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Macromolecular Bioscience

An-Katrien Minnaert, George R Dakwar, Juan M Benito, José M García Fernández, W Ceelen, Stefaan C De Smedt, Katrien Remaut
Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a severe form of cancer in the abdomen, currently treated with cytoreductive surgery and intravenous chemotherapy. Recently, nebulization has been proposed as a less invasive strategy for the local delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Also, RNA interference has been considered as a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of cancer. In this study, Lipofectamine RNAiMAX/siRNA complexes and cyclodextrin/siRNA complexes are evaluated before and after nebulization. Nebulization of the siRNA complexes does not significantly lower transfection efficiency when compared to non-nebulized complexes...
June 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ha Neul Lee, Jea-Sung Ryu, Cheong Shin, Hyun Jung Chung
A simple and facile method for sensing of nucleic acids is in great need for disease biomarker detection and diagnosis. Herein, a fluorescent nanosensor utilizing carbon dot nanoparticles is introduced that form visible precipitates in the presence of target DNA. Carbon dot nanoparticles are fabricated by microwave pyrolysis of polyethylenimine, which emits strong photoluminescence and can form precipitates when added to target DNA oligonucleotides. The precipitates can be easily visualized by UV illumination, and data can be acquired as images using a smartphone, which are analyzed for quantification...
June 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sithara S Nair, Olga Y Zolotarskaya, Matthew J Beckwith, Dennis E Ohman, Kenneth J Wynne
A preliminary study is reported for a polycation antimicrobial peptide (AMP) mimic against Propionibacterium acnes, which is associated with acne vulgaris, a common skin condition. Antibiotics are commonly used against P. acnes but buildup of resistance is well-known. Worse, antibiotic regimens build up resistance for more sensitive bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis. The polycation AMP mimic C12-50, 1, is chosen for the present study as it has been previously shown to have high antimicrobial effectiveness...
June 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Nadine Leber, Lutz Nuhn, Rudolf Zentel
Short pharmaceutical active oligonucleotides such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) or cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) are considered as powerful therapeutic alternatives, especially to medicate hard-to-treat diseases (e.g., liver fibrosis or cancer). Unfortunately, these molecules are equipped with poor pharmacokinetic properties that prevent them from translation. Well-defined nanosized carriers can provide opportunities to optimize their delivery and guide them to their site of action. Among several concepts, this Feature Article focuses on cationic nanohydrogel particles as a universal delivery system for small anionic molecules including siRNA and CpG...
June 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Valérie Jérôme, Melanie Werner, Patrick Kaiser, Ruth Freitag
The ex vivo expansion of primary human T cells is of considerable interest. Current protocols call for the addition of massive amounts of stimuli. This study presents as alternative the expansion of such cells in semipermeable sodium cellulose sulfate/poly(diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (SCS/PDADMAC) polyelectrolyte microcapsules, which supports at least six cell divisions and results in >40 × 10(6) cells mLcapsule(-1) within less than 10 d. Inside the microcapsules, the T cells are suspended in a viscous SCS-solution...
June 9, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Shan Yan, Lin-Yan Wan, Xiao-Jie Ju, Jiang-Feng Wu, Lei Zhang, Ming Li, Zhuang Liu, Wei Wang, Rui Xie, Liang-Yin Chu
In this work, a novel type of block copolymer micelles with K(+) -responsive characteristics for targeted intracellular drug delivery is developed. The proposed smart micelles are prepared by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-isopropylacry-lamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (PEG-b-P(NIPAM-co-B18C6Am)) block copolymers. Prednisolone acetate (PA) is successfully loaded into the micelles as the model drug, with loading content of 4.7 wt%. The PA-loaded micelles display a significantly boosted drug release in simulated intracellular fluid with a high K(+) concentration of 150 × 10(-3) m, as compared with that in simulated extracellular fluid...
June 9, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Deepak Guduru, Marcus S Niepel, Cristina Gonzalez-Garcia, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez, Thomas Groth
Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) coatings on biomaterials are applied to tailor adhesion, growth, and function of cells on biomedical implants. Here, biogenic and synthetic polyelectrolytes (PEL) are used for layer-by-layer assembly to study the osteogenic activity of PEM with human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells in a comparative manner. Formation of PEM is achieved with biogenic PEL fibrinogen (FBG) and poly-l-lysine (PLL) as well as biotinylated chondroitin sulfate (BCS) and avidin (AVI), while poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) represent a fully synthetic PEM used as a reference system here...
