored whether a new scaling calculation improved the ability to obtain individually scaled flow-mediated dilation. In our response to their study, we can demonstrate that McLay et al. (Clin Physiol Funct Imaging, 2017) have (i) managed to formulate a new scaling index which does nothing to remove the dependency of that index on baseline diameter and (ii) suggested, incorrectly, that the original allometric approach cannot be used to derive individually-adjusted values of flow-mediated dilation, which can be interpreted in a similar way to a percentage change...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110426/functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-to-probe-sensorimotor-region-activation-during-electrical-stimulation-evoked-movement
#4
Makii Muthalib, Marco Ferrari, Valentina Quaresima, Graham Kerr, Stephane Perrey
This study used non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging to monitor bilateral sensorimotor region activation during unilateral voluntary (VOL) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements. METHODS: In eight healthy male volunteers, fNIRS was used to measure relative changes in oxyhaemoglobin (O2 Hb) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) concentrations from a cortical sensorimotor region of interest in the left (LH) and right (RH) hemispheres during NMES-evoked and VOL wrist extension movements of the right arm...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105955/right-ventricular-systolic-function-and-mechanical-dispersion-identify-patients-with-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy
#5
Meriam Åström Aneq, Eva Maret, Lars Brudin, Anneli Svensson, Jan Engvall
PURPOSE: To assess right ventricular (RV) regional and global systolic function using feature tracking (FT) in patients with a definite diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and to investigate if changes in strain amplitude and mechanical dispersion indicate a propensity for arrhythmia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients fulfilling Task Force Criteria for ARVC and 24 healthy volunteers underwent MR at 1·5 Tesla. Steady-state free precession cine of long-axis slices and a short-axis stack of the RV was acquired...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105279/sphenopalatine-ganglion-stimulation-induces-changes-in-cardiac-autonomic-regulation-in-cluster-headache
#6
Mads Barloese, Anja S Petersen, Song Guo, Messoud Ashina, Jesper Mehlsen, Rigmor H Jensen
INTRODUCTION: Cluster headache is characterized by attacks of severe unilateral pain accompanied by cranial and systemic autonomic changes. Our knowledge of the latter is imperfect. This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled crossover design, patients received low-frequency and sham stimulation. RR intervals were recorded, and heart rate variability was analysed (time-domain, frequency-domain, nonlinear parameters)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105276/quadriceps-muscle-fat-infiltration-is-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-in-copd
#7
Isabelle Vivodtzev, Luc Moncharmont, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Christian Borel, François Arbib, Bernard Wuyam, Patrick Lévy, François Maltais, Gilbert Ferretti, Jean-Louis Pépin
PURPOSE: Losses of peripheral muscle mass and ectopic fat accumulation have been associated with cardiometabolic morbidity in COPD. We aimed at identifying the relationship between quadriceps muscle fat infiltration and cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2009 to 2014, 78 COPD patients (64 ± 8 years; 80% male) were prospectively included after having given written consent (ethical committee approval number: 2006-A00491-50). The cohort was divided into three groups (tertiles) according to body mass index (BMI), low [15 < BMI≤23·3], middle [23·3 < BMI≤27·6] and high [27·6 < BMI≤36] kg/m²)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082604/-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-for-the-detection-of-bone-metastases-in-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-published-literature
#8
Helle D Zacho, Julie B Nielsen, Uwe Haberkorn, Louise Stenholt, Lars J Petersen
BACKGROUND: (68) Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising PET ligand for the detection of prostate cancer. Little attention has been given to the ability of (68) Ga-PSMA PET/CT to detect malignant bone lesions and whether this approach is superior to existing bone imaging modalities. AIM: To review the existing data of (68) Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the diagnosis of bone metastases in prostate cancer. METHODS: Systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature...
