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Macromolecular Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902983/solid-tumor-immunotherapy-with-t-cell-engager-armed-oncolytic-viruses
#1
REVIEW
Eleanor M Scott, Margaret R Duffy, Joshua D Freedman, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are novel anticancer agents that combine direct cancer cell killing with the stimulation of antitumor immunity. In addition, OVs can be engineered to deliver biological therapeutics directly to tumors, offering unique opportunities to design multimodal anticancer strategies. Here, a case for arming OVs with bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs) is put forward. BiTEs redirect the cytotoxicity of polyclonal T cells to target cells of choice, and have demonstrated efficacy against a number of hematological cancers...
September 13, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895290/design-of-a-novel-two-component-hybrid-dermal-scaffold-for-the-treatment-of-pressure-sores
#2
Vaibhav Sharma, Nupur Kohli, Dale Moulding, Halimat Afolabi, Lilian Hook, Chris Mason, Elena García-Gareta
The aim of this study is to design a novel two-component hybrid scaffold using the fibrin/alginate porous hydrogel Smart Matrix combined to a backing layer of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane (Sil) membrane to make the fibrin-based dermal scaffold more robust for the treatment of the clinically challenging pressure sores. A design criteria are established, according to which the Sil membranes are punched to avoid collection of fluid underneath. Manual peel test shows that native silicone does not attach to the fibrin/alginate component while the plasma polymerized silicone membranes are firmly bound to fibrin/alginate...
September 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877405/egfr-targeting-and-shielding-of-pdna-lipopolyplexes-via-bivalent-attachment-of-a-sequence-defined-peg-agent
#3
Stephan Morys, Sarah Urnauer, Christine Spitzweg, Ernst Wagner
For successful nonviral gene delivery, cationic polymers are promising DNA carrier, which need to comprise several functionalities. The current work focuses on the postincorporation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted PEGylation agents onto lipopolyplexes for pDNA delivery. T-shaped lipo-oligomers are previously found to be effective sequence-defined carriers for pDNA and siRNA. Here, the bis-oleoyl-oligoaminoethanamide 454 containing tyrosine trimer-cysteine ends is applied for complex formation with pDNA coding for luciferase or sodium iodide symporter (NIS)...
September 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869362/self-assembly-of-thermoresponsive-recombinant-silk-elastinlike-nanogels
#4
Kyle J Isaacson, Mark Martin Jensen, Alexandre H Watanabe, Bryant E Green, Marcelo A Correa, Joseph Cappello, Hamidreza Ghandehari
Recombinant silk-elastinlike protein polymers (SELPs) combine the biocompatibility and thermoresponsiveness of human tropoelastin with the strength of silk. Direct control over structure of these monodisperse polymers allows for precise correlation of structure with function. This work describes the fabrication of the first SELP nanogels and evaluation of their physicochemical properties and thermoresponsiveness. Self-assembly of dilute concentrations of SELPs results in nanogels with enhanced stability over micelles due to physically crosslinked beta-sheet silk segments...
September 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869330/butyrate-loaded-chitosan-hyaluronan-nanoparticles-a-suitable-tool-for-sustained-inhibition-of-ros-release-by-activated-neutrophils
#5
Pasquale Sacco, Eva Decleva, Fabio Tentor, Renzo Menegazzi, Massimiliano Borgogna, Sergio Paoletti, Kåre Andre Kristiansen, Kjell Morten Vårum, Eleonora Marsich
Tissue damage caused by excessive amounts of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs in many inflammatory diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) with known anti-inflammatory properties, able to modulate several neutrophil functions. Evidence is provided here that butyrate inhibits neutrophil ROS release in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Given the short half-life of butyrate, chitosan/hyaluronan nanoparticles are next designed and developed as controlled release carriers able to provide cells with a long-lasting supply of this SCFA...
September 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834620/hyaluronic-acid-graft-copolymers-with-cleavable-arms-as-potential-intravitreal-drug-delivery-vehicles
#6
Tina Borke, Mathie Najberg, Polina Ilina, Madhushree Bhattacharya, Arto Urtti, Heikki Tenhu, Sami Hietala
Treatment of retinal diseases currently demands frequent intravitreal injections due to rapid clearance of the therapeutics. The use of high molecular weight polymers can extend the residence time in the vitreous and prolong the injection intervals. This study reports a water soluble graft copolymer as a potential vehicle for sustained intravitreal drug delivery. The copolymer features a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) backbone and poly(glyceryl glycerol) (PGG) side chains attached via hydrolysable ester linkers...
August 23, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815971/topographical-and-electrical-stimulation-of-neuronal-cells-through-microwrinkled-conducting-polymer-biointerfaces
#7
Alberto Bonisoli, Attilio Marino, Gianni Ciofani, Francesco Greco
The development of smart biointerfaces combining multiple functions is crucial for triggering a variety of cellular responses. In this work, wrinkled organic interfaces based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) are developed with the aim to simultaneously convey electrical and topographical stimuli to cultured cells. The surface wrinkling of thin films on heat-shrink polymer sheets allows for rapid patterning of self-assembled anisotropic topographies characterized by micro/sub-microscale aligned wrinkles...