May 26, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Kenichi Nagase, Yuhei Nagumo, Miri Kim, Hee-Jung Kim, Hei-Won Kyung, Hye-Jin Chung, Hidekazu Sekine, Tatsuya Shimizu, Hideko Kanazawa, Teruo Okano, Seung-Jin Lee, Masayuki Yamato
Cell sheet transplantation is a key tissue engineering technology. A vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-releasing fiber mat is developed for the transplantation of multilayered cardiomyocyte sheets. Poly(vinyl alcohol) fiber mats bearing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles that incorporate VEGF are fabricated using electrospinning and electrospray methods. Six-layered cardiomyocyte sheets are transplanted with a VEGF-releasing mat into athymic rats. After two weeks, these sheets produce thicker cardiomyocyte layers compared with controls lacking a VEGF-releasing mat, and incorporate larger-diameter blood vessels containing erythrocytes...
May 26, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Xiuwei Pan, Qiong Sun, Yuanhao Zhang, Haibo Cai, Yun Gao, Yongjia Shen, Weian Zhang
Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with most current methods can hardly satisfy clinical application requirement. While in vivo, HSCs efficiently self-renew in niche where they interact with 3D extracellular matrix and stromal cells. Therefore, co-cultures of CD34(+) cells and mesenchyme stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane (hAMSCs) on the basis of biomimetic macroporous three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds are developed, where scaffolds and hAMSCs are applied to mimic structural and cellular microenvironment of HSCs...
May 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ting Wu, Longhai Wang, Shenggang Ding, Yezi You
A novel PEGylation polypeptide, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-cysteine) (PEG-PLL-PCys) triblock copolymer is synthesized via the sequential ring-opening polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides initiated by methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (mPEG-NH2 , Mw is 2 kDa). Subsequently, the obtained polypeptide is partially conjugated with fluorocarbon chains via disulfide exchange reaction. PLL segment can condense plasmid DNA through an electrostatic force to form a complex core, PEG segment surrounding the complex like a corona can prevent the complex from precipitation and reduce the adsorption of serum, while PCys segment with fluorocarbon can enhance the cellular uptake and the stability of the formed polyplex micelles in physiological conditions...
May 19, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hengmin Tang, Yuki Sakamura, Takeshi Mori, Yoshiki Katayama, Akihiro Kishimura
Applications of enzymes are intensively studied, particularly for biomedical applications. However, encapsulation or immobilization of enzymes without deactivation and long-term use of enzymes are still at issue. This study focuses on the polymeric vesicles "PICsomes" for encapsulation of enzymes to develop a hecto-nanometer-scaled enzyme-loaded reactor. The catalytic activity of a PICsome-based enzyme nanoreactor is carefully examined to clarify the effect of compartmentalization by PICsome. Encapsulation by PICsome provides a stability enhancement of enzymes after 24 h incubation at 37 °C, which is particularly helpful for maintaining the high effective concentration of β-galactosidase...
May 19, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Mehdi Bin Samad, Yashpal Singh Chhonker, Jacob I Contreras, Alec McCarthy, Megan M McClanahan, Daryl J Murry, Martin Conda-Sheridan
The ability to tune supramolecular properties such as size, morphology, or metabolic stability is of paramount importance in the field of supramolecular chemistry. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are a family of functional self-assembling biomaterials that have garnered widespread attention due to their broad applicability in medicine. PAs are generally comprised of an amino acid sequence connected to lipid tail(s) allowing them to self-assemble into supramolecular structures with diverse morphologies. Herein, this study describes the synthesis of a new class of polyamine-based "hybrid" PAs (PPAs) as novel self-assembling systems...
May 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ji Yeon Kim, Chunxian Piao, Gyeungyun Kim, Seonyeong Lee, Min Sang Lee, Ji Hoon Jeong, Minhyung Lee
A ternary complex comprising plasmid DNA, lipopolysaccharide-binding peptide (LBP), and deoxycholic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine (PEI-DA) is prepared for combinational therapy of acute lung injury (ALI). The LBP is designed as an anti-inflammatory peptide based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding domain of HMGB-1. In vitro cytokine assays show that LBP reduces levels of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting LPS. PEI-DA is synthesized as the gene carrier by conjugation of deoxycholic acid to low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (2 kDa, PEI2k)...
