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Immune Network

Ji-Sun Hwang, Chang-Rok Im, Sin-Hyeog Im
[This corrects the article on p. 129 in vol. 12, PMID: 23091436.].
October 2018: Immune Network
Hyun Suk Choi, Kyong Hoon Kim, Seohoon Jin, Jinhyun Kim, Inseol Yoo, Seung Pil Pack, Un-Hwan Ha, Tae Won Park, Soo An Choi, Soon Hong Yuk, Seong Wook Kang, Yong Woo Jung
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays an important role in trafficking leukocytes and developing immune disorders including autoimmunity. In the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, increased expression of S1P was reported, and the interaction between S1P and S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) has been suggested to regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and the proliferation of synovial cells. In this study, we investigated the level of S1P1 mRNA expression in the blood leukocytes of RA patients. In contrast to the previous reports, the expression level of this gene was not correlated to their clinical scores, disease durations and ages...
October 2018: Immune Network
A Reum Kim, Junsik Park, Jong Hoon Kim, Jeong-Eun Kwak, Youngran Cho, Hyojin Lee, Moonsup Jeong, Su-Hyung Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from the sensory ganglia when VZV-specific T-cell immunity is decreased because of aging or immunosuppression. In the present study, we developed HZ DNA vaccine candidates encoding VZV proteins and cytokine adjuvants, such as IL-7 and IL-33. We immunized C57BL/6 mice with DNA plasmids encoding VZV glycoprotein E (gE), immediate early (IE) 63, or IE62 proteins and found that robust VZV protein-specific T-cell responses were elicited by HZ DNA vaccination...
October 2018: Immune Network
Sun-Hee Jang, Mi-Sun Oh, Hyang-Im Baek, Ki-Chan Ha, Jeong-Yong Lee, Yong-Suk Jang
Silk peptide, the hydrolysate of silk protein derived from cocoons, has been employed as a biomedical material and is believed to be safe for human use. Silk peptide display various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, immune-regulatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial. Although earlier investigations demonstrated that silk peptide stimulates macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, its effect on natural killer (NK) cell function has not yet been explored. In this study, we initially confirmed that silk peptide enhances NK cell activity in vitro and ex vivo ...
October 2018: Immune Network
Yu Ho Lee, Jung-Woo Seo, Yang Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Jin Sug Kim, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Bo-Mi Kim, Kyoung Woon Kim, Chul Woo Yang, Chan-Duck Kim, Jae Berm Park, Yeong Hoon Kim, Byung Ha Chung, Sang-Ho Lee
Operational tolerance (OT), defined as maintaining stable graft function without immunosuppression after transplant surgery, is an ideal goal for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Recent investigations have demonstrated the distinctive features of B cells, T cells, and dendritic cell-related gene signatures and the distributions of circulating lymphocytes in these patients; nonetheless, substantial heterogeneities exist across studies. This study was conducted to determine whether previously reported candidate gene biomarkers and the profiles of lymphocyte subsets of OT could be applied in Korean KTRs...
October 2018: Immune Network
Won-Bhin Hwang, Da-Jeong Kim, Gap-Soo Oh, Joo-Hung Park
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses by sensing a variety of small synthetic and natural chemicals, which act as its ligands. AhR, which is expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), regulates the differentiation of DCs. However, effects of AhR on the differentiation of DCs are variable due to the heterogeneity of DCs in cell surface marker expression, anatomical location, and functional responses. The plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), one of DC subsets, not only induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses by secreting type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce IL-10 producing regulatory T cell or anergy or deletion of antigen-specific T cells...
October 2018: Immune Network
Chanho Park, Tae Jin Kim
In addition to T cell-dependent (TD) Ab responses, T cells can also regulate T cell-independent (TI) B cell responses in the absence of a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and antigenic peptide-based interaction between T and B cells. The elucidation of T cells capable of supporting TI Ab responses is important for understanding the cellular mechanism of different types of TI Ab responses. Natural killer T (NKT) cells represent 1 type of helper T cells involved in TI Ab responses and more candidate helper T cells responsible for TI Ab responses may also include γδ T cells and recently reported B-1 helper CD4+ T cells...
