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Macromolecular Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152858/in-vitro-evaluation-of-anti-aggregation-and-degradation-behavior-of-pegylated-polymeric-nanogels-under-in-vivo-like-conditions
#1
Yinan Chen, George R Dakwar, Kevin Braeckmans, Twan Lammers, Wim E Hennink, Josbert M Metselaar
The in vivo stability and biodegradability of nanocarriers crucially determine therapeutic efficacy as well as safety when used for drug delivery. This study aims to evaluate optimized in vitro techniques predictive for in vivo nanocarrier behavior. Polymeric biodegradable nanogels based on hydroxyethyl methacrylamide-oligoglycolates-derivatized poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylamide-co-N-(2-azidoethyl)methacrylamide) and with various degrees of PEGylation and crosslinking densities are prepared. Three techniques are chosen and refined for specific in vitro evaluation of the nanocarrier performance: (1) fluorescence single particle tracking (fSPT) to study the stability of nanogels in human plasma, (2) tangential flow filtration (TFF) to study the degradation and filtration of nanogel degradation products, and (3) fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) to evaluate and compare the degradation behavior of nanogels in buffer and plasma...
November 20, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148617/microfibers-as-physiologically-relevant-platforms-for-creation-of-3d-cell-cultures
#2
REVIEW
Marilyn C McNamara, Farrokh Sharifi, Alex H Wrede, Daniel F Kimlinger, Deepak-George Thomas, Jonathan B Vander Wiel, Yuanfen Chen, Reza Montazami, Nicole N Hashemi
Microfibers have received much attention due to their promise for creating flexible and highly relevant tissue models for use in biomedical applications such as 3D cell culture, tissue modeling, and clinical treatments. A generated tissue or implanted material should mimic the natural microenvironment in terms of structural and mechanical properties as well as cell adhesion, differentiation, and growth rate. Therefore, the mechanical and biological properties of the fibers are of importance. This paper briefly introduces common fiber fabrication approaches, provides examples of polymers used in biomedical applications, and then reviews the methods applied to modify the mechanical and biological properties of fibers fabricated using different approaches for creating a highly controlled microenvironment for cell culturing...
November 17, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144603/hyaluronic-acid-based-micelles-as-ocular-platform-to-modulate-the-loading-release-and-corneal-permeation-of-corticosteroids
#3
Flavia Bongiovì, Giulia Di Prima, Fabio S Palumbo, Mariano Licciardi, Giovanna Pitarresi, Gaetano Giammona
The aim of this work is to prepare hyaluronic acid-based micelles as a platform to load corticosteroid drugs and to improve their corneal permeation after administration on the ocular surface. Three amphiphilic derivatives of hyaluronic acid (HA) are synthesized using different amounts of hexadecylamine (C16 -NH2 ). HAC16 a, HAC16 b, and HAC16 c derivatives are able to form micelles by the cosolvent evaporation method and to entrap corticosteroids (dexamethasone, triamcinolone, triamcinolone acetonide). HAC16 a and HAC16 b micelles show the best results in terms of drug loading and particle size...
November 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144584/3d-printed-anchoring-sutures-for-permanent-shaping-of-tissues
#4
Wei Wei, Yuxiao Li, Huazhe Yang, Reza Nassab, Fatemeh Shahriyari, Ali Akpek, Xiaofei Guan, Yanhui Liu, Shahrouz Taranejoo, Ali Tamayol, Yu Shrike Zhang, Ali Khademhosseini, Hae Lin Jang
Sutures are one of the most widely used devices for adhering separated tissues after injury or surgery. However, most sutures require knotting, which can create a risk of inflammation, and can act as mechanically weak points that often result in breakage and slipping. Here, an anchoring suture is presented with a design that facilitates its propagation parallel to the suturing direction, while maximizing its resistive force against the opposite direction of external force to lock its position in tissues. Different microstructures of suture anchors are systematically designed using orthogonal arrays, and selected based on shape factors associated with mechanical strength...
