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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

Michael Melin, Andreas Montelius, Lars Rydén, Adrian Gonon, Inger Hagerman, Eric Rullman
Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive treatment in which leg cuff compressions increase diastolic aortic pressure and coronary perfusion. EECP is offered to patients with refractory angina pectoris and increases physical capacity. Benefits in heart failure patients have been noted, but EECP is still considered to be experimental and its effects must be confirmed. The mechanism of action is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EECP on skeletal muscle gene expression and physical performance in patients with severe heart failure...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behaviour, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness on systemic inflammation, often assessed via C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Their potential additive association on CRP, however, has not been fully evaluated, which was the purpose of this study. METHODS: Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 627 adults 20-49 years)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Andrée Dionne, Louis Pérusse, Alain-Steve Comtois, Mario Leone
Physical activity is often avoided or practised at a low-intensity level because of the limited ability of patients with heart disease (HD) to provide sustained effort. Immersible training has been suggested as a possible alternative as hydrostatic pressure can modify some hemodynamic parameters in healthy patients and potentially increase the exercise capacity in patients with HD. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute cardiorespiratory adaptations at different levels of immersion using an immersible ergometer (IE) in patients with HD...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Yu Lun Tai, Hayden Gerhart, Xián Mayo, J Derek Kingsley
Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔEw ) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ryota Kobayashi, Yuto Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Hatakeyama, Takanobu Okamoto
Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Brittany R Counts, Lindy M Rossow, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Jeremy P Loenneke
Low-load resistance exercise with the blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to increase muscle size similar to that of traditional high-load resistance training. Throughout the BFR literature, there is a vast difference between the quantity of young females included in the literature compared to young males, older males and older females. Therefore, the purpose of this minireview is to discuss the underrepresentation of young females in the BFR literature and review the potential physiologic reasons as to why they may have been excluded...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Jeff Boissoneault, Janelle Letzen, Song Lai, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Kenneth J Hunt, Prasanna Anandakumaran, Jonas A Loretz, Jittima Saengsuwan
PURPOSE: Self-paced maximal testing methods may be able to exploit central mediation of function-limiting fatigue and therefore have potential to generate more valid estimates of peak oxygen uptake. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a new method for self-paced peak performance testing on treadmills and to compare peak and submaximal performance outcomes with those obtained using a non-self-paced ('computer-paced') method employing predetermined speed and slope profiles...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ewa Rębacz-Maron
The interpretation of spirometric results of Black Africans according to reference standards based on data from outside their native environment may lead to the wrong conclusions. This article aims to characterize the ventilatory capacity of boys and men from Tanzania according to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 /FVC based on the collected anthropological material and to compare them to NHANES III, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) African American predicted values and GLI2012 equations...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Mose July, Prasanna Santhanam, Luca Giovanella, Giorgio Treglia
The aim of this review was to summarize the recent developments on the role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using different radiopharmaceuticals in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Although most guidelines do not mention the use of PET imaging in patients with MEN syndromes, recent data seem to suggest a relevant diagnostic role of PET imaging in this setting. In particular, latest evidence has shown that somatostatin receptor PET provides a diagnostic accuracy in detecting MEN syndromes-related neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) higher than that of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, thus influencing patient management in a significant percentage of cases...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
B Cambiaghi, O Moerer, N Kunze-Szikszay, T Mauri, A Just, J Dittmar, G Hahn
A pneumothorax (PTX) is a potentially lethal condition in high-risk intensive care patients. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been proven to detect PTX at the bedside. A so far not described pattern in the course of thoracic impedance at an early state of PTX was observed in a pig model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) used for a more extensive study. EIT was performed at a framerate of 50 Hz. Beginning of PTX at normal ventilation, manifestation of PTX at VILI ventilation (plateau pressure 42 cm H2 O) and final pleural drainage were documented...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Carina Hagman, Christer Janson, Andrei Malinovschi, Hans Hedenström, Margareta Emtner
