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Immune Network

Hyun Jung Park, Sung Won Lee, Seokmann Hong
Emerging evidence demonstrates that the microbiota plays an essential role in shaping the development and function of host immune responses. A variety of environmental stimuli, including foods and commensals, are recognized by the host through the epithelium, acting as a physical barrier. Two allergic diseases, atopic dermatitis and food allergy, are closely linked to the microbiota, because inflammatory responses occur on the epidermal border. The microbiota generates metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), which can modulate host immune responses...
February 2018: Immune Network
Emily L Yarosz, Cheong-Hee Chang
T lymphocytes rely on several metabolic processes to produce the high amounts of energy and metabolites needed to drive clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. However, many of these pathways result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have canonically been thought of as cytotoxic agents due to their ability to damage DNA and other subcellular structures. Interestingly, ROS has recently emerged as a critical second messenger for T cell receptor signaling and T cell activation, but the sensitivity of different T cell subsets to ROS varies...
February 2018: Immune Network
Joo-Young Park, Davinna L Ligons, Jung-Hyun Park
IL-15 is a cytokine of the common γ-chain family that is critical for natural killer (NK), invariant natural killer T ( i NKT), and CD8 memory T cell development and homeostasis. The role of IL-15 in regulating effector T cell subsets, however, remains incompletely understood. IL-15 is mostly expressed by stromal cells, myeloid cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Whether T cells themselves can express IL-15, and if so, whether such T cell-derived IL-15 could play an autocrine role in T cells are interesting questions that were previously addressed but answered with mixed results...
February 2018: Immune Network
Van Anh Do Thi, Sang Min Park, Hayyoung Lee, Young Sang Kim
IL-9 is a known T cell growth factor with pleiotropic immunological functions, especially in parasite infection and colitis. However, its role in tumor growth is controversial. In this study, we generated tumor clones expressing the membrane-bound form of IL-9 (MB-IL-9) and investigated their influences on immune system. MB-IL-9 tumor clones showed reduced tumorigenicity but shortened survival accompanied with severe body weight loss in mice. MB-IL-9 expression on tumor cells had no effect on cell proliferation or major histocompatibility complex class I expression in vitro ...
February 2018: Immune Network
So Hee Dho, Jae Cheong Lim, Lark Kyun Kim
The complement is a part of the immune system that plays several roles in removing pathogens. Despite the importance of the complement system, the exact role of each component has been overlooked because the complement system was thought to be a nonspecific humoral immune mechanism that worked against pathogens. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a known inhibitor of the complement system and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its role in various diseases, such as cancer, protein-losing enteropathy, and malaria...
February 2018: Immune Network
Sang-Hoon Lee, Seok-Rae Park
Interaction between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors triggers innate and adaptive immune responses. Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and Ig class switch recombination (CSR). However, roles of TLRs in B cell activation and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of stimulation of TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 on mouse B cell viability, proliferation, activation, Ig production, and Ig CSR in vitro ...
February 2018: Immune Network
Dulshara Sachini Amarasekara, Hyeongseok Yun, Sumi Kim, Nari Lee, Hyunjong Kim, Jaerang Rho
Cytokines play a pivotal role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Osteoclasts (OCs), the sole bone resorbing cells, are regulated by numerous cytokines. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand play a central role in OC differentiation, which is also termed osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclastogenic cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-11, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23, and IL-34, promote OC differentiation, whereas anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-27, and IL-33, downregulate OC differentiation...
February 2018: Immune Network
Myoungsoo Lee, Yongsung Lee, Jihye Song, Junhyung Lee, Sun-Young Chang
Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3 CL1, also known as fractalkine) and its receptor chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3 CR1) are widely expressed in immune cells and non-immune cells throughout organisms. However, their expression is mostly cell type-specific in each tissue. CX3 CR1 expression can be found in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Interaction between CX3 CL1 and CX3 CR1 can mediate chemotaxis of immune cells according to concentration gradient of ligands...
February 2018: Immune Network
Kang Li, Bo Zhong
The initiation of cellular antiviral signaling depends on host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs)-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids that are known as classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs recruit adaptor proteins and kinases to activate transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers to regulate transcription of hundreds of genes, the products of which collaborate to elicit antiviral responses. In addition, PRRs-triggered signaling induces activation of various inflammasomes which leads to the release of IL-1β and inflammation...
February 2018: Immune Network
Chang H Kim
Lymphocytes, such as T cells, B cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), play central roles in regulating immune responses. Retinoic acids (RAs) are vitamin A metabolites, produced and metabolized by certain tissue cells and myeloid cells in a tissue-specific manner. It has been established that RAs induce gut-homing receptors on T cells, B cells, and ILCs. A mounting body of evidence indicates that RAs exert far-reaching effects on functional differentiation and fate of these lymphocytes. For example, RAs promote effector T cell maintenance, generation of induced gut-homing regulatory and effector T cell subsets, antibody production by B cells, and functional maturation of ILCs...
February 2018: Immune Network
Moon Cheol Kang, Han Wook Park, Dong-Hoon Choi, Young Woo Choi, Yunji Park, Young Chul Sung, Seung-Woo Lee
[This corrects the article on p. 343 in vol. 17, PMID: 29093655.].
