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Macromolecular Bioscience

Jingxuan Yan, Ruying Chen, Hong Zhang, James D Bryers
mRNA vaccines have proven to be more stable, effective, and specific than protein/peptide-based vaccines in stimulating both humoral and cellular immune response. However, mRNA's fast degradation rate and low-transfection efficiency in vivo impede its potential in vaccination. Recent research in gene delivery has focused on nonviral vaccine carriers and either implantable or injectable delivery systems to improve transgene expression in vivo. Here, an injectable chitosan-alginate gel scaffold for the local delivery of mRNA vaccines is reported...
November 16, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yan Chun Gong, Xiang Yuan Xiong, Xiang Jun Ge, Zi Ling Li, Yu Ping Li
Targeted drug delivery systems have attracted increasing attention due to their ability for delivering anticancer drugs selectively to tumor cells. Folic acid (FA)-conjugated targeted block copolymers, FA-Pluronic-polycaprolactone (FA-Pluronic-PCL) are synthesized in this study. The anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) is loaded in FA-Pluronic-PCL nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation method. The in vitro release of PTX from FA-Pluronic-PCL nanoparticles shows slow and sustained release behaviors. The effect of FA ligand density of FA-Pluronic-PCL nanoparticles on their targeting properties is examined by both cytotoxicity and fluorescence methods...
November 16, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Kristan S Worthington, Anh-Vu Do, Rasheid Smith, Budd A Tucker, Aliasger K Salem
Geometric topographies are known to influence cellular differentiation toward specific phenotypes, but to date the range of features and type of substrates that can be easily fabricated to study these interactions is somewhat limited. In this study, an emerging technology, two-photon polymerization, is used to print topological patterns with varying feature-size and thereby study their effect on cellular differentiation. This technique offers rapid manufacturing of topographical surfaces with good feature resolution for shapes smaller than 3 µm...
November 14, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ronald C van Gaal, Michele Fedecostante, Peter-Paul K H Fransen, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Patricia Y W Dankers
Induction of a functional, tight monolayer of renal epithelial cells on a synthetic membrane to be applied in a bioartificial kidney device requires for bio-activation of the membrane. The current golden standard in bio-activation is the combination of a random polymeric catechol (L-DOPA) coating and collagen type IV (Col IV). Here the possibility of replacing this with defined monomeric catechol functionalization on a biomaterial surface using supramolecular ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy)-moieties is investigated...
November 14, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
De-E Liu, Jinxia An, Chengcai Pang, Xiangjie Yan, Wei Li, Jianbiao Ma, Hui Gao
High transfection efficiency and superior cell imaging are required for cationic polymers-based gene delivery system to afford high therapeutic effect but its high toxicity and unstable cell imaging are easily ignored. In this study, cationic amino poly(glycerol methacrylate) derivative (PGMA-EDA) is used to incorporate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecular (tetraphenylethylene derivatives, TPE) as an efficient carrier for gene transfection and intracellular imaging. The obtained polymer/pDNA-TPE/BSA (PDTB) quaternary nanoparticles (NPs) not only exhibit efficient gene transfection but also show excellent biocompatibility...
November 14, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Erin G Roberts, Nae-Gyune Rim, Wenwen Huang, Anna Tarakanova, Jingjie Yeo, Markus J Buehler, David L Kaplan, Joyce Y Wong
Silk-elastin-like-protein polymers (SELPs) are genetically engineered recombinant protein sequences consisting of repeating units of silk-like and elastin-like blocks. By combining these entities, it is shown that both the characteristic strength of silk and the temperature-dependent responsiveness of elastin can be leveraged to create an enhanced stimuli-responsive material. It is hypothesized that SELP behavior can be influenced by varying the silk-to-elastin ratio. If the responsiveness of the material at different ratios is significantly different, this would allow for the design of materials with specific temperature-based swelling and mechanical properties...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Chris Holland, Nicholas Hawkins, Martin Frydrych, Peter Laity, David Porter, Fritz Vollrath
Native silk proteins, extracted directly from the silk gland prior to spinning, offer access to a naturally hydrated protein that has undergone little to no processing. Combined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), it is possible to probe the thermal stability and hydration status of silk and thus investigate its denaturation and solidification, echoing that of the natural spinning process. It is found that native silk is stable between -10 °C and 55 °C, and both the high-temperature enthalpy of denaturation (measured via modulated temperature DSC) and a newly reported low-temperature ice-melting transition may serve as useful quality indicators in the future for artificial silks...