November 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144579/tailor-made-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-selective-recognition-of-the-urinary-tumor-marker-pseudouridine
#5
Aleksandra Krstulja, Stefania Lettieri, Andrew J Hall, Vincent Roy, Patrick Favetta, Luigi A Agrofoglio
Pseudouridine (Ψ) is an important urinary cancer biomarker, especially in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Disclosed herein is the first Ψ molecularly imprinted polymer (Ψ-MIP) material obtained from tailor-engineered functional monomers. The resulting MIP imprint exhibits a remarkable imprinting factor greater than 70. It is successfully used for the selective recognition of Ψ in spiked human urine. This selective functionalized material opens the route to the development of inexpensive disposable chemosensors for noninvasive CRC diagnosis and prognosis...
November 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139616/raft-polymerization-for-the-synthesis-of-tertiary-amine-based-diblock-copolymer-nucleic-acid-delivery-vehicles
#6
Annie K McClellan, Taisen Hao, Tracy A Brooks, Adam E Smith
The synthesis and characterization of a family of nine pH-responsive, diblock copolymers designed to effectively deliver nucleic acids are reported. The stabilizing A block is comprised of an oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate to impart water solubility. The cationic blocks of varying degrees of polymerization (DPs) are derived from three pH responsive, tertiary amine-containing methacrylates capable of complexing negatively charged nucleic acids. The cytotoxicity studies utilizing human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells indicate no decrease of cell viability with the diblock copolymers, with the exception of the two highest DPs of the cationic blocks with ethyl-substitutes tertiary amine...
November 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134785/maintenance-of-cartilaginous-gene-expression-of-serially-subcultured-chondrocytes-on-poly-2-methoxyethyl-acrylate-analogous-polymers
#7
Takashi Hoshiba, Hiroka Maruyama, Kazuhiro Sato, Chiho Endo, Naoki Kawazoe, Guoping Chen, Masaru Tanaka
Chondrocytes are important for cartilage tissue engineering. However, dedifferentiation during chondrocyte subculture prevents the application of cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, prevention of this dedifferentiation is required. Here, the possibility of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and its analogous polymers, poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA) and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (PMe2A), for chondrocyte subculture without dedifferentiation is examined. Chondrocytes spread on PTHFA and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), whereas their spreading is delayed on PMEA and PMe2A...
November 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131546/polymeric-nanoparticles-induce-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-promote-breast-cancer-metastasis
#8
Qinglian Hu, Fenghui Zhao, Fengliang Guo, Chengcheng Wang, Zhengwei Fu
Polymeric nanoparticles gain enormous interests in cancer therapy. Polyethylenimine (PEI) 25 kD is well known for its high transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. PEI-CyD (PC) was previously synthesized by conjugating low molecular PEI (M w 600) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD), which is shown to induce lower cytotoxicity than PEI 25 kD. In the current study, the in vivo immune response of branched PEI 25 kD and PC is investigated. Compared to PC/pDNA, exposure of PEI 25kD/pDNA induces higher level of immune-stimulation evidenced by the increased spleen weight, phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophage, and proinflammatory cytokines in serum and liver...
November 13, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115711/linear-precision-glycomacromolecules-with-varying-interligand-spacing-and-linker-functionalities-binding-to-concanavalin-a-and-the-bacterial-lectin-fimh
#9
Sinaida Igde, Susanna Röblitz, Anne Müller, Katharina Kolbe, Sophia Boden, Claudia Fessele, Thisbe K Lindhorst, Marcus Weber, Laura Hartmann
A series of precision glycomacromolecules is prepared following previously established solid phase synthesis allowing for controlled variations of interligand spacing and the overall number of carbohydrate ligands. In addition, now also different linkers are installed between the carbohydrate ligand and the macromolecular scaffold. The lectin binding behavior of these glycomacromolecules is then evaluated in isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and kinITC experiments using the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) in its dimeric and tetrameric form...
