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Immune Network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458625/sterile-pyometra-in-two-dogs
#1
Hun-Young Yoon, Jae-Young Byun, Kang-Hyo Park, Byong-Su Min, Jung-Hyun Kim
Two young dogs were referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Konkuk University, one for examination of vaginal discharge and the other after being hit by a car. Dog 1 exhibited a high neutrophil count on Gram-stained vaginal smears, marked leukocytosis on a complete blood count, and uterine enlargement on ultrasonography. In dog 2, a markedly enlarged right uterine horn containing echogenic debris was found incidentally on ultrasonography. A tentative diagnosis of pyometra was made in both cases and ovariohysterectomy was performed...
April 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458624/augmented-serum-amyloid-a1-2-mediated-by-tnf-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-serous-ovarian-epithelial-tumors
#2
Hyeongjwa Choi, Rosa Mistica C Ignacio, Eun-Sook Lee, Andrew J Wilson, Dineo Khabele, Deok-Soo Son
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) is well known to be involved in the immune system and ovarian inflammation. Ovarian cancer is an inflammation-related malignancy that lacks early screening strategies, resulting in late diagnosis followed by high mortality. Based on our previous data, TNF induced abundant serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase protein linked to inflammation, in ovarian granulosal cells. To date, the regulation and expression of SAA in ovarian cancer is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the relationship between TNF and SAA by comparing human normal ovarian tissues and serous ovarian tumors...
April 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458623/il-32-induced-inflammatory-cytokines-are-selectively-suppressed-by-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-in-mouse-bone-marrow-cells
#3
Siyoung Lee, Dong-Ki Choi, Areum Kwak, Sinae Kim, Tam Thanh Nguyen, Gaae Gil, Eunhye Kim, Kwang Ha Yoo, In Ae Kim, Youngmin Lee, Hyunjhung Jhun, Edward D Chan, Xiyuan Bai, Hyunwoo Kim, Yong-Sung Kim, Soohyun Kim
The induction of interleukin (IL)-32 in bone marrow (BM) inflammation is crucial in graft versus host disease (GvHD) that is a common side effect of allogeneic BM transplantation. Clinical trials on α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) in patients with GvHD are based on the preliminary human and mouse studies on AAT reducing the severity of GvHD. Proteinase 3 (PR3) is an IL-32-binding protein that was isolated from human urine. IL-32 primarily induces inflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells, probably due to PR3 expression on the membrane of the myeloid lineage cells...
April 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458622/characterization-of-the-indirubin-derivative-ldd970-as-a-small-molecule-aurora-kinase-a-inhibitor-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Karyn Muzinga Ndolo, Kyeong Ryang Park, Hyo Jeong Lee, Kyoung Bin Yoon, Yong-Chul Kim, Sun-Young Han
Aurora kinase A plays an essential role in mitosis including chromosome separation and cytokinesis. Aberrant expression and activity of Aurora kinase A is associated with numerous malignancies including colorectal cancer followed by poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to determine the inhibitory effects of LDD970, an indirubin derivative, on Aurora kinase A in HT29 colorectal cancer cells. In vitro kinase assay revealed that, LDD970 inhibited levels of activated Aurora kinase A (IC50=0.37 mM). The inhibitory effects of LDD970 on Aurora kinase A, autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of histone H3 (Ser10), were confirmed by immunoblot analysis...
April 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458621/detection-of-autoantibodies-against-aquaporin-1-in-the-sera-of-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#5
Jehan Alam, Yun Sik Choi, Jung Hee Koh, Seung-Ki Kwok, Sung-Hwan Park, Yeong Wook Song, Kyungpyo Park, Youngnim Choi
The pathophysiology of glandular dysfunction in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we reported the presence of autoantibodies to AQP-5 in patients with SS, which was associated with a low resting salivary flow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-AQP1 autoantibodies. To detect anti-AQP1 autoantibodies, cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay was developed using MDCK cells that overexpressed human AQP1. By screening 112 SS and 52 control sera, anti-AQP1 autoantibodies were detected in 27...