December 2017: Immune Network
Se-Ho Kim
Several studies have reported a good correlation between levels of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) before and after antiviral therapy. As a result, the quantification of HBsAg levels has attracted much attention in recent years as an important approach to evaluate viral activity. In this study, mAbs against HBsAg were generated and 9 mAbs (H17, H30, H31, H67, H73, H97, H101, H118, and H128) were investigated for optimization of HBsAg quantitation ELISA...
December 2017: Immune Network
Jisang Park, Chung-Hyeon Choe, Ju Kim, Jing Shian Yang, Jin Hyun Kim, Hyonseok Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which are recognized for their primary function of presenting an antigen to the T cell receptor, are involved in various signaling pathways in B cell activation. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2B1 as an MHC class II molecule-associated protein involved in MHC class II-mediated signal transduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated 38B9 B cells. Although the function of hnRNP A2B1 in the nucleus is primarily known, the level of hnRNP A2B1 in the cytoplasm was increased in LPS-stimulated 38B9 cells, while it was not detected in the cytoplasm of non-treated 38B9 cells...
December 2017: Immune Network
Eunhye Kim, Hyunjhung Jhun, Joohee Kim, Unjoo Park, Seunghyun Jo, Areum Kwak, Sinae Kim, Tam T Nguyen, Yongsun Kang, Insoo Choi, Joongbok Lee, Heijun Kim, Younghyun Kim, Siyoung Lee, Soohyun Kim
Interferons (IFNs) have been known as antiviral genes and they are classified by type 1, type 2, and type 3 IFN. The type 1 IFN consists of IFNα, IFNβ, IFNτ, and IFNω whereas the type 2 IFN consists of only IFNγ, which is a key cytokine driving T helper cell type 1 immunity. IFNλ belongs to the type 3 IFN, which is also known as IL-28 and IL-29 possessing antiviral activities. Type 1 IFN is produced by viral infection whereas type 2 IFN is induced by mitogenic or antigenic T-cell stimuli. The IFNτ of bovine was first discovered in an ungulate ruminant recognition hormone...
December 2017: Immune Network
Karam Kim, Sae Mi Hwang, Sung Min Kim, Sung Woo Park, Yunjae Jung, Il Yup Chung
Neutrophils and eosinophils, 2 prominent granulocytes, are commonly derived from myelocytic progenitors through successive stages in the bone marrow. Our previous genome-wide transcriptomic data unexpectedly showed that genes encoding a multitude of neutrophil primary granule proteins (NPGPs) were markedly downregulated during the end period of eosinophilic terminal differentiation when cord blood (CB) cluster of differentiation (CD) 34+ cells were induced to differentiate toward the eosinophil lineage during a 24-day culture period...
December 2017: Immune Network
Hyun Gyung Kim, Sang Hoon Kim, Taek-Seung Kim, Tae Won Park, Ran Won, Hee-Deung Park, Soo An Choi, Yong Woo Jung
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials that have been employed in generating diverse materials. We previously reported that CNTs induce cell death in macrophages, possibly via asbestosis. Therefore, we generated CNT-attached polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which is an established polymer in membrane technology, and then examined whether CNT-attached PVDF is immunologically safe for medical purposes compared to CNT alone. To test this, we treated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages (RAW cells) with CNT-attached PVDF and analyzed the production of nitric oxide (NO), a potent proinflammatory mediator, in these cells...
December 2017: Immune Network
Jeong In Yang, Chanho Park, Inseong Kho, Sujin Lee, Kyung-Suk Suh, Tae Jin Kim
We previously reported peritoneal innate-like integrin α4 (CD49d)highCD4+ T cells that provided help for B-1a cells. Here we analyzed the expression of various integrin chains on the peritoneal and pleural integrin α4highCD4+ T cells and investigated the functional heterogeneity of the subpopulations based on the integrin expression. Pleural cavity contained a lower ratio of integrin α4highCD4+ T cells to integrin α4lowCD4+ T cells than peritoneal cavity, but the pleural integrin α4highCD4+ T cells have the same characteristics of the peritoneal integrin α4highCD4+ T cells...
December 2017: Immune Network
Ju Hwan Cho
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are 2 major subtypes of lung cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Studies show that NSCLC is the more prevalent type of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 80%-85% of cases. Although, various treatment methods, such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy have been used to treat lung cancer patients, there is an emergent need to develop more effective approaches to deal with advanced stages of tumors...
December 2017: Immune Network
Dong-Il Kwon, You Jeong Lee
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells restricted by CD1d molecules. They are positively selected in the thymic cortex and migrate to the medullary area, in which they differentiate into 3 different lineages. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) modulates this process, and PLZFhigh , PLZFintermediate , and PLZFlow iNKT cells are designated as NKT2, NKT17, and NKT1 cells, respectively. Analogous to conventional helper CD4 T cells, each subset expresses distinct combinations of transcription factors and produces different cytokines...
December 2017: Immune Network
Yuna Chang, Sung-Yoon Kang, Jihyun Kim, Hye-Ryun Kang, Hye Young Kim
Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a very rare primary immune deficiency characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent bacterial infections, chronic dermatitis, and connective tissue abnormalities. Autosomal dominant (AD) HIES involves a mutation in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that leads to an impaired TH17 response. STAT3 signaling is also involved in the function of RORγt(+) type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and RORγt(+)TH17 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), granulocytes, and monocytes in a patient with HIES...
October 2017: Immune Network
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