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Macromolecular Bioscience

Chie Kojima, Yusuke Nakajima, Naoya Oeda, Takeshi Kawano, Yusuke Taki
Cell sorting is important for cell biology and regenerative medicine. A visible light-responsive cell scaffold is produced using gold nanoparticles and collagen gel. Various kinds of cells are cultured on the visible light-responsive cell scaffold, and the target cells are selectively detached by photoirradiation without any cytotoxicity. This is a new image-guided cell sorting system.
December 2, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yuyuan Wang, Liwei Wang, Guojun Chen, Shaoqin Gong
Platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely used to treat cancers including ovarian cancer; however, it suffers from dose-limiting toxicity. Judiciously designed drug nanocarriers can enhance the anticancer efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy while reducing its systemic toxicity. Herein the authors report a stable and water-soluble unimolecular nanoparticle constructed from a hydrophilic multi-arm star block copolymer poly(amidoamine)-b-poly(aspartic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAMAM-PAsp-PEG) conjugated with both cRGD (cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptide and cyanine5 (Cy5) fluorescent dye as a platinum-based drug nanocarrier for targeted ovarian cancer therapy...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Miri Kim, Hyun Soo Kim, Min Ah Kim, Hyanghwa Ryu, Hwan-Jeong Jeong, Chang-Moon Lee
Melanin is an effective absorber of light and can extend to near infrared (NIR) regions. In this study, a natural melanin is presented as a photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) because it provides a good photothermal conversion efficiency, shows biodegradability, and does not induce long-term toxicity during retention in vivo. Poloxamer solution containing melanin (Pol-Mel) does not show any precipitation and shows sol-gel transition at body temperature. After irradiation from 808 nm NIR laser at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 3 min, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Pol-Mel is enough to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Katrin Quester, Karla Juarez-Moreno, Isamel Secundino, Yvonne Roseinstein, Karla P Alejo, Alejandro Huerta-Saquero, Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
Cancer is still a growing public health problem, especially breast cancer that is one of the most important cancers in women. Chemotherapy, even though a successful treatment, is accompanied by severe side effects. Moreover, most of the drugs used for chemotherapy are administered as prodrugs and need to be transformed to the active form by cytochromes P450 (CYPs). In addition, increasing numbers of cancer tissues show lower CYP activity than the surrounding healthy tissues in which prodrugs are preferentially activated causing cytotoxicity...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Chee Meng Benjamin Ho, Abhinay Mishra, Pearlyn Teo Pei Lin, Sum Huan Ng, Wai Yee Yeong, Young-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Yoon
Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds with the use of novel 3D printing has gained lot of attention, however systematic investigation of biomaterials for 3D printing have not been widely explored. In this report, well-defined structures of polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL- carbon nanotube (PCL-CNT) composite scaffolds have been designed and fabricated using a 3D printer. Conditions for 3D printing has been optimized while the effects of varying CNT percentages with PCL matrix on the thermal, mechanical and biological properties of the printed scaffolds are studied...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ziyi Li, Chaoliang He, Baoming Yuan, Xiaoming Dong, Xuesi Chen
Biocompatible and antibacterial hydrogels have received increasing attention for preventing local bacterial infections. In this study, a type of polysaccharide hydrogels is prepared via the Schiff-based reaction at physiological conditions. The gelation time and mechanical property of the hydrogels are found to be dependent on the polysaccharide concentration and the polysaccharide weight ratio. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and live/dead assay indicate that the hydrogels display nontoxicity in vitro...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jagadeesh Malineni, Smriti Singh, Sabine Tillmann, Helmut Keul, Martin Möller
There is increasing interest in the synthesis of low molecular weight heparin and heparan sulfate mimetic polymers because of their various potential biomedical applications. The functional activity of heparin and heparan sulfate is believed to arise from the presence of a number of functional groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxylate and sulfate groups. The design and synthesis of novel heparin-mimetic polymers with a particular functionality poses a formidable challenge and requires carefully control of the selective conversion of functional groups on the polymer chain...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
María Laura Lastra, María Silvina Molinuevo, Ana María Cortizo, María Susana Cortizo
Natural and synthetic cross-linked polymers allow the improvement of cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of the individual polymers. In osteochondral lesions of big size it will be required the use of scaffolds to repair the lesion. In this work a borax cross-linked scaffold based on fumarate-vinyl acetate copolymer and chitosan directed to osteochondrondral tissue engineering is developed. The cross-linked scaffolds and physical blends of the polymers are analyzed in based on their morphology, glass transition temperature, and mechanical properties...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Partha Laskar, Joykrishna Dey, Payel Banik, Mahitosh Mandal, Sudip Kumar Ghosh
Stimuli-sensitive polymeric vesicles or polymersomes as self-assembled colloidal nanocarriers have received paramount importance for their integral role as delivery system for therapeutics and biotherapeutics. This work describes spontaneous polymersome formation at pH 7, as evidenced by surface tension, steady state fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, and microscopic studies, by three hydrophilic random cationic copolymers synthesized using N,N-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate in different mole ratios...