November 8, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076662/a-novel-3d-cultured-model-for-studying-early-changes-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
Ali Shokoohmand, June E Jeon, Christina Theodoropoulos, Jeremy G Baldwin, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Beatrix Feigl
Various in vitro culture systems have been used to investigate the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, many still rely on oversimplified monolayer culture models. AMD is a complex disease, associated with the pathological changes to multiple structural components such as the Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroidal endothelial cells. This study aims to construct a novel 3D coculture model using the polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin electrospun scaffold, with human RPE cells (hRPE) and primate choroidal cells (RF-6A)...
October 27, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068545/alkali-mediated-miscibility-of-gelatin-polycaprolactone-for-electrospinning-homogeneous-composite-nanofibers-for-tissue-scaffolding
#11
Qihui Zhou, Huilan Zhang, Ya Zhou, Zhepao Yu, Huihua Yuan, Bei Feng, Patrick van Rijn, Yanzhong Zhang
Electrospun natural-synthetic composite nanofibers, which possess favorable biological and mechanical properties, have gained widespread attention in tissue engineering. However, the development of biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids remains a huge challenge due to phase separation of the polymer blends. Here, aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution is proposed to modulate the miscibility of a representative natural-synthetic hybrid of gelatin (GT) and polycaprolactone (PCL) for electrospinning homogeneous composite nanofibers...
October 25, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068544/cisplatin-rich-polyoxazoline-poly-aspartic-acid-supramolecular-nanoparticles
#12
Peng Zhang, Kangjun Yuan, Cheng Li, Xiaoke Zhang, Wei Wu, Xiqun Jiang
Cisplatin-rich supramolecular nanoparticles are constructed through the supramolecular inclusion interaction between the admantyl (Ad)-terminated poly(aspartic acid) (Ad-P(Asp)) and the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-terminated poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline). In the formation of the nanoparticles, the β-CD/admantane inclusion complex integrates poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(aspartic acid) chains to form pseudoblock copolymers, followed by the coordination between carboxyl groups in P(Asp) block and cisplatin. This coordination interaction drives the formation of nanoparticle and enables cisplatin incorporated into the nanoparticles...
October 25, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068543/covalent-incorporation-of-heparin-improves-chondrogenesis-in-photocurable-gelatin-methacryloyl-hydrogels
#13
Gabriella C J Brown, Khoon S Lim, Brooke L Farrugia, Gary J Hooper, Tim B F Woodfield
Multicomponent gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels are regularly adopted for cartilage tissue engineering (TE) applications, where optimizing chemical modifications for preserving biofunctionality is often overlooked. This study investigates the biological effect of two different modification methods, methacrylation and thiolation, to copolymerize GelMA and heparin. The native bioactivity of methacrylated heparin (HepMA) and thiolated heparin (HepSH) is evaluated via thromboplastin time and heparan sulfate-deficient myeloid cell-line proliferation assay, demonstrating that thiolation is superior for preserving anticoagulation and growth factor signaling capacity...
October 25, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045024/in-vivo-characterizations-of-the-immune-properties-of-sericin-an-ancient-material-with-emerging-value-in-biomedical-applications
#14
Zhanying Jiao, Yu Song, Yang Jin, Cheng Zhang, Dong Peng, Zhenzhen Chen, Panpan Chang, Subhas C Kundu, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
The biosafety of sericin remains controversial. The misunderstanding regarding sericin causing adverse biological responses have been clarified by extensively reviewing relevant literatures and experimentally demonstrating that sericin exhibits mild inflammatory responses, negligible allergenicity, and low immunogenicity in vivo. This study supports that sericin is biosafe as a natural biomaterial.
October 17, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921867/polymer-cancerostatics-targeted-with-an-antibody-fragment-bound-via-a-coiled-coil-motif-in-vivo-therapeutic-efficacy-against-murine-bcl1-leukemia
#15
Michal Pechar, Robert Pola, Olga Janoušková, Irena Sieglová, Vlastimil Král, Milan Fábry, Barbora Tomalová, Marek Kovář
A BCL1 leukemia-cell-targeted polymer-drug conjugate with a narrow molecular weight distribution consisting of an N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer carrier and the anticancer drug pirarubicin is prepared by controlled radical copolymerization followed by metal-free click chemistry. A targeting recombinant single chain antibody fragment (scFv) derived from a B1 monoclonal antibody is attached noncovalently to the polymer carrier via a coiled coil interaction between two complementary peptides. Two pairs of coiled coil forming peptides (abbreviated KEK/EKE and KSK/ESE) are used as linkers between the polymer-pirarubicin conjugate and the targeting protein...
