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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205417/muscle-activation-and-heart-rate-responses-to-a-side-step-interval-exercise
#1
Robert S Thiebaud, Takashi Abe, Jonathan C Bravo, Nicolas Giovannitti, Avery P Sullivan
BACKGROUND: The side-step test is commonly used to assess agility. Side-step interval exercise may also be a potential way to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. However, the acute heart rate and muscle activation response to this type of exercise is not well established. In addition, different tempos can influence these responses. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute heart rate and muscle activation responses of a side-step interval exercise to different exercise tempos...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168868/oesophageal-doppler-guided-optimization-of-cardiac-output-does-not-increase-visceral-microvascular-blood-flow-in-healthy-volunteers
#2
Thomas P Heinink, David J Read, William K Mitchell, Ashish Bhalla, Jonathan N Lund, Bethan E Phillips, John P Williams
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM) is used clinically to optimize cardiac output (CO) and guide fluid therapy. Despite limited experimental evidence, it is assumed that increasing CO increases visceral microvascular blood flow (MBF). We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to assess whether ODM-guided optimization of CO altered MBF. METHODS: Sixteen healthy male volunteers (62 ± 3·4 years) were studied. Baseline measurements of CO were recorded via ODM...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168822/circumferential-strain-by-velocity-vector-imaging-and-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-validation-against-sonomicrometry-in-an-aortic-phantom
#3
Johan Petrini, Maria J Eriksson, Kenneth Caidahl, Matilda Larsson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of arterial deformation and mechanics using strain analysis on ultrasound greyscale images has gained increasing scientific interest. The aim of this study was to validate in vitro measurements of circumferential strain by velocity vector imaging (VVI) and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) against sonomicrometry as a reference method. METHOD: Two polyvinyl alcohol phantoms sized to mimic the descending aorta were constructed and connected to a pulsatile flow pump to obtain high-resistance flow profiles...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168802/validation-of-impedance-cardiography-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
Marios Panagiotou, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Geeshath Jayasekera, Zafeiris Louvaris, Alison Mackenzie, Neil Mcglinchey, Julien S Baker, Alistair C Church, Andrew J Peacock, Martin K Johnson
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive methods of measuring cardiac output are highly desirable in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We therefore sought to validate impedance cardiography (ICG) against thermodilution (TD) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in the measurement of cardiac output in patients under investigation for PAH. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed to compare single-point measurements of cardiac output obtained by impedance cardiography (COICG ) technology (PhysioFlow(®) ) with (i) contemporaneous TD measurements (COTD ) at rest and steady-state exercise during right heart catheterization and (ii) CMR measurements (COCMR ) at rest obtained within 72 h...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168798/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-planning-external-beam-radiotherapy-alters-therapy-in-11-of-581-patients
#5
Charlotte Birk Christensen, Annika Loft-Jakobsen, Per Munck Af Rosenschöld, Liselotte Højgaard, Henrik Roed, Anne K Berthelsen
BACKGROUND: (18) F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) used in radiotherapy planning for extra-cerebral malignancy may reveal metastases to distant sites that may affect the choice of therapy. AIM: To investigate the role of FDG PET/CT on treatment strategy changes induced by the use of PET/CT as part of the radiotherapy planning. 'A major change of treatment strategy' was defined as either including more lesions in the gross tumour volume (GTV) distant from the primary tumour or a change in treatment modalities...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168796/plasma-biomarker-levels-and-non-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-determined-by-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#6
Elin B Brolin, Stefan Agewall, Kerstin Cederlund, Christina Ekenbäck, Loghman Henareh, Karin Malmqvist, Andreas Rück, Anders Svensson, Per Tornvall
PURPOSE: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and several circulating biomarkers have prognostic value regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but their association is incompletely studied. We aimed to investigate whether markers of lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney function could predict non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) determined by coronary CTA, in a low-to-intermediate-risk group. METHODS: Coronary CTA and laboratory testing were performed for 115 subjects (45-70 years), with low prevalence of CVD risk factors, predominantly low-to-intermediate Framingham risk and normal or mildly reduced kidney function...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168782/physiological-responses-during-the-practice-of-synchronized-swimming-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Kátia Ponciano, Maria Luiza de Jesus Miranda, Miwako Homma, João Marcelo Queiroz Miranda, Aylton J Figueira Júnior, Cássio De Miranda Meira Júnior, Danilo Sales Bocalini
This study is aimed at analysing the scientific literature related to physiological responses in synchronized swimmers, produced from 2006 to 2016. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, SportDiscus, Web Science, Scielo and Scopus) in national and international journals. The articles were selected using the following inclusion criteria: composed samples of synchronized swimmers of both sexes, articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese, published from 2006 to 2016...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135764/reliability-and-validity-of-non-invasive-determined-haemoglobin-mass-and-blood-volumes
#8
Nazzareno Fagoni, Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Laura Oberholzer, Thomas Haider, Anne-Kristine Meinild Lundby, Carsten Lundby
INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invasive CO pulse oximeter (Rad-57). METHOD: With simultaneous determination of CO in the circulation by ABL800 (%HbCO) and Rad-57 (SpCO), Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were determined in duplicates in 24 volunteers...
