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Immune Network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181920/viperin-deficiency-promotes-polarization-of-macrophages-and-secretion-of-m1-and-m2-cytokines
#1
John Eom, Jihye Yoo, Jeong Jin Kim, Jae Bong Lee, Wanho Choi, Chae Gyu Park, Jun-Young Seo
Viperin is a multifunctional protein that was first identified in human primary macrophages treated with interferon-γ and in human fibroblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus. This protein plays a role as an anti-viral protein and a regulator of cell signaling pathways or cellular metabolism when induced in a variety of cells such as fibroblasts, hepatocytes and immune cells including T cells and dendritic cells. However, the role of viperin in macrophages is unknown. Here, we show that viperin is basally expressed in murine bone marrow cells including monocytes...
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181919/optimization-of-large-scale-expansion-and-cryopreservation-of-human-natural-killer-cells-for-anti-tumor-therapy
#2
Bokyung Min, Hana Choi, Jung Hyun Her, Mi Young Jung, Hyo-Jin Kim, Mi-Young Jung, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Sung Yoo Cho, Yu Kyeong Hwang, Eui-Cheol Shin
Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for a variety of solid tumors. We established an expansion method for large-scale production of highly purified and functionally active NK cells, as well as a freezing medium for the expanded NK cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of cryopreservation on the expanded NK cells in regards to viability, phenotype, and anti-tumor activity. NK cells were enormously expanded (about 15,000-fold expansion) with high viability and purity by stimulating CD3+ T cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with irradiated autologous PBMCs in the presence of IL-2 and OKT3 for 3 weeks...
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181918/t-cell-specific-knockout-of-stat3-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-by-reducing-the-inflammatory-response
#3
Sun-Ho Kwon, Eun-Bi Seo, Song-Hee Lee, Chung-Hyun Cho, Sung Joon Kim, Sang Jeong Kim, Hang-Rae Kim, Sang-Kyu Ye
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has a crucial role in various autoimmune disorders including, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our previous study demonstrated that STAT3 activation by IL-6 in colonic epithelial cells exacerbates experimental ulcerative colitis. Activated T lymphocytes are also found in ulcerative colitis patients with intestinal inflammation, but the role of STAT3 in T cells remains elusive. To determine the STAT3 function of T cells in intestinal inflammation, we generated T cell-specific STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis...
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181917/chemokine-network-and-overall-survival-in-tp53-wild-type-and-mutant-ovarian-cancer
#4
Rosa Mistica C Ignacio, Eun-Sook Lee, Andrew J Wilson, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Margaret M Whalen, Deok-Soo Son
Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate among gynecological malignancies. Because chemokine network is involved in OC progression, we evaluated associations between chemokine expression and survival in tumor suppressor protein p53 ( TP53 ) wild-type ( TP53 WT) and mutant ( TP53 m) OC datasets. TP53 was highly mutated in OC compared to other cancer types. Among OC subtypes, CXCL14 was predominantly expressed in clear cell OC, and CCL15 and CCL20 in mucinous OC. TP53 WT endometrioid OC highly expressed CXCL14 compared to TP53 m, showing better progression-free survival but no difference in overall survival (OS)...
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181916/-immune-network-receives-first-impact-factor-of-2-524
#5
EDITORIAL
Chong-Kil Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181915/damage-associated-molecular-patterns-in-inflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Jong Seong Roh, Dong Hyun Sohn
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous danger molecules that are released from damaged or dying cells and activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Although DAMPs contribute to the host's defense, they promote pathological inflammatory responses. Recent studies have suggested that various DAMPs, such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), S100 proteins, and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are increased and considered to have a pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases...
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181914/thapsigargin-increases-il-2-production-in-t-cells-at-nanomolar-concentrations
#7
Ki-Hyang Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Ho-Hyun Jung, Jun-Hyeok Moon, Seong-Un Jeong, Kyeongae Yu, Chong-Kil Lee
Thapsigargin (TGN) is a potent and selective inhibitor of sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+ -ATPase, leading to rapid elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Previous reports have shown that TGN increases the production of various cytokines from macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we examine the effects of TGN on murine T cells. Nanomolar concentrations of TGN are a significant inducer of IL-2 production with full activity at 50 nM. Micromolar concentrations of TGN, however, are inhibitory to IL-2 production and T cell proliferation...