August 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809095/isocyanate-free-uv-crosslinked-poly-hydroxyurethane-networks-a-sustainable-approach-toward-highly-functional-antibacterial-gels
#8
Geng Hua, Karin Odelius
An increased sustainabile awarness has inspired the development of new polymeric networks in a remarkable way and this strive should be combined with environmentally concerned end-uses. Therefore, a UV-crosslinked polyhydroxyurethane film with antibacterial properties is developed. First, a hydroxyurethane precursor is synthesized using aminolysis condensation, circumventing the use of isocyanates. The films are subsequently crosslinked under solvent-free conditions through a UV-triggered thiol-ene mechanism...
August 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809089/inverted-quasi-spherical-droplets-on-polydopamine-tio2-substrates-for-enhancing-gene-delivery
#9
Seung-Hyun Kim, Mihyun Lee, Mira Cho, Il-Sun Kim, Kook In Park, Haeshin Lee, Jae-Hyung Jang
Devising efficient gene delivery systems is crucial to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of gene-cell therapy approaches. Herein, inverted quasi-spherical (iQS) droplet systems, which enhance gene delivery efficiencies by reducing the path lengths of gene vectors, mediating motions of vectors at early stages, and raising the contact frequencies of vectors with cells, are developed by adopting the principle of 3D hanging-drop cell culture. Micrometer-sized polydopamine (pDA) holes are created on superhydrophobic titanium isopropoxide (TiO2 )-coated substrates by physical scraping; droplets are loaded on the pDA holes, and inversion of the substrate generates iQS droplets with large contact angles...
August 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809082/development-of-a-dual-functional-hydrogel-using-rgd-and-anti-vegf-aptamer
#10
Nan Zhao, Mark R Battig, Ming Xu, Xiuli Wang, Na Xiong, Yong Wang
Synthetic molecular libraries hold great potential to advance the biomaterial development. However, little effort is made to integrate molecules with molecular recognition abilities selected from different libraries into a single biomolecular material. The purpose of this work is to incorporate peptides and nucleic acid aptamers into a porous hydrogel to develop a dual-functional biomaterial. The data show that an anti-integrin peptide can promote the attachment and growth of endothelial cells in a 3D porous poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel and an antivascular endothelial growth factor aptamer can sequester and release VEGF of high bioactivity...
August 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805040/hpma-copolymer-drug-conjugates-with-controlled-tumor-specific-drug-release
#11
REVIEW
Petr Chytil, Eva Koziolová, Tomáš Etrych, Karel Ulbrich
Over the past few decades, numerous polymer drug carrier systems are designed and synthesized, and their properties are evaluated. Many of these systems are based on water-soluble polymer carriers of low-molecular-weight drugs and compounds, e.g., cytostatic agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, or multidrug resistance inhibitors, all covalently bound to a carrier by a biodegradable spacer that enables controlled release of the active molecule to achieve the desired pharmacological effect. Among others, the synthetic polymer carriers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers are some of the most promising carriers for this purpose...
August 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805013/drug-free-macromolecular-therapeutics-induce-apoptosis-via-calcium-influx-and-mitochondrial-signaling-pathway
#12
Lian Li, Jiyuan Yang, Jiawei Wang, Jindřich Kopeček
Recently, an innovative paradigm has been proposed in macromolecular therapeutics for treatment of B-cell lymphomas that can specifically kill cancer cells without a drug. The design rationale of this drug-free macromolecular therapeutic (DFMT) system is crosslinking the cell surface receptor to initiate apoptosis. However, how the apoptosis signal is triggered after receptor hyper-crosslinking remains to be elucidated. Here, two pathways, calcium influx dependent pathway and mitochondrial signal pathway, are identified to play major roles in triggering the programmed cell death...
August 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805010/characterization-of-hydrogels-made-of-a-novel-spider-silk-protein-emasp1s-and-evaluation-for-3d-printing
#13
Christopher Thamm, Elise DeSimone, Thomas Scheibel
Recombinantly produced spider silk proteins have high potential for bioengineering and various biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low immunogenicity. Here, the recently described small spider silk protein eMaSp1s is assembled into hydrogels, which can be 3D printed into scaffolds. Further, blending with a recombinantly produced MaSp2 derivative eADF4(C16) alters the mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels. Different spider silk hydrogels also show a distinct recovery after a high shear stress deformation, exhibiting the tunability of their features for selected applications...
August 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776937/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-chloroquine-containing-dmaema-copolymers-as-efficient-anti-mirna-delivery-vectors-with-improved-endosomal-escape-and-antimigratory-activity-in-cancer-cells
#14
Ying Xie, Fei Yu, Weimin Tang, Bolutito Oluwole Alade, Zheng-Hong Peng, Yazhe Wang, Jing Li, David Oupický
Chloroquine-containing 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate copolymers (PDCs) are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Systematic evaluation is performed to test the hypothesis that presence of chloroquine (CQ) in the PDC structure will improve miRNA delivery due to enhanced endosomal escape while simultaneously contribute to anticancer activity of PDC/miRNA polyplexes through inhibition of cancer cell migration. The results show that miRNA delivery efficiency is dependent both on the molecular weight and CQ...
