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Macromolecular Bioscience

Kenjiro Yazawa, Ali D Malay, Hiroyasu Masunaga, Keiji Numata
Spider dragline silk is a composite biopolymer that harbors extraordinary mechanical characteristics, and consists of a hierarchically arranged protein core surrounded by outer "skin" layers. However, the contribution of the successive fiber layers on material properties has not been well defined. Here, the influence of the different components on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of dragline is investigated. The crystal structure and the mechanical properties are not changed significantly after the removal of skin constituents, indicating that the core region of dragline silk fibers determines the structural and mechanical properties...
September 19, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
John G Hardy, Annabelle Bertin, Jose Guillermo Torres-Rendon, Aldo Leal-Egaña, Martin Humenik, Felix Bauer, Andreas Walther, Helmut Cölfen, Helmut Schlaad, Thomas R Scheibel
Silk protein-based materials show promise for application as biomaterials for tissue engineering. The simple and rapid photochemical modification of silk protein-based materials composed of either Bombyx mori silkworm silk or engineered spider silk proteins (eADF4(C16)) is reported. Radicals formed on the silk-based materials initiate the polymerization of monomers (acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, or allylamine) which functionalize the surface of the silk materials with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), or poly(allylamine) (PAAm)...
September 19, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
James Sparkes, Chris Holland
Natural silk spinning has undergone strong selection for resource efficiency and thus presents a biomimetic ideal for fiber production. Industrial replication of natural silk fibers would enable access to low energy, cost-efficient processing, but is hampered by a lack of understanding surrounding the conversion of liquid feedstock into a solid fiber as a result of flow. Previously, shear stress, shear rate, or time have been presented as criteria for silk fiber formation, but here it is proposed that spinning requires carefully balancing all three, and is a result of controlled energy accumulation in the feedstock...
September 11, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Wenfang Li, Xueyan Hu, Shuping Wang, Hai Wang, Roxanne Parungao, Yiwei Wang, Tianqing Liu, Kedong Song
Polysaccharides have been known to display their anti-cancer activity via immunomodulation. The immunomodulation of RAW 246.7 macrophages by astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is herein studied in human breast cancer cells. Apart from traditional 2D culture, a novel tissue-engineered tumor model is prepared based on decellularized porcine lung scaffold. Decellularized lung scaffolds exhibit preferable biocompatibility that promote the formation and enlargement of tumor spheroids. The conditioned medium (CM, the supernatant liquid of APS-treated RAW264...
September 6, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Changqing Ye, Jiulong Zhao, Yuting Zheng, Chenyao Wu, Ying Chen, Huan Wu, Xiao An, Mingxian Huang, Shige Wang
In this work, a novel kind of electrospun microfiber to deliver a photothermal agent and an anticancer drug to tumor sites is explored. Photothermal therapy agent (MoS2 nanosheets) and doxorubicin (DOX) are incorporated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microfiber via electrospinning a solution of PLGA, MoS2 , and DOX. The designed microfiber with uniform fibrous morphology and negligible in vitro/in vivo hemo-/histo-toxicity is used as a durable photothermal agent, which shows an excellent photothermal transform ability and acceptable photothermal stability in both the first and second near-infrared light (NIR I and II) biowindows...
September 6, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Giovanni S Offeddu, Constantin E Tanase, Sotiria Toumpaniari, Michelle L Oyen, Ruth E Cameron
Cartilage wounds result in chronic pain and degradation of the quality of life for millions of people. A synthetic cellular scaffold able to heal the damage by substituting the natural tissue is of great potential value. Here, it is shown for the first time that the unique interplay between the molecular components of cartilage can be reproduced in composite materials made of a polyelectrolyte hydrogel embedding a collagen scaffold. These composites possess a mechanical response determined by osmotic and electrostatic effects, comparable to articular cartilage in terms of elastic modulus, time-dependent response, and permeability to interstitial fluid flow...
September 6, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Juchang Zhong, Yingjie Zhang, Jingfei Chen, Ruiying Huang, Yikun Yang, Haoxiang Chen, Yuan Huang, Weihong Tan, Zhikai Tan
The development of accurate and predictive in vitro experimental models of human tumors consistent with in vivo tumor microenvironments has garnered great attention in modern cancer research. 3D scaffolds are fabricated in this study by E-jet 3D printing with the aim of replicating the functionalities of tumor microenvironments in vitro which could be applicable as screening platforms for novel therapeutic strategies. Tumor protein 53 (p53) plays an important role in penetration and migration in 2D cell culture...