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181913/murine-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-render-b-cells-refractory-to-commitment-of-iga-isotype-switching
#8
Hye-Ju Han, Young-Saeng Jang, Goo-Young Seo, Sung-Gyoo Park, Seung Goo Kang, Sung-Il Yoon, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Geun-Shik Lee, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim
γδ T cells are abundant in the gut mucosa and play an important role in adaptive immunity as well as innate immunity. Although γδ T cells are supposed to be associated with the enhancement of Ab production, the status of γδ T cells, particularly in the synthesis of IgA isotype, remains unclear. We compared Ig expression in T cell receptor delta chain deficient (TCRδ-/- ) mice with wild-type mice. The amount of IgA in fecal pellets was substantially elevated in TCRδ-/- mice. This was paralleled by an increase in surface IgA expression and total IgA production by Peyer's patches (PPs) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells...
August 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984042/dual-effect-of-hepatic-macrophages-on-liver-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury-during-liver-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Tian-Fei Lu, Tai-Hua Yang, Cheng-Peng Zhong, Chuan Shen, Wei-Wei Lin, Guang-Xiang Gu, Qiang Xia, Ning Xu
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver transplantation (LT) and it is closely related to the recovery of grafts' function. Researches has verified that both innate and adaptive immune system are involved in the development of IRI and Kupffer cell (KC), the resident macrophages in the liver, play a pivotal role both in triggering and sustaining the sterile inflammation. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), released by the initial dead cell because of the ischemia insult, firstly activate the KC through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors...
June 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984041/association-of-chemokines-and-chemokine-receptor-expression-with-monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-during-tumor-progression
#10
Eun-Hye Seo, Ji Hyeon Namgung, Chung-Sik Oh, Seong-Hyop Kim, Seung Hyun Lee
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are highly immunosuppressive myeloid cells that show increased expression in cancer patients; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and function are unclear. Whereas granulocytic-MDSCs correlate with poor overall survival in breast cancer (BC), the presence and relevance of monocytic (Mo)-MDSCs are unknown. Here, we report for the first time increased chemokine and chemokine receptor production by Mo-MDSCs in BC patients. A clear population of Mo-MDSCs with the typical cell surface phenotype (human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related [HLA-DR]low/- CD11b+ CD33+ CD14+ ) increased significantly during disease progression...
June 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984040/epidemiologic-evidence-of-and-potential-mechanisms-by-which-second-hand-smoke-causes-predisposition-to-latent-and-active-tuberculosis
#11
REVIEW
Xiyuan Bai, Shanae L Aerts, Deepshikha Verma, Diane J Ordway, Edward D Chan
Many studies have linked cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease although much fewer have studied second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Our goal is to review the epidemiologic link between SHS and TB as well as to summarize the effects SHS and direct CS on various immune cells relevant for TB. PubMed searches were performed using the key words "tuberculosis" with "cigarette," "tobacco," or "second-hand smoke." The bibliography of relevant papers were examined for additional relevant publications...
June 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984039/n-terminal-domain-of-the-spike-protein-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-as-a-new-candidate-molecule-for-a-mucosal-vaccine
#12
Sae-Hae Kim, Byeol-Hee Cho, Kyung-Yeol Lee, Yong-Suk Jang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a contagious coronavirus infecting pigs that leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry. Given that PEDV infection occurs in gut epithelial cells mainly via the fecal-oral route, induction of PEDV-specific immune responses in the mucosal compartment is required for protective immunity against viral infection. However, an effective mucosal vaccine against the currently prevalent PEDV strain is not available. In this study, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike (S) protein of PEDV represents a new vaccine candidate molecule to be applied via the mucosal route...
June 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984038/role-of-il-32-gamma-on-bone-metabolism-in-autoimmune-arthritis
#13
REVIEW
Oh Chan Kwon, Soohyun Kim, Seokchan Hong, Chang-Keun Lee, Bin Yoo, Eun-Ju Chang, Yong-Gil Kim
IL-32 acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine by inducing the synthesis of inflammatory molecules as well as promoting the morphological changes involved in the transformation of monocytes into osteoclasts (OCs). Evaluation of the functions of IL-32 has mainly focused on its inflammatory properties, such as involvement in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. Recently, IL-32 was shown to be involved in bone metabolism, in which it promotes the differentiation and activation of OCs and plays a key role in bone resorption in inflammatory conditions...
June 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984037/l1-recombinant-proteins-of-hpv-tested-for-antibody-forming-using-sera-of-hpv-quadrivalent-vaccine
#14
Begum Akuzum, Sinae Kim, Tam Thanh Nguyen, Jeawoo Hong, Siyoung Lee, Eunhye Kim, Joohee Kim, Yeook Choi, Hyunjhung Jhun, Youngmin Lee, Hyunwoo Kim, Dong Hyun Sohn, Soohyun Kim
Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid proteins were used for HPV quadrivalent recombinant vaccine. The HPV quadrivalent vaccine is administrated in a 3-dose regimen of initial injection followed by subsequent doses at 2 and 6 months to prevent cervical cancer, vulvar, and vaginal cancers. The type 6, 11, 16, or 18 of HPV infection is associated with precancerous lesions and genital warts in adolescents and young women. The HPV vaccine is composed of viral L1 capsid proteins are produced in eukaryotic expression systems and purified in the form of VLPs...
