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Immune Network

Rosa Mistica C Ignacio, Eun-Sook Lee, Andrew J Wilson, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Margaret M Whalen, Deok-Soo Son
One-fifth of cancer deaths are associated with obesity. Because the molecular mechanisms by which obesity affects the progression of ovarian cancer (OC) are poorly understood, we investigated if obesity could promote the progression of OC cells using the postmenopausal ob/ob mouse model and peritoneal dissemination of mouse ID8 OC cells. Compared to lean mice, obese mice had earlier OC occurrence, greater metastasis throughout the peritoneal cavity, a trend toward shorter survival, and higher circulating glucose and proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1 levels...
December 2018: Immune Network
Ha-Yan Park, Hee-Kyung Yoon, Jong-Yeup Kim, Seok-Rae Park
Dectin-1 is a major receptor that recognizes fungal cell wall β-glucan. We previously reported that heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKSC), a Dectin-1 agonist, selectively induces IgG1 class switching in mouse B cells. Dectin-1 is also expressed on human B cells; however, Dectin-1 function in human B cells remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the direct effect of in vitro stimulation using HKSC on Ig class switching in human B cells. HKSC selectively induced the expression of germline γ4 transcripts (GLTγ4) by human B cell line 2E2, and HKSC significantly augmented GLTγ4 promoter activity...
December 2018: Immune Network
Minsuk Kwon, Young Joon Choi, Moa Sa, Su-Hyung Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 Abs, have shown efficacy for the treatment of various cancers. Although research has actively sought to develop new ICIs and immunomodulators, no efficient in vitro assay system is available to evaluate their functional activities. In the present study, we established a two-round MLR with human PBMCs for evaluation of the T cell-activating capacity of anti-PD-1 and other immunomodulators. We initially performed conventional MLR for this purpose...
December 2018: Immune Network
Young-Kwan Lee, Ji-Min Ju, Woo-Jeong Shon, Sehwa Oh, Chang-Ki Min, Myung-Soo Kang, Dong-Mi Shin, Eun Young Choi
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is induced by activation of alloreactive donor T cells. Our previous study demonstrated that transplantation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-deficient knockout (KO) bone marrow (BM) resulted in aggravation of GVHD. Here, to understand the cellular mechanism, we performed longitudinal in vivo imaging and flow cytometric analyses followed by transcriptome and functional examination of donor MyD88-KO BM progenies in GVHD hosts, using a major histocompatibility complex-matched but minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched C57BL/6→BALB...
December 2018: Immune Network
Chang-Won Hong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-derived vesicles that mediate intercellular communications. As professional phagocytes, neutrophils also produce EVs in response to various inflammatory stimuli during inflammatory processes. Neutrophil-derived EVs can be categorized into 2 subtypes according to the mechanism of generation. Neutrophil-derived trails (NDTRs) are generated from migrating neutrophils. The uropods of neutrophils are elongated by adhesion to endothelial cells, and small parts of the uropods are detached, leaving submicrometer-sized NDTRs...
December 2018: Immune Network
Mirim Jin, Juhan Yoon
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common pruritic inflammatory skin disease characterized by thickening of epidermis and dermis as well as by the infiltration of multiple pathogenic polarized T lymphocytes, including Th2, Th17, and Th22 cells. Significant progress has been made to develop targeted therapeutics for treating AD, e.g., Food and Drug Administration-approved dupilumab, an antibody for dual targeting of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling pathways. Additionally, a growing body of published evidence and a promising result from the early stage of the clinical trial with ILV-094, an anti-IL-22 antibody, strongly support the notion that IL-22 is a potential therapeutic target for treating AD...
December 2018: Immune Network
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation is an immune response mediated by innate immune cells of tissues, against invading microbes and cellular stress. The hallmark of inflammatory responses is the activation of inflammasomes - multiprotein oligomers comprising intracellular pattern recognition receptors and inflammatory effectors - such as ASC and pro-cysteine-aspartic protease (pro-caspase)-1. Inflammasomes can be classified as canonical or non-canonical, and their activation in response to various ligands commonly induces caspase-1 activation and gasdermin D (GSDMD) processing, leading to caspase-1-mediated maturation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis through pore generation in cell membranes...