January 30, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093857/can-blood-flow-restriction-augment-muscle-activation-during-high-load-training
#9
Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION: Blood flow restriction has been shown to augment muscle activation and increase muscle size when combined with low-load training; however, much less is known on whether blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation during high-load exercise. PURPOSE: To determine whether applying blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation with traditional high-load resistance exercise. METHOD: Ten individuals completed two sets of elbow flexion exercise to volitional fatigue...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032435/effects-of-rest-intervals-and-training-loads-on-metabolic-stress-and-muscle-hypertrophy
#10
Julius Fink, Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
We investigated the effects of volume-matched resistance training (RT) with different training loads and rest intervals on acute responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. Ten subjects trained with short rest (30 s) combined with low load (20 RM) (SL) and ten subjects performed the same protocol with long rest (3 min) and high load (8 RM) (LH). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the upper arm was measured by magnetic resonance imaging before and after 8 weeks of training. Acute stress markers such as growth hormone (GH) and muscle thickness (MT) changes have been assessed pre and post a single RT session...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025878/intra-and-interday-reproducibility-of-high-flow-mediated-constriction-response-in-young-adults
#11
Joseph D Ostrem, Nicholas G Evanoff, Justin R Ryder, Donald R Dengel
BACKGROUND: Previously, we have demonstrated that high-flow-mediated constriction (H-FMC) of the brachial artery has been shown to negatively affect flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, the reproducibility of an H-FMC response is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and interday reproducibility of H-FMC in young adults. METHODS: Thirty young adults (15 male, 15 female; 24 ± 3 years) were assessed for H-FMC reproducibility via high-resolution ultrasound imaging of the brachial artery during and after forearm occlusion of a normal FMD procedure...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025868/metabolic-responses-to-exercise-on-land-and-in-water-following-glucose-ingestion
#12
Kazumichi Kurobe, Ayaka Kousaka, Futoshi Ogita, Naoyuki Matsumoto
Although aerobic exercise after a meal decreases postprandial blood glucose, the differences in glucose response between land and aquatic exercise are unclear. Thus, we examined the effect of different modes of exercise with same energy expenditure following glucose ingestion on carbohydrate metabolism. Ten healthy sedentary men (age, 22 ± 1 years) participated in this study. All subjects performed each of three exercise modes (cycling, walking and aquatic exercise) for 30 min after ingestion of a 75-g glucose solution with 1-2 weeks between trials...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981810/utility-of-ultrasound-for-body-fat-assessment-validity-and-reliability-compared-to-a-multicompartment-criterion
#13
Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
Measurement of body composition to assess health risk and prevention is expanding. Accurate portable techniques are needed to facilitate use in clinical settings. This study evaluated the accuracy and repeatability of a portable ultrasound (US) in comparison with a four-compartment criterion for per cent body fat (%Fat) in overweight/obese adults. Fifty-one participants (mean ± SD; age: 37·2 ± 11·3 years; BMI: 31·6 ± 5·2 kg m(-2) ) were measured for %Fat using US (GE Logiq-e) and skinfolds. A subset of 36 participants completed a second day of the same measurements, to determine reliability...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981803/effects-of-supine-rest-duration-on-ultrasound-measures-of-the-vastus-lateralis
#14
Eliott Arroyo, Jeffrey R Stout, Kyle S Beyer, David D Church, Alyssa N Varanoske, David H Fukuda, Jay R Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Due to the potential for intramuscular fluid shifts from changing body position, researchers often utilize a 10- to 15-min period of supine rest as a standardizing procedure prior to ultrasound assessment of the lower limbs. However, no previous research has observed the changes in muscle morphological characteristics via ultrasonography of the lower limbs depending on the length of time of supine rest to determine whether 10-15 min of supine rest is necessary. The aim of this study was to examine changes in muscle morphology of the vastus lateralis (VL) at various time-points over the course of 15 min of supine rest...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981748/acute-effects-of-water-immersion-on-heart-rate-variability-in-participants-with-heart-disease
#15
Andrée Dionne, Mario Leone, Serge Goulet, David E Andrich, Louis Pérusse, Alain-Steve Comtois
