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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316181/heart-rate-variability-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-bilateral-lung-transplant-recipients
#1
Timothée Fontolliet, Pietro Gianella, Vincent Pichot, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Paola Gasche-Soccal, Guido Ferretti, Frédéric Lador
The effects of lung afferents denervation on cardiovascular regulation can be assessed on bilateral lung transplantation patients. The high-frequency component of heart rate variability is known to be synchronous with breathing frequency. Then, if heart beat is neurally modulated by breathing frequency, we may expect disappearance of high frequency of heart rate variability in bilateral lung transplantation patients. On 11 patients and 11 matching healthy controls, we measured R-R interval (electrocardiography), blood pressure (Portapres® ) and breathing frequency (ultrasonic device) in supine rest, during 10-min free breathing, 10-min cadenced breathing (0·25 Hz) and 5-min handgrip...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316158/reduced-stroke-distance-of-the-left-ventricular-outflow-tract-is-independently-associated-with-long-term-mortality-in%C3%A2-patients-hospitalized-due-to-heart-failure
#2
You Zhong, Qays Almodares, JieFu Yang, Fang Wang, Michael Fu, Magnus C Johansson
PURPOSE: Reduced blood circulation is an important feature of heart failure, and Doppler stroke distance of the left ventricular outflow tract is a measure of forward stroke volume. Several echocardiographic parameters have known prognostic implications in heart failure, but the prognostic implications of stroke distance in relation to other parameters are insufficiently known. The aim was therefore to test the hypothesis that stroke distance is associated with five-year all-cause mortality, independently of other echocardiography variables, and that stroke distance has added long-term prognostic value...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282853/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-using-bolus-injections-of-contrast-agent-for-assessment-of-postprandial-microvascular-blood-volume-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#3
Kenneth H Mertz, Jacob Bülow, Lars Holm
Methods capable of measuring blood flow in a tissue-specific manner are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using bolus injections of SonoVue® is an useful method for assessing postprandial changes in microvascular perfusion in the vastus lateralis muscle. Ten healthy, young subjects were recruited for this study. Six subjects participated in washout and reproducibility protocols to assess washout time of SonoVue® and the reproducibility of the method when measuring microvascular blood volume (MBV)...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282836/geometric-patterns-of-time-delay-plots-from-different-cardiac-rhythms-and-arrhythmias-using-short-term-ekg-signals
#4
Raúl A Borracci, José D Montoya Pulvet, Carlos A Ingino, Mario Fitz Maurice, Alfredo Hirschon Prado, Enrique Dominé
OBJECTIVE: To date, no systematic work has been intended to describe spatio-temporal patterns of cardiac rhythms using only short series of RR intervals, to facilitate visual or computerized-aided identification of EKG motifs for use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to detect and classify eye-catching geometric patterns of Poincaré time-delay plots from different types of cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals. METHODS: Approximately 150-300 representative, consecutive beats were retrieved from 24-h Holter registers of 100 patients with different heart rhythms...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280283/pet-ct-to-detect-adverse-reactions-to-metal-debris-in-patients-with-metal-on-metal-hip-arthroplasty-an-exploratory-prospective-study
#5
Erik Aro, Marko Seppänen, Keijo T Mäkelä, Pauliina Luoto, Anne Roivainen, Hannu T Aro
Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings in total hip arthroplasties and hip resurfacing arthroplasties have recently shown a new type of complication: adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD). ARMD is characterized by local severe inflammation and tissue necrosis leading to implant failures. The gluteal muscle region is important for the patient outcome after revision surgery. This prospective positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study was undertaken to evaluate the characteristics of 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG) and [68 Ga]Gallium citrate ([68 Ga]Citrate) PET/CT in ARMD patients...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280281/the-impact-of-exercise-frequency-upon-microvascular-endothelium-function-and-oxidative-stress-among-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#6
Juliana P Borges, Alessandro R Nascimento, Gabriella O Lopes, Daniel J M Medeiros-Lima, Marina P Coelho, Pablo M C Nascimento, Daniel A Kopiler, Cristiane Matsuura, Mauro Felippe F Mediano, Eduardo Tibirica
PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of low and high weekly exercise frequencies on microvascular endothelium function and oxidative stress among patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Thirty-four male patients completed a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation programme, from which 23 performed exercise with a high frequency (HF) and 11 with a low frequency (LF). Systemic microvascular blood flow, maximal aerobic capacity, blood lipids, oxidative stress and anthropometric data were assessed prior to and after the cardiac rehabilitation programme...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266685/physiological-and-methodological-aspects-of-rate-of-force-development-assessment-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#7
