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Macromolecular Bioscience

Era Kapourani, Falko Neumann, Katharina Achazi, Jens Dernedde, Rainer Haag
Cell microencapsulation holds great promise as a therapeutic strategy for the controlled and sustained delivery of biologically relevant agents. The authors developed cell-laden microgel scaffolds with excellent long-term viabilities by combining bioorthogonal strain promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) and droplet-based microfluidic templating. Star-shaped polyglycerol hexaazide, α,ω-bis azido-linear polyglycerol or polyethylene glycol as well as dendritic polyglycerol-(polycyclooctyne) served as bioinert hydrogel precursors...
July 10, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Haika Hildebrandt, Outi Paloheimo, Elina Mäntylä, Sami Willman, Satu Hakanen, Krystyna Albrecht, Jürgen Groll, Martin Möller, Maija Vihinen-Ranta
This study presents the reactive self-assembly of isocyanate functional and amphiphilic six-arm, star-shaped polyether prepolymers in water into nanogels. Intrinsic molecular amphiphilicity, mainly driven by the isophorone moiety at the distal endings of the star-shaped molecules, allows for the preparation of spherical particles with an adjustable size of 100-200 nm by self-assembly and subsequent covalent cross-linking without the need for organic solvents or surfactants. Covalent attachment of a fluorescence dye and either the cell-penetrating TAT peptide or a random control peptide sequence shows that only TAT-labeled nanogels are internalized by HeLa cells...
July 4, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
David Ulkoski, Carmen Scholz
The impact of the molecular architecture on the transfection efficiency of PEGylated poly(amino acid) block copolymers was investigated for PEG-b-p(l-Lys)x -b-p(l-Leu)y , PEG-b-p(l-Leu)x -b-p(l-Lys)y , and PEG-b-p((l-Leu)x -co-(l-Lys)y ). The block lengths of p(l-Lys) and p(l-Leu) were varied between 10, 20, and 40; and 10 and 20, respectively, to study the influence of the ionic/hydrophobic balance. The results show that ABC triblock copolymers form smaller and more stable polyplexes with plasmid DNA than AB diblock copolymers-as verified by long-term aggregation and ethidium bromide exclusion studies-protect the DNA more effectively against nucleases, and provide better transfection efficiencies, as indicated by total protein as well as luciferase expression...
July 3, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jiajia Xue, Haoxuan Li, Younan Xia
Peripheral nerve injury is a large-scale problem and it is a great challenge to repair the long lesion in a thick nerve. The design of a multi-tubular conduit with a honeycomb structure by mimicking the anatomy of a peripheral nerve for the potential repair of large defects in thick nerves has been reported. A bilayer mat of electrospun nanofibers is rolled up to form a single tube, with the inner and outer layers comprised aligned and random nanofibers, respectively. Seven such tubes are then assembled into a hexagonal array and encased within the lumen of a larger tube to form the multi-tubular conduit...
June 28, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Christiane Claaßen, Marc H Claaßen, Fabian Gohl, Günter E M Tovar, Kirsten Borchers, Alexander Southan
Light-induced release systems can be triggered remotely and are of interest for many controlled release applications due to the possibility for spatio-temporal release control. In this study a biotin-functionalized photocleavable macromer is incorporated with an o-nitrobenzyl moiety into gelatin methacryloyl(-acetyl) hydrogels via radical cross-linking. Stronger immobilization of streptavidin-coupled horseradish peroxidase occurs in linker-functionalized hydrogels compared to pure gelatin methacryloyl(-acetyl) hydrogels, and a controlled release of the streptavidin conjugate upon UV-irradiation is possible...
June 26, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Kai Zhu, Nan Chen, Xiao Liu, Xuan Mu, Weijia Zhang, Chunsheng Wang, Yu Shrike Zhang
The recently developed 3D bioprinting technology has greatly improved the ability to generate biomimetic tissues that are structurally and functionally relevant to their human counterparts. The selection of proper biomaterials as the bioinks is a key step toward successful bioprinting. For example, viscosity of a bioink is an important rheological parameter to determine the flexibility in deposition of free-standing structures and the maintenance of architectural integrity following bioprinting. This requirement, however, has greatly limited the selection of bioinks, especially for those naturally derived due to their commonly low mechanical properties...
