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Cardiovascular Toxicology

Yavuzer Koza, Ednan Bayram, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Canan Atalay, Mehmet Resit Onen, Cengiz Ozturk, Sare Sipal, Elif Demirci, Akin Levent
Bilateral common carotid artery ligation (BCCAL) leads to acute craniocervicocerebral ischemia, retrograde blood flow, increased blood pressure, and significant hemodynamic and histomorphological changes at the posterior cerebral vasculature. We examined the potential relationship between denervation injury following BCCAL-induced cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) ischemia and heart rate after permanent BCCAL. Rabbits (n = 25) were randomly divided into three groups: an unoperated control group (GI, n = 6); a sham-operated control group (GII, n = 6), and an experimental group subjected to BCCAL (GIII, n = 13); and then followed for one month...
July 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Tatiana Filatova, Vadim Mitrokhin, Olga Kamkina, Irina Lovchikova, Mitko Mladenov, Andre Kamkin
The following study examined the impact of IL-2 on Ca2+ channel activity in the event of several hours' incubation in IL-2. The right ventricle free wall for action potential measurements was isolated and perfused with Tyrode solution. The whole-cell voltage clamp experiments were performed on enzymatically isolated single cardiomyocytes. The whole-cell voltage clamp recording of Ca2+ currents was performed using the Cs+ -based pipette and bath solutions. The protocol with depolarizing prepulse (- 40 mV) was used to inactivate both Na+ current and Ca2+ T-type current...
July 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Suvendu Giri, Jagadesh Chandra Bose, Ajay Chandrasekar, Basant K Tiwary, Palanivel Gajalakshmi, Suvro Chatterjee
Chemotherapy induced cardiotoxicity leads to development of hypertension, conduction abnormalities, and congestive heart failure. However, there is no simple test to detect and assess cardiovascular risk in a chemotherapy treated cancer patient. The aim of the present study on cancer patients treated with (n = 66) and without (n = 66) chemotherapy is to identify indicators from plasma for vascular injury. The levels of plasma nitrite, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), von Willebrand factor (vWF), cardiac troponins, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were estimated...
July 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Robert J Henning, Marie Bourgeois, Raymond D Harbison
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an immediate cellular repair response to DNA damage and is catalyzed primarily by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP1), which is the most abundant of the 18 different PARP isoforms and accounts for more than 90% of the catalytic activity of PARP in the cell nucleus. Upon detection of a DNA strand break, PARP1 binds to the DNA, cleaves nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide between nicotinamide and ribose and then modifies the DNA nuclear acