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Immune Network

Tian-Fei Lu, Tai-Hua Yang, Cheng-Peng Zhong, Chuan Shen, Wei-Wei Lin, Guang-Xiang Gu, Qiang Xia, Ning Xu
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver transplantation (LT) and it is closely related to the recovery of grafts' function. Researches has verified that both innate and adaptive immune system are involved in the development of IRI and Kupffer cell (KC), the resident macrophages in the liver, play a pivotal role both in triggering and sustaining the sterile inflammation. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), released by the initial dead cell because of the ischemia insult, firstly activate the KC through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors...
June 2018: Immune Network
Eun-Hye Seo, Ji Hyeon Namgung, Chung-Sik Oh, Seong-Hyop Kim, Seung Hyun Lee
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are highly immunosuppressive myeloid cells that show increased expression in cancer patients; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and function are unclear. Whereas granulocytic-MDSCs correlate with poor overall survival in breast cancer (BC), the presence and relevance of monocytic (Mo)-MDSCs are unknown. Here, we report for the first time increased chemokine and chemokine receptor production by Mo-MDSCs in BC patients. A clear population of Mo-MDSCs with the typical cell surface phenotype (human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related [HLA-DR]low/- CD11b+ CD33+ CD14+ ) increased significantly during disease progression...
June 2018: Immune Network
Xiyuan Bai, Shanae L Aerts, Deepshikha Verma, Diane J Ordway, Edward D Chan
Many studies have linked cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease although much fewer have studied second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Our goal is to review the epidemiologic link between SHS and TB as well as to summarize the effects SHS and direct CS on various immune cells relevant for TB. PubMed searches were performed using the key words "tuberculosis" with "cigarette," "tobacco," or "second-hand smoke." The bibliography of relevant papers were examined for additional relevant publications...
June 2018: Immune Network
Sae-Hae Kim, Byeol-Hee Cho, Kyung-Yeol Lee, Yong-Suk Jang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a contagious coronavirus infecting pigs that leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry. Given that PEDV infection occurs in gut epithelial cells mainly via the fecal-oral route, induction of PEDV-specific immune responses in the mucosal compartment is required for protective immunity against viral infection. However, an effective mucosal vaccine against the currently prevalent PEDV strain is not available. In this study, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike (S) protein of PEDV represents a new vaccine candidate molecule to be applied via the mucosal route...
June 2018: Immune Network
Oh Chan Kwon, Soohyun Kim, Seokchan Hong, Chang-Keun Lee, Bin Yoo, Eun-Ju Chang, Yong-Gil Kim
IL-32 acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine by inducing the synthesis of inflammatory molecules as well as promoting the morphological changes involved in the transformation of monocytes into osteoclasts (OCs). Evaluation of the functions of IL-32 has mainly focused on its inflammatory properties, such as involvement in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. Recently, IL-32 was shown to be involved in bone metabolism, in which it promotes the differentiation and activation of OCs and plays a key role in bone resorption in inflammatory conditions...
June 2018: Immune Network
Begum Akuzum, Sinae Kim, Tam Thanh Nguyen, Jeawoo Hong, Siyoung Lee, Eunhye Kim, Joohee Kim, Yeook Choi, Hyunjhung Jhun, Youngmin Lee, Hyunwoo Kim, Dong Hyun Sohn, Soohyun Kim
Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid proteins were used for HPV quadrivalent recombinant vaccine. The HPV quadrivalent vaccine is administrated in a 3-dose regimen of initial injection followed by subsequent doses at 2 and 6 months to prevent cervical cancer, vulvar, and vaginal cancers. The type 6, 11, 16, or 18 of HPV infection is associated with precancerous lesions and genital warts in adolescents and young women. The HPV vaccine is composed of viral L1 capsid proteins are produced in eukaryotic expression systems and purified in the form of VLPs...
