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Macromolecular Bioscience

Fraz Anjum, Andrew Carroll, Stuart A Young, Lauren E Flynn, Brian G Amsden
Cell-based therapies have great potential to regenerate and repair injured articular cartilage, and a range of synthetic and natural polymer-based hydrogels have been used in combination with stem cells and growth factors for this purpose. Although the hydrogel scaffolds developed to date possess many favorable characteristics, achieving the required mechanical properties has remained a challenge. A hydrogel system with tunable mechanical properties, composed of a mixture of natural and synthetic polymers, and its use for the encapsulation of adipose derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) is described...
January 13, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Inga Lilge, Siyu Jiang, Holger Schönherr
The fabrication of 3D cell microenvironments exploiting versatile, long-term stable passivating poly(acryl amide) brushes in a microwell format and the study of the behavior of fibroblast and pancreatic tumor cells in wells of systematically varied shape and size is reported. The microwells, which are obtained by combining micromolding in capillaries with microcontact printing of initiator monolayers for subsequent surface-initiated polymerization of acrylamide and controlled functionalization with fibronectin (FN), expose cell adhesive areas inside the wells and protein and cell resistant brushes on the topside plateaus...
January 3, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Giuseppe Vitola, Dominic Büning, Jens Schumacher, Rosalinda Mazzei, Lidietta Giorno, Mathias Ulbricht
Using colloidal polyacrylamide (PAAm) microgels as carriers, a novel strategy for covalent immobilization of enzymes maintained in hydrated microenvironment on/in a macroporous surface-functionalized hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane is developed. The PAAm microgels are synthesized by inverse miniemulsion polymerization, and first the parameters are investigated which are suited to obtain particles in the desired size range, 100-200 nm, with narrow size distribution. Amino functions are then imparted to the microgels applying the Hofmann reaction...
December 27, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ruoyu Zhan, Yutong Pan, Purnima Naresh Manghnani, Bin Liu
Aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) is a general phenomenon that is faced by traditional fluorescent polymers. Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) is exactly opposite to ACQ. AIE molecules are almost nonemissive in their molecularly dissolved state, but they can be induced to show high fluorescence in the aggregated or solid state. Incorporation of AIE phenomenon into polymer design has yielded various polymers with AIE characteristics. In this review, the recent progress of AIE polymers for biological applications is summarized...
December 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ida Franiak-Pietryga, Kinga Ostrowska, Henryk Maciejewski, Dietmar Appelhans, Małgorzata Misiewicz, Barbara Ziemba, Michał Bednarek, Maria Bryszewska, Maciej Borowiec
Although chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in Western world, it remains incurable with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an antitumor candidate in cancer therapy. This study examines the proapoptotic effects of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) glycodendrimers modified with the maltotriose residues (PPI-G4-OS-Mal-III and PPI-G4-DS-Mal-III) on the TNF family in CLL cells. The combination of an understanding of the signaling pathways associated with CLL and the development of a molecular profiling is a key issue for the design of personalized approaches to therapy...
December 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Catarina Oliveira, Andreia S Ferreira, Ramon Novoa-Carballal, Cláudia Nunes, Iva Pashkuleva, Nuno M Neves, Manuel A Coimbra, Rui L Reis, Albino Martins, Tiago H Silva
There is an urgent need for antitumor bioactive agents with minimal or no side effects over normal adjacent cells. Fucoidan is a marine-origin polymer with known antitumor activity. However, there are still some concerns about its application due to the inconsistent experimental results, specifically its toxicity over normal cells and the mechanism behind its action. Herein, three fucoidan extracts (FEs) have been tested over normal and breast cancer cell lines. From cytotoxicity results, only one of the extracts shows selective antitumor behavior (at 0...
