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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906053/the-effects-of-menstrual-cycle-phase-on-the-incidence-of-plateau-at-v%C3%AB-o2max-and-associated-cardiorespiratory-dynamics
#1
Dan Gordon, Adrian Scruton, Richard Barnes, James Baker, Luciano Prado, Viviane Merzbach
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of menstrual cycle phase on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and associated cardiodynamic responses. A total of 16 active females volunteered of which n = 10 formed the non-oral contraceptive pill group (n-OCP), displaying a regular menstrual cycle of 28·4 ± 2·2 days (age 20·6 ± 1·6 years, height 169·9 ± 6·4 cm, mass 68·7 ± 7·9 kg) and n = 6 formed the oral contraceptive pill group (OCP) (monophasic pill) (age 21·7 years ± 2·16, height 168·1 cm ± 6·8 cm, mass 61·6 ± 6·8 kg)...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857391/estimated-peak-functional-capacity-an-accurate-method-for-assessing-change-in-peak-oxygen-consumption-after-cardiac-rehabilitation
#2
S Nichols, D O Gleadall-Siddall, R Antony, A L Clark, J G F Cleland, S Carroll, L Ingle
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the 'gold standard' method of determining VO2peak . When CPET is unavailable, VO2peak may be estimated from treadmill or cycle ergometer workloads and expressed as estimated metabolic equivalents (METs). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes use estimated VO2peak (METs) to report changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the accuracy of determining changes in VO2peak based on estimated functional capacity is not known. METHODS: A total of 27 patients with coronary heart disease (88·9% male; age 59·5 ± 10·0 years, body mass index 29·6 ± 3·8 kg m(-2) ) performed maximal CPET before and after an exercise-based CR intervention...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815984/relationships-between-central-arterial-stiffness-lean-body-mass-and-absolute-and-relative-strength-in-young-and-older-men-and-women
#3
Christopher A Fahs, Robert S Thiebaud, Lindy M Rossow, Jeremy P Loenneke, Debra A Bemben, Michael G Bemben
Relationships between muscular strength and arterial stiffness as well as between muscle mass and arterial stiffness have been observed suggesting a link between the neuromuscular system and vascular health. However, the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength along with muscle mass has not been investigated in both sexes across a broad age range. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength as well as between central arterial stiffness and lean body mass (LBM) in men and women across a broad age range...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804951/allometric-scaling-of-flow-mediated-dilation-is-it-always-helpful
#4
K M McLay, J P Nederveen, J J Koval, D H Paterson, J M Murias
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is calculated as the greatest percent change in arterial diameter following an ischaemic challenge. This Traditional %FMD calculation is thought to have statistical bias towards baseline diameter (Dbase ), which is reduced by allometric scaling. This study examined whether allometric scaling FMD influenced the difference between a group of healthy young and older adults compared to the Traditional %FMD, and to determine whether a New (allometric) scaling %FMD improved the ability to obtain individually scaled FMD...
August 13, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795529/reaction-time-can-be-measured-during-voluntary-contractions-with-electrode-array
#5
Y Le Mansec, A Nordez, S Dorel, M Jubeau
Reaction time (RT) is classically divided into premotor time (PMT) and electromechanical delay (EMD). However, the determination of the onset of electromyographic activity (EMG) during voluntary contraction remains questionable. In addition, the reliability of RT, PMT and EMD needs to be determined. Twelve participants performed two sessions of RT trials, separated by 5 min. RT was evaluated during voluntary isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, i.e., time between a light signal (stimulus) and the onset of the mechanical response...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795491/role-of-handedness-on-forearm-skin-tissue-dielectric-constant-tdc-in-relation-to-detection-of-early-stage-breast-cancer-related-lymphedema
#6
Harvey N Mayrovitz, Madeline Fasen, Paige Spagna, Jennifer Wong
skin tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements help assess local skin water to detect incipient early-stage lymphedema subsequent to breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema. However, presurgery measurements are not always obtained and assessments for evolving lymphedema are only made after surgery. Thus, subsequent TDC assessments may be biased in an unknown way dependent on a patient's handedness in relation to the at-risk arm. We investigated this issue by comparing TDC values in dominant and non-dominant volar forearms of 31 left-handed women and 31 right-handed women (age range 24-84 years)...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795483/heart-rate-recovery-improves-after-exercise-in-water-when-compared-with-on-land
#7
Alain Boussuges, Pascal Rossi, Laurent Poirette, Olivier Gavarry