August 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762636/blockage-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-by-nanoparticles-reduces-survival-and-proliferation-of-cll-cells-in-vitro-preliminary-study
#15
Ida Franiak-Pietryga, Henryk Maciejewski, Barbara Ziemba, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Tadeusz Robak, Magdalena Jander, Jacek Treliński, Maria Bryszewska, Maciej Borowiec
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is shown to play a significant role in the control of the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Studies have confirmed that aberrant activation of canonical Wnt signaling occurs in various forms of leukemia, and is crucial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of maltotriose (M3) modified fourth generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers (PPI-G4) on Wnt/β-catenin pathway gene expression in CLL (MEC-1) cells and to compare these findings with those obtained with fludarabine (FA)...
August 1, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759159/peptosomes-for-vaccination-combining-antigen-and-adjuvant-in-polypept-o-ide-based-polymersomes
#16
Benjamin Weber, Cinja Kappel, Martin Scherer, Mark Helm, Matthias Bros, Stephan Grabbe, Matthias Barz
In this work, the first vaccine is reported based on a PeptoSome, which contains a model antigen (SIINFEKL) and adjuvant (CpG). PeptoSomes are polypept(o)ide-based polymersomes built of a block-copolymer with polysarcosine (PSar) as the hydrophilic block (X n = 111) and poly(benzyl-glutamic acid) (PGlu(OBn)) as the hydrophobic one (X n = 46). The polypept(o)ide is obtained with low dispersity index of 1.32 by controlled ring-opening polymerization. Vesicle formation by dual centrifugation technique allows for loading of vesicles up to 40 mol%...
July 31, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741860/autoinducer-sensing-microarrays-by-reporter-bacteria-encapsulated-in-hybrid-supramolecular-polysaccharide-hydrogels
#17
Ping Li, Xiaoqiu Dou, Mareike Müller, Chuanliang Feng, Matthew Wook Chang, Martin Frettlöh, Holger Schönherr
A generally applicable strategy to obtain mechanically robust hydrogels for the incorporation and containment of functional reporter bacteria for the microarray and microparticle-based detection and signaling of N-acyl homoserine lactone autoinducers (3OC12 HSL) at relevant concentrations is reported. For reinforcing hydrogels of 1,4-bi(phenylalanine-diglycol)-benzene (PDB), a hybrid hydrogel is formed by the combination of PDB self-assembly with Ca(2+) mediated alginate crosslinking. The different assembly mechanisms are shown not to interfere with each other and despite the more than four-fold increased moduli of the hydrogels, diffusion of autoinducers into the gels remains efficient and Escherichia coli pLuxR-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter bacteria are proliferating...
July 25, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737832/self-assembled-polyprodrug-amphiphile-for-subcutaneous-xenograft-tumor-inhibition-with-prolonged-acting-time-in-vivo
#18
Dong Chen, Yu Huang, Shuting Xu, Huangyong Jiang, Jieli Wu, Xin Jin, Xinyuan Zhu
Polymeric drug delivery system termed as "polyprodrug amphiphile" poly(2-methylacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(10-hydroxy-camptothecin methacrylate (pMPC-b-pHCPT) is developed for the prolonged-acting cancer therapy. It is obtained by two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of zwitterionic monomer MPC and an esterase-responsive polymerizable prodrug methacrylic anhydride-CPT, respectively. This diblock polymer is composed of both antifouling (pMPC) and bioactive (pHCPT) segments and the drug is designed as a building block to construct the polymer skeleton directly...
July 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722358/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-polypeptides-for-use-as-functional-and-structural-materials
#19
REVIEW
Kousuke Tsuchiya, Keiji Numata
Polypeptides inspired by the natural functional and structural proteins present in living systems are promising materials for various fields in terms of their versatile functionality and physical properties. Designing and synthesizing mimetic sequences of specific peptide motifs in proteins are important for exploring the functionality of natural proteins. Chemoenzymatic polymerization, which utilizes aminolysis (i.e., the reverse reaction of hydrolysis catalyzed by proteases), is a useful technique for synthesizing artificial polypeptide materials and has several advantages, including facile synthesis protocols, environmental friendliness, scalability, and atom economy...
July 19, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714290/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-biodegradable-reactive-isocyanate-terminated-three-armed-and-hyperbranched-block-copolymeric-tissue-adhesives
#20
Agnieszka I Bochyńska, Gerjon Hannink, Jan J Rongen, Dirk W Grijpma, Pieter Buma
Tissue adhesives are an attractive class of biomaterials, which can serve as a treatment for meniscus tears. In this study, physicochemical and adhesive properties of novel biodegradable three-armed- and hyperbranched block copolymeric adhesives are evaluated. Additionally, their degradation in vitro and in vivo, and the tissue reaction after subcutaneous injection in rats are assessed. The developed adhesives have sufficient adhesive strength to meniscus tissue after curing (66-88 kPa). Networks based on the three-armed adhesive have tensile properties that are in the same range as human meniscus...
July 17, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
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