June 2018: Immune Network
Valeriya Rakhmanova, Mirim Jin, Jinwook Shin
Mast cells integrate innate and adaptive immunity and are implicated in pathophysiological conditions, including allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) initiates diverse signal transduction pathways and induces release of proinflammatory mediators by mast cells. In this study, we demonstrated that hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling using the mTOR activator MHY1485 suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation and cytokine secretion...
June 2018: Immune Network
Hye Young Na, Moah Sohn, Seul Hye Ryu, Wanho Choi, Hyunju In, Hyun Soo Shin, Chae Gyu Park
Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are generated from bone marrow (BM) cells cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for a week. In this study we investigated the effect of duration on the BM culture with GM-CSF. Within several months, the cells in the BM culture gradually expressed homogeneous levels of CD11c and major histocompatibility complex II on surface, and they became unable to stimulate allogeneic naïve T cells in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In addition, when the BM culture were sustained for 32 wk or longer, the BM cells acquired ability to suppress the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in MLR as well as the response of ovalbumin-specific OT-I transgenic T cells in antigen-dependent manner...
April 2018: Immune Network
Hee Joo Kim, Jinok Baek, Jong Rok Lee, Joo Young Roh, YunJae Jung
Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by cytokine production predominantly mediated by T helper (Th) 2 cells, AD pathogenesis also involves innate immune and Th1 cells. To optimize the cytokine milieu required for accurate reproduction of AD-related gene expression profile in vitro , we evaluated the expression pattern of CCL22 , CCL17 , IL5 , IL13 , IL33 , IL25 , TSLP , FLG , and LOR in human lesional AD skin and cytokine-stimulated HaCaT cells. An increase in Th2 mediators ( IL5 , IL13 , CCL22 , CCL17, IL25 , IL33 , and TSLP ) and a decrease in genes related to cornified cell envelope (filaggrin and loricrin) were observed in human AD lesions...
April 2018: Immune Network
Bo-Eun Kwon, Jae-Hee Ahn, Seunghwan Min, Hyeongseop Kim, Jungheun Seo, Sang-Gu Yeo, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that has been responsible for the death of one billion people in the last 200 years. Until now, the only vaccine approved for the prevention of TB is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which is prepared by attenuating Mycobacterium bovis . However, one of the limitations of BCG is that its preventive effect against pulmonary TB varies from person to person. Therefore, there arises a need for a new TB vaccine to replace or supplement BCG. In this review, we have summarized the findings of current clinical trials on preventive and therapeutic TB vaccine candidates...
April 2018: Immune Network
Jeonghyun Lee, Hyosung Park, Jiyoung Eom, Seung Goo Kang
The germinal center reaction is a key event of humoral immunity, providing long-lived immunological memory. Follicular helper T (TFH ) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells located in the follicles, which help B cells and thus control the germinal center reaction. TFH cell development is achieved by multi-step processes of interactions with dendritic cells and B cells along with the coordination of various transcription factors. Since the T helper cell fate decision program is determined by subtle changes in regulatory molecules, fine tuning of these dynamic interactions is crucial for the generation functional TFH cells...
April 2018: Immune Network
Il Gyu Kong, Dae Woo Kim
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major part of the recalcitrant inflammatory diseases of the upper airway that needs enormous socioeconomic burden. T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses recruiting eosinophils were the most well-known immune players in CRS pathogenesis especially in western countries. By the piling up of a vast amount of researches to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of CRS recently, heterogeneous inflammatory processes were found to be related to the phenotypes of CRS. Recently more cells other than T cells were in the focus of CRS pathogenesis, such as the epithelial cell, macrophage, innate lymphoid cells, and neutrophils...
April 2018: Immune Network
Jung Won Shin, Sang Il Kim, Aerin Yoon, Junyeong Jin, Hyung Bae Park, Hyori Kim, Junho Chung
To identify the interchangeability of VH and VL framework region (FR) residues, we artificially introduced random mutations at all residue positions in a chicken monoclonal antibody, which has only one functional VH and Vλ gene. When we classified the amino acids into 5 groups by their physicochemical properties, all FR residues could be replaced by another group except L23 (C), H36 (W), H86 (D), H104 (G), and H106 (G). Eighty-two (50.9%), 48 (29.8%), 17 (10.6%), and 9 FR residues (5.6%) could be replaced by 4, 3, 2, and 1 group(s), individually, without significant loss of reactivity...