June 25, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Pedro U Muñoz-González, Olivia Rivera-Debernardi, Birzabith Mendoza-Novelo, Jesús A Claudio-Rizo, José L Mata-Mata, Isabel Delgadillo-Holtfort, Ramón Carriles, Mauricio Flores-Moreno, Gerardo González-García, Juan V Cauich-Rodríguez, Jorge Delgado, Laura E Castellano
The polarization of macrophages M0 to M1 or M2 using molecules embedded in matrices and hydrogels is an active field of study. The design of biomaterials capable of promoting polarization has become a paramount need nowadays, since in the healing process macrophages M1 and M2 modulate the inflammatory response. In this work, several immunocytochemistry and ELISA tests strongly suggest the achievement of polarization using collagen-based membranes crosslinked with tri-functionalized oligourethanes and coated with silica...
June 25, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Senne Seneca, Johanna Simon, Claudia Weber, Arthur Ghazaryan, Anitha Ethirajan, Volker Mailaender, Svenja Morsbach, Katharina Landfester
It is now well-established that the surface chemistry and "stealth" surface functionalities such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of nanocarriers play an important role to decrease unspecific protein adsorption of opsonizing proteins, to increase the enrichment of specific stealth proteins, and to prolong the circulation times of the nanocarriers. At the same time, PEG chains are used to provide colloidal stability for the nanoparticles. However, it is not clear how the chain length and density influence the unspecific and specific protein adsorption keeping at the same time the stability of the nanoparticles in a biological environment...
June 25, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yiheng Ye, Yichuan Pang, Zeng Zhang, Congcong Wu, Jianfeng Jin, Mingzhen Su, Junle Pan, Yangbo Liu, Lei Chen, Keke Jin
Critical-sized bone defects are incapable of self-healing and are commonly seen in clinical practice. The authors explore a new treatment for this, decellularized periosteum is applied to chitosan globules (chitosan-DP globules) as a hybrid material. The efficacy of chitosan-DP globules on rabbit femoral condyle bone defects is assessed with biocompatibility, biomechanics, and osteogenic efficiency measurements, and compared with the results of chitosan globules and empty control. No difference in cytotoxicity is observed among chitosan-DP globules, chitosan globules, and the empty control...
June 21, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Xi Yu, Liang Wang, Pengfei Yang, Jinku Xu, Mark G Moloney, Lian Liu, Yunlin Pan, Yongqing Wang
Two bis(diaryldiazomethane)s substituted with amino groups are synthesized and used for the surface modification of membranes electrospun from gelatin. These membranes are then reacted with tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate to give urea-functionalized materials, so that hydrogen peroxide can be reversibly bound onto their surface. These membranes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, XPS, differential scanning calorimeter, and tensile test to show their surface properties and bulk properties. The surface modification with amino-substituted diazomethanes and the subsequent cross-linking reaction with diisocyanates contribute to high loadings of hydrogen peroxide, and greatly increase the antibacterial activity of gelatin-derived membranes, which open a new horizon in the preparation of high loading antiseptic/antibacterial biomacromolecular surfaces and interfaces...
June 19, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Mingliang Fan, Fang Wang, Changchun Wang
Reflux precipitation polymerization (RPP) represents an effective approach that enables to prepare various types of polymeric nanogels with precise control over the morphology and structure. Owing to facile loading or modification by a variety of functional moieties, rationally designed nanogels pose the possibility to attain a platform for tailoring functional properties that could be widely used for various biomedical applications, such as multifunctional drug delivery, enrichment of functional peptides, separation of specific proteins, as well as detection of circulating tumor cells...
June 19, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Guoying Zhou, Thomas Groth
Host responses toward foreign implants that lead to chronic inflammation and fibrosis may result in failure of the biomedical device. To solve these problems, first a better understanding of the biomaterial-induced host reactions including protein adsorption, leukocyte activation, inflammatory and fibrotic responses to biomaterials is required; second an improved design of biomaterial surfaces is needed that results in an appropriate host response, causing less inflammatory response, and supporting tissue regeneration...
June 19, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Xiaoping Xin, Zhenli He, Megan R Hill, Randall P Niedz, Xianjun Jiang, Brent S Sumerlin
Biodegradable pH-responsive polysuccinimide nanoparticles (PSI-NPs) are synthesized for directly delivering agrochemicals to plant phloem to improve their efficacy. The PSI-NPs have an average size of 20.6 nm with negative charge on the surface. The desired responsiveness to changes in pH is demonstrated by release efficiency of the model molecule (Coumarin 6), which increases with increasing pH over 24 h. The internalization of PSI-NPs into grapefruit cells occurs in 10 min, and into nucleus in 2 h, with most of the PSI-NPs being distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus...