December 2018: Immune Network
Ji-Sun Hwang, Chang-Rok Im, Sin-Hyeog Im
[This corrects the article on p. 129 in vol. 12, PMID: 23091436.].
October 2018: Immune Network
Hyun Suk Choi, Kyong Hoon Kim, Seohoon Jin, Jinhyun Kim, Inseol Yoo, Seung Pil Pack, Un-Hwan Ha, Tae Won Park, Soo An Choi, Soon Hong Yuk, Seong Wook Kang, Yong Woo Jung
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays an important role in trafficking leukocytes and developing immune disorders including autoimmunity. In the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, increased expression of S1P was reported, and the interaction between S1P and S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) has been suggested to regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and the proliferation of synovial cells. In this study, we investigated the level of S1P1 mRNA expression in the blood leukocytes of RA patients. In contrast to the previous reports, the expression level of this gene was not correlated to their clinical scores, disease durations and ages...
October 2018: Immune Network
A Reum Kim, Junsik Park, Jong Hoon Kim, Jeong-Eun Kwak, Youngran Cho, Hyojin Lee, Moonsup Jeong, Su-Hyung Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from the sensory ganglia when VZV-specific T-cell immunity is decreased because of aging or immunosuppression. In the present study, we developed HZ DNA vaccine candidates encoding VZV proteins and cytokine adjuvants, such as IL-7 and IL-33. We immunized C57BL/6 mice with DNA plasmids encoding VZV glycoprotein E (gE), immediate early (IE) 63, or IE62 proteins and found that robust VZV protein-specific T-cell responses were elicited by HZ DNA vaccination...
October 2018: Immune Network
Sun-Hee Jang, Mi-Sun Oh, Hyang-Im Baek, Ki-Chan Ha, Jeong-Yong Lee, Yong-Suk Jang
Silk peptide, the hydrolysate of silk protein derived from cocoons, has been employed as a biomedical material and is believed to be safe for human use. Silk peptide display various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, immune-regulatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial. Although earlier investigations demonstrated that silk peptide stimulates macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, its effect on natural killer (NK) cell function has not yet been explored. In this study, we initially confirmed that silk peptide enhances NK cell activity in vitro and ex vivo ...
October 2018: Immune Network
Yu Ho Lee, Jung-Woo Seo, Yang Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Jin Sug Kim, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Bo-Mi Kim, Kyoung Woon Kim, Chul Woo Yang, Chan-Duck Kim, Jae Berm Park, Yeong Hoon Kim, Byung Ha Chung, Sang-Ho Lee
Operational tolerance (OT), defined as maintaining stable graft function without immunosuppression after transplant surgery, is an ideal goal for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Recent investigations have demonstrated the distinctive features of B cells, T cells, and dendritic cell-related gene signatures and the distributions of circulating lymphocytes in these patients; nonetheless, substantial heterogeneities exist across studies. This study was conducted to determine whether previously reported candidate gene biomarkers and the profiles of lymphocyte subsets of OT could be applied in Korean KTRs...
October 2018: Immune Network
Won-Bhin Hwang, Da-Jeong Kim, Gap-Soo Oh, Joo-Hung Park
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses by sensing a variety of small synthetic and natural chemicals, which act as its ligands. AhR, which is expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), regulates the differentiation of DCs. However, effects of AhR on the differentiation of DCs are variable due to the heterogeneity of DCs in cell surface marker expression, anatomical location, and functional responses. The plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), one of DC subsets, not only induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses by secreting type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce IL-10 producing regulatory T cell or anergy or deletion of antigen-specific T cells...
