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Macromolecular Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337848/designing-smart-materials-with-recombinant-proteins
#1
REVIEW
Sydney Hollingshead, Charng-Yu Lin, Julie C Liu
Recombinant protein design allows modular protein domains with different functionalities and responsive behaviors to be easily combined. Inclusion of these protein domains can enable recombinant proteins to have complex responses to their environment (e.g., temperature-triggered aggregation followed by enzyme-mediated cleavage for drug delivery or pH-triggered conformational change and self-assembly leading to structural stabilization by adjacent complementary residues). These "smart" behaviors can be tuned by amino acid identity and sequence, chemical modifications, and addition of other components...
March 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337840/electrogenic-single-species-biocomposites-as-anodes-for-microbial-fuel-cells
#2
Patrick Kaiser, Steffen Reich, Daniel Leykam, Monika Willert-Porada, Andreas Greiner, Ruth Freitag
Integration of electrogenic microorganisms remains a challenge in biofuel cell technology. Here, synthetic biocomposites ("artificial biofilms") are proposed. Bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis) are embedded in a hydrogel matrix (poly(vinyl alcohol)) via wet- and electrospinning, creating fibers and nonwoven gauzes. The bacteria remain viable and metabolically active. The performance is compared to S. oneidensis suspension cultures and "natural" biofilms. While lower than with the suspension cultures, the power output from the fuel cells with the artificial biofilms is higher than with the natural one...
March 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337839/poly-ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylates-with-cleavable-ketal-sites-precursors-for-cleavable-peg-hydrogels
#3
Hannah Pohlit, Daniel Leibig, Holger Frey
The authors introduce poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based macromonomers containing acid-labile ketal moieties as well as terminal methacrylate units that are amenable to radical polymerization. The synthesis of PEGs of different molecular weights (ranging from 2000 to 13 000 g mol(-1) with polydispersities <1.15) with a central ketal unit (PEG-ketal-diol) and their conversion to PEG-ketal-dimethacrylates (PEG-ketal-DMA) is introduced. Degradation rates of both PEG-ketal-diols and PEG-ketal-DMA are investigated by in situ (1) H NMR kinetic studies in deuterated phosphate buffer...
March 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322510/rational-design-of-a-conductive-collagen-heart-patch
#4
Peter C Sherrell, Artur Cieślar-Pobuda, Malin Silverå Ejneby, Laura Sammalisto, Amy Gelmi, Ebo de Muinck, Johan Brask, Marek J Łos, Mehrdad Rafat
Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality globally. Tissue engineering is a key emerging treatment method for supporting and repairing the cardiac scar tissue caused by myocardial infarction. Creating cell supportive scaffolds that can be directly implanted on a myocardial infarct is an attractive solution. Hydrogels made of collagen are highly biocompatible materials that can be molded into a range of shapes suitable for cardiac patch applications...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306222/functionalizing-nanoemulsions-with-carboxylates-impact-on-the-biodistribution-and-pharmacokinetics-in-mice
#5
Mohamed F Attia, Sidy M Dieng, Mayeul Collot, Andrey S Klymchenko, Caroline Bouillot, Christophe A Serra, Marc Schmutz, Meriem Er-Rafik, Thierry F Vandamme, Nicolas Anton
Efficiency of drug administration is related to the inhibition of adverse effects, and can be improved by drug targeting through lipid nanocarriers encapsulation. Targeting technology generally goes along with the nanocarrier functionalization that can be surface modification and/or ligand grafting. The great advantage of nanoemulsions is their loading capability and the possibilities to encapsulate several entities in a single droplet, however, the decoration of the lipid droplets with strongly anchored reactive functions is challenging...
March 17, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297161/photoreversibility-and-biocompatibility-of-polydimethylsiloxane-coumarin-as-adjustable-intraocular-lens-material
#6
Rachid Jellali, Virginie Bertrand, Michaël Alexandre, Nancy Rosière, Magda Grauwels, Marie-Claire De Pauw-Gillet, Christine Jérôme
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) constitutes an interesting material for a variety of biomedical applications, especially as intraocular lenses (IOLs), for its excellent transparency. In this work, a photoreversible PDMS-coumarin network, whose shape and properties can be adjusted postoperatively in a noninvasive manner, is developed. The synthesis of PDMS-coumarin is achieved by amidation of a coumarin acid chloride derivative with amine-functionalized PDMSs. Under exposure of λ > 300 nm, these polymers can be cured by dimerization of coumarin...