June 13, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Rowan P Rimington, Andrew J Capel, Darren J Player, Richard J Bibb, Steven D R Christie, Mark P Lewis
The integration of additive manufacturing (AM) technology within biological systems holds significant potential, specifically when refining the methods utilized for the creation of in vitro models. Therefore, examination of cellular interaction with the physical/physicochemical properties of 3D-printed polymers is critically important. In this work, skeletal muscle (C2 C12 ), neuronal (SH-SY5Y) and hepatic (HepG2) cell lines are utilized to ascertain critical evidence of cellular behavior in response to 3D-printed candidate polymers: Clear-FL (stereolithography, SL), PA-12 (laser sintering, LS), and VeroClear (PolyJet)...
June 13, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Elena Diana Giol, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Ronald E Unger, David Schaubroeck, Heidi Ottevaere, Hugo Thienpont, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Peter Dubruel
In vascular tissue engineering, great attention is paid to the immobilization of biomolecules onto synthetic grafts to increase bio- and hemocompatibility-two critical milestones in the field. The surface modification field of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), a well-known vascular-graft material, is matured and oversaturated. Nevertheless, most developed methods are laborious multistep procedures generally accompanied by coating instability or toxicity issues. Herein, a straightforward surface modification procedure is presented engineered to simultaneously promote surface endothelialization and anticoagulation properties via the covalent immobilization of gelatin through a photoactivated azide derivative...
June 13, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hideto Matsui, Atsushi Tamura, Mamoru Osawa, Asato Tonegawa, Yoshinori Arisaka, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Hiroyuki Miura, Nobuhiko Yui
Because macrophages are involved in the pathology of many diseases, targeting delivery of therapeutic molecules to macrophages is important issue. Polyrotaxanes (PRXs) composed of multiple cyclodextrins threaded with a linear polymer were utilized as a therapeutic agent for metabolic disease and for regulating cellular metabolism. For targeting delivery of PRXs to macrophages, carboxyethyl ether group-modified PRXs (CEE-PRXs) are designed for promoting interaction to macrophage scavenger receptor class A (SR-A)...
June 13, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Patrick Kaiser, Steffen Reich, Andreas Greiner, Ruth Freitag
Biocomposites, i.e., materials consisting of metabolically active microorganisms embedded in a synthetic extracellular matrix, may find applications as highly specific catalysts in bioproduction and bioremediation. 3D constructs based on fibrous biocomposites, so-called "artificial biofilms," are of particular interest in this context. The inability to produce biocomposite fibers of sufficient mechanical strength for processing into bioactive fabrics has so far hindered progress in the area. Herein a method is proposed for the direct wet spinning of microfibers suitable for weaving and knitting...
June 12, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
David Ulkoski, Carmen Scholz
The interaction of PEGylated poly(amino acid)s with their biological targets depends on their chemical nature and spatial arrangement of their building blocks. The synthesis, self-assembly, and DNA complexation of ABC terblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), (PEG), poly(l-lysine), and poly(l-leucine), are reported. Block copolymers are produced by a metal-free, living ring-opening polymerization of respective amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides using amino-terminated PEG as macroinitiator: (PEG-b-p(l-Lys)x -b-p(l-Leu)y , PEG-b-p(l-Leu)x -b-p(l-Lys)y , and PEG-b-p((l-Lys)x -co-p(l-Leu)y )...
June 12, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Silvia Panzavolta, Paola Torricelli, Sonia Casolari, Annapaola Parrilli, Milena Fini, Adriana Bigi
Strontium has a beneficial role on bone remodeling and is proposed for the treatment of pathologies associated to excessive bone resorption, such as osteoporosis. Herein, the possibility to utilize a biomimetic scaffold as strontium delivery system is explored. Porous 3D gelatin scaffolds containing about 30% of strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) or pure hydroxyapatite (HA) are prepared by freeze-drying. The scaffolds display a very high open porosity, with an interconnectivity of 100%. Reinforcement with further amount of gelatin provokes a modest decrease of the average pore size, without reducing interconnectivity...
June 7, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ya-Jing Ye, Ya-Qing Zhou, Zhuo-Yuan Jing, Yang-Yang Liu, Da-Chuan Yin
Achilles tendon reconstruction surgery is the primary clinical method for repairing acute Achilles tendon ruptures. However, the efficacy of the postoperative healing process and the recovery of physiological function are inadequate. This study examines the healing mechanism of ruptured rat Achilles tendons seamed with heparin-loaded core-shell fiber sutures fabricated via near-field electrospinning. High-heparin-concentration sutures (PPH3.0) perform better than the low-heparin-concentration sutures and commercial sutures (CSs)...
May 27, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
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