April 2018: Immune Network
Seongman Bae, Jiwon Jung, Sun-Mi Kim, Young-Ah Kang, Young-Shin Lee, Yong Pil Chong, Heungsup Sung, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Sung-Han Kim
The detailed kinetics of the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell response in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have not yet been fully assessed. We evaluated these kinetics of CMV-specific T cell response and factors associated with high CMV-specific T cell responses 1 year after HCT. In HCT recipients, CMV pp65 and IE1-specific ELISPOT assay were performed before HCT (D0), and at 30 (D30), 90 (D90), 180 (D180), and 360 (D360) days after HCT. Of the 51 HCT recipients with donor-positive (D+ )/recipient-positive (R+ ) serology, 26 (51%) developed CMV infections after HCT...
April 2018: Immune Network
Hyun Jung Park, Sung Won Lee, Seokmann Hong
Emerging evidence demonstrates that the microbiota plays an essential role in shaping the development and function of host immune responses. A variety of environmental stimuli, including foods and commensals, are recognized by the host through the epithelium, acting as a physical barrier. Two allergic diseases, atopic dermatitis and food allergy, are closely linked to the microbiota, because inflammatory responses occur on the epidermal border. The microbiota generates metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), which can modulate host immune responses...
February 2018: Immune Network
Emily L Yarosz, Cheong-Hee Chang
T lymphocytes rely on several metabolic processes to produce the high amounts of energy and metabolites needed to drive clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. However, many of these pathways result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have canonically been thought of as cytotoxic agents due to their ability to damage DNA and other subcellular structures. Interestingly, ROS has recently emerged as a critical second messenger for T cell receptor signaling and T cell activation, but the sensitivity of different T cell subsets to ROS varies...
February 2018: Immune Network
Joo-Young Park, Davinna L Ligons, Jung-Hyun Park
IL-15 is a cytokine of the common γ-chain family that is critical for natural killer (NK), invariant natural killer T ( i NKT), and CD8 memory T cell development and homeostasis. The role of IL-15 in regulating effector T cell subsets, however, remains incompletely understood. IL-15 is mostly expressed by stromal cells, myeloid cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Whether T cells themselves can express IL-15, and if so, whether such T cell-derived IL-15 could play an autocrine role in T cells are interesting questions that were previously addressed but answered with mixed results...
February 2018: Immune Network
Van Anh Do Thi, Sang Min Park, Hayyoung Lee, Young Sang Kim
IL-9 is a known T cell growth factor with pleiotropic immunological functions, especially in parasite infection and colitis. However, its role in tumor growth is controversial. In this study, we generated tumor clones expressing the membrane-bound form of IL-9 (MB-IL-9) and investigated their influences on immune system. MB-IL-9 tumor clones showed reduced tumorigenicity but shortened survival accompanied with severe body weight loss in mice. MB-IL-9 expression on tumor cells had no effect on cell proliferation or major histocompatibility complex class I expression in vitro ...
February 2018: Immune Network
So Hee Dho, Jae Cheong Lim, Lark Kyun Kim
The complement is a part of the immune system that plays several roles in removing pathogens. Despite the importance of the complement system, the exact role of each component has been overlooked because the complement system was thought to be a nonspecific humoral immune mechanism that worked against pathogens. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a known inhibitor of the complement system and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its role in various diseases, such as cancer, protein-losing enteropathy, and malaria...
February 2018: Immune Network
Sang-Hoon Lee, Seok-Rae Park
Interaction between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors triggers innate and adaptive immune responses. Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and Ig class switch recombination (CSR). However, roles of TLRs in B cell activation and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of stimulation of TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 on mouse B cell viability, proliferation, activation, Ig production, and Ig CSR in vitro ...
February 2018: Immune Network
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