March 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296144/aligned-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanofibers-guide-the-orientation-and-migration-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-vitro
#7
Anu Hyysalo, Mervi Ristola, Tiina Joki, Mari Honkanen, Minnamari Vippola, Susanna Narkilahti
Stem cell transplantations for spinal cord injury (SCI) have been studied extensively for the past decade in order to replace the damaged tissue with human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural cells. Transplanted cells may, however, benefit from supporting and guiding structures or scaffolds in order to remain viable and integrate into the host tissue. Biomaterials can be used as supporting scaffolds, as they mimic the characteristics of the natural cellular environment. In this study, hPSC-derived neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are cultured on aligned poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofiber platforms, which guide cell orientation to resemble that of spinal cord in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296132/polyvalent-2d-entry-inhibitors-for-pseudorabies-and-african-swine-fever-virus
#8
Benjamin Ziem, Jessica Rahn, Ievgen Donskyi, Kim Silberreis, Luis Cuellar, Jens Dernedde, Günther Keil, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Rainer Haag
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most dangerous viruses for pigs and is endemic in Africa but recently also spread into the Russian Federation and the Eastern border of the EU. So far there is no vaccine or antiviral drug available to curtail the infection. Thus, control strategies based on novel inhibitors are urgently needed. Another highly relevant virus infection in pigs is Aujeszky's disease caused by the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV). This article reports the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel extracellular matrix-inspired entry inhibitors based on polyglycerol sulfate-functionalized graphene sheets...
March 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251809/novel-anti-biofouling-soft-contact-lens-l-cysteine-conjugated-amphiphilic-conetworks-via-raft-and-thiol-ene-click-chemistry
#9
Chengfeng Zhang, Ziyuan Liu, Haiye Wang, Xiaofeng Feng, Chunju He
A unique l-cysteine conjugated antifouling amphiphilic conetwork (APCN) is synthesized through end-crosslinking of well-defined triblock copolymers poly(allyl methacrylate)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(allyl methacrylate) via a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The synthesized poly(ethylene glycol) macro-RAFT agent initiates the polymerization of allyl methacrylate in a controlled manner. The vinyl pendant groups of the precursor partially conjugate with l-cysteine and the rest fully crosslink with mercaptopropyl-containing siloxane via thiol-ene click chemistry under UV irradiation into APCNs, which show distinguished properties, that is, excellent biocompatibility, more than 39...
March 2, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248002/amino-acid-block-copolymers-with-broad-antimicrobial-activity-and-barrier-properties
#10
Michael P Bevilacqua, Daniel J Huang, Brian D Wall, Shalyn J Lane, Carl K Edwards, Jarrod A Hanson, Diego Benitez, Joseph S Solomkin, Timothy J Deming
Antimicrobial properties of a long-chain, synthetic, cationic, and hydrophobic amino acid block copolymer are reported. In 5 and 60 min time-kill assays, solutions of K100 L40 block copolymers (poly(l-lysine·hydrochloride)100 -b-poly(l-leucine)40 ) at concentrations of 10-100 µg mL(-1) show multi-log reductions in colony forming units of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as yeast, including multidrug-resistant strains. Driven by association of hydrophobic segments, K100 L40 copolymers form viscous solutions and self-supporting hydrogels in water at concentrations of 1 and 2 wt%, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240813/fabrication-and-characterization-of-conductive-conjugated-polymer-coated-antheraea-mylitta-silk-fibroin-fibers-for-biomedical-applications
#11
Darshan Gh, Dexu Kong, Julien Gautrot, Shyam Kumar Vootla
Conductive polymers are interesting materials for a number of biological and medical applications requiring electrical stimulation of cells or tissues. Highly conductive polymers (polypyrrole and polyaniline)/Antheraea mylitta silk fibroin coated fibers are fabricated successfully by in situ polymerization without any modification of the native silk fibroin. Coated fibers characterized by scanning electron microscopy confirm the silk fiber surface is covered by conductive polymers. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals preserved thermal stability of silk fiber after coating process...
February 27, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234423/enhanced-antimetastatic-activity-of-the-ruthenium-anticancer-drug-rapta-c-delivered-in-fructose-coated-micelles
#12
Mingxia Lu, Fan Chen, Janina-Miriam Noy, Hongxu Lu, Martina H Stenzel
The ruthenium complex-dichlororuthenium (II) (p-cymene) (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) (RAPTA-C)-has shown to be remarkably effective at suppressing the growth of solid tumor metastases. However, poor delivery efficacy and the lack of targeting ability of the common drug delivery system pose significant obstacles to maximize the therapeutic benefit of RAPTA-C. Inspired by the overexpression of GLUT5 transporter on the surface of breast cancer tissues but not the healthy mammary tissues, the use of d-fructose as the targeting moiety of the drug carrier can significantly improve the cellular uptake of nanoparticles, thus further enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of RAPTA-C...
February 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233419/regulation-of-scaffold-cell-adhesion-using-artificial-membrane-binding-proteins
#13
Madeline Burke, James P K Armstrong, Andrew Goodwin, Robert C Deller, Benjamin M Carter, Robert L Harniman, Aasiya Ginwalla, Valeska P Ting, Sean A Davis, Adam W Perriman
The rapid pace of development in biotechnology has placed great importance on controlling cell-material interactions. In practice, this involves attempting to decouple the contributions from adhesion molecules, cell membrane receptors, and scaffold surface chemistry and morphology, which is extremely challenging. Accordingly, a strategy is presented in which different chemical, biochemical, and morphological properties of 3D biomaterials are systematically varied to produce novel scaffolds with tuneable cell affinities...
