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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION: Blood flow restriction has been shown to augment muscle activation and increase muscle size when combined with low-load training; however, much less is known on whether blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation during high-load exercise. PURPOSE: To determine whether applying blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation with traditional high-load resistance exercise. METHOD: Ten individuals completed two sets of elbow flexion exercise to volitional fatigue...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Julius Fink, Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
We investigated the effects of volume-matched resistance training (RT) with different training loads and rest intervals on acute responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. Ten subjects trained with short rest (30 s) combined with low load (20 RM) (SL) and ten subjects performed the same protocol with long rest (3 min) and high load (8 RM) (LH). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the upper arm was measured by magnetic resonance imaging before and after 8 weeks of training. Acute stress markers such as growth hormone (GH) and muscle thickness (MT) changes have been assessed pre and post a single RT session...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Joseph D Ostrem, Nicholas G Evanoff, Justin R Ryder, Donald R Dengel
BACKGROUND: Previously, we have demonstrated that high-flow-mediated constriction (H-FMC) of the brachial artery has been shown to negatively affect flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, the reproducibility of an H-FMC response is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and interday reproducibility of H-FMC in young adults. METHODS: Thirty young adults (15 male, 15 female; 24 ± 3 years) were assessed for H-FMC reproducibility via high-resolution ultrasound imaging of the brachial artery during and after forearm occlusion of a normal FMD procedure...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Kazumichi Kurobe, Ayaka Kousaka, Futoshi Ogita, Naoyuki Matsumoto
Although aerobic exercise after a meal decreases postprandial blood glucose, the differences in glucose response between land and aquatic exercise are unclear. Thus, we examined the effect of different modes of exercise with same energy expenditure following glucose ingestion on carbohydrate metabolism. Ten healthy sedentary men (age, 22 ± 1 years) participated in this study. All subjects performed each of three exercise modes (cycling, walking and aquatic exercise) for 30 min after ingestion of a 75-g glucose solution with 1-2 weeks between trials...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
Measurement of body composition to assess health risk and prevention is expanding. Accurate portable techniques are needed to facilitate use in clinical settings. This study evaluated the accuracy and repeatability of a portable ultrasound (US) in comparison with a four-compartment criterion for per cent body fat (%Fat) in overweight/obese adults. Fifty-one participants (mean ± SD; age: 37·2 ± 11·3 years; BMI: 31·6 ± 5·2 kg m(-2) ) were measured for %Fat using US (GE Logiq-e) and skinfolds. A subset of 36 participants completed a second day of the same measurements, to determine reliability...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Eliott Arroyo, Jeffrey R Stout, Kyle S Beyer, David D Church, Alyssa N Varanoske, David H Fukuda, Jay R Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Due to the potential for intramuscular fluid shifts from changing body position, researchers often utilize a 10- to 15-min period of supine rest as a standardizing procedure prior to ultrasound assessment of the lower limbs. However, no previous research has observed the changes in muscle morphological characteristics via ultrasonography of the lower limbs depending on the length of time of supine rest to determine whether 10-15 min of supine rest is necessary. The aim of this study was to examine changes in muscle morphology of the vastus lateralis (VL) at various time-points over the course of 15 min of supine rest...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Andrée Dionne, Mario Leone, Serge Goulet, David E Andrich, Louis Pérusse, Alain-Steve Comtois
BACKGROUND: Water immersion and aquatic exercise can be an important therapeutic tool in patients suffering from heart disease (HD). However, the effects of water immersion on heart rate variability (HRV) in HD participants remain unknown. METHODS: Twenty-eight volunteers in sinus rhythm within the same age range took part in this study: 18 HD and ten healthy controls (HC). Heart rhythm was collected with a heart rate monitor (sampling rate 1000 Hz) for periods of 10 min at rest in the supine position on land, standing on land (STL) and standing in water (STW) to the xiphoid process...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Karla F Goessler, Marcos D Polito, Gloria de F Mota, Edilamar M de Oliveira, Véronique A Cornelissen
The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is associated with diverse physiological responses and adaptations to exercise. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 has vasodilatory effects, which might be associated with the blood pressure (BP) responses to acute exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ACE2 polymorphisms in postexercise hypotension (PEH). Thirty-four medicated hypertensive (61·3 ± 1·7 years, 76·1 ± 2·7 kg, 160 ± 1·6 cm) men (n = 12) and women (n = 22), participated in a control and a moderate intensity exercise session in a randomized order...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ellen Ostenfeld, Anna Werther-Evaldsson, Henrik Engblom, Annika Ingvarsson, Anders Roijer, Carl Meurling, Johan Holm, Göran Rådegran, Marcus Carlsson
AIMS: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients have high mortality due to right ventricular failure. Predictors of poor prognostic outcome are increased right atrial volume (RAV) and elevated mean right atrial pressure (mRAP). Our aim was to determine whether RAV measured with 2D echocardiography (2DE) and 3D echocardiography (3DE) can detect elevated mRAP in patients evaluated for PH. METHODS: Of 85 patients prospectively evaluated for PH, 44 patients (63 ± 15 years, 57% female) had 2DE, 3DE and right heart catheterization within 48 h and were in sinus rhythm...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Laura Ollila, Tiina Heliö, Anssi Sovijärvi, Mikko Jalanko, Maija Kaartinen, Johanna Kuusisto, Satu Kärkkäinen, Raija Jurkko, Eeva Reissell, Eeva Palojoki, Päivi Piirilä