BACKGROUND: Water immersion has demonstrated its effectiveness in the recovery process after exercise. This study presents for the first time the impact of water immersion on heart rate recovery after low-intensity cycle exercise. METHODS: Sixteen male volunteers were involved in the study. The experiment consisted of two cycling exercises: 1 h in ambient air and 1 h in water (temperature: 32 ± 0·2°C). The exercise intensity was individually prescribed to elicit around 35%-40% of VO2 peak for both conditions...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795494/an-extended-high-frequency-ultrasound-protocol-for-detection-of-vessel-wall-inflammation
#8
H Zachrisson, C Svensson, A Dremetsika, P Eriksson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate an extended protocol of the large vessels using high-frequency duplex ultrasound (DUS) for detection of vessel wall inflammation. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients performed a DUS examination where arteritis could not be excluded. All DUS examinations were performed using ACUSON S2000 TM ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.). High-frequency linear transducers were used (18L6 MHz, 9L4MHz) or curve linear for the aortic arch (6C2 MHz)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795487/relation-of-oxygen-uptake-to-work-rate-in-prepubertal-healthy-children-reference-for-vo2-w-slope-and-effect-on-cardiorespiratory-fitness-assessment
#9
Tuomo Tompuri, Niina Lintu, Tomi Laitinen, Timo A Lakka
PURPOSE: Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and workload (W), and VO2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO2PEAK . METHODS: A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795486/a-reassessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-large-neutral-amino-acids-during-acute-systemic-inflammation-in-humans
#10
Rasmus H Dahl, Ronan M G Berg, Sarah Taudorf, Damian M Bailey, Carsten Lundby, Fin S Larsen, Kirsten Møller
We reassessed data from a previous study on the transcerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) using a novel mathematical model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport. The study included twelve healthy volunteers who received a 4-h intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (total dose: 0·3 ng/kg), a human experimental model of the systemic inflammatory response during the early stages of sepsis. Cerebral blood flow and arterial-to-jugular venous LNAA concentrations were measured prior to and after LPS, and the BBB transport and brain extracellular concentrations of LNAAs were calculated...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795485/relationship-between-ultrasound-muscle-thickness-and-mri-measured-muscle-cross-sectional-area-in-the-forearm-a-pilot-study
#11
Takashi Abe, Miyuki Nakatani, Jeremy P Loenneke
Previous studies have investigated the relationship between ultrasound-measured muscle thickness (MT) and individual muscle cross-sectional area (CSA); however, the forearm muscle had not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between forearm MT by ultrasound and the muscle CSA of the forearm obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten young and middle-aged adults had both ultrasound and MRI measurements at 30% the distance from the styloid process of the ulna to the head of the radius...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782913/screening-with-doppler-ultrasound-for-carotid-artery-stenosis-in-patients-with-stroke-or-transient-ischaemic-attack
#12
Tatiana Kristensen, Peter Hovind, Helle K Iversen, Ulrik B Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Carotid endarterectomy of symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent stroke, particularly if performed within 2 weeks from the first event. We evaluated the efficiency of a screening programme based on Doppler ultrasound in patients hospitalized with stroke or transient ischaemic attack in the stroke centre at Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark, concerning timeliness of referral to the vascular surgeon and performance of carotid endarterectomy according to national recommendations...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782911/simulation-of-aortopulmonary-collateral-flow-in-fontan-patients-for-use-in-prediction-of-interventional-outcomes
#13
Petter Frieberg, Pia Sjöberg, Johan Revstedt, Einar Heiberg, Petru Liuba, Marcus Carlsson
PURPOSE: Patients with complex congenital heart disease may need to be converted to a Fontan circulation with systemic venous return surgically connected to the pulmonary circulation. These patients frequently form aortopulmonary collaterals (APC), that is arterial inflows to the pulmonary artery vascular tree. The aim of this study was to develop a method to calculate the effect of APC on the pulmonary flow distribution based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations in order to enable prediction of interventional outcomes in Fontan patients...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782910/eucapnic-voluntary-hyperventilation-test-in-children
#14
Janne Burman, Heikki Lukkarinen, Varpu Elenius, Sami Remes, Tom Kuusela, Tuomas Jartti