BACKGROUND: Water immersion and aquatic exercise can be an important therapeutic tool in patients suffering from heart disease (HD). However, the effects of water immersion on heart rate variability (HRV) in HD participants remain unknown. METHODS: Twenty-eight volunteers in sinus rhythm within the same age range took part in this study: 18 HD and ten healthy controls (HC). Heart rhythm was collected with a heart rate monitor (sampling rate 1000 Hz) for periods of 10 min at rest in the supine position on land, standing on land (STL) and standing in water (STW) to the xiphoid process...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925380/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-polymorphisms-and-postexercise-hypotension-in-hypertensive-medicated-individuals
#16
Karla F Goessler, Marcos D Polito, Gloria de F Mota, Edilamar M de Oliveira, Véronique A Cornelissen
The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is associated with diverse physiological responses and adaptations to exercise. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 has vasodilatory effects, which might be associated with the blood pressure (BP) responses to acute exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ACE2 polymorphisms in postexercise hypotension (PEH). Thirty-four medicated hypertensive (61·3 ± 1·7 years, 76·1 ± 2·7 kg, 160 ± 1·6 cm) men (n = 12) and women (n = 22), participated in a control and a moderate intensity exercise session in a randomized order...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925364/discriminatory-ability-of-right-atrial-volumes-with-two-and-three-dimensional-echocardiography-to-detect-elevated-right-atrial-pressure-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Ellen Ostenfeld, Anna Werther-Evaldsson, Henrik Engblom, Annika Ingvarsson, Anders Roijer, Carl Meurling, Johan Holm, Göran Rådegran, Marcus Carlsson
AIMS: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients have high mortality due to right ventricular failure. Predictors of poor prognostic outcome are increased right atrial volume (RAV) and elevated mean right atrial pressure (mRAP). Our aim was to determine whether RAV measured with 2D echocardiography (2DE) and 3D echocardiography (3DE) can detect elevated mRAP in patients evaluated for PH. METHODS: Of 85 patients prospectively evaluated for PH, 44 patients (63 ± 15 years, 57% female) had 2DE, 3DE and right heart catheterization within 48 h and were in sinus rhythm...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966284/increased-ventilatory-response-to-exercise-in-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-lmna-mutation-carriers-a-follow-up-study
#18
Laura Ollila, Tiina Heliö, Anssi Sovijärvi, Mikko Jalanko, Maija Kaartinen, Johanna Kuusisto, Satu Kärkkäinen, Raija Jurkko, Eeva Reissell, Eeva Palojoki, Päivi Piirilä
BACKGROUND: LMNA mutations are an important cause of cardiomyopathy often leading to cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and even heart transplantation. An increasing number of asymptomatic mutation carriers are identified, as family members of the index patients are screened. Our aim was to study the disease progression in asymptomatic LMNA mutation carriers and in patients with symptomatic cardiolaminopathy by repeated spiroergometric testing in a prospective clinical follow-up study...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26302885/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-enhances-time-to-exhaustion-during-treadmill-exercise
#19
Cindy Fraga, Bruna Velasques, Alexander J Koch, Marco Machado, Dailson Paulucio, Pedro Ribeiro, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia Pompeu
Mouth rinsing with a CHO solution has been suggested to improve short (<1 h) endurance performance through central effect. We examined the effects of mouth rinsing with a CHO solution on running time to exhaustion on a treadmill. Six well-trained subjects ran to exhaustion at 85% VO2max , on three separate occasions. Subjects received either an 8% CHO solution or a placebo (PLA) every 15 min to mouth rinse (MR) or a 6% CHO solution to ingest (ING). Treatments were assigned in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion, with the mouth-rinsing treatments double-blinded...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26278541/heat-washout-measurements-compared-to-distal-blood-pressure-and-perfusion-in-orthopaedic-patients-with-foot-ulcers
#20
M Midttun, B B S Azad, R Broholm, L T Jensen, C Svarer, P E Jensen
Distal blood pressure and local skin perfusion pressure were compared to measurement of blood flow rate (BFR) measured by the heat-washout method in orthopaedic patients with and without diabetes, all with a foot ulcer in one foot, compared to healthy controls. The correlation was good between heat-washout and distal blood pressure in patients with diabetes with and without an ulcer (P = 0·024 and 0·059, respectively). The correlation was weak in patients without diabetes with and without an ulcer, most probably due to power problems (P = 0·118 and 0·116, respectively)...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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