April 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458620/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-toll-like-receptor-priming-a-critical-review
#6
REVIEW
Mehdi Najar, Mohammad Krayem, Nathalie Meuleman, Dominique Bron, Laurence Lagneaux
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are potential cellular candidates for several immunotherapy purposes. Their multilineage potential and immunomodulatory properties make them interesting tools for the treatment of various immunological diseases. However, depending on the local microenvironment, diverse biological functions of MSCs can be modulated. Indeed, during infections such as obtained following TLR-agonist engagement (called as TLR priming), the phenotype, multilineage potential, hematopoietic support and immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs can present critical changes, which could further affect their therapeutic potential...
April 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458619/mitochondrial-control-of-innate-immunity-and-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Hyo Sun Jin, Hyun-Woo Suh, Seong-Jun Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Mitochondria are key organelles involved in energy production, functioning as the metabolic hubs of cells. Recent findings emphasize the emerging role of the mitochondrion as a key intracellular signaling platform regulating innate immune and inflammatory responses. Several mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species have emerged as central players orchestrating the innate immune responses to pathogens and damaging ligands. This review explores our current understanding of the roles played by mitochondria in regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory responses...
April 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261022/emerging-roles-of-lymphatic-vasculature-in-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Ki-Wook Kim, Joo-Hye Song
The lymphatic vasculature has been regarded as a passive conduit for interstitial fluid and responsible for the absorption of macromolecules such as proteins or lipids and transport of nutrients from food. However, emerging data show that the lymphatic vasculature system plays an important role in immune modulation. One of its major roles is to coordinate antigen transport and immune-cell trafficking from peripheral tissues to secondary lymphoid organs, lymph nodes. This perspective was recently updated with the notion that the interaction between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes controls the immune-cell migration and immune responses by regulating lymphatic flow and various secreted molecules such as chemokines and cytokines...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261021/immune-cell-responses-and-mucosal-barrier-disruptions-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#9
REVIEW
Roza Khalmuratova, Jong-Wan Park, Hyun-Woo Shin
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common presentations of upper airway illness and severely affects patient quality of life. Its frequency is not surprising given levels of environmental exposure to microbes, pollutants, and allergens. Inflammatory cells, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and airway remodeling have been detected in the sinonasal mucosae of CRS patients, although the precise pathophysiological mechanisms causing such persistent inflammation remain unclear. Given its high prevalence and considerable associated morbidity, continued research into CRS is necessary to increase our understanding of factors likely to contribute to its pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261020/beyond-hygiene-commensal-microbiota-and-allergic-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Sung-Wook Hong, Kwang Soon Kim, Charles D Surh
Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261019/regulatory-eosinophils-in-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Bo-Gie Yang, Ju-Yong Seoh, Myoung Ho Jang
Eosinophils are potent effector cells implicated in allergic responses and helminth infections. Responding to stimuli, they release their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins and are involved in inflammatory processes. However, under homeostatic conditions, eosinophils are abundantly present in the intestine and are constantly in contact with the gut microbiota and maintain the balance of immune responses without inflammation. This situation indicates that intestinal eosinophils have an anti-inflammatory function unlike allergic eosinophils...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261018/pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-recent-advances-in-biologic-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Duk Hwan Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disorder with an unknown etiology. IBD is composed of two different disease entities: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD has been thought to be idiopathic but has two main attributable causes that include genetic and environmental factors. The gastrointestinal tract in which this disease occurs is central to the immune system, and the innate and the adaptive immune systems are balanced in complex interactions with intestinal microbes under homeostatic conditions...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261017/microbiota-influences-vaccine-and-mucosal-adjuvant-efficacy
#13
REVIEW
Yun-Gi Kim
A symbiotic relationship between humans and the microbiota is critical for the maintenance of our health, including development of the immune system, enhancement of the epithelial barrier, and acquisition of nutrients. Recent research has shown that the microbiota impacts immune cell development and differentiation. These findings suggest that the microbiota may also influence adjuvant and vaccine efficacy. Indeed, several factors such as malnutrition and poor sanitation, which affect gut microbiota composition, impair the efficacy of vaccines...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261016/the-specific-roles-of-vitamins-in-the-regulation-of-immunosurveillance-and-maintenance-of-immunologic-homeostasis-in-the-gut
#14
REVIEW
Koji Hosomi, Jun Kunisawa
Vitamins are micronutrients which are essential for the maintenance of biological responses including immune system. Hence, vitamin deficiency increases a risk of infectious, allergic, and inflammatory diseases. Accumulating evidence has recently revealed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of vitamin-mediated regulation in the active and quiescent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the immunologic roles of vitamins in the regulation of homeostasis and surveillance in the gut.