BACKGROUND: In children, exercise-induced dyspnea is a common symptom that can be due to dysfunctional breathing. EVH test has bee used especially in elite athletes as bronchoprovocation test. Currently, there are only few studies on the EVH test. New research methods are required alongside the traditionally used tests especially due to dysfunctional breathing disorder. PURPOSE: The purpose of the "pilot study" was to study the usability of the EVH test with real time biofeedback in children of 10-16 years of age in the diagnostics of exercise-induced dyspnea...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782878/physiological-measures-in-participants-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-multiple-sclerosis-and-healthy-controls-following-repeated-exercise-a-pilot-study
#15
L D Hodges, T Nielsen, D Baken
PURPOSE: To compare physiological responses of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME), multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC) following a 24-h repeated exercise test. METHODS: Ten CFS, seven MS and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (10, CFS HC; and seven, MS HC) were recruited. Each participant completed a maximal incremental cycle exercise test on day 1 and again 24 h later. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), oxygen consumption (V˙O2), carbon dioxide production and workload (WL) were recorded...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752947/effectiveness-of-functional-training-on-cardiorespiratory-parameters-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
Marianne Penachini da Costa de Rezende Barbosa, Vinicius Cunha Oliveira, Anne Kastelianne França da Silva, Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Luiz Carlos Vanderlei
BACKGROUND: Functional training is a new training vision that was prepared from the gesture imitation of daily activities. Although your use has become popular in clinical practice, the influence of the several cardiorespiratory adjustments performed during the functional training in different populations and conditions is unknown. So, the aim of this systematic review was to gather information in the literature regarding the influence of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752919/acute-physiological-and-perceptual-responses-to-high-load-resistance-exercise-in-hypoxia
#17
Brendan R Scott, Katie M Slattery, Dean V Sculley, Scott M Smith, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Ben J Dascombe
This study assessed whether hypoxia during high-load resistance exercise could enhance the acute physiological responses related to muscular development. Twelve trained men performed exercise in three conditions: normoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen [FI O2 ] = 21%), moderate-level hypoxia (FI O2  = 16%) and high-level hypoxia (FI O2  = 13%). Exercise comprised high-load squats and deadlifts (5 × 5 using 80% of 1-repetition maximum with 180-s rest). Muscle oxygenation and activation were monitored during exercise...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752607/reproducibility-of-heart-rate-recovery-in-patients-with-intermittent-claudication
#18
Rafael Yokoyama Fecchio, Marcel Chehuen, Tiago Peçanha, Gabriel Grizzo Cucato, Luiz Augusto Riani Costa, Anthony Scott Leicht, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Nelson Wolosker, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz
BACKGROUND: Postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a non-invasive tool for cardiac autonomic function assessment. Reproducibility of HRR has been established in healthy subjects; however, no study has evaluated this reproducibility in clinical populations who may present autonomic dysfunction. Patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication (IC) often present altered cardiac autonomic function and HRR could be an interesting tool for evaluating autonomic responses to interventions in this population...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737294/a-call-to-action-towards-an-evidence-based-approach-to-using-verbal-encouragement-during-maximal-exercise-testing
#19
REVIEW
Adrian W Midgley, David C Marchant, Andrew R Levy
By definition, maximal exercise testing inherently requires participants to give a maximal effort. This is an important practical issue as submaximal efforts can produce invalid test results. Verbal encouragement is commonly used to motivate participants to maintain or increase effort investment during maximal exercise testing. Accordingly, studies have reported significant increases in time to exhaustion of between 8% and 18% during VO2max and multistage shuttle run tests, and a significant 30·5 m mean increase in 6-min walk test distance...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737276/age-related-differences-in-the-motor-unit-action-potential-size-in-relation-to-recruitment-threshold
#20
Adam J Sterczala, Trent J Herda, Jonathan D Miller, Anthony B Ciccone, Michael A Trevino
Motor unit action potential size (MUAPsize ) versus recruitment threshold (RT) relationship analysis provides a non-invasive measure of motor unit (MU) hypertrophy; however, this method's ability to identify MU atrophy is unknown. This investigation sought to determine if MUAPsize versus RT relationship slope (APslope ) comparison could identify evidence of MU atrophy in older individuals. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of fourteen young (YG, age = 22·29 ± 2·79 years) and ten older (OG, 61·0 ± 2·0 years) subjects during a 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) isometric trapezoidal muscle action...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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