November 23, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sharad Kharel, Wei Li Lee, Xuan Yi Lee, Say Chye Joachim Loo
Microparticulate systems composed of biodegradable polymers, such as poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), are widely used for controlled release of bioactive molecules. However, the acidic microenvironment within these microparticles, as they degrade, has been reported to perturb the configuration of most encapsulated proteins. In addition, these polymer particles are also reported to suffer from unrealistically slow and incomplete release of proteins. To address these drawbacks, hollow PLGA microparticles are fabricated through a novel one-step oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique, by capitalizing on the osmotic property of an osmogen...
November 16, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Zainen Qin, Jingjing Wang, Ye Wang, Guohao Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Zhiyang Zhou, Gang Liu, Shi Gao, Lei Zhu
Early and accurate detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is essential to improve the prognosis of patients and reduce the morbidity of surgical therapy. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a protein abnormally expressed in HCC that has been identified as a serological and histochemical HCC marker. A novel peptide that specifically recognizes GPC3 will facilitate early detection of HCC and guide the treatment strategy. Herein, phage display screening technology is utilized to obtain a GPC3 binding peptide (GBP) using HCC cells expressing GPC3 in varying abundances...
November 15, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ryo Mizuta, Tetsushi Taguchi
Pulmonary air leaks are medical complications of thoracic surgery for which fibrin sealant is the main treatment. In this study, innovative sealants based on hydrophobically modified Alaska pollock-derived gelatin (hm-ApGltn) and a poly(ethylene)glycol-based 4-armed cross-linker (4S-PEG) have been developed and their burst strengths have been evaluated using fresh rat lung. The developed sealants show higher lung burst strength compared with the nonmodified original ApGltn (Org-ApGltn)-based sealant and a commercial fibrin sealant...
November 15, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hyosook Jeong, Soo Hyeon Lee, Yeonju Hwang, Hyundong Yoo, Heesun Jung, Sun Hwa Kim, Hyejung Mok
Multivalent aptamer-siRNA conjugates containing multiple mucin-1 aptamers and BCL2-specific siRNA are synthesized, and doxorubicin, an anthracycline anticancer drug, is loaded into these conjugates through intercalation with nucleic acids. These doxorubicin-incorporated multivalent aptamer-siRNA conjugates are transfected to mucin-1 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their multidrug-resistant cell lines. Doxorubicin-incorporated multivalent aptamer-siRNA conjugates exert promising anticancer effects, such as activation of caspase-3/7 and decrease of cell viability, on multidrug-resistant cancer cells because of their high intracellular uptake efficiency...
November 10, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Murat Topuzogullari, Yeliz Basaran Elalmis, Sevil Dincer Isoglu
Solution behavior of thermo-responsive polymers and their complexes with biological macromolecules may be affected by environmental conditions, such as the concentration of macromolecular components, pH, ion concentration, etc. Therefore, a thermo-responsive polymer and its complexes should be characterized in detail to observe their responses against possible environments under physiological conditions before biological applications. To briefly indicate this important issue, thermo-responsive block copolymer of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(oligoethyleneglycol methyl ether methacrylate) as a potential nonviral vector has been synthesized...