October 29, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082595/cutaneous-reactive-hyperaemia-is-unaltered-by-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-healthy-humans
#9
Brett J Wong, Jeremy T Keen, Erica L Levitt
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nitrate supplementation augments cutaneous reactive hyperaemia. Seven participants were tested pre- and postnitrate supplementation (25 ml beetroot juice); participants consumed one shot per day for 3 days. Participants were instrumented with two microdialysis fibres: control (Ringer's solution) and NO synthase inhibition (20 mM L-NAME). Skin blood flow was measured via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). A blood pressure cuff was placed on the experimental arm and inflated to 250 mmHg for 5 mins to occlude arterial inflow...
October 29, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076284/right-ventricular-speckle-tracking-assessment-for-differentiation-of-pressure-versus-volume-overloaded-right-ventricle
#10
Anna Werther Evaldsson, Annika Ingvarsson, Johan Waktare, Gustav J Smith, Ulf Thilén, Martin Stagmo, Anders Roijer, Goran Rådegran, Carl Meurling
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction may be caused by either pressure or volume overload. RV function is conventionally assessed with echocardiography using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV fractional area change (RVFAC), tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (S') and RV index of myocardial performance (RIMP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether RV global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) and RV-free wall strain (RV-free) could add additional information to differentiate these two causes of RV overload...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024332/effect-of-resistance-training-set-volume-on-upper-body-muscle-hypertrophy-are-more-sets-really-better-than-less
#11
REVIEW
Cauê V La Scala Teixeira, Yuri Motoyama, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques de Azevedo, Alexandre Lopes Evangelista, James Steele, Danilo Sales Bocalini
BACKGROUND: Resistance training (RT) for upper body muscle hypertrophy (UBMH) typically entails high volumes of sets per muscle group per training session. The majority of RT regimens does not discriminate between upper and lower body muscle groups, while these groups may respond differently to RT set volumes in terms of maximum skeletal muscle mass gain. Recent studies have examined the effect of different set volumes on the extent of UBMH to formulate optimal RT regimens and to make RT programmes more time-efficient...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960784/reproducibility-of-peak-oxygen-consumption-and-the-impact-of-test-variability-on-classification-of-individual-training-responses-in-young-recreationally-active-adults
#12
Brittany A Edgett, Jacob T Bonafiglia, James P Raleigh, Mario P Rotundo, Matthew D Giles, Jonathan P Whittall, Brendon J Gurd
This study investigated whether VO2 peak is reproducible across repeated tests before (PRE) and after (POST) training, and whether variability across tests impacts how individual responses are classified following 3 weeks of aerobic exercise training (cycle ergometry). Data from 45 young healthy adults (age: 20·1 ± 0·9 years; VO2 peak, 42·0 ± 6·7 ml·min(-1) ) from two previously published studies were utilized in the current analysis. Non-responders were classified as individuals who failed to demonstrate an increase or decrease in VO2 peak that was greater than 2·0 times the typical error of measurement (107 ml·min(-1) ) away from zero, while responders and adverse responders were above and below this cut-off, respectively...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949087/effect-of-spontaneous-saliva-swallowing-on-short-term-heart-rate-variability-hrv-and-reliability-of-hrv-analysis
#13
Metin Yildiz, Serian Doma
The effects of effortful swallowing and solid meal ingestions on heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined previously. The effects of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term HRV and reliability of HRV analysis have not been studied before. The effect of saliva swallowing on HRV analyses parameters [meanRRI, SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal), LF (low frequency), HF (high frequency) powers, LH/HF] and the reliability of LF and HF powers were investigated by frequency, time-frequency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944585/loading-rate-and-contraction-duration-effects-on-in%C3%A2-vivo-human-achilles-tendon-mechanical-properties
#14
Christopher McCrum, Kai D Oberländer, Gaspar Epro, Peter Krauss, Darren C James, Neil D Reeves, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons are viscoelastic, which implies loading rate dependency, but loading rates of contractions are often not controlled during assessment of human tendon mechanical properties in vivo. We investigated the effects of sustained submaximal isometric plantarflexion contractions, which potentially negate loading rate dependency, on the stiffness of the human Achilles tendon in vivo using dynamometry and ultrasonography. Maximum voluntary contractions (high loading rate), ramp maximum force contractions with 3 s loading (lower loading rate) and sustained contractions (held for 3 s) at 25%, 50% and 80% of maximal tendon force were conducted...
