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Macromolecular Bioscience

Deepak Guduru, Marcus S Niepel, Cristina Gonzalez-Garcia, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez, Thomas Groth
Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) coatings on biomaterials are applied to tailor adhesion, growth, and function of cells on biomedical implants. Here, biogenic and synthetic polyelectrolytes (PEL) are used for layer-by-layer assembly to study the osteogenic activity of PEM with human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells in a comparative manner. Formation of PEM is achieved with biogenic PEL fibrinogen (FBG) and poly-l-lysine (PLL) as well as biotinylated chondroitin sulfate (BCS) and avidin (AVI), while poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) represent a fully synthetic PEM used as a reference system here...
May 26, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Kenichi Nagase, Yuhei Nagumo, Miri Kim, Hee-Jung Kim, Hei-Won Kyung, Hye-Jin Chung, Hidekazu Sekine, Tatsuya Shimizu, Hideko Kanazawa, Teruo Okano, Seung-Jin Lee, Masayuki Yamato
Cell sheet transplantation is a key tissue engineering technology. A vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-releasing fiber mat is developed for the transplantation of multilayered cardiomyocyte sheets. Poly(vinyl alcohol) fiber mats bearing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles that incorporate VEGF are fabricated using electrospinning and electrospray methods. Six-layered cardiomyocyte sheets are transplanted with a VEGF-releasing mat into athymic rats. After two weeks, these sheets produce thicker cardiomyocyte layers compared with controls lacking a VEGF-releasing mat, and incorporate larger-diameter blood vessels containing erythrocytes...
May 26, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Xiuwei Pan, Qiong Sun, Yuanhao Zhang, Haibo Cai, Yun Gao, Yongjia Shen, Weian Zhang
Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with most current methods can hardly satisfy clinical application requirement. While in vivo, HSCs efficiently self-renew in niche where they interact with 3D extracellular matrix and stromal cells. Therefore, co-cultures of CD34(+) cells and mesenchyme stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane (hAMSCs) on the basis of biomimetic macroporous three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds are developed, where scaffolds and hAMSCs are applied to mimic structural and cellular microenvironment of HSCs...
May 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ting Wu, Longhai Wang, Shenggang Ding, Yezi You
A novel PEGylation polypeptide, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-cysteine) (PEG-PLL-PCys) triblock copolymer is synthesized via the sequential ring-opening polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides initiated by methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (mPEG-NH2 , Mw is 2 kDa). Subsequently, the obtained polypeptide is partially conjugated with fluorocarbon chains via disulfide exchange reaction. PLL segment can condense plasmid DNA through an electrostatic force to form a complex core, PEG segment surrounding the complex like a corona can prevent the complex from precipitation and reduce the adsorption of serum, while PCys segment with fluorocarbon can enhance the cellular uptake and the stability of the formed polyplex micelles in physiological conditions...
May 19, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hengmin Tang, Yuki Sakamura, Takeshi Mori, Yoshiki Katayama, Akihiro Kishimura
Applications of enzymes are intensively studied, particularly for biomedical applications. However, encapsulation or immobilization of enzymes without deactivation and long-term use of enzymes are still at issue. This study focuses on the polymeric vesicles "PICsomes" for encapsulation of enzymes to develop a hecto-nanometer-scaled enzyme-loaded reactor. The catalytic activity of a PICsome-based enzyme nanoreactor is carefully examined to clarify the effect of compartmentalization by PICsome. Encapsulation by PICsome provides a stability enhancement of enzymes after 24 h incubation at 37 °C, which is particularly helpful for maintaining the high effective concentration of β-galactosidase...
May 19, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Mehdi Bin Samad, Yashpal Singh Chhonker, Jacob I Contreras, Alec McCarthy, Megan M McClanahan, Daryl J Murry, Martin Conda-Sheridan
The ability to tune supramolecular properties such as size, morphology, or metabolic stability is of paramount importance in the field of supramolecular chemistry. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are a family of functional self-assembling biomaterials that have garnered widespread attention due to their broad applicability in medicine. PAs are generally comprised of an amino acid sequence connected to lipid tail(s) allowing them to self-assemble into supramolecular structures with diverse morphologies. Herein, this study describes the synthesis of a new class of polyamine-based "hybrid" PAs (PPAs) as novel self-assembling systems...