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261015/host-microbial-cross-talk-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Nobuhiko Kamada
A vast community of commensal microorganisms, commonly referred to as the gut microbiota, colonizes the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The involvement of the gut microbiota in the maintenance of the gut ecosystem is two-fold: it educates host immune cells and protects the host from pathogens. However, when healthy microbial composition and function are disrupted (dysbiosis), the dysbiotic gut microbiota can trigger the initiation and development of various GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035213/peroxiredoxin-3-is-involved-in-bactericidal-activity-through-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Sena Lee, Sae Mi Wi, Yoon Min, Ki-Young Lee
Peroxiredoxin-3 (Prdx3) is a mitochondrial protein of the thioredoxin family of antioxidant peroxidases and is the principal peroxidase responsible for metabolizing mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. Recent reports have shown that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) contribute to macrophage-mediated bactericidal activity in response to Toll-like receptors. Herein, we investigated the functional effect of Prdx3 in bactericidal activity. The mitochondrial localization of Prdx3 in HEK293T cells was confirmed by cell fractionation and confocal microscopy analyses...
December 2016: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035212/interleukin-17-expressing-innate-synovial-cells-drive-k-bxn-serum-induced-arthritis
#17
Wang Shik Cho, Eunkyeong Jang, Ho-Youn Kim, Jeehee Youn
K/BxN serum can induce arthritis in normal mice because of abundant autoantibodies that trigger an innate inflammatory response in joints. To determine whether IL-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of serum-induced arthritis, we injected wild-type and IL-17(-/-) mice with K/BxN serum and evaluated them for signs of arthritis. Unlike wild-type mice, IL-17(-/-) mice did not show any signs of arthritis. IL-17 was produced predominantly by CD3(-) CD4(-) γδTCR(-) NK1.1(-) Sca1(int) Thy1(hi) cells residing in the inflamed synovial tissue...
December 2016: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035211/induction-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-by-pre-treatment-with-poly-i-c-may-enhance-the-efficacy-of-msc-treatment-in-dss-induced-colitis
#18
Da-Bin Ryu, Ji-Young Lim, Sung-Eun Lee, Gyeongsin Park, Chang-Ki Min
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used experimentally for treating inflammatory disorders, partly owing to their immunosuppressive properties. The goal of the study was to determine whether TLR ligands can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived MSCs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Mice (C57BL6) were administered with 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days and injected with MSCs on days 1 and 3 following DSS ingestion. Our results demonstrated that among various TLR ligands, MSCs treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], which is a TLR3 ligand, more profoundly induced IDO, which is a therapeutically relevant immunosuppressive factor, without any observable phenotype change in vitro...
December 2016: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035210/reference-values-for-a-panel-of-cytokinergic-and-regulatory-lymphocyte-subpopulations
#19
Vincenzo Sorrenti, Bruno Marenda, Stefano Fortinguerra, Claudia Cecchetto, Roberta Quartesan, Giulia Zorzi, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti, Alessandro Buriani
Lymphocyte subpopulations producing cytokines and exerting regulatory functions represent key immune elements. Given their reciprocal interdependency lymphocyte subpopulations are usually assayed as diagnostic panels, rather than single biomarkers for specialist clinical use. This retrospective analysis on lymphocyte subpopulations, analyzed over the last few years in an outpatient laboratory in Northeast Italy, contributes to the establishment of reference values for several regulatory lymphocytes currently lacking such reference ranges for the general population...
December 2016: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035209/folate-receptor-targeted-diagnostics-and-therapeutics-for-inflammatory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation, an innate immune response mediated by macrophages, forms the first line of defence to protect our body from the invasion of various pathogens. Although inflammation is a defensive response, chronic inflammation has been regarded as the major cause of many types of human diseases such as inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, cancers, neurological diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Folate receptor (FR) is a cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein, and its three isoforms, FR-α, FR-β, and FR-γ, are found in humans...
December 2016: Immune Network
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