September 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940974/efficacy-of-constant-load-verification-testing-to-confirm-vo2-max-attainment
#15
Todd A Astorino, Jamie DeRevere
Although maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) has been measured for almost 100 years, it is unknown when 'true' VO2 max is attained. Primary (the VO2 plateau) and secondary criteria are used to confirm VO2 max incidence, but frequency of the VO2 plateau varies, and secondary criteria are relatively invalid. The verification test (VER) seems to elicit similar estimates of VO2 max versus the incremental value (INC), yet existing data are limited by small populations and use of inadequate criteria to confirm 'true' VO2 max...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940670/deoxygenation-of-inspiratory-muscles-during-cycling-hyperpnoea-and-loaded-breathing-in-health-and-disease-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Takako Tanaka, Nada Basoudan, Luana T Melo, Lisa Wickerson, Laurent J Brochard, Ewan C Goligher, W Darlene Reid
Assessing inspiratory muscle deoxygenation and blood flow can provide insight into anaerobic stress, recruitment strategies and mechanisms of inspiratory muscle limitation. Therefore, this review aimed to synthesize measurements of inspiratory muscle oxyhaemoglobin (O2 Hb), deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb), blood volume and flow of the inspiratory muscles acquired via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycling, hyperpnoea and loaded breathing in healthy non-athletes, healthy athletes and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic heart failure (CHF)...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941050/comments-about-validation-of-impedance-cardiography-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-clinical-physiology-and-functional-imaging-2017-feb-6
#17
LETTER
Frank Bour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940689/clinical-experience-of-a-new-reference-material-for-exercise-capacity-in-exercise-stress-testing-in-sweden
#18
Thomas Lindow, Henrik Mosén, Henrik Engblom
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Swedish Association of Clinical Physiology recommended the use of a new reference material for exercise capacity in bicycle exercise stress testing, 'the Kalmar material'. Compared to the formerly used reference material, 'the Kristianstad material', an increase in the amount of patients being classified as having decreased exercise capacity was expected, but the extent of this in clinical practice is not known. METHODS: Results of exercise capacity from 1449 bicycle exercise tests, in patients aged ≥20 years (656 women, 793 men) performed at two departments of Clinical Physiology before and after change of reference materials, were collected...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906053/the-effects-of-menstrual-cycle-phase-on-the-incidence-of-plateau-at-v%C3%AB-o2max-and-associated-cardiorespiratory-dynamics
#19
Dan Gordon, Adrian Scruton, Richard Barnes, James Baker, Luciano Prado, Viviane Merzbach
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of menstrual cycle phase on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and associated cardiodynamic responses. A total of 16 active females volunteered of which n = 10 formed the non-oral contraceptive pill group (n-OCP), displaying a regular menstrual cycle of 28·4 ± 2·2 days (age 20·6 ± 1·6 years, height 169·9 ± 6·4 cm, mass 68·7 ± 7·9 kg) and n = 6 formed the oral contraceptive pill group (OCP) (monophasic pill) (age 21·7 years ± 2·16, height 168·1 cm ± 6·8 cm, mass 61·6 ± 6·8 kg)...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857391/estimated-peak-functional-capacity-an-accurate-method-for-assessing-change-in-peak-oxygen-consumption-after-cardiac-rehabilitation
#20
S Nichols, D O Gleadall-Siddall, R Antony, A L Clark, J G F Cleland, S Carroll, L Ingle
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the 'gold standard' method of determining VO2peak . When CPET is unavailable, VO2peak may be estimated from treadmill or cycle ergometer workloads and expressed as estimated metabolic equivalents (METs). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes use estimated VO2peak (METs) to report changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the accuracy of determining changes in VO2peak based on estimated functional capacity is not known. METHODS: A total of 27 patients with coronary heart disease (88·9% male; age 59·5 ± 10·0 years, body mass index 29·6 ± 3·8 kg m(-2) ) performed maximal CPET before and after an exercise-based CR intervention...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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