INTRODUCTION: The respiratory movement measuring instrument (RMMI) is a laser-based non-invasive technique to measure breathing patterns and respiratory movements (RMs). Little knowledge is known about the ability of the RMMI to measure breathing patterns and the correlation between RMs and breathing volumes. OBJECTIVES: One aim was to investigate whether the RMMI could discriminate between normal versus abdominal versus high costal breathing patterns in different body positions...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Osamu Yanagisawa, Toshiyuki Kurihara
We aimed at evaluating the effect of isometric muscle contraction on intramuscular water movement at different exercise intensities. Seven men performed 1-min isometric ankle dorsiflexion (20% and 50% maximal voluntary contractions [MVCs]) with a non-magnetic custom-made dynamometer, inside a magnetic resonance (MR) device. Axial diffusion-weighted images were obtained before, during and at 1-20 min (1-min interval) after the exercise to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the tibialis anterior...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Roberta R Pinto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare haemodynamic responses during resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) in hypertensive women. METHODS: Twelve hypertensive women undertook three random experimental sessions in the leg-press exercise: (i) Three sets, eight repetitions, 20% of one-repetition maximum (1 RM), with BFR; (ii) Three sets, 15 repetitions, 65% of 1 RM, without BFR; and (iii) three sets, 15 repetitions, 20% of 1 RM, without BFR. The BFR was performed using two sphygmomanometers adjusted to fit both thighs...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Heikki Yli-Ollila, Tomi Laitinen, Matti Weckström, Tiina M Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal wall motion of carotid artery is a useful but challenging parameter to measure. In this study, we tested our previously published motion tracking algorithm and validated our method against applanation tonometry measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured the two-dimensional carotid artery wall motion from 19 healthy subjects and, as a reference, performed applanation tonometry measurements in parallel with the ultrasound study. The results show that peak velocities (R = -0·484; P<0·05) and accelerations (R = -0·524; P<0·05) of the longitudinal motion between intima and adventitia layers exhibit a greater correlation with the arterial stiffness parameters, for example the augmentation index than the corresponding amplitude of the longitudinal motion (R = -0·132; P>0·05)...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Dominique Hansen, Nele Jacobs, Herbert Thijs, Paul Dendale, Neree Claes
Healthcare professionals with limited access to ergospirometry remain in need of valid and simple submaximal exercise tests to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). Despite previous validation studies concerning fixed-rate step tests, accurate equations for the estimation of VO2max remain to be formulated from a large sample of healthy adults between age 18-75 years (n > 100). The aim of this study was to develop a valid equation to estimate VO2max from a fixed-rate step test in a larger sample of healthy adults...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
M Ring, M J Eriksson, T Jogestrand, K Caidahl
Increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is associated with an increased risk of cardiac events and stroke. Several semi-automated edge-detection techniques for measuring cIMT are used for research and in clinical practice. Our aim was to compare two currently available semi-automated techniques for the measurement of cIMT. Carotid ultrasound recordings were obtained from 99 subjects (mean age 54·4 ± 8·9 years, range 33-69) without known cardiovascular diseases using a General Electric (GE) Vivid 7 ultrasound scanner, 8-MHz transducer...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ulrik Lütken Henriksen, Marianne Kiszka-Kanowitz, Flemming Bendtsen, Jens H Henriksen
Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , P<0·001) and directly related to serum sodium (r = 0·57, P<0·05)...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Anna Dieden, Ylva Gårdinger, Joanna Hlebowicz, Ola Björgell, Magnus Dencker
Systolic tissue Doppler measurements (s') have been used to measure the velocity in myocardial motion and are a valuable tool for evaluating the systolic function of the left and right ventricles. Digestion of food is known to significantly alter hemodynamics and may therefore affect s'. The effect of food intake on s' parameters has not yet been studied. We assessed whether s' is affected by food intake. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 26·2 ± 4·2 years were investigated. s' was measured with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in the right and left ventricles before the subjects ate a standardized meal and also 30 and 110 min after the meal...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
A Kainu, K L Timonen, J Toikka, B Qaiser, J Pitkäniemi, J T Kotaniemi, A Lindqvist, E Vanninen, E Länsimies, A R A Sovijärvi
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. METHODS: Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults...
September 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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