December 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Julia Koehler, Leonie Wallmeyer, Sarah Hedtrich, Achim M Goepferich, Ferdinand P Brandl
The development of chronic wounds has been frequently associated with alkaline pH values. The application of pH-modulating wound dressings can, therefore, be a promising treatment option to promote normal wound healing. This study reports on the development and characterization of acidic hydrogel dressings based on interpenetrating poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/acrylic acid/alginate networks. The incorporation of ionizable carboxylic acid groups results in high liquid uptake up to 500%. The combination of two separate polymer networks significantly improves the tensile and compressive stability...
December 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Cheuk Ka Poon, Owen Tang, Xin-Ming Chen, Byung Kim, Matthias Hartlieb, Carol A Pollock, Brian S Hawkett, Sébastien Perrier
The authors report the preparation of a novel range of functional polyacrylamide stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles, obtained by surfactant-free reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) emulsion polymerization, their fluorescent tagging, cellular uptake, and biodistribution. The authors show the versatility of the RAFT emulsion process for the design of functional nanoparticles of well-defined size that can be used as drug delivery vectors. Functionalization with a fluorescent tag offers a useful visualization tool for tracing, localization, and clearance studies of these carriers in biological models...
December 14, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Tobias Steinbach, Greta Becker, Alina Spiegel, Tamiris Figueiredo, Daniela Russo, Frederik R Wurm
Protein-polymer conjugates are widely used to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of therapeutic proteins. Commercially available conjugates employ poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the protective polymer; however, PEG has a number of shortcomings, including non-biodegradability and immunogenicity, that call for the development of alternatives. Here, the synthesis of biodegradable poly(phosphate), that is, poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP), by organo-catalyzed anionic ring-opening polymerization exhibiting dispersity values Ð < 1...
December 12, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Shinji Sakai, Yusuke Yamamoto, Gantumur Enkhtuul, Kohei Ueda, Kenichi Arai, Masahito Taya, Makoto Nakamura
The authors report a method to prepare cell-laden, cell-sized microparticles from various materials suitable for individual applications. The method includes a piezoelectric inkjetting technology and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed crosslinking reaction. The piezoelectric inkjetting technology enables production of cell-laden, cell-sized (20-60 μm) droplets from a polymer aqueous solution. The HRP-catalyzed crosslinking of the polymer in the ejected solution enables production of spherical microparticles from various materials...
December 8, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Samagya Banskota, Parisa Yousefpour, Ashutosh Chilkoti
The goal of drug delivery is to deliver therapeutics to the site of disease while reducing unwanted side effects. In recent years, a diverse variety of synthetic nano and microparticles have been developed as drug delivery systems. The success of these systems for drug delivery lies in their ability to overcome biological barriers such as the blood-brain barrier, to evade immune clearance and avoid nonspecific biodistribution. This Review provides an overview of recent advances in the design of biohybrid drug delivery systems, which combine cells with synthetic systems to overcome some of these biological hurdles...
December 7, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Chih-Chia Cheng, Mei-Chih Liang, Zhi-Sheng Liao, Jyun-Jie Huang, Duu-Jong Lee
Simple construction and manipulation of low-molecular-weight supramolecular nanogels, based on the introduction of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions, with the desired physical properties to achieve effective and safe delivery of drugs for cancer therapy remain highly challenging. Herein, a novel supramolecular oligomer cytosine (Cy)-polypropylene glycol containing self-complementary multiple hydrogen-bonded Cy moieties is developed, which undergoes spontaneous self-assembly to form nanosized particles in an aqueous environment...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sebastien H Bauquier, Karen J McLean, Jonathan L Jiang, Ray C Boston, Alan Lai, Zhilian Yue, Simon E Moulton, Amy J Halliday, Gordon Wallace, Mark J Cook
This blinded controlled prospective randomized study investigates the biocompatibility of polypyrrole (PPy) polymer that will be used for intracranial triggered release of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Three by three millimeters PPy are implanted subdurally in six adult female genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg. Each rat has a polymer implanted on one side of the cortex and a sham craniotomy performed on the other side. After a period of seven weeks, rats are euthanized and parallel series of coronal sections are cut throughout the implant site...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Chie Kojima, Yusuke Nakajima, Naoya Oeda, Takeshi Kawano, Yusuke Taki
Cell sorting is important for cell biology and regenerative medicine. A visible light-responsive cell scaffold is produced using gold nanoparticles and collagen gel. Various kinds of cells are cultured on the visible light-responsive cell scaffold, and the target cells are selectively detached by photoirradiation without any cytotoxicity. This is a new image-guided cell sorting system.
