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Immune Network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736292/extended-culture-of-bone-marrow-with-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-generates-immunosuppressive-cells
#1
Hye Young Na, Moah Sohn, Seul Hye Ryu, Wanho Choi, Hyunju In, Hyun Soo Shin, Chae Gyu Park
Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are generated from bone marrow (BM) cells cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for a week. In this study we investigated the effect of duration on the BM culture with GM-CSF. Within several months, the cells in the BM culture gradually expressed homogeneous levels of CD11c and major histocompatibility complex II on surface, and they became unable to stimulate allogeneic naïve T cells in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In addition, when the BM culture were sustained for 32 wk or longer, the BM cells acquired ability to suppress the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in MLR as well as the response of ovalbumin-specific OT-I transgenic T cells in antigen-dependent manner...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736291/optimization-of-cytokine-milieu-to-reproduce-atopic-dermatitis-related-gene-expression-in-hacat-keratinocyte-cell-line
#2
Hee Joo Kim, Jinok Baek, Jong Rok Lee, Joo Young Roh, YunJae Jung
Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by cytokine production predominantly mediated by T helper (Th) 2 cells, AD pathogenesis also involves innate immune and Th1 cells. To optimize the cytokine milieu required for accurate reproduction of AD-related gene expression profile in vitro , we evaluated the expression pattern of CCL22 , CCL17 , IL5 , IL13 , IL33 , IL25 , TSLP , FLG , and LOR in human lesional AD skin and cytokine-stimulated HaCaT cells. An increase in Th2 mediators ( IL5 , IL13 , CCL22 , CCL17, IL25 , IL33 , and TSLP ) and a decrease in genes related to cornified cell envelope (filaggrin and loricrin) were observed in human AD lesions...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732235/development-of-new-preventive-and-therapeutic-vaccines-for-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Bo-Eun Kwon, Jae-Hee Ahn, Seunghwan Min, Hyeongseop Kim, Jungheun Seo, Sang-Gu Yeo, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that has been responsible for the death of one billion people in the last 200 years. Until now, the only vaccine approved for the prevention of TB is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which is prepared by attenuating Mycobacterium bovis . However, one of the limitations of BCG is that its preventive effect against pulmonary TB varies from person to person. Therefore, there arises a need for a new TB vaccine to replace or supplement BCG. In this review, we have summarized the findings of current clinical trials on preventive and therapeutic TB vaccine candidates...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732234/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-the-development-and-functions-of-follicular-helper-t-cells
#4
REVIEW
Jeonghyun Lee, Hyosung Park, Jiyoung Eom, Seung Goo Kang
The germinal center reaction is a key event of humoral immunity, providing long-lived immunological memory. Follicular helper T (TFH ) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells located in the follicles, which help B cells and thus control the germinal center reaction. TFH cell development is achieved by multi-step processes of interactions with dendritic cells and B cells along with the coordination of various transcription factors. Since the T helper cell fate decision program is determined by subtle changes in regulatory molecules, fine tuning of these dynamic interactions is crucial for the generation functional TFH cells...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732233/pathogenesis-of-recalcitrant-chronic-rhinosinusitis-the-emerging-role-of-innate-immune-cells
#5
REVIEW
Il Gyu Kong, Dae Woo Kim
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major part of the recalcitrant inflammatory diseases of the upper airway that needs enormous socioeconomic burden. T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses recruiting eosinophils were the most well-known immune players in CRS pathogenesis especially in western countries. By the piling up of a vast amount of researches to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of CRS recently, heterogeneous inflammatory processes were found to be related to the phenotypes of CRS. Recently more cells other than T cells were in the focus of CRS pathogenesis, such as the epithelial cell, macrophage, innate lymphoid cells, and neutrophils...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732232/the-versatility-of-framework-regions-of-chicken-v-h-and-v-l-to-mutations
#6
Jung Won Shin, Sang Il Kim, Aerin Yoon, Junyeong Jin, Hyung Bae Park, Hyori Kim, Junho Chung
To identify the interchangeability of VH and VL framework region (FR) residues, we artificially introduced random mutations at all residue positions in a chicken monoclonal antibody, which has only one functional VH and Vλ gene. When we classified the amino acids into 5 groups by their physicochemical properties, all FR residues could be replaced by another group except L23 (C), H36 (W), H86 (D), H104 (G), and H106 (G). Eighty-two (50.9%), 48 (29.8%), 17 (10.6%), and 9 FR residues (5.6%) could be replaced by 4, 3, 2, and 1 group(s), individually, without significant loss of reactivity...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732231/the-detailed-kinetics-of-cytomegalovirus-specific-t-cell-responses-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-1-year-follow-up-data