September 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902983/solid-tumor-immunotherapy-with-t-cell-engager-armed-oncolytic-viruses
#16
REVIEW
Eleanor M Scott, Margaret R Duffy, Joshua D Freedman, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are novel anticancer agents that combine direct cancer cell killing with the stimulation of antitumor immunity. In addition, OVs can be engineered to deliver biological therapeutics directly to tumors, offering unique opportunities to design multimodal anticancer strategies. Here, a case for arming OVs with bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs) is put forward. BiTEs redirect the cytotoxicity of polyclonal T cells to target cells of choice, and have demonstrated efficacy against a number of hematological cancers...
September 13, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877405/egfr-targeting-and-shielding-of-pdna-lipopolyplexes-via-bivalent-attachment-of-a-sequence-defined-peg-agent
#17
Stephan Morys, Sarah Urnauer, Christine Spitzweg, Ernst Wagner
For successful nonviral gene delivery, cationic polymers are promising DNA carrier, which need to comprise several functionalities. The current work focuses on the postincorporation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted PEGylation agents onto lipopolyplexes for pDNA delivery. T-shaped lipo-oligomers are previously found to be effective sequence-defined carriers for pDNA and siRNA. Here, the bis-oleoyl-oligoaminoethanamide 454 containing tyrosine trimer-cysteine ends is applied for complex formation with pDNA coding for luciferase or sodium iodide symporter (NIS)...
September 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869362/self-assembly-of-thermoresponsive-recombinant-silk-elastinlike-nanogels
#18
Kyle J Isaacson, Mark Martin Jensen, Alexandre H Watanabe, Bryant E Green, Marcelo A Correa, Joseph Cappello, Hamidreza Ghandehari
Recombinant silk-elastinlike protein polymers (SELPs) combine the biocompatibility and thermoresponsiveness of human tropoelastin with the strength of silk. Direct control over structure of these monodisperse polymers allows for precise correlation of structure with function. This work describes the fabrication of the first SELP nanogels and evaluation of their physicochemical properties and thermoresponsiveness. Self-assembly of dilute concentrations of SELPs results in nanogels with enhanced stability over micelles due to physically crosslinked beta-sheet silk segments...
September 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034601/contact-active-antimicrobial-coatings-prepared-by-polymer-blending
#19
Rocío Cuervo-Rodríguez, Fátima López-Fabal, José L Gómez-Garcés, Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla, Marta Fernández-García
Herein, contact active antimicrobial films are prepared by simply blending cationic amphiphilic block copolymers with commercial polystyrene (PS). The copolymers are prepared by combining atom transfer radical polymerization and "click chemistry." A variety of copolymers are synthesized, and composed of a PS segment and an antimicrobial block bearing flexible side chain with thiazole and triazole groups, 4-(1-(2-(4-methylthiazol-5-yl)ethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) butyl methacrylate (TTBM). The length of the TTBM block is varied as well as the alkylating agent...
November 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941135/hemocompatibility-of-ca-2-crosslinked-nanocellulose-hydrogels-toward-efficient-management-of-hemostasis
#20
Alex Basu, Jaan Hong, Natalia Ferraz
The present work investigates Ca(2+) -crosslinked nanofibrillated cellulose hydrogels as potential hemostatic wound dressings by studying core interactions between the materials and a central component of wounds and wound healing-the blood. Hydrogels of wood-derived anionic nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and NFC hydrogels that incorporate kaolin or collagen are studied in an in vitro whole blood model and with platelet-free plasma assays. The evaluation of thrombin and factor XIIa formation, platelet reduction, and the release of activated complement system proteins, shows that the NFC hydrogel efficiently triggered blood coagulation, with a rapid onset of clot formation, while displaying basal complement system activation...
November 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
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