December 2, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yuyuan Wang, Liwei Wang, Guojun Chen, Shaoqin Gong
Platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely used to treat cancers including ovarian cancer; however, it suffers from dose-limiting toxicity. Judiciously designed drug nanocarriers can enhance the anticancer efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy while reducing its systemic toxicity. Herein the authors report a stable and water-soluble unimolecular nanoparticle constructed from a hydrophilic multi-arm star block copolymer poly(amidoamine)-b-poly(aspartic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAMAM-PAsp-PEG) conjugated with both cRGD (cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptide and cyanine5 (Cy5) fluorescent dye as a platinum-based drug nanocarrier for targeted ovarian cancer therapy...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Miri Kim, Hyun Soo Kim, Min Ah Kim, Hyanghwa Ryu, Hwan-Jeong Jeong, Chang-Moon Lee
Melanin is an effective absorber of light and can extend to near infrared (NIR) regions. In this study, a natural melanin is presented as a photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) because it provides a good photothermal conversion efficiency, shows biodegradability, and does not induce long-term toxicity during retention in vivo. Poloxamer solution containing melanin (Pol-Mel) does not show any precipitation and shows sol-gel transition at body temperature. After irradiation from 808 nm NIR laser at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 3 min, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Pol-Mel is enough to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Katrin Quester, Karla Juarez-Moreno, Isamel Secundino, Yvonne Roseinstein, Karla P Alejo, Alejandro Huerta-Saquero, Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
Cancer is still a growing public health problem, especially breast cancer that is one of the most important cancers in women. Chemotherapy, even though a successful treatment, is accompanied by severe side effects. Moreover, most of the drugs used for chemotherapy are administered as prodrugs and need to be transformed to the active form by cytochromes P450 (CYPs). In addition, increasing numbers of cancer tissues show lower CYP activity than the surrounding healthy tissues in which prodrugs are preferentially activated causing cytotoxicity...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Chee Meng Benjamin Ho, Abhinay Mishra, Pearlyn Teo Pei Lin, Sum Huan Ng, Wai Yee Yeong, Young-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Yoon
Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds with the use of novel 3D printing has gained lot of attention, however systematic investigation of biomaterials for 3D printing have not been widely explored. In this report, well-defined structures of polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL- carbon nanotube (PCL-CNT) composite scaffolds have been designed and fabricated using a 3D printer. Conditions for 3D printing has been optimized while the effects of varying CNT percentages with PCL matrix on the thermal, mechanical and biological properties of the printed scaffolds are studied...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ziyi Li, Chaoliang He, Baoming Yuan, Xiaoming Dong, Xuesi Chen
Biocompatible and antibacterial hydrogels have received increasing attention for preventing local bacterial infections. In this study, a type of polysaccharide hydrogels is prepared via the Schiff-based reaction at physiological conditions. The gelation time and mechanical property of the hydrogels are found to be dependent on the polysaccharide concentration and the polysaccharide weight ratio. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and live/dead assay indicate that the hydrogels display nontoxicity in vitro...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jagadeesh Malineni, Smriti Singh, Sabine Tillmann, Helmut Keul, Martin Möller
There is increasing interest in the synthesis of low molecular weight heparin and heparan sulfate mimetic polymers because of their various potential biomedical applications. The functional activity of heparin and heparan sulfate is believed to arise from the presence of a number of functional groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxylate and sulfate groups. The design and synthesis of novel heparin-mimetic polymers with a particular functionality poses a formidable challenge and requires carefully control of the selective conversion of functional groups on the polymer chain...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
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