#7
Seongman Bae, Jiwon Jung, Sun-Mi Kim, Young-Ah Kang, Young-Shin Lee, Yong Pil Chong, Heungsup Sung, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Sung-Han Kim
The detailed kinetics of the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell response in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have not yet been fully assessed. We evaluated these kinetics of CMV-specific T cell response and factors associated with high CMV-specific T cell responses 1 year after HCT. In HCT recipients, CMV pp65 and IE1-specific ELISPOT assay were performed before HCT (D0), and at 30 (D30), 90 (D90), 180 (D180), and 360 (D360) days after HCT. Of the 51 HCT recipients with donor-positive (D+ )/recipient-positive (R+ ) serology, 26 (51%) developed CMV infections after HCT...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503745/regulation-of-allergic-immune-responses-by-microbial-metabolites
#8
REVIEW
Hyun Jung Park, Sung Won Lee, Seokmann Hong
Emerging evidence demonstrates that the microbiota plays an essential role in shaping the development and function of host immune responses. A variety of environmental stimuli, including foods and commensals, are recognized by the host through the epithelium, acting as a physical barrier. Two allergic diseases, atopic dermatitis and food allergy, are closely linked to the microbiota, because inflammatory responses occur on the epidermal border. The microbiota generates metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), which can modulate host immune responses...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503744/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-regulating-t-cell-mediated-immunity-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Emily L Yarosz, Cheong-Hee Chang
T lymphocytes rely on several metabolic processes to produce the high amounts of energy and metabolites needed to drive clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. However, many of these pathways result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have canonically been thought of as cytotoxic agents due to their ability to damage DNA and other subcellular structures. Interestingly, ROS has recently emerged as a critical second messenger for T cell receptor signaling and T cell activation, but the sensitivity of different T cell subsets to ROS varies...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503743/-out-sourcing-for-trans-presentation-assessing-t-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-il-15-expression-with-il15-gene-reporter-mice
#10
REVIEW
Joo-Young Park, Davinna L Ligons, Jung-Hyun Park
IL-15 is a cytokine of the common γ-chain family that is critical for natural killer (NK), invariant natural killer T ( i NKT), and CD8 memory T cell development and homeostasis. The role of IL-15 in regulating effector T cell subsets, however, remains incompletely understood. IL-15 is mostly expressed by stromal cells, myeloid cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Whether T cells themselves can express IL-15, and if so, whether such T cell-derived IL-15 could play an autocrine role in T cells are interesting questions that were previously addressed but answered with mixed results...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503742/ectopically-expressed-membrane-bound-form-of-il-9-exerts-immune-stimulatory-effect-on-ct26-colon-carcinoma-cells
#11
Van Anh Do Thi, Sang Min Park, Hayyoung Lee, Young Sang Kim
IL-9 is a known T cell growth factor with pleiotropic immunological functions, especially in parasite infection and colitis. However, its role in tumor growth is controversial. In this study, we generated tumor clones expressing the membrane-bound form of IL-9 (MB-IL-9) and investigated their influences on immune system. MB-IL-9 tumor clones showed reduced tumorigenicity but shortened survival accompanied with severe body weight loss in mice. MB-IL-9 expression on tumor cells had no effect on cell proliferation or major histocompatibility complex class I expression in vitro ...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503741/beyond-the-role-of-cd55-as-a-complement-component
#12
REVIEW
So Hee Dho, Jae Cheong Lim, Lark Kyun Kim
The complement is a part of the immune system that plays several roles in removing pathogens. Despite the importance of the complement system, the exact role of each component has been overlooked because the complement system was thought to be a nonspecific humoral immune mechanism that worked against pathogens. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a known inhibitor of the complement system and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its role in various diseases, such as cancer, protein-losing enteropathy, and malaria...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503740/toll-like-receptor-1-2-agonist-pam3csk4-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-driven-igg1-production-while-enhancing-igg2a-production-by-b-cells
#13
Sang-Hoon Lee, Seok-Rae Park
Interaction between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors triggers innate and adaptive immune responses. Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and Ig class switch recombination (CSR). However, roles of TLRs in B cell activation and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of stimulation of TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 on mouse B cell viability, proliferation, activation, Ig production, and Ig CSR in vitro ...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503739/regulation-of-osteoclast-differentiation-by-cytokine-networks