REVIEW
David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Per Aagaard, Juan José González-Badillo
Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235722/alterations-in-ventricular-pumping-in-patients-with-atrial-septal-defect-at-rest-during-dobutamine-stress-and-after-defect-closure
#8
Sigurdur S Stephensen, Ellen Ostenfeld, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Ulf Thilén, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden, Marcus Carlsson
BACKGROUND: Regional ventricular pumping mechanisms in patients with volume-loaded right ventricles (RV) are altered, but the cause is unknown. The aim was to determine whether these changes in ventricular pumping mechanisms are influenced by the RV dilatation itself or the aetiology behind it. METHODS: Seventeen patients with atrial septal defects (ASD) and 10 healthy controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at rest and during dobutamine/atropine stress...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171136/prevalence-and-prognostic-impact-of-electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-outpatients-with-extracardiac-artery-disease
#9
Per Hysing, Tommy Jonason, Jerzy Leppert, Pär Hedberg
Identifying cardiac disease in patients with extracardiac artery disease (ECAD) is essential for clinical decision-making. Electrocardiography (ECG) is an easily accessible tool to unmask subclinical cardiac disease and to risk stratify patient with or without manifest cardiovascular disease (CV). We aimed to examine the prevalence and prognostic impact of ECG changes in outpatients with ECAD. Outpatients with carotid or lower extremity artery disease (n = 435) and community-based controls (n = 397) underwent resting ECG...
November 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144026/heart-rate-variability-and-implication-for-sport-concussion
#10
REVIEW
Scott A Bishop, Ryan T Dech, Przemyslaw Guzik, J Patrick Neary
Finding sensitive and specific markers for sports-related concussion is both challenging and clinically important. Such biomarkers might be helpful in the management of patients with concussion (i.e. diagnosis, monitoring and risk prediction). Among many parameters, blood flow-pressure metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to gauge concussion outcomes. Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting. While some authors report on differences in the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV during postural manipulations and postexercise conditions, others observe no significant differences in various HRV measures...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115010/gender-aspects-on-exercise-induced-ecg-changes-in-relation-to-scintigraphic-evidence-of-myocardial-ischaemia
#11
Shahnaz Akil, Bo Hedén, Olle Pahlm, Marcus Carlsson, Håkan Arheden, Henrik Engblom
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of exercise-induced ST response in relation to findings by myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS), with focus on gender differences, in patients with suspected or established stable ischemic heart disease. METHODS: MPS findings of 1 021 patients (518 females) were related to the exercise-induced ST response alone (blinded and unblinded to gender) and ST response together with additional exercise stress test (EST) variables (exercise capacity, blood pressure and heart rate response)...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114983/correct-allometric-analysis-is-always-helpful-for-scaling-flow-mediated-dilation-in-research-and-individual-patient-contexts
#12
LETTER
Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M Batterham, Greg Atkinson
McLay et al. (Clin Physiol Funct Imaging (2017); DOI: 10.1111/cpf.12465) recently examined whether the allometric scaling of flow-mediated dilation influenced the mean difference between samples of young and older adults compared with the traditional percentage change approach. They also explored whether a new scaling calculation improved the ability to obtain individually scaled flow-mediated dilation. In our response to their study, we can demonstrate that McLay et al. (Clin Physiol Funct Imaging, 2017) have (i) managed to formulate a new scaling index which does nothing to remove the dependency of that index on baseline diameter and (ii) suggested, incorrectly, that the original allometric approach cannot be used to derive individually-adjusted values of flow-mediated dilation, which can be interpreted in a similar way to a percentage change...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110426/functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-to-probe-sensorimotor-region-activation-during-electrical-stimulation-evoked-movement
#13
Makii Muthalib, Marco Ferrari, Valentina Quaresima, Graham Kerr, Stephane Perrey
This study used non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging to monitor bilateral sensorimotor region activation during unilateral voluntary (VOL) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements. METHODS: In eight healthy male volunteers, fNIRS was used to measure relative changes in oxyhaemoglobin (O2 Hb) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) concentrations from a cortical sensorimotor region of interest in the left (LH) and right (RH) hemispheres during NMES-evoked and VOL wrist extension movements of the right arm...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105955/right-ventricular-systolic-function-and-mechanical-dispersion-identify-patients-with-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy
