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Immune Network

Ga-Young Ban, Seun-Joo Ahn, Hye-Soo Yoo, Hae-Sim Park, Young-Min Ye
An association between drug treatment for viral infections and severe cutaneous adverse reactions has been noted. We investigated six patients diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after being prescribed acetaminophen for suspected viral illnesses. Multiplex analysis was performed to measure cytokine levels in sera before and after treatment. IL-2Rα levels significantly decreased during the convalescence phase. Although acetaminophen is relatively safe, the drug can trigger SJS/TEN in patients with suspected viral infections...
August 2016: Immune Network
Yu Mi Baek, Soojin Yoon, Yeo Eun Hwang, Dong-Eun Kim
Exogenous nucleic acids induce an innate immune response in mammalian host cells through activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). We evaluated RIG-I protein for RNA binding and ATPase stimulation with RNA ligands to investigate the correlation with the extent of immune response through RIG-I activation in cells. RIG-I protein favored blunt-ended, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ligands over sticky-ended dsRNA. Moreover, the presence of the 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp) moiety in dsRNA further enhanced binding affinity to RIG-I...
August 2016: Immune Network
Jun Ho Lee, Tae-Jin Kim, Jie Wan Kim, Jeong Seon Yoon, Hyuk Soon Kim, Kyung-Mi Lee
Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent...
August 2016: Immune Network
Young-Hee Lee, Sun-A Im, Ji-Wan Kim, Chong-Kil Lee
DCs, like the sensory neurons, express vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1). Here we demonstrate that the VR1 agonists, capsaicin (CP) and resiniferatoxin (RTX), enhance antiviral CTL responses by increasing MHC class I-restricted viral antigen presentation in dendritic cells (DCs). Bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) were infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) expressing OVA (VV-OVA), and then treated with CP or RTX. Both CP and RTX increased MHC class I-restricted presentation of virus-encoded endogenous OVA in BM-DCs...
August 2016: Immune Network
Yun-Hui Jeon, Youn Soo Choi
Production of high affinity antibodies for antigens is a critical component for the immune system to fight off infectious pathogens. However, it could be detrimental to our body when the antigens that B cells recognize are of self-origin. Follicular helper T, or Tfh, cells are required for the generation of germinal center reactions, where high affinity antibody-producing B cells and memory B cells predominantly develop. As such, Tfh cells are considered as targets to prevent B cells from producing high affinity antibodies against self-antigens, when high affinity autoantibodies are responsible for immunopathologies in autoimmune disorders...
August 2016: Immune Network
Jee-Boong Lee
Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens...
August 2016: Immune Network
Purna Krishnamurthy, Mark H Kaplan
Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE)...
August 2016: Immune Network
Sang Won Seo, Sung J Yoo, Sunyoung Sunwoo, Bang Hun Hyun, Young S Lyoo
Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period...
June 2016: Immune Network
Rosa Mistica C Ignacio, Carla R Gibbs, Eun-Sook Lee, Deok-Soo Son
Obesity is characterized as an accumulation of adipose tissue mass represented by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obesity-derived inflammation involves chemokines as important regulators contributing to the pathophysiology of obesity-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers. The obesity-driven chemokine network is poorly understood. Here, we identified the profiles of chemokine signature between human preadipocytes and adipocytes, using PCR arrays and qRT-PCR. Both preadipocytes and adipocytes showed absent or low levels in chemokine receptors in spite of some changes...
June 2016: Immune Network
Kyoung B Yoon, Kyeong R Park, Soo Y Kim, Sun-Young Han
Sirtuin family members with lysine deacetylase activity are known to play an important role in anti-aging and longevity. Cellular senescence is one of the hallmarks of aging, and downregulation of sirtuin is reported to induce premature senescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of small-molecule sirtuin inhibitors on cellular senescence. Various small molecules such as tenovin-1 and EX527 were employed for direct sirtuin activity inhibition. U251, SNB-75, and U87MG glioblastoma cells treated with sirtuin inhibitors exhibited phenotypes with nuclear enlargement...
June 2016: Immune Network
Su-Kang Kong, Byung Soo Kim, Sae Mi Hwang, Hyune Hwan Lee, Il Yup Chung
CCR3 is a chemokine receptor that mediates the accumulation of allergic inflammatory cells, including eosinophils and Th2 cells, at inflamed sites. The regulatory sequence of the CCR3 gene, contains two Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) 1 sites and two PU.1 sites, in addition to a functional GATA site for transactivation of the CCR3 gene. In the present study, we examined the effects of the cis-acting elements of RUNX1 and PU.1 on transcription of the gene in EoL-1 eosinophilic cells and Jurkat T cells, both of which expressed functional surface CCR3 and these two transcription factors...