September 5, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Wangping Hao, Jie Han, Yun Chu, Lei Huang, Yan Zhuang, Jie Sun, Xiaoran Li, Yannan Zhao, Yanyan Chen, Jianwu Dai
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important protein for wound healing and angiogenesis in tissue engineering, but the lack of a viable delivery system hampers its clinical application. This study aims to maintain the long-term controlled release of bFGF by utilizing a collagen/heparin bi-affinity multilayer delivery system (CHBMDS), which is fabricated by the alternate deposition of negatively charged heparin, positively charged collagen, and CBD-bFGF (a collagen-binding domain [CBD] was fused into the native bFGF) via specific or electrostatic interaction...
August 29, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Premysl Mikula, Marie Mlnarikova, Haruko Takahashi, Pavel Babica, Kenichi Kuroda, Ludek Blaha, Iva Sovadinova
Poly(ethylene imine)s (PEIs) have been widely studied for biomedical applications, including antimicrobial agents against potential human pathogens. The interactions of branched PEIs (B-PEIs) with environmentally relevant microorganisms whose uncontrolled growth in natural or engineered environments causes health, economic, and technical issues in many sectors of water management are studied. B-PEIs are shown to be potent antimicrobials effective in controlling the growth of environmentally relevant algae and cyanobacteria with dual-functionality and selectivity...
August 29, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Andrea García-Lizarribar, Xiomara Fernández-Garibay, Ferran Velasco-Mallorquí, Albert G Castaño, Josep Samitier, Javier Ramon-Azcon
New biocompatible materials have enabled the direct 3D printing of complex functional living tissues, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle. Gelatinmethacryloyl (GelMA) is a photopolymerizable hydrogel composed of natural gelatin functionalized with methacrylic anhydride. However, it is difficult to obtain a single hydrogel that meets all the desirable properties for tissue engineering. In particular, GelMA hydrogels lack versatility in their mechanical properties and lasting 3D structures. In this work, a library of composite biomaterials to obtain versatile, lasting, and mechanically tunable scaffolds are presented...
August 29, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yeonwoo Jeong, Le Thi Thuy, So Hyun Ki, Sangwon Ko, Suyeob Kim, Woo Kyung Cho, Joon Sig Choi, Sung Min Kang
The control of biofouling, which is the unwanted adsorption of biomolecules and organisms on solid surfaces, is a prerequisite for wider applicability of the functional materials that are currently being used in biomedical industries. One of the frequently used methods for controlling biofouling is the use of surface coatings with antifouling materials. Herein, fucoidan, which is a marine-derived polysaccharide, is reported as a new type of antifouling material that is safe and broadly applicable. Fucoidan is conjugated with catechols, which are known to act as adhesives for grafting functional molecules onto solid substrates...
August 16, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ren Geryak, Elizabeth Quigley, Sunghan Kim, Volodymyr F Korolovych, Rossella Calabrese, David L Kaplan, Vladimir V Tsukruk
Microencapsulation techniques represent a critical step in realizing highly controlled transport of functional materials in multiphase systems. The first demonstration of microcapsules prepared from minimally grafted silk ionomers (silk fibroin modified with cationic/anionic charge groups) are presented here. These tailored biomacromolecules have shown significantly increased biocompatibility over traditional polyelectrolytes and heavily grafted silk ionomers, but the low grafting density had previously limited attempts to fabricate stable microcapsules...
August 13, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Elham Radvar, Helena S Azevedo
Peptides and polymers are the "elite" building blocks in hydrogel fabrication where the typical approach consists of coupling specific peptide sequences (cell adhesive and/or enzymatically cleavable) to polymer chains aiming to obtain controlled cell responses (adhesion, migration, differentiation). However, the use of polymers and peptides as structural components for fabricating supramolecular hydrogels is less well established. Here, the literature on the design of peptide/polymer systems for self-assembly into hybrid hydrogels, as either peptide-polymer conjugates or combining both components individually, is reviewed...