#14
Meriam Åström Aneq, Eva Maret, Lars Brudin, Anneli Svensson, Jan Engvall
PURPOSE: To assess right ventricular (RV) regional and global systolic function using feature tracking (FT) in patients with a definite diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and to investigate if changes in strain amplitude and mechanical dispersion indicate a propensity for arrhythmia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients fulfilling Task Force Criteria for ARVC and 24 healthy volunteers underwent MR at 1·5 Tesla. Steady-state free precession cine of long-axis slices and a short-axis stack of the RV was acquired...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105279/sphenopalatine-ganglion-stimulation-induces-changes-in-cardiac-autonomic-regulation-in-cluster-headache
#15
Mads Barloese, Anja S Petersen, Song Guo, Messoud Ashina, Jesper Mehlsen, Rigmor H Jensen
INTRODUCTION: Cluster headache is characterized by attacks of severe unilateral pain accompanied by cranial and systemic autonomic changes. Our knowledge of the latter is imperfect. This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled crossover design, patients received low-frequency and sham stimulation. RR intervals were recorded, and heart rate variability was analysed (time-domain, frequency-domain, nonlinear parameters)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105276/quadriceps-muscle-fat-infiltration-is-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-in-copd
#16
Isabelle Vivodtzev, Luc Moncharmont, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Christian Borel, François Arbib, Bernard Wuyam, Patrick Lévy, François Maltais, Gilbert Ferretti, Jean-Louis Pépin
PURPOSE: Losses of peripheral muscle mass and ectopic fat accumulation have been associated with cardiometabolic morbidity in COPD. We aimed at identifying the relationship between quadriceps muscle fat infiltration and cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2009 to 2014, 78 COPD patients (64 ± 8 years; 80% male) were prospectively included after having given written consent (ethical committee approval number: 2006-A00491-50). The cohort was divided into three groups (tertiles) according to body mass index (BMI), low [15 < BMI≤23·3], middle [23·3 < BMI≤27·6] and high [27·6 < BMI≤36] kg/m²)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082604/68-ga-psma-pet-ct-for-the-detection-of-bone-metastases-in-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-published-literature
#17
Helle D Zacho, Julie B Nielsen, Uwe Haberkorn, Louise Stenholt, Lars J Petersen
BACKGROUND: 68 Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising PET ligand for the detection of prostate cancer. Little attention has been given to the ability of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT to detect malignant bone lesions and whether this approach is superior to existing bone imaging modalities. AIM: To review the existing data of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the diagnosis of bone metastases in prostate cancer. METHODS: Systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature...
October 29, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082595/cutaneous-reactive-hyperaemia-is-unaltered-by-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-healthy-humans
#18
Brett J Wong, Jeremy T Keen, Erica L Levitt
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nitrate supplementation augments cutaneous reactive hyperaemia. Seven participants were tested pre- and postnitrate supplementation (25 ml beetroot juice); participants consumed one shot per day for 3 days. Participants were instrumented with two microdialysis fibres: control (Ringer's solution) and NO synthase inhibition (20 mM L-NAME). Skin blood flow was measured via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). A blood pressure cuff was placed on the experimental arm and inflated to 250 mmHg for 5 mins to occlude arterial inflow...
October 29, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076284/right-ventricular-speckle-tracking-assessment-for-differentiation-of-pressure-versus-volume-overloaded-right-ventricle
#19
Anna Werther Evaldsson, Annika Ingvarsson, Johan Waktare, Gustav J Smith, Ulf Thilén, Martin Stagmo, Anders Roijer, Goran Rådegran, Carl Meurling
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction may be caused by either pressure or volume overload. RV function is conventionally assessed with echocardiography using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV fractional area change (RVFAC), tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (S') and RV index of myocardial performance (RIMP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether RV global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) and RV-free wall strain (RV-free) could add additional information to differentiate these two causes of RV overload...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762041/acute-resistance-exercise-using-free-weights-on-aortic-wave-reflection-characteristics
#20
Yu Lun Tai, Hayden Gerhart, Xián Mayo, J Derek Kingsley
Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔEw ) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals...
January 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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