BACKGROUND: LMNA mutations are an important cause of cardiomyopathy often leading to cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and even heart transplantation. An increasing number of asymptomatic mutation carriers are identified, as family members of the index patients are screened. Our aim was to study the disease progression in asymptomatic LMNA mutation carriers and in patients with symptomatic cardiolaminopathy by repeated spiroergometric testing in a prospective clinical follow-up study...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Cindy Fraga, Bruna Velasques, Alexander J Koch, Marco Machado, Dailson Paulucio, Pedro Ribeiro, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia Pompeu
Mouth rinsing with a CHO solution has been suggested to improve short (<1 h) endurance performance through central effect. We examined the effects of mouth rinsing with a CHO solution on running time to exhaustion on a treadmill. Six well-trained subjects ran to exhaustion at 85% VO2max , on three separate occasions. Subjects received either an 8% CHO solution or a placebo (PLA) every 15 min to mouth rinse (MR) or a 6% CHO solution to ingest (ING). Treatments were assigned in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion, with the mouth-rinsing treatments double-blinded...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
M Midttun, B B S Azad, R Broholm, L T Jensen, C Svarer, P E Jensen
Distal blood pressure and local skin perfusion pressure were compared to measurement of blood flow rate (BFR) measured by the heat-washout method in orthopaedic patients with and without diabetes, all with a foot ulcer in one foot, compared to healthy controls. The correlation was good between heat-washout and distal blood pressure in patients with diabetes with and without an ulcer (P = 0·024 and 0·059, respectively). The correlation was weak in patients without diabetes with and without an ulcer, most probably due to power problems (P = 0·118 and 0·116, respectively)...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Tomasz Targowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Newton da Silva Pereira Júnior, Thiago Torres da Matta, André Victor Alvarenga, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque Pereira, Liliam Fernandes de Oliveira
Ultrasound (US) is an important tool for diagnosing of many musculoskeletal tissue conditions. Image texture analysis can be used to characterize this tissue. The complexity curve (CC) is a technique commonly used to characterize the number of grey-level transitions in an image. Variability and reliability of US texture measures in the muscle tissue are unavailable in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the variability and reliability of five CC texture parameters from US images of healthy Biceps Brachialis and Gastrocnemius Lateralis (GL) muscles, with longitudinal and transversal orientations of the probe...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Antonio H G Soares, Tiago P Oliveira, Bruno R Cavalcante, Breno Q Farah, Aluísio H R A Lima, Gabriel G Cucato, Crivaldo G Cardoso, Raphael M Ritti-Dias
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of active recovery on autonomic and haemodynamic responses after exercise in healthy adults. Nineteen healthy young male individuals underwent two experimental sessions: exercise with active recovery (AR) and exercise with passive recovery (PR). The exercise sessions comprised three phases: warm-up (5 min), exercise phase (cycle ergometer, 30 min, intensity between 60 and 70% of the heart rate reserve) and recovery (5 min). In the AR, the subjects remained cycling in the recovery phase at intensity between 30% and 35% of heart rate reserve, while in the PR, the subjects stopped the exercise after finishing the exercise phase...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Victor M Niemeijer, Ruud F Spee, Jasper P Jansen, Antonetta B C Buskermolen, Thomas van Dijk, Pieter F F Wijn, Hareld M C Kemps
The potential purpose of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a clinical application in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is the identification of limitations in O2 delivery or utilization during exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate absolute and relative test-retest reliability of skeletal muscle oxygenation measurements in patients with CHF. Thirty patients with systolic heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 8%) performed 6-min constant-load cycling tests at 80% of the anaerobic threshold (AT) with tissue saturation index (TSI) measurement at the vastus lateralis...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Britt-Marie Ahlander, Eva Maret, Lars Brudin, Sven-Ake Starck, Jan Engvall
BACKGROUND: To assess myocardial perfusion, steady-state free precession cardiac magnetic resonance (SSFP, CMR) was compared with gradient-echo-echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) using myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) as reference. METHODS: Cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion was recorded in 30 patients with SSFP and in another 30 patients with GRE-EPI. Timing and extent of inflow delay to the myocardium was visually assessed. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
M Fosbøl, S Reving, E H Petersen, P Rossing, M Lajer, B Zerahn
AIM: To investigate whether inclusion of quantitative data on blood flow distribution compared with visual qualitative evaluation improve the reliability and diagnostic performance of (99 m) Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphate three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) in patients suspected for charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CNO) of the foot. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study of TPBS performed on 148 patients with suspected acute CNO referred from a single specialized diabetes care centre...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Michael Y Henein, Christer Grönlund, Erik Tossavainen, Stefan Söderberg, Manuel Gonzalez, Per Lindqvist
In pulmonary hypertension (PH), the right heart dysfunction is a strong predictor of adverse clinical outcome, while the role of the left heart is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of mortality in precapillary PH including measures of both right and left heart function. We studied 34 patients (mean age 64 ± 13, range 31-82 years, 24 females) with precapillary PH, all of whom underwent detailed Doppler echocardiographic examination of the right and left heart function using conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Anna Carlén, Meriam Åström Aneq, Eva Nylander, Mikael Gustafsson
The fitness of firefighters is regularly evaluated using exercise tests. We aimed to compare, with respect to age and body composition, two test modalities for the assessment work capacity. A total of 424 Swedish firefighters with cycle ergometer (CE) and treadmill (TM) tests available from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were included. We compared results from CE (6 min at 200 W, 250 W or incremental ramp exercise) with TM (6 min at 8° inclination, 4·5 km h(-1) or faster, wearing 24-kg protective equipment). Oxygen requirements were estimated by prediction equations...
January 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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