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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

Melissa Mazor, Betty J Smoot, Judy Mastick, Grace Mausisa, Steven M Paul, Kord M Kober, Charles Elboim, Komal Singh, Yvette P Conley, Gabby Mickevicius, Jennifer Field, Heather Hutchison, Christine Miaskowski
Given the paucity of information on local tissue water (LTW) in the upper extremity and trunk of women after breast cancer surgery, the purpose of this study was to compare tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values between the affected and unaffected sides of breast cancer survivors with and without upper extremity lymphoedema (LE). Differences in LTW were assessed using the TDC method for three sites in the upper limbs, three sites in the lateral thorax and two sites on the back. Additional measures included demographic and clinical characteristics, arm circumference and bioimpedance analysis...
September 12, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Simon Nichols, Alasdair F O'Doherty, Claire Taylor, Andrew L Clark, Sean Carroll, Lee Ingle
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic heart failure, there is a positive linear relationship between skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak ); an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. We investigated the association between SMM and V˙O2peak in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) without a diagnosis of heart failure. METHODS: Male patients with CHD underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing and dual X-ray absorptiometry assessment...
August 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Duncan S Buchan, Fiona McSeveney, Gillian McLellan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement between several activity measures using raw acceleration data from accelerometers worn concurrently on the dominant and non-dominant wrist. Fifty-five adults (31·9 ± 9·7 years, 26 males) wore two ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors continuously for 1 day, one on their non-dominant wrist and the other on their dominant wrist. Paired t-tests were undertaken with sequential Holm-Bonferroni corrections to compare wear time, moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent in 10-min bouts of MVPA (MVPA10 min ) and the average magnitude of dynamic wrist acceleration (ENMO)...
July 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Egil Henriksen, Jonas Selmeryd, Pär Hedberg
Recent findings suggest that left atrial (LA) function is more strongly related to adverse prognosis than LA volumes. We aimed to evaluate the associations between LA volumes and Doppler filling indices with LA function. Echocardiographic LA volumes (LAVs), mitral valve early (MV-E) and late (MV-A) peak flow velocities, and mitral atrioventricular plane tissue-Doppler early (TD-e') and late (TD-a') peak velocities were obtained in 320 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) free from atrial fibrillation and more than moderate valvular disease...
July 1, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Maria Perissiou, Tom G Bailey, Mark Windsor, Anthony S Leicht, Jonathan Golledge, Christopher D Askew
Short-term changes in arterial stiffness with exercise are proposed to better reflect vascular impairments than resting measures alone and are suggested as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular risk in older adults. Arterial stiffness indices are reliable at rest, but the time-course and reliability of postexercise changes in arterial stiffness in older adults are unknown. The precision of postexercise changes in arterial stiffness should be determined prior to their use in large prospective trials. This study assessed the between-day reliability of the changes in pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx75) and reflection magnitude (RM) following an exercise bout in older adults...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Louise Rundqvist, Jan Engvall, Maria Faresjö, Peter Blomstrand
The aims of the study were to explore the temporal change of cardiac function after peak exercise in adolescents, and to investigate how these functional changes relate to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). The cohort consisted of 27 endurance-trained adolescents aged 13-19 years, and 27 controls individually matched by age and gender. Standard echocardiography and colour tissue Doppler were performed at rest, and immediately after as well as 15 min after a maximal cardio pulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Markos Klonizakis, Stephen M Bianchi, Marie Gernigon, Pierre Abraham, Shah Nawaz
OBJECTIVE: Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic condition most commonly presenting with intermittent claudication (IC). Intermittent claudication limits walking ability and may negatively affect health-related quality of life. Treadmill assessment of maximal walking distance (MWD) is the gold standard to assess PAD symptom severity. Despite being a well-established and reproducible tool, it may be inappropriate (due to frailty or fear) for some patients and only describes maximal abilities for a single walk test...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Johan Petrini, Margareta Ring, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Kenneth Caidahl, Maria J Eriksson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intima-media thickness is a marker for atherosclerosis but is also influenced by shear stress and flow. We evaluated the relation between intima-media thickness of the descending aorta (AoIMT) and the common carotid artery (CIMT) in patients with and without severe aortic valve disease (sAVD). METHODS: A total of 310 patients (233 with sAVD, 77 without) were examined with regard to AoIMT and CIMT using transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasound, respectively, before valvular and/or aortic surgery...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Leo Pekka Malmberg, Paula Kauppi, Mika J Mäkelä
Recent technical recommendations on bronchial challenge testing aim at standardized assessment of provocative dose of causing 20% decrease in FEV1 (PD20). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mode of nebulization on the output of a computerized dosimeter (APS) and to compare PD20 obtained by two different dosimetric systems in vivo. The output of the APS system was tested during continuous nebulization, and using simulated breaths, for intermittent actuations with four different durations...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Timothée Fontolliet, Pietro Gianella, Vincent Pichot, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Paola Gasche-Soccal, Guido Ferretti, Frédéric Lador