November 3, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Simona Tomaselli, Diego Omar Sanchez Ramirez, Riccardo Andrea Carletto, Alessio Varesano, Claudia Vineis, Serena Zanzoni, Henriette Molinari, Laura Ragona
Electrospinning is here used for the first time to prepare nanofibers including a host/guest complex in a keratin/poly(ethylene oxide) matrix. The host is a lipid binding protein and the guest is an insoluble bactericidal molecule, irgasan, bound within the protein internal cavity. The obtained nanofibers, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, exhibit excellent antibacterial activity toward Gram positive and negative bacteria, even with a moderate protein/irgasan cargo. Solution NMR studies, employed to provide molecular information on the cargo system, points to a micromolar affinity, compatible with both the electrospinning process and slow guest release...
November 2, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Anshul Sharma, Taizo Mori, Cory J Mahnen, Heather R Everson, Michelle T Leslie, Alek D Nielsen, Laurent Lussier, Chenhui Zhu, Christopher Malcuit, Torsten Hegmann, Jennifer A McDonough, Ernest J Freeman, LaShanda T J Korley, Robert J Clements, Elda Hegmann
The authors report on series of side-chain smectic liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) cell scaffolds based on star block-copolymers featuring 3-arm, 4-arm, and 6-arm central nodes. A particular focus of these studies is placed on the mechanical properties of these LCEs and their impact on cell response. The introduction of diverse central nodes allows to alter and custom-modify the mechanical properties of LCE scaffolds to values on the same order of magnitude of various tissues of interest. In addition, it is continued to vary the position of the LC pendant group...
November 2, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yusuke Sato, Yu Sakurai, Kazuaki Kajimoto, Takashi Nakamura, Yuma Yamada, Hidetaka Akita, Hideyoshi Harashima
Nanomedicines promise to extend drug therapy from small molecular compounds to proteins/nucleic acids/genes. Multifunctional envelope-type nanodevices (MENDs) have been developed for delivering such molecules to the site of action. The YSK-MEND contains new types of pH-responsive cationic lipids to efficiently deliver siRNA to hepatocytes via receptor-mediated endocytosis and use in treating hepatitis C and B in model mice. The RGD ligand is introduced to target tumor endothelial cells (TEC) and RGD-MEND is able to send siRNA to TEC to regulate the function of tumor microenvironments...
October 31, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yung-Li Wang, Shih-Pei Lin, Srinivasa Rao Nelli, Fu-Kai Zhan, Hsun Cheng, Tsung-Sheng Lai, Mei-Yu Yeh, Hsin-Chieh Lin, Shih-Chieh Hung
Fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) and Fmoc-arginine-glycine--aspartate (Fmoc-RGD) peptides self-assemble to form a 3D network of supramolecular hydrogel (Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGD), which provides a nanofibrous network that uniquely presents bioactive ligands at the fiber surface for cell attachment. In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGD hydrogel increase in proliferation and survival compared to those in Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGE hydrogel. Moreover, MSCs encapsulated in Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGD hydrogel and induced in each defined induction medium undergo in vitro osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation...
October 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Francisco M Goycoolea, Fabrice Brunel, Nour E El Gueddari, Anna Coggiola, Giovanna Lollo, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Carmen Remuñán-López, Thierry Delair, Alain Domard, María J Alonso
We addressed the role of the degree of acetylation (DA) and of Mw of chitosan (CS) on the physical characteristics and stability of soft nanoparticles obtained through either ionic cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), or reverse emulsion/gelation. Each of these methods affords nanoparticles (NPs) or nanogels (NGs), respectively. The size of CS-TPP NPs comprising CS of high Mw (≈123-266 kDa) increases with DA (≈1.6%-56%), while it do not change for CS of low Mw (≈11-13 kDa); the zeta potential (ζ) decreases with DA regardless of Mw (ζ ≈+34...
October 27, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Nachnicha Kongkatigumjorn, Christina Cortez-Jugo, Ewa Czuba, Adelene S M Wong, Rebecca Y Hodgetts, Angus P R Johnston, Georgina K Such
The effective escape of nanocarriers from endosomal compartments of the cell remains a major hurdle in nanomedicine. The endosomal escape of pH-responsive, self-assembled, dual component particles based on poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)(PDEAEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PEG-b-PDEAEMA) has been recently reported. Herein, we report that polymer molecular weight (Mn ) can be used to tune endosomal escape of nanoparticle delivery systems. PDEAEMA of Mn 7 kDa, 27 kDa, 56 kDa and 106 kDa was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and co-assembled with PEG-b-PDEAEMA (16 kDa) via nanoprecipitation...
October 27, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
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