October 2018: Immune Network
Chanho Park, Tae Jin Kim
In addition to T cell-dependent (TD) Ab responses, T cells can also regulate T cell-independent (TI) B cell responses in the absence of a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and antigenic peptide-based interaction between T and B cells. The elucidation of T cells capable of supporting TI Ab responses is important for understanding the cellular mechanism of different types of TI Ab responses. Natural killer T (NKT) cells represent 1 type of helper T cells involved in TI Ab responses and more candidate helper T cells responsible for TI Ab responses may also include γδ T cells and recently reported B-1 helper CD4+ T cells...
October 2018: Immune Network
Soowon Kang, Hailey M Brown, Seungmin Hwang
Interferon-gamma (IFNG) is a pleiotropic cytokine that modulates both innate and adaptive immune networks; it is the most potent activator of macrophages and a signature cytokine of activated T lymphocytes. Though IFNG is now appreciated to have a multitude of roles in immune modulation and broad-spectrum pathogen defense, it was originally discovered, and named, as a secretory factor that interferes with viral replication. In contrast to the prototypical type I interferons produced by any cells upon viral infection, only specific subsets of immune cells can produce IFNG upon infection or stimulation with antigen or mitogen...
October 2018: Immune Network
John Eom, Jihye Yoo, Jeong Jin Kim, Jae Bong Lee, Wanho Choi, Chae Gyu Park, Jun-Young Seo
Viperin is a multifunctional protein that was first identified in human primary macrophages treated with interferon-γ and in human fibroblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus. This protein plays a role as an anti-viral protein and a regulator of cell signaling pathways or cellular metabolism when induced in a variety of cells such as fibroblasts, hepatocytes and immune cells including T cells and dendritic cells. However, the role of viperin in macrophages is unknown. Here, we show that viperin is basally expressed in murine bone marrow cells including monocytes...
August 2018: Immune Network
Bokyung Min, Hana Choi, Jung Hyun Her, Mi Young Jung, Hyo-Jin Kim, Mi-Young Jung, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Sung Yoo Cho, Yu Kyeong Hwang, Eui-Cheol Shin
Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for a variety of solid tumors. We established an expansion method for large-scale production of highly purified and functionally active NK cells, as well as a freezing medium for the expanded NK cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of cryopreservation on the expanded NK cells in regards to viability, phenotype, and anti-tumor activity. NK cells were enormously expanded (about 15,000-fold expansion) with high viability and purity by stimulating CD3+ T cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with irradiated autologous PBMCs in the presence of IL-2 and OKT3 for 3 weeks...
August 2018: Immune Network
Sun-Ho Kwon, Eun-Bi Seo, Song-Hee Lee, Chung-Hyun Cho, Sung Joon Kim, Sang Jeong Kim, Hang-Rae Kim, Sang-Kyu Ye
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has a crucial role in various autoimmune disorders including, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our previous study demonstrated that STAT3 activation by IL-6 in colonic epithelial cells exacerbates experimental ulcerative colitis. Activated T lymphocytes are also found in ulcerative colitis patients with intestinal inflammation, but the role of STAT3 in T cells remains elusive. To determine the STAT3 function of T cells in intestinal inflammation, we generated T cell-specific STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis...
August 2018: Immune Network
Rosa Mistica C Ignacio, Eun-Sook Lee, Andrew J Wilson, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Margaret M Whalen, Deok-Soo Son
Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate among gynecological malignancies. Because chemokine network is involved in OC progression, we evaluated associations between chemokine expression and survival in tumor suppressor protein p53 ( TP53 ) wild-type ( TP53 WT) and mutant ( TP53 m) OC datasets. TP53 was highly mutated in OC compared to other cancer types. Among OC subtypes, CXCL14 was predominantly expressed in clear cell OC, and CCL15 and CCL20 in mucinous OC. TP53 WT endometrioid OC highly expressed CXCL14 compared to TP53 m, showing better progression-free survival but no difference in overall survival (OS)...
August 2018: Immune Network
Chong-Kil Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Immune Network
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