November 9, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yun-An Huang, Chris T Ho, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Chen-Ju Lee, Szu-Mo Ho, Ming-Chia Li, Eric Hwang
Surface topography has a profound effect on the development of the nervous system, such as neuronal differentiation and morphogenesis. While the interaction of neurons and the surface topography of their local environment is well characterized, the neuron-topography interaction during the regeneration process remains largely unknown. To address this question, an anisotropic surface topography resembling linear grooves made from poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) (EVA), a soft and biocompatible polymer, using nanoimprinting, is established...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Minmin Chen, Suwei Jiang, Feng Zhang, Linlin Li, Hailiang Hu, Hualin Wang
Graphene oxide (GO)/poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds have promising applications in the biomedical field. However, greater attention is focused on the incorporated system and its applications in normal cells. In this work, a novel GO immobilized PLGA nanofibrous scaffold assisted by polydopamine (PLGA-PDA-GO) is developed for growth inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cells. The interactions between GO and PDA are attributed to a π-π conjugate interaction and electrostatic attraction. In addition to the enhancement of thermal stability and mechanical strength, the surface roughness, hydrophilicity, and electro-activity of the scaffolds are significantly improved by immobilization of GO...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Katharina Susanne Bücher, Nikolina Babic, Tanja Freichel, Filip Kovacic, Laura Hartmann
The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, often exhibiting multiresistance against conventional antibiotics, expresses the lectin LecB that is suspected to be an important factor during biofilm formation via interactions with cell-surface presented carbohydrate ligands such as the blood group antigens. Therefore, carbohydrate-based ligands interfering with LecB binding have the potential to lead to new anti-biofilm and anti-adhesion therapies. This study explores in vitro binding potencies of glycomimetic ligands containing up to six α-l-fucose ligands on a monodisperse, sequence-controlled oligoamide scaffold interacting with LecB...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Albina R Franco, Erica Palma Kimmerling, Carla Silva, Fernando J Rodrigues, Isabel B Leonor, Rui L Reis, David L Kaplan
Surgical site infections (SSI) represent a serious health problem that occur after invasive surgery, thus new antimicrobial biomaterials able to prevent SSI are needed. Silks are natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and controllable biodegradability. Spider silk-based materials can be bioengineered and functionalized with specific peptides, such as antimicrobial peptides, creating innovative polymers. Herein, we explored new drug-free multifunctional silk films with antimicrobial properties, specifically tailored to hamper microbial infections...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hiroyuki Fujita, Nahoko Nihei, Masami Bito, Tsuyoshi Michinobu
The [2+2] cycloaddition-retroelectrocyclization (CA-RE) between N,N-dialkylaniline-substituted alkynes and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is employed to fabricate functional cross-linked polymer films containing the intramolecular charge-transfer (CT) chromophores at the cross-linking points. Polystyrene bearing N,N-dialkylaniline-substituted alkynes (P1) and TCNQ polyester (P2) are mixed in tetrahydrofuran (THF), then this solution is spray-coated onto an indium tin oxide or glass plate. Heating to 100 °C initiates the [2+2] CA-RE reaction, resulting in the formation of cross-linked polymer films...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ok Park, Eun Seo Choi, Gyeonghui Yu, Jun Yeong Kim, Yoon Young Kang, Heesun Jung, Hyejung Mok
Exosomes (EXO) are considered to be versatile carriers for biomolecules; however, the delivery of therapeutic peptides using EXOs poses several challenges. In this study, the efficiency of serum-derived EXOs in delivering tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP2) peptides to lymph nodes is determined. TRP2 peptides are successfully incorporated into EXOs, which show a uniform and narrow size distribution of around 45 nm. The TRP2-incorporated exosomes (EXO-TRP2) are efficiently internalized into macrophages and dendritic cells, and are seen to display a punctate distribution...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Seong Min Kim, Min Suk Lee, Jin Jeon, Dong Hyun Lee, Kisuk Yang, Seung-Woo Cho, Inbo Han, Hee Seok Yang
An innovative technique combining capillary force lithography and phase separation method in one step is applied to fabricate artificial nerve guidance conduit (NGC) for peripheral nerve regeneration. Biodegradable porous, patterned NGC (PP-NGC) using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) is fabricated. It has micro-grooves and microporosity on the inner surface to promote axonal outgrowth and to enhance permeability for nutrient exchange. In this study, it is confirmed that the inner surface of micro-grooves can modulate neurite orientation and length of mouse neural stem cell compared to porous flat NGC (PF-NGC) in vitro...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Iman Manavitehrani, Ali Fathi, Aaron Schindeler, Fariba Dehghani
The manufacture of a biocompatible carrier for controlled delivery of bioactive compounds is described. This carrier is composed of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle as core that is homogenously distributed in an injectable hydrogel. For the synthesis of nanoparticles, a one step sol-gel method is developed to produce pores with the range of 100 nm. BMP2 and Fluorescein-conjugated bovine serum albumin is used as proteinaceous agents for measuring release, and is loaded into mesoporous silica nanoparticles at the optimum conditions of 48 h incubation period using 1:10 ratio of protein to nanoparticles...
