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Macromolecular Bioscience

Raul Machado, André da Costa, Dina M Silva, Andreia C Gomes, Margarida Casal, Vitor Sencadas
Antimicrobial materials have become relevant for local therapies preventing microbial resistance induced by systemic antibiotic treatments. This work reports the development of electrospun poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber membranes loaded with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) up to 20 wt%. The membranes present smooth and nondefective fibers with mean diameters between 717 ± 197 and 495 ± 127 nm, and an overall porosity of ≈80%. The hydrophobicity of the PLLA membranes is reduced by the presence of bLF. The release profile of bLF correlates with an anomalous transport model, with 17...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Tao Chen, Yuanhong Xu, Wenrong Yang, Aihua Li, Yao Wang, Jing Sun, Jingquan Liu
Concavo-convex micelles with controllable sizes and nanostructures are prepared via self-assembling polymer-enzyme (e.g., shellac enzyme) conjugates with heterogeneous polymer chains, which exhibit higher enzyme stability (300%) and bioactivity (760%) comparing with the well-defined ones. The applied amphiphilic and negatively charged copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-block-poly (sodium p-styrene sulfonate), is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization to modify shellac enzyme and immobilize the enzyme bioactivity inducer by covalent conjugation and electrostatic attraction, respectively...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Pelin Erkoc, Fidan Seker, Tugba Bagci-Onder, Seda Kizilel
3D platforms are important for monitoring tumor progression and screening drug candidates to eradicate tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a malignant type of human brain tumor. Here, a new strategy is reported that exploits visible-light-induced crosslinking of gelatin where the reaction is carried out in the absence of an additional crosslinker. Visible light-induced crosslinking promotes the design of cancer microenvironment-mimetic system without compromising the cell viability during the process and absence of crosslinker facilitates the synthesis of the unique construct...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Fang Fang, Jin Liu, Yushu Li, Junjiao Yang, Jing Yang
Despite great progress, it is still of high interest to explore new homogeneous assays for simple, visual, and selective protein detection. Herein, one new colorimetric sensor has been developed for visual detection of protein by using polymeric micelles as a sensing scaffold and the molecular recognition between protein and the ligand on the surface of the polymeric micelles as the driving force to trigger the readout of the detection signal. The polymeric micelles formed via the self-assembly of the amphiphilic block polymer biotin-labeled poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(3-acryl aminophenylboronic acid) are endowed with colorful feature by incorporation of alizarin red S (ARS) into the hydrophobic core...
January 11, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Byeong-Ju Kwon, Xintong Wang, Mi-Lan Kang, Jin You, Shin-Jeong Lee, Won Shik Kim, Young-Sup Yoon, Jong-Chul Park, Hak-Joon Sung
Stem cells are a promising cell source for regenerative medicine due to their differentiation and self-renewal capacities. In the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, a variety of biomedical technologies have been tested to improve proangiogenic activities of stem cells. However, their therapeutic effect is found to be limited in the clinic because of cell loss, senescence, and insufficient therapeutic activities. To address this type of issue, advanced techniques for biomaterial synthesis and fabrication have been approached to mimic proangiogenic microenvironment and to direct proangiogenic activities...
December 29, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sabine Großhans, Inga Lilge, Holger Schönherr
Poly(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PDEGMA) brushes show interesting thermoresponsive behavior that can be applied for cell release surfaces. Here it is shown that PDEGMA thickness gradients, which are synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, allow the systematic and precise analysis of the attachment of PaTu 8988 cells. By pumping the polymerization solution into the reactor with vertically fixed initiator samples, PDEGMA gradients with linearly increasing dry ellipsometric thickness with typical slopes of 2...
December 27, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Tamara Abou Matar, Pierre Karam
It is generally accepted that positively charged molecules are the gold standard to by-pass the negatively charged cell membrane. Here, it is shown that cellular uptake is also possible for polymers with negatively charged side chains and hydrophobic backbones. Specifically, poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], a conjugated polyelectrolyte with sulfonate, as water-soluble functional groups, is shown to accumulate in the intracellular region. When the polymer hydrophobic backbone is dissolved using polyvinylpyrrolidone, an amphiphilic macromolecule, the cellular uptake is dramatically reduced...