May 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ji Yeon Kim, Chunxian Piao, Gyeungyun Kim, Seonyeong Lee, Min Sang Lee, Ji Hoon Jeong, Minhyung Lee
A ternary complex comprising plasmid DNA, lipopolysaccharide-binding peptide (LBP), and deoxycholic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine (PEI-DA) is prepared for combinational therapy of acute lung injury (ALI). The LBP is designed as an anti-inflammatory peptide based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding domain of HMGB-1. In vitro cytokine assays show that LBP reduces levels of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting LPS. PEI-DA is synthesized as the gene carrier by conjugation of deoxycholic acid to low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (2 kDa, PEI2k)...
May 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Carmen Lawatscheck, Marcus Pickhardt, Anna Grafl, Katharina Linkert, Frank Polster, Eckhard Mandelkow, Hans G Börner
The pharmacological profiles of small molecule drugs are often challenged by their poor water solubility. Sequence-defined peptides attached to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) offer opportunities to overcome these difficulties by acting as drug-specific formulation additives. The peptide-PEG conjugates enable specific, noncovalent drug binding via tailored peptide/drug interactions as well as provide water solubility and drug shielding by well-solvated PEG-blocks. A systematic set of specific solubilizers for B4A1 as a potential anti-Alzheimer disease drug is synthesized and variations involve the length of the PEG-blocks as well as the sequences of the peptidic drug-binding domain...
May 10, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Tanmay Dichwalkar, Shraddha Patel, Samhita Bapat, Priya Pancholi, Neel Jasani, Bina Desai, Venkata K Yellepeddi, Vikas Sehdev
Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers (UGCs) are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Paclitaxel (PTX) is frequently used for the treatment of UGCs; however, low bioavailability, reduced solubility, and dose-dependent toxicity impede its therapeutic use. PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 -DHA is synthesized by linking amine-terminated fourth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 ) dendrimers with omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Next, PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 -DHA-PTX (DHATX) and PAMAMG4.0 -NH2 -PTX (PAX) conjugates are synthesized by subsequent covalent binding of PTX with PAMAMG4...
May 9, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Laura Morelli, Martino Alfredo Cappelluti, Leonardo Ricotti, Cristina Lenardi, Irini Gerges
Periodontitis treatments usually require local administration of antimicrobial drugs with the aim to reduce the bacterial load inside the periodontal pocket. Effective pharmaceutical treatments may require sustained local drug release for several days in the site of interest. Currently available solutions are still not able to fulfill the clinical need for high-quality treatments, mainly in terms of release profiles and patients' comfort. This work aims to fill this gap through the development of an in situ gelling system, capable to achieve controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial agents for medium-to-long-term treatments...
May 2, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hao Meng, Yan Zou, Ping Zhong, Fenghua Meng, Jian Zhang, Ru Cheng, Zhiyuan Zhong
Nano-prodrugs usually involve a multistep synthesis which largely compromises their benefits. Here, a smart nano-prodrug platform with reactive drug loading, superb stability, and triggered drug release is reported for targeted melanoma therapy. cRGD-decorated polymersomal mertansine prodrug (cRGD-PS-DM1) is readily fabricated from cRGD-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-dithiolane trimethylene carbonate) with simultaneous loading of mertansine (DM1) via thiol-disulfide exchange reaction and disulfide cross-linking of polymersomal membrane...
May 2, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Wei Mao, Hyuk Sang Yoo
Manipulated roughness has been etched on nanofibers to modulate adsorption of serum proteins for serum-free cells cultivation. Mixtures of Polycaprolactone and Pluronic with various blending ratios are electrospun to nanofibers and Pluronic is subsequently leached out by methanol. Electron microscopy reveals that surface roughness of the nanofibers is changed according to the contents of Pluronic. Both weight loss monitoring and NMR spectroscopy confirm that all Pluronic is leached out after methanol treatment...
May 2, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Claudia Battistella, Harm-Anton Klok
Polymer nanomedicines are very attractive to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutics. Polymer conjugates and other polymer-based nanocarriers allow to increase plasma half-life and drug bioavailability and can also be guided toward tumors using passive and active targeting strategies. Since many chemotherapeutics act on targets that are located in well-defined subcellular compartments, other important factors that contribute to an efficient therapy include cellular internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking of the polymer nanomedicines and/or its payload to the appropriate organelle in the cytoplasm...
April 26, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Doreen Hentrich, Soraya Taabache, Gerald Brezesinski, Nele Lange, Wolfgang Unger, Christian Kübel, Annabelle Bertin, Andreas Taubert
The phase behavior of a dendritic amphiphile containing a Newkome-type dendron as the hydrophilic moiety and a cholesterol unit as the hydrophobic segment is investigated at the air-liquid interface. The amphiphile forms stable monomolecular films at the air-liquid interface on different subphases. Furthermore, the mineralization of calcium phosphate beneath the monolayer at different calcium and phosphate concentrations versus mineralization time shows that at low calcium and phosphate concentrations needles form, whereas flakes and spheres dominate at higher concentrations...