#14
REVIEW
Dulshara Sachini Amarasekara, Hyeongseok Yun, Sumi Kim, Nari Lee, Hyunjong Kim, Jaerang Rho
Cytokines play a pivotal role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Osteoclasts (OCs), the sole bone resorbing cells, are regulated by numerous cytokines. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand play a central role in OC differentiation, which is also termed osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclastogenic cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-11, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23, and IL-34, promote OC differentiation, whereas anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-27, and IL-33, downregulate OC differentiation...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503738/tissue-specific-role-of-cx-3-cr1-expressing-immune-cells-and-their-relationships-with-human-disease
#15
REVIEW
Myoungsoo Lee, Yongsung Lee, Jihye Song, Junhyung Lee, Sun-Young Chang
Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3 CL1, also known as fractalkine) and its receptor chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3 CR1) are widely expressed in immune cells and non-immune cells throughout organisms. However, their expression is mostly cell type-specific in each tissue. CX3 CR1 expression can be found in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Interaction between CX3 CL1 and CX3 CR1 can mediate chemotaxis of immune cells according to concentration gradient of ligands...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503737/regulation-of-cellular-antiviral-signaling-by-modifications-of-ubiquitin-and-ubiquitin-like-molecules
#16
REVIEW
Kang Li, Bo Zhong
The initiation of cellular antiviral signaling depends on host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs)-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids that are known as classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs recruit adaptor proteins and kinases to activate transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers to regulate transcription of hundreds of genes, the products of which collaborate to elicit antiviral responses. In addition, PRRs-triggered signaling induces activation of various inflammasomes which leads to the release of IL-1β and inflammation...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503736/control-of-innate-and-adaptive-lymphocytes-by-the-rar-retinoic-acid-axis
#17
REVIEW
Chang H Kim
Lymphocytes, such as T cells, B cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), play central roles in regulating immune responses. Retinoic acids (RAs) are vitamin A metabolites, produced and metabolized by certain tissue cells and myeloid cells in a tissue-specific manner. It has been established that RAs induce gut-homing receptors on T cells, B cells, and ILCs. A mounting body of evidence indicates that RAs exert far-reaching effects on functional differentiation and fate of these lymphocytes. For example, RAs promote effector T cell maintenance, generation of induced gut-homing regulatory and effector T cell subsets, antibody production by B cells, and functional maturation of ILCs...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303155/erratum-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-contribute-to-the-protective-immunity-induced-by-intranasal-treatment-with-fc-fused-interleukin-7-against-lethal-influenza-virus-infection
#18
Moon Cheol Kang, Han Wook Park, Dong-Hoon Choi, Young Woo Choi, Yunji Park, Young Chul Sung, Seung-Woo Lee
[This corrects the article on p. 343 in vol. 17, PMID: 29093655.].
December 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302257/elisa-for-quantitative-determination-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigen
#19
Se-Ho Kim
Several studies have reported a good correlation between levels of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) before and after antiviral therapy. As a result, the quantification of HBsAg levels has attracted much attention in recent years as an important approach to evaluate viral activity. In this study, mAbs against HBsAg were generated and 9 mAbs (H17, H30, H31, H67, H73, H97, H101, H118, and H128) were investigated for optimization of HBsAg quantitation ELISA...
December 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302256/heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-a2b1-exerts-a-regulatory-role-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-38b9-b-cell-activation
#20
Jisang Park, Chung-Hyeon Choe, Ju Kim, Jing Shian Yang, Jin Hyun Kim, Hyonseok Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which are recognized for their primary function of presenting an antigen to the T cell receptor, are involved in various signaling pathways in B cell activation. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2B1 as an MHC class II molecule-associated protein involved in MHC class II-mediated signal transduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated 38B9 B cells. Although the function of hnRNP A2B1 in the nucleus is primarily known, the level of hnRNP A2B1 in the cytoplasm was increased in LPS-stimulated 38B9 cells, while it was not detected in the cytoplasm of non-treated 38B9 cells...
December 2017: Immune Network
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