May 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Carmen Lawatscheck, Marcus Pickhardt, Anna Grafl, Katharina Linkert, Frank Polster, Eckhard Mandelkow, Hans G Börner
The pharmacological profiles of small molecule drugs are often challenged by their poor water solubility. Sequence-defined peptides attached to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) offer opportunities to overcome these difficulties by acting as drug-specific formulation additives. The peptide-PEG conjugates enable specific, noncovalent drug binding via tailored peptide/drug interactions as well as provide water solubility and drug shielding by well-solvated PEG-blocks. A systematic set of specific solubilizers for B4A1 as a potential anti-Alzheimer disease drug is synthesized and variations involve the length of the PEG-blocks as well as the sequences of the peptidic drug-binding domain...
May 10, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Tanmay Dichwalkar, Shraddha Patel, Samhita Bapat, Priya Pancholi, Neel Jasani, Bina Desai, Venkata K Yellepeddi, Vikas Sehdev
Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers (UGCs) are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Paclitaxel (PTX) is frequently used for the treatment of UGCs; however, low bioavailability, reduced solubility, and dose-dependent toxicity impede its therapeutic use. PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 -DHA is synthesized by linking amine-terminated fourth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 ) dendrimers with omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Next, PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 -DHA-PTX (DHATX) and PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 -PTX (PAX) conjugates are synthesized by subsequent covalent binding of PTX with PAMAMG4...
May 9, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Laura Morelli, Martino Alfredo Cappelluti, Leonardo Ricotti, Cristina Lenardi, Irini Gerges
Periodontitis treatments usually require local administration of antimicrobial drugs with the aim to reduce the bacterial load inside the periodontal pocket. Effective pharmaceutical treatments may require sustained local drug release for several days in the site of interest. Currently available solutions are still not able to fulfill the clinical need for high-quality treatments, mainly in terms of release profiles and patients' comfort. This work aims to fill this gap through the development of an in situ gelling system, capable to achieve controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial agents for medium-to-long-term treatments...
May 2, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hao Meng, Yan Zou, Ping Zhong, Fenghua Meng, Jian Zhang, Ru Cheng, Zhiyuan Zhong
Nano-prodrugs usually involve a multistep synthesis which largely compromises their benefits. Here, a smart nano-prodrug platform with reactive drug loading, superb stability, and triggered drug release is reported for targeted melanoma therapy. cRGD-decorated polymersomal mertansine prodrug (cRGD-PS-DM1) is readily fabricated from cRGD-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-dithiolane trimethylene carbonate) with simultaneous loading of mertansine (DM1) via thiol-disulfide exchange reaction and disulfide cross-linking of polymersomal membrane...
May 2, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Wei Mao, Hyuk Sang Yoo
Manipulated roughness has been etched on nanofibers to modulate adsorption of serum proteins for serum-free cells cultivation. Mixtures of Polycaprolactone and Pluronic with various blending ratios are electrospun to nanofibers and Pluronic is subsequently leached out by methanol. Electron microscopy reveals that surface roughness of the nanofibers is changed according to the contents of Pluronic. Both weight loss monitoring and NMR spectroscopy confirm that all Pluronic is leached out after methanol treatment...
May 2, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Claudia Battistella, Harm-Anton Klok
Polymer nanomedicines are very attractive to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutics. Polymer conjugates and other polymer-based nanocarriers allow to increase plasma half-life and drug bioavailability and can also be guided toward tumors using passive and active targeting strategies. Since many chemotherapeutics act on targets that are located in well-defined subcellular compartments, other important factors that contribute to an efficient therapy include cellular internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking of the polymer nanomedicines and/or its payload to the appropriate organelle in the cytoplasm...
April 26, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Doreen Hentrich, Soraya Taabache, Gerald Brezesinski, Nele Lange, Wolfgang Unger, Christian Kübel, Annabelle Bertin, Andreas Taubert
The phase behavior of a dendritic amphiphile containing a Newkome-type dendron as the hydrophilic moiety and a cholesterol unit as the hydrophobic segment is investigated at the air-liquid interface. The amphiphile forms stable monomolecular films at the air-liquid interface on different subphases. Furthermore, the mineralization of calcium phosphate beneath the monolayer at different calcium and phosphate concentrations versus mineralization time shows that at low calcium and phosphate concentrations needles form, whereas flakes and spheres dominate at higher concentrations...
April 18, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
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