June 2016: Immune Network
Katsuyuki Takeda, Nobuaki Miyahara, Shigeki Matsubara, Christian Taube, Kenichi Kitamura, Astushi Hirano, Mitsune Tanimoto, Erwin W Gelfand
Ambroxol is used in COPD and asthma to increase mucociliary clearance and regulate surfactant levels, perhaps through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. To determine the role and effect of ambroxol in an experimental model of asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) followed by 3 days of challenge. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung cell composition and histology, and cytokine and protein carbonyl levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were determined. Ambroxol was administered either before the first OVA challenge or was begun after the last allergen challenge...
June 2016: Immune Network
Sang Jun Park, Hong Rae Cho, Byungsuk Kwon
IL-33 is a multifunctional cytokine that is released in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. The role of IL-33 in Candida albicans infections is just beginning to be revealed. This cytokine has beneficial effects on host defense against systemic C. albicans infections, and it promotes resistance mechanisms by which the immune system eliminates the invading fungal pathogens; and it also elevates host tolerance by reducing the inflammatory response and thereby, potentially, tissue damage...
June 2016: Immune Network
Sowmya Narayanan, Fionna A Surette, Young S Hahn
The liver lies at the intersection of multiple metabolic pathways and consequently plays a central role in lipid metabolism. Pathological disturbances in hepatic lipid metabolism are characteristic of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity-mediated insulin resistance, which can result in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tissue damage induced in NAFLD activates and recruits liver-resident and non-resident immune cells, resulting in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Importantly, NASH is associated with an increased risk of significant clinical sequelae such as cirrhosis, cardiovascular diseases, and malignancies...
June 2016: Immune Network
Sun-Hee Jang, Jisang Park, Seung-Hwan Jang, Soo-Wan Chae, Su-Jin Jung, Byung-Ok So, Ki-Chan Ha, Hong-Sig Sin, Yong-Suk Jang
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine...
April 2016: Immune Network
Jae Hun Shin, Hyung Bae Park, Kyungho Choi
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a strong negative regulator of T lymphocytes in tumor-microenvironment. By engaging PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) on tumor cells, PD-1 on T cell surface inhibits anti-tumor reactivity of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Systemic blockade of PD-1 function using blocking antibodies has shown significant therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. However, approximately 10 to 15% of treated patients exhibited serious autoimmune responses due to the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes. To achieve selective activation of tumor-specific T cells, we generated T cells expressing a dominant-negative deletion mutant of PD-1 (PD-1 decoy) via retroviral transduction...
April 2016: Immune Network
Hi-Jung Park, Ara Lee, Jae-Il Lee, Seong Hoe Park, Sang-Jun Ha, Kyeong Cheon Jung
Unlike conventional T cells, innate CD8 T cells develop a memory-like phenotype in the thymus and immediately respond upon antigen stimulation, similar to memory T cells. The development of innate CD8 T cells in the thymus is known to require IL-4, which upregulates Eomesodermin (Eomes). These features are similar to that of virtual memory CD8 T cells and IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral tissues. However, the relationship between these cell types has not been clearly documented...
April 2016: Immune Network
Ji-Won Choi, Hun-Young Yoon, Soon-Wuk Jeong
Medical records of 139 tumors from 114 dogs that underwent surgery from May 2010 through March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Among 114 dogs, females (64.9%) were significantly more common than males (35.1%) (p<0.05). Dogs aged 6 to 10 years were more presented than non-tumor patients, however, there was no significant difference. The mean age (±SD) was 10.3±3.0 years. Although we found no significant difference of breed predisposition, the most common breed was Maltese (19.3%), followed by Shih-Tzu (14...
April 2016: Immune Network
Abdossaleh Zar, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Maryamosadat Miri, Hassan Ali Abedi, Mohsen Salesi
To find the relation between exercise and cytokines, we examined the effect of the training intensity on the levels of cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interlukine-4 (IL-4) and interlukine-4/interferon-gamma ratio (IL-4/IFN-γ ratio) in female Futsal players. Twelve well-trained female college Futsal players aged 19~22 participated in this study. The athletes completed 30-min of running at 60~65% maximal heart rate [moderate-intensity exercise], and 30-min of running at 75~80% maximal heart rate [high-intensity exercise]...
April 2016: Immune Network
Ji Sung Kim, Yong Guk Kim, Eun Jae Park, Boyeong Kim, Hong Kyung Lee, Jin Tae Hong, Youngsoo Kim, Sang-Bae Han
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cancer worldwide. Although incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer are gradually decreasing in the US, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have poor prognosis with an estimated 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. Over the past decade, advances in combination chemotherapy regimens for colorectal cancer have led to significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival. However, patients with metastatic disease gain little clinical benefit from conventional therapy, which is associated with grade 3~4 toxicity with negative effects on quality of life...
April 2016: Immune Network
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