October 2018: Immune Network
Soowon Kang, Hailey M Brown, Seungmin Hwang
Interferon-gamma (IFNG) is a pleiotropic cytokine that modulates both innate and adaptive immune networks; it is the most potent activator of macrophages and a signature cytokine of activated T lymphocytes. Though IFNG is now appreciated to have a multitude of roles in immune modulation and broad-spectrum pathogen defense, it was originally discovered, and named, as a secretory factor that interferes with viral replication. In contrast to the prototypical type I interferons produced by any cells upon viral infection, only specific subsets of immune cells can produce IFNG upon infection or stimulation with antigen or mitogen...
October 2018: Immune Network
John Eom, Jihye Yoo, Jeong Jin Kim, Jae Bong Lee, Wanho Choi, Chae Gyu Park, Jun-Young Seo
Viperin is a multifunctional protein that was first identified in human primary macrophages treated with interferon-γ and in human fibroblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus. This protein plays a role as an anti-viral protein and a regulator of cell signaling pathways or cellular metabolism when induced in a variety of cells such as fibroblasts, hepatocytes and immune cells including T cells and dendritic cells. However, the role of viperin in macrophages is unknown. Here, we show that viperin is basally expressed in murine bone marrow cells including monocytes...
August 2018: Immune Network
Bokyung Min, Hana Choi, Jung Hyun Her, Mi Young Jung, Hyo-Jin Kim, Mi-Young Jung, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Sung Yoo Cho, Yu Kyeong Hwang, Eui-Cheol Shin
Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for a variety of solid tumors. We established an expansion method for large-scale production of highly purified and functionally active NK cells, as well as a freezing medium for the expanded NK cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of cryopreservation on the expanded NK cells in regards to viability, phenotype, and anti-tumor activity. NK cells were enormously expanded (about 15,000-fold expansion) with high viability and purity by stimulating CD3+ T cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with irradiated autologous PBMCs in the presence of IL-2 and OKT3 for 3 weeks...
August 2018: Immune Network
Sun-Ho Kwon, Eun-Bi Seo, Song-Hee Lee, Chung-Hyun Cho, Sung Joon Kim, Sang Jeong Kim, Hang-Rae Kim, Sang-Kyu Ye
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has a crucial role in various autoimmune disorders including, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our previous study demonstrated that STAT3 activation by IL-6 in colonic epithelial cells exacerbates experimental ulcerative colitis. Activated T lymphocytes are also found in ulcerative colitis patients with intestinal inflammation, but the role of STAT3 in T cells remains elusive. To determine the STAT3 function of T cells in intestinal inflammation, we generated T cell-specific STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis...
August 2018: Immune Network
Rosa Mistica C Ignacio, Eun-Sook Lee, Andrew J Wilson, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Margaret M Whalen, Deok-Soo Son
Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate among gynecological malignancies. Because chemokine network is involved in OC progression, we evaluated associations between chemokine expression and survival in tumor suppressor protein p53 ( TP53 ) wild-type ( TP53 WT) and mutant ( TP53 m) OC datasets. TP53 was highly mutated in OC compared to other cancer types. Among OC subtypes, CXCL14 was predominantly expressed in clear cell OC, and CCL15 and CCL20 in mucinous OC. TP53 WT endometrioid OC highly expressed CXCL14 compared to TP53 m, showing better progression-free survival but no difference in overall survival (OS)...
August 2018: Immune Network
Chong-Kil Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Immune Network
Jong Seong Roh, Dong Hyun Sohn
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous danger molecules that are released from damaged or dying cells and activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Although DAMPs contribute to the host's defense, they promote pathological inflammatory responses. Recent studies have suggested that various DAMPs, such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), S100 proteins, and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are increased and considered to have a pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases...