November 5, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Diego López Barreiro, Jingjie Yeo, Anna Tarakanova, Francisco J Martin-Martinez, Markus J Buehler
Silk embodies outstanding material properties and biologically relevant functions achieved through a delicate hierarchical structure. It can be used to create high-performance, multifunctional, and biocompatible materials through mild processes and careful rational material designs. To achieve this goal, computational modeling has proven to be a powerful platform to unravel the causes of the excellent mechanical properties of silk, to predict the properties of the biomaterials derived thereof, and to assist in devising new manufacturing strategies...
October 30, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Silvia Grande, Pieter Cools, Mahtab Asadian, Joachim Van Guyse, Iuliia Onyshchenko, Heidi Declercq, Rino Morent, Richard Hoogenboom, Nathalie De Geyter
This study focuses on the enhanced electrospinning of 300-Polyethylene oxide-polyethylene oxide terephthalate/polybutylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT). An atmospheric pressure plasma jet for liquid treatment is applied to a solution with 9 w/v% PEOT/PBT dissolved in either chloroform (CHCl3 ), CHCl3  + N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), CHCl3  + methanol (MeOH), or CHCl3  + hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). For all conditions, the plasma-treated samples present better-quality fibers: less or no-beads and uniform fiber diameter distribution...
October 23, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hector Lopez Hernandez, Abigail K Grosskopf, Lyndsay M Stapleton, Gillie Agmon, Eric A Appel
Drug delivery and cell transplantation require minimally invasive deployment strategies such as injection through clinically relevant high-gauge needles. Supramolecular hydrogels comprising dodecyl-modified hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) have been previously demonstrated for the delivery of drugs and proteins. Here, it is demonstrated that the rheological properties of these hydrogels allow for facile injectability, an increase of cell viability after injection when compared to cell viabilities of cells injected in phosphate-buffered saline, and homogeneous cell suspensions that do not settle...
October 22, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Shuai Chen, Qixian Chen, Shuqi Dong, Jianbiao Ma, Ying-Wei Yang, Li Chen, Hui Gao
UiO-66-based metal-organic framework nanoparticles functionalized with abundant polycationic segments as polymer brushes on surface are created to load negatively charged functional entities composed of anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), and aggregation-induced emissive luminogen, a tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivative, followed by further modification with cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) as a supramolecular glue with the aim of pursuing a pH-responsive release function of the loaded functional components. The subsequent investigations verified the constructed formulation capable of promoting the stability and cellular uptake of the nanoparticles...
October 17, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Kelly M Hainline, Fangqi Gu, Jacqueline F Handley, Ye F Tian, Yaoying Wu, Larischa de Wet, Donald J Vander Griend, Joel H Collier
Progress in prostate cancer research is presently limited by a shortage of reliable in vitro model systems. The authors describe a novel self-assembling peptide, bQ13, which forms nanofibers and gels useful for the 3D culture of prostate cancer spheroids, with improved cytocompatibility compared to related fibrillizing peptides. The mechanical properties of bQ13 gels can be controlled by adjusting peptide concentration, with storage moduli ranging between 1 and 10 kPa. bQ13's ability to remain soluble at mildly basic pH considerably improved the viability of encapsulated cells compared to other self-assembling nanofiber-forming peptides...
October 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
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