February 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225570/washless-method-enables-multilayer-coating-of-an-aggregation-prone-nanoparticulate-drug-delivery-system-with-enhanced-yields-colloidal-stability-and-scalability
#14
Lamees Nayef, Rafael Castiello, Maryam Tabrizian
Aggregation is frequently encountered during coating nanoparticles, especially when the core is not solid and the coating polyelectrolytes are weak. Here, the coating of a nanoliposome with two weak polyelectrolytes, alginate and chitosan, is investigated. First, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses confirm the feasibility of firm adsorption of up to 16 layers of weak polyelectrolytes to the liposomal surface...
February 22, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221720/imaging-cell-matrix-interactions-in-3d-collagen-hydrogel-culture-systems
#15
Aaron R Short, Catherine Czeisler, Benjamin Stocker, Sara Cole, José Javier Otero, Jessica O Winter
3D hydrogels better replicate in vivo conditions, and yield different results from 2D substrates. However, imaging interactions between cells and the hydrogel microenvironment is challenging because of light diffraction and poor focal depth. Here, cryosectioning and vibrating microtomy methods and fixation protocols are compared. Collagen I/III hydrogel sections (20-100 µm) are fixed with paraformaldehyde (2%-4%) and structurally evaluated. Cryosectioning damaged hydrogels, and vibrating microtomy (100 µm, 2%) yielded the best preservation of microstructure and cell integrity...
February 21, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207187/a-robust-method-to-generate-mechanically-anisotropic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-sheets-for-vascular-tissue-engineering
#16
Daniel E Backman, Bauer L LeSavage, Shivem B Shah, Joyce Y Wong
In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS)...
February 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198589/synthesis-and-characterization-of-stimuli-responsive-star-like-polypept-o-ides-introducing-biodegradable-peptostars
#17
Regina Holm, Benjamin Weber, Philipp Heller, Kristina Klinker, Dana Westmeier, Dominic Docter, Roland H Stauber, Matthias Barz
Star-like polymers are one of the smallest systems in the class of core crosslinked polymeric nanoparticles. This article reports on a versatile, straightforward synthesis of three-arm star-like polypept(o)ide (polysarcosine-block-polylysine) polymers, which are designed to be either stable or degradable at elevated levels of glutathione. Polypept(o)ides are a recently introduced class of polymers combining the stealth-like properties of the polypeptoid polysarcosine with the functionality of polypeptides, thus enabling the synthesis of materials completely based on endogenous amino acids...
February 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160431/bioprinting-using-mechanically-robust-core-shell-cell-laden-hydrogel-strands
#18
Pritesh Mistry, Ahmed Aied, Morgan Alexander, Kevin Shakesheff, Andrew Bennett, Jing Yang
The strand material in extrusion-based bioprinting determines the microenvironments of the embedded cells and the initial mechanical properties of the constructs. One unmet challenge is the combination of optimal biological and mechanical properties in bioprinted constructs. Here, a novel bioprinting method that utilizes core-shell cell-laden strands with a mechanically robust shell and an extracellular matrix-like core has been developed. Cells encapsulated in the strands demonstrate high cell viability and tissue-like functions during cultivation...
February 3, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160423/polymeric-delivery-of-sirna-against-integrin-%C3%AE-1-cd29-to-reduce-attachment-and-migration-of-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Daniel Nisakar Meenakshi Sundaram, Cezary Kucharski, Manoj B Parmar, Remant Bahadur Kc, Hasan Uludağ
Cell surface integrins, which play important roles in the survival, proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells, are a viable target for treatment of metastatic breast cancer. This line of therapy still remains challenging due to the lack of proper identification and validation of effective targets as well as the lack of suitable therapeutic agents for treatment. The focus is on one such molecular target for this purpose, namely integrin-β1, and effective lowering of integrin-β1 levels on a breast cancer model (MDA-MB-231 cells) is achieved by delivering a dicer-substrate short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin-β1 with lipid-modified low molecular weight polyethylenimine polymers...
February 3, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135033/reverse-thermal-gel-for-in-utero-coverage-of-spina-bifida-defects-an-innovative-bioengineering-alternative-to-open-fetal-repair
#20
Ahmed I Marwan, Sarah M Williams, James R Bardill, Jane Gralla, Noraishah M Abdul-Aziz, Daewon Park
Current state-of-the-art management of open spina bifida defects entails an open fetal surgery approach associated with significant morbidities. In an attempt to reduce these risks and provide for an earlier minimally invasive repair, it is aimed to develop and characterize an innovative alternative using a unique reverse thermal gel. This study focuses on characterization of the physical and biological properties of the polymer and its in vivo applicability. Based on the knowledge and benchmarking, the "ideal" biomaterial should have the following characteristics: stability in amniotic fluid, limited permeability, biocompatibility, biologically functional, nontoxic, ability to support cellular functions, and in vivo applicability...
January 30, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
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