The effects of lung afferents denervation on cardiovascular regulation can be assessed on bilateral lung transplantation patients. The high-frequency component of heart rate variability is known to be synchronous with breathing frequency. Then, if heart beat is neurally modulated by breathing frequency, we may expect disappearance of high frequency of heart rate variability in bilateral lung transplantation patients. On 11 patients and 11 matching healthy controls, we measured R-R interval (electrocardiography), blood pressure (Portapres® ) and breathing frequency (ultrasonic device) in supine rest, during 10-min free breathing, 10-min cadenced breathing (0·25 Hz) and 5-min handgrip...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
You Zhong, Qays Almodares, JieFu Yang, Fang Wang, Michael Fu, Magnus C Johansson
PURPOSE: Reduced blood circulation is an important feature of heart failure, and Doppler stroke distance of the left ventricular outflow tract is a measure of forward stroke volume. Several echocardiographic parameters have known prognostic implications in heart failure, but the prognostic implications of stroke distance in relation to other parameters are insufficiently known. The aim was therefore to test the hypothesis that stroke distance is associated with five-year all-cause mortality, independently of other echocardiography variables, and that stroke distance has added long-term prognostic value...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Kenneth H Mertz, Jacob Bülow, Lars Holm
Methods capable of measuring blood flow in a tissue-specific manner are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using bolus injections of SonoVue® is an useful method for assessing postprandial changes in microvascular perfusion in the vastus lateralis muscle. Ten healthy, young subjects were recruited for this study. Six subjects participated in washout and reproducibility protocols to assess washout time of SonoVue® and the reproducibility of the method when measuring microvascular blood volume (MBV)...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Raúl A Borracci, José D Montoya Pulvet, Carlos A Ingino, Mario Fitz Maurice, Alfredo Hirschon Prado, Enrique Dominé
OBJECTIVE: To date, no systematic work has been intended to describe spatio-temporal patterns of cardiac rhythms using only short series of RR intervals, to facilitate visual or computerized-aided identification of EKG motifs for use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to detect and classify eye-catching geometric patterns of Poincaré time-delay plots from different types of cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals. METHODS: Approximately 150-300 representative, consecutive beats were retrieved from 24-h Holter registers of 100 patients with different heart rhythms...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Erik Aro, Marko Seppänen, Keijo T Mäkelä, Pauliina Luoto, Anne Roivainen, Hannu T Aro
Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings in total hip arthroplasties and hip resurfacing arthroplasties have recently shown a new type of complication: adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD). ARMD is characterized by local severe inflammation and tissue necrosis leading to implant failures. The gluteal muscle region is important for the patient outcome after revision surgery. This prospective positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study was undertaken to evaluate the characteristics of 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG) and [68 Ga]Gallium citrate ([68 Ga]Citrate) PET/CT in ARMD patients...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Juliana P Borges, Alessandro R Nascimento, Gabriella O Lopes, Daniel J M Medeiros-Lima, Marina P Coelho, Pablo M C Nascimento, Daniel A Kopiler, Cristiane Matsuura, Mauro Felippe F Mediano, Eduardo Tibirica
PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of low and high weekly exercise frequencies on microvascular endothelium function and oxidative stress among patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Thirty-four male patients completed a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation programme, from which 23 performed exercise with a high frequency (HF) and 11 with a low frequency (LF). Systemic microvascular blood flow, maximal aerobic capacity, blood lipids, oxidative stress and anthropometric data were assessed prior to and after the cardiac rehabilitation programme...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Per Aagaard, Juan José González-Badillo
Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Sigurdur S Stephensen, Ellen Ostenfeld, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Ulf Thilén, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden, Marcus Carlsson
BACKGROUND: Regional ventricular pumping mechanisms in patients with volume-loaded right ventricles (RV) are altered, but the cause is unknown. The aim was to determine whether these changes in ventricular pumping mechanisms are influenced by the RV dilatation itself or the aetiology behind it. METHODS: Seventeen patients with atrial septal defects (ASD) and 10 healthy controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at rest and during dobutamine/atropine stress...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Per Hysing, Tommy Jonason, Jerzy Leppert, Pär Hedberg
Identifying cardiac disease in patients with extracardiac artery disease (ECAD) is essential for clinical decision-making. Electrocardiography (ECG) is an easily accessible tool to unmask subclinical cardiac disease and to risk stratify patient with or without manifest cardiovascular disease (CV). We aimed to examine the prevalence and prognostic impact of ECG changes in outpatients with ECAD. Outpatients with carotid or lower extremity artery disease (n = 435) and community-based controls (n = 397) underwent resting ECG...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Scott A Bishop, Ryan T Dech, Przemyslaw Guzik, J Patrick Neary
Finding sensitive and specific markers for sports-related concussion is both challenging and clinically important. Such biomarkers might be helpful in the management of patients with concussion (i.e. diagnosis, monitoring and risk prediction). Among many parameters, blood flow-pressure metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to gauge concussion outcomes. Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting. While some authors report on differences in the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV during postural manipulations and postexercise conditions, others observe no significant differences in various HRV measures...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Shahnaz Akil, Bo Hedén, Olle Pahlm, Marcus Carlsson, Håkan Arheden, Henrik Engblom
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of exercise-induced ST response in relation to findings by myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS), with focus on gender differences, in patients with suspected or established stable ischemic heart disease. METHODS: MPS findings of 1 021 patients (518 females) were related to the exercise-induced ST response alone (blinded and unblinded to gender) and ST response together with additional exercise stress test (EST) variables (exercise capacity, blood pressure and heart rate response)...
September 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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