April 18, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Mathias Dimde, Fitsum Feleke Sahle, Virginia Wycisk, Dirk Steinhilber, Luis Cuellar Camacho, Kai Licha, Jürgen Lademann, Rainer Haag
In the present study, a pH responsive dendritic polyglycerol nanogel (dPG-NG) is developed to measure the pH values inside the hair follicle (HF) using an ex vivo porcine ear model. The macromolecular precursors are labeled with a pH sensitive indodicarbocyanine dye (pH-IDCC) and a control dye (indocarbocyanine dye: ICC) and crosslinked via a mild and surfactant-free Thiol-Michael reaction using an inverse nanoprecipitation method. With this method, it is possible to prepare tailor-made particles in the range of 100 nm to 1 µm with a narrow polydispersity...
April 10, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jin Kim, Kisuk Yang, Jong Seung Lee, Yong Hwa Hwang, Hyun-Ji Park, Kook In Park, Dong Yun Lee, Seung-Woo Cho
Graphene oxide (GO) has received increasing attention in bioengineering fields due to its unique biophysical and electrical properties, along with excellent biocompatibility. The application of GO nanoparticles (GO-NPs) to engineer self-renewal and differentiation of human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) is reported. GO-NPs added to hfNSC culture during neurosphere formation substantially promote cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions in neurospheres. Accordingly, GO-NP-treated hfNSCs show enhanced self-renewal ability and accelerated differentiation compared to untreated cells, indicating the utility of GO in developing stem cell therapies for neurogenesis...
April 10, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sandro Sieber, Stefan Siegrist, Stéphanie Schwarz, Fabiola Porta, Susanne H Schenk, Jörg Huwyler
Enzyme immobilization is of high interest for industrial applications. However, immobilization may compromise enzyme activity or stability due to the harsh conditions which have to be applied. The authors therefore present a new and improved crosslinked layer-by-layer (cLbL) approach. Two different model enzymes (acid phosphatase and β-galactosidase) are immobilized under mild conditions on biocompatible, monodisperse, sub-micrometer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles. The resulting PLGA enzyme systems are characterized regarding their size, surface charge, enzyme activity, storage stability, reusability, and stability under various conditions such as changing pH and temperature...
April 7, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Mahsa Jamadi, Parvin Shokrollahi, Behzad Houshmand, Mortaza Daliri Joupari, Fatemeh Mashhadiabbas, Ali Khademhosseini, Nasim Annabi
Tissue expansion is used by plastic/reconstructive surgeons to grow additional skin/tissue for replacing or repairing lost or damaged soft tissues. Recently, hydrogels have been widely used for tissue expansion applications. Herein, a self-inflating tissue expander blend composition from three different molecular weights (2, 6, and 10 kDa) of poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel with tunable mechanical and swelling properties is presented. The in vitro results demonstrate that, of the eight studied compositions, P6 (PEGDA 6 kDa:10 kDa (50:50)) and P8 (PEGDA 6 kDa:10 kDa (35:65)) formulations provide a balance of mechanical property and swelling capability suitable for tissue expansion...
April 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Matthias Bartneck
Immunity has a major impact on inflammatory diseases and cancer, and biologics targeting immune cells and their factors reach a quarter trillion of market volume by this year. Adaptive leukocytes have recently been engaged in cancer immunotherapy, whereas modulation of the innate immune cells, specifically macrophages, is expected as next breakthrough. With patents of major biologics expiring, nanomedicine has the potential to substitute therapeutic proteins by using miniaturized macromolecules. This review includes an overview on the involvement of major immune cell types into disease and a summary on selected current therapies based on biologics and small molecules...
April 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jee-Wei Emily Chen, Sara Pedron, Brendan A C Harley
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of brain cancer. Its high mortality is associated with its aggressive invasion throughout the brain. The heterogeneity of stiffness and hyaluronic acid (HA) content within the brain makes it difficult to study invasion in vivo. A dextran-bead assay is employed to quantify GBM invasion within HA-functionalized gelatin hydrogels. Using a library of stiffness-matched hydrogels with variable levels of matrix-bound HA, it is reported that U251 GBM invasion is enhanced in softer hydrogels but reduced in the presence of matrix-bound HA...
April 5, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
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