August 12, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Pratik Gurnani, Carlos Sanchez-Cano, Kristin Abraham, Helena Xandri-Monje, Alexander B Cook, Matthias Hartlieb, Francis Lévi, Robert Dallmann, Sébastien Perrier
Current approaches to generate core-shell nanoparticles for biomedical applications are limited by factors such as synthetic scalability and circulatory desorption of cytotoxic surfactants. Developments in controlled radical polymerization, particularly in dispersed states, represent a promising method of overcoming these challenges. In this work, well-defined PEGylated nanoparticles are synthesized using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer emulsion polymerization to control particle size and surface composition and were further characterized with light scattering, electron microscopy, and size exclusion chromatography...
August 7, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Marko Mihajlovic, Milos Mihajlovic, Patricia Y W Dankers, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Rint P Sijbesma
Nanocomposite hydrogels based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known to possess remarkable stiffness, electrical, and thermal conductivity. However, they often make use of CNTs as fillers in covalently cross-linked hydrogel networks or involve direct cross-linking between CNTs and polymer chains, limiting processability properties. Herein, nanocomposite hydrogels are developed, in which CNTs are fillers in a physically cross-linked hydrogel. Supramolecular nanocomposites are prepared at various CNT concentrations, ranging from 0...
August 7, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sybil Obuobi, Ying Wang, Jasmeet Singh Khara, Andreas Riegger, Seah Ling Kuan, Pui Lai Rachel Ee
Protein-based polymeric polyelectrolytes are emerging as alternative synthetic nanoparticles owing to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, potential in vivo toxicity remains a significant challenge. Herein an array of protein polyelectrolytes generated from cationic human serum albumin (cHSA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are synthesized via synthetic customization as antimicrobials for the treatment of systemic infections. By varying PEG molecular weight and chain length, in vitro hemolytic activity can be fine-tuned without significantly affecting antimicrobial potency...
August 1, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Umberto Capasso Palmiero, Lavinia Morosi, Monica Lupi, Marianna Ponzo, Roberta Frapolli, Massimo Zucchetti, Paolo Ubezio, Massimo Morbidelli, Maurizio D'Incalci, Ezia Bello, Davide Moscatelli
The advent of nanotechnology in medicine has allowed to eliminate the toxic excipients that are often necessary to formulate lipophilic drugs in clinics. An example is paclitaxel, one of the most important chemotherapeutic drugs developed so far, where the Cremophor EL has been eliminated in the Genexol and Abraxane formulations. However, the complex procedures to synthesize these formulations hamper their cost-effective use and, in turn, their distribution among the patient population. For this reason, a simplified method to formulate this drug directly at the bed of the patient has been adopted...
July 25, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Kristen L Moffat, Kelsey Goon, Franklin T Moutos, Bradley T Estes, Sara J Oswald, Xuanhe Zhao, Farshid Guilak
Biomaterial scaffolds play multiple roles in cartilage tissue engineering, including controlling architecture of newly formed tissue while facilitating growth of embedded cells and simultaneously providing functional properties to withstand the mechanical environment within the native joint. In particular, hydrogels-with high water content and desirable transport properties-while highly conducive to chondrogenesis, often lack functional mechanical properties. In this regard, interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels can provide mechanical toughness greatly exceeding that of individual components; however, many IPN materials are not biocompatible for cell encapsulation...
July 24, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Peter R Laity, Elizabeth Baldwin, Chris Holland
Variation in silk feedstocks is a barrier both to our understanding of natural spinning and biomimetic endeavors. To address this, compositional changes are investigated in feedstock specimens from the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori). It is found that the feedstock viscosity decreased systematically by over two orders of magnitude during cocoon construction. Potential factors such as protein concentration, molecular weight, pH, or the presence of trehalose are excluded, whereas a clear correlation appear between viscosity and the relative concentrations of Ca2+ and K+ ions...
July 24, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Burak Toprakhisar, Ali Nadernezhad, Ezgi Bakirci, Navid Khani, Gozde Akdeniz Skvortsov, Bahattin Koc
Using decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) hydrogels as bioinks has been an important step forward for bioprinting of functional tissue constructs, considering their rich microenvironment and their high degree of biomimicry. However, directly using dECM hydrogels as bioinks may not be suitable for bioprinting processes because of the loss of shape fidelity and geometrical precision of bioprinted structure due to their slow gelation kinetics. In this article, the development and direct bioprinting of dECM hydrogel bioink from bovine Achilles tendon were presented...
July 17, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
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