June 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984036/inhibition-of-mast-cell-function-and-proliferation-by-mtor-activator-mhy1485
#15
Valeriya Rakhmanova, Mirim Jin, Jinwook Shin
Mast cells integrate innate and adaptive immunity and are implicated in pathophysiological conditions, including allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) initiates diverse signal transduction pathways and induces release of proinflammatory mediators by mast cells. In this study, we demonstrated that hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling using the mTOR activator MHY1485 suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation and cytokine secretion...
June 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736292/extended-culture-of-bone-marrow-with-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-generates-immunosuppressive-cells
#16
Hye Young Na, Moah Sohn, Seul Hye Ryu, Wanho Choi, Hyunju In, Hyun Soo Shin, Chae Gyu Park
Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are generated from bone marrow (BM) cells cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for a week. In this study we investigated the effect of duration on the BM culture with GM-CSF. Within several months, the cells in the BM culture gradually expressed homogeneous levels of CD11c and major histocompatibility complex II on surface, and they became unable to stimulate allogeneic naïve T cells in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In addition, when the BM culture were sustained for 32 wk or longer, the BM cells acquired ability to suppress the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in MLR as well as the response of ovalbumin-specific OT-I transgenic T cells in antigen-dependent manner...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736291/optimization-of-cytokine-milieu-to-reproduce-atopic-dermatitis-related-gene-expression-in-hacat-keratinocyte-cell-line
#17
Hee Joo Kim, Jinok Baek, Jong Rok Lee, Joo Young Roh, YunJae Jung
Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by cytokine production predominantly mediated by T helper (Th) 2 cells, AD pathogenesis also involves innate immune and Th1 cells. To optimize the cytokine milieu required for accurate reproduction of AD-related gene expression profile in vitro , we evaluated the expression pattern of CCL22 , CCL17 , IL5 , IL13 , IL33 , IL25 , TSLP , FLG , and LOR in human lesional AD skin and cytokine-stimulated HaCaT cells. An increase in Th2 mediators ( IL5 , IL13 , CCL22 , CCL17, IL25 , IL33 , and TSLP ) and a decrease in genes related to cornified cell envelope (filaggrin and loricrin) were observed in human AD lesions...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732235/development-of-new-preventive-and-therapeutic-vaccines-for-tuberculosis
#18
REVIEW
Bo-Eun Kwon, Jae-Hee Ahn, Seunghwan Min, Hyeongseop Kim, Jungheun Seo, Sang-Gu Yeo, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that has been responsible for the death of one billion people in the last 200 years. Until now, the only vaccine approved for the prevention of TB is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which is prepared by attenuating Mycobacterium bovis . However, one of the limitations of BCG is that its preventive effect against pulmonary TB varies from person to person. Therefore, there arises a need for a new TB vaccine to replace or supplement BCG. In this review, we have summarized the findings of current clinical trials on preventive and therapeutic TB vaccine candidates...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732234/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-the-development-and-functions-of-follicular-helper-t-cells
#19
REVIEW
Jeonghyun Lee, Hyosung Park, Jiyoung Eom, Seung Goo Kang
The germinal center reaction is a key event of humoral immunity, providing long-lived immunological memory. Follicular helper T (TFH ) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells located in the follicles, which help B cells and thus control the germinal center reaction. TFH cell development is achieved by multi-step processes of interactions with dendritic cells and B cells along with the coordination of various transcription factors. Since the T helper cell fate decision program is determined by subtle changes in regulatory molecules, fine tuning of these dynamic interactions is crucial for the generation functional TFH cells...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732233/pathogenesis-of-recalcitrant-chronic-rhinosinusitis-the-emerging-role-of-innate-immune-cells
#20
REVIEW
Il Gyu Kong, Dae Woo Kim
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major part of the recalcitrant inflammatory diseases of the upper airway that needs enormous socioeconomic burden. T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses recruiting eosinophils were the most well-known immune players in CRS pathogenesis especially in western countries. By the piling up of a vast amount of researches to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of CRS recently, heterogeneous inflammatory processes were found to be related to the phenotypes of CRS. Recently more cells other than T cells were in the focus of CRS pathogenesis, such as the epithelial cell, macrophage, innate lymphoid cells, and neutrophils...
April 2018: Immune Network
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