August 2018: Immune Network
Ki-Hyang Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Ho-Hyun Jung, Jun-Hyeok Moon, Seong-Un Jeong, Kyeongae Yu, Chong-Kil Lee
Thapsigargin (TGN) is a potent and selective inhibitor of sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+ -ATPase, leading to rapid elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Previous reports have shown that TGN increases the production of various cytokines from macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we examine the effects of TGN on murine T cells. Nanomolar concentrations of TGN are a significant inducer of IL-2 production with full activity at 50 nM. Micromolar concentrations of TGN, however, are inhibitory to IL-2 production and T cell proliferation...
August 2018: Immune Network
Hye-Ju Han, Young-Saeng Jang, Goo-Young Seo, Sung-Gyoo Park, Seung Goo Kang, Sung-Il Yoon, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Geun-Shik Lee, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim
γδ T cells are abundant in the gut mucosa and play an important role in adaptive immunity as well as innate immunity. Although γδ T cells are supposed to be associated with the enhancement of Ab production, the status of γδ T cells, particularly in the synthesis of IgA isotype, remains unclear. We compared Ig expression in T cell receptor delta chain deficient (TCRδ-/- ) mice with wild-type mice. The amount of IgA in fecal pellets was substantially elevated in TCRδ-/- mice. This was paralleled by an increase in surface IgA expression and total IgA production by Peyer's patches (PPs) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells...
August 2018: Immune Network
Tian-Fei Lu, Tai-Hua Yang, Cheng-Peng Zhong, Chuan Shen, Wei-Wei Lin, Guang-Xiang Gu, Qiang Xia, Ning Xu
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver transplantation (LT) and it is closely related to the recovery of grafts' function. Researches has verified that both innate and adaptive immune system are involved in the development of IRI and Kupffer cell (KC), the resident macrophages in the liver, play a pivotal role both in triggering and sustaining the sterile inflammation. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), released by the initial dead cell because of the ischemia insult, firstly activate the KC through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors...
June 2018: Immune Network
Eun-Hye Seo, Ji Hyeon Namgung, Chung-Sik Oh, Seong-Hyop Kim, Seung Hyun Lee
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are highly immunosuppressive myeloid cells that show increased expression in cancer patients; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and function are unclear. Whereas granulocytic-MDSCs correlate with poor overall survival in breast cancer (BC), the presence and relevance of monocytic (Mo)-MDSCs are unknown. Here, we report for the first time increased chemokine and chemokine receptor production by Mo-MDSCs in BC patients. A clear population of Mo-MDSCs with the typical cell surface phenotype (human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related [HLA-DR]low/- CD11b+ CD33+ CD14+ ) increased significantly during disease progression...
June 2018: Immune Network
Xiyuan Bai, Shanae L Aerts, Deepshikha Verma, Diane J Ordway, Edward D Chan
Many studies have linked cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease although much fewer have studied second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Our goal is to review the epidemiologic link between SHS and TB as well as to summarize the effects SHS and direct CS on various immune cells relevant for TB. PubMed searches were performed using the key words "tuberculosis" with "cigarette," "tobacco," or "second-hand smoke." The bibliography of relevant papers were examined for additional relevant publications...
June 2018: Immune Network
Sae-Hae Kim, Byeol-Hee Cho, Kyung-Yeol Lee, Yong-Suk Jang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a contagious coronavirus infecting pigs that leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry. Given that PEDV infection occurs in gut epithelial cells mainly via the fecal-oral route, induction of PEDV-specific immune responses in the mucosal compartment is required for protective immunity against viral infection. However, an effective mucosal vaccine against the currently prevalent PEDV strain is not available. In this study, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike (S) protein of PEDV represents a new vaccine candidate molecule to be applied via the mucosal route...
June 2018: Immune Network
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