December 22, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yupeng Wang, Lesan Yan, Shasha He, Dongfang Zhou, Yanxiang Cheng, Xuesi Chen, Xiabin Jing, Yubin Huang
Nanocarriers based on natural biomaterials such as peptides and proteins have shown great advantages in the field of nanomedicine. However, the complicated preparation process and possible denaturation of proteins may limit their further applications. Herein, a novel method is developed to prepare protein nanocluster drug delivery system based on the self-aggregated property of proteins under the isoelectric point condition. The crosslinked protein nanoclusters, prepared by adding modified natural crosslinking agent polysaccharide, exhibit excellent stability and autofluorescent property in physiological conditions...
December 22, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Benjamin Winkeljann, Benjamin T Käsdorf, Job Boekhoven, Oliver Lieleg
Whether for laboratory use or clinical practice, many fields in Life Sciences require selective filtering. However, most existing filter systems lack the ability to easily tune their filtration behavior. Two key elements for efficient filtering are a high surface-to-volume ratio and the presence of suitable chemical groups which establish selectivity. In this study, an artificial PDMS-based capillary system with highly tunable selectivity properties is presented. The high surface-to-volume ratio of this filter system is generated by first embedding sugar fibers into a synthetic polymer matrix and then dissolving these fibers from the cured polymer...
December 22, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Elizabeth A Aisenbrey, Andrew Tomaschke, Eric Kleinjan, Archish Muralidharan, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido, Robert R McLeod, Virginia L Ferguson, Stephanie J Bryant
Damage to articular cartilage can over time cause degeneration to the tissue surrounding the injury. To address this problem, scaffolds that prevent degeneration and promote neotissue growth are needed. A new hybrid scaffold that combines a stereolithography-based 3D printed support structure with an injectable and photopolymerizable hydrogel for delivering cells to treat focal chondral defects is introduced. In this proof of concept study, the ability to a) infill the support structure with an injectable hydrogel precursor solution, b) incorporate cartilage cells during infilling using a degradable hydrogel that promotes neotissue deposition, and c) minimize damage to the surrounding cartilage when the hybrid scaffold is placed in situ in a focal chondral defect in an osteochondral plug that is cultured under mechanical loading is demonstrated...
December 21, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Mitsuru Naito, Naoto Yoshinaga, Takehiko Ishii, Akira Matsumoto, Yuji Miyahara, Kanjiro Miyata, Kazunori Kataoka
Intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a long-standing challenge in oligonucleotide therapeutics. Herein, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-responsive polyion complex micelles assembled from poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine) (PEG-PLys) bearing 4-carboxy-3-fluorophenylboronic acid (FPBA) moiety in the PLys side chains (FPBA micelle) for the delivery of cholesterol-modified siRNA (Chol-siRNA) are described. The pKa of FPBA moiety is 7.2 and, therefore, it exists in equilibrium between negatively charged tetravalent and noncharged hydrophobic trivalent forms in physiological pH conditions...
December 18, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Mohammad Javadi, Qi Gu, Sina Naficy, Syamak Farajikhah, Jeremy M Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Stephen Beirne, Simon E Moulton
Biocompatible conductive tough hydrogels represent a new class of advanced materials combining the properties of tough hydrogels and biocompatible conductors. Here, a simple method, to achieve a self-assembled tough elastomeric composite structure that is biocompatible, conductive, and with high flexibility, is reported. The hydrogel comprises polyether-based liner polyurethane (PU), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), and liquid crystal graphene oxide (LCGO)...
December 13, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Narayanan Madaboosi, Katja Uhlig, Stephan Schmidt, Anna S Vikulina, Helmuth Möhwald, Claus Duschl, Dmitry Volodkin
Polyelectrolyte multilayers assembled from hyaluronic acid (HA) and poly-l-lysine (PLL) are most widely studied showing excellent reservoir characteristics to host molecules of diverse nature; however, thick (HA/PLL)n films are often found cell repellent. By a systematic study of the adhesion and proliferation of various cells as a function of bilayer number "n" a correlation with the mechanical and chemical properties of films is developed. The following cell lines have been studied: mouse 3T3 and L929 fibroblasts, human foreskin primary fibroblasts VH-Fib, human embryonic kidney HEK-293, human bone cell line U-2-OS, Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K and mouse embryonic stem cells...
December 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Artur Kasprzak, Ireneusz P Grudzinski, Magdalena Bamburowicz-Klimkowska, Andrzej Parzonko, Maciej Gawlak, Magdalena Poplawska
This work presents a very new look at folate targeting and is focused on synthesizing and assessing the biological activity of folic acid-targeted drug delivery materials based on β-cyclodextrin. Both folic acid and β-cyclodextrin have been covalently conjugated to branched polyethylenimine as the polymeric vector. Host-guest inclusion of folic acid into a β-cyclodextrin cavity, demonstrated by means of the spectroscopic methods (2-D NMR, IR, UV-Vis), is found to be of crucial importance for biological activity of nanotherapeutics...
December 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Zhen-Hua Wang, Yen-Yu Chang, Jhih-Guang Wu, Chia-Yu Lin, Hsiao-Lung An, Shyh-Chyang Luo, Tang K Tang, Wei-Fang Su
Neural tissue engineering has become a potential technology to restore the functionality of damaged neural tissue with the hope to cure the patients with neural disorder and to improve their quality of life. This paper reports the design and synthesis of polypeptides containing neuron stimulate, glutamic acid, for the fabrication of biomimetic 3D scaffold in neural tissue engineering application. The polypeptides are synthesized by efficient chemical reactions. Monomer γ-benzyl glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride undergoes ring-opening polymerization to form poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate), then hydrolyzes into poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate)-r-poly(glutamic acid) random copolymer...
December 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Verena M Weiss, Henrike Lucas, Thomas Mueller, Petr Chytil, Tomáš Etrych, Toufik Naolou, Jörg Kressler, Karsten Mäder
Biodegradable nanoparticles based on stearic acid-modified poly(glycerol adipate) (PGAS) are promising carriers for drug delivery. In order to investigate the impact of the particle interface characteristics on the biological fate, PGAS nanoparticles are covalently and noncovalently coated with N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers. HPMA copolymer-modified PGAS nanoparticles have similar particle sizes, but less negative zeta-potentials. Nanoparticles are double labeled with the fluorescent dyes DiR (noncovalently) and DYOMICS-676 (covalently bound to HPMA copolymer), and their biodistribution is investigated noninvasively by multispectral optical imaging...
December 8, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Gabriela Rodríguez Escalona, Joaquin Sanchis, María J Vicent
Polymer masked-unmasked protein therapy (PUMPT) employs polymer conjugation to protect therapeutic proteins during transit through the bloodstream and allow controlled release at a disease site via triggered degradation of the polymeric component. Most reported PUMPT systems are based on the specific enzymatic degradation of the polymeric component to release the protein and reinstate its activity. In these cases, therapeutic output is dependent on the presence of the required enzyme at the disease site at a sufficiently high concentration...
December 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Wen Chen, Mingcan Yang, Jian Bai, Xiang Li, Xiangrui Kong, Yu Gao, Lili Bi, Li Xiao, Bingyi Shi
Instability and poor targeting causes the long-term patency of RNA-modified tissue engineering blood vessels (TEBVs) remaining unsatisfactory. RNA can be enriched in exosome and then delivered into targeted cells while whether exosome-modified TEBVs achieve RNA targeted delivery is unclear. Here, to promote the expression of klotho protein on the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes, klotho plasmids are first transfected into MSCs, and adenosine kinase (ADK) siRNA is then loaded into exosome (klotho/ADK siRNA-exosome) using electrotransfection...
December 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sahar Awwad, Athmar Al-Shohani, Peng T Khaw, Steve Brocchini
Hydrogels can potentially prolong the release of a therapeutic protein, especially to treat blinding conditions. One challenge is to ensure that the protein and hydrogel are intimately mixed by better protein entanglement within the hydrogel. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) gels are optimized with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEDGA) crosslinker in the presence of either bevacizumab or PEG conjugated ranibizumab (PEG10 -Fabrani ). The release profiles of the hydrogels are evaluated using an outflow model of the eye, which is previously validated for human clearance of proteins...
December 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Muzafera Paljevac, Lidija Gradišnik, Saška Lipovšek, Uroš Maver, Jiři Kotek, Peter Krajnc
A combination of hard sphere and high internal phase emulsion templating gives a platform for synthesizing hierarchically porous polymers with a unique topology exhibiting interconnected spherical features on multiple levels. Polymeric spheres are fused by thermal sintering to create a 3D monolithic structure while an emulsion with a high proportion of internal phase and monomers in the continuous phase is added to the voids of the previously constructed monolith. Following polymerization of the emulsion and dissolution of the templating structure, a down-replicating topology is created with a primary level of pores as a result of fused spheres of the 3D monolithic structure, a secondary level of pores resulting from the emulsion's internal phase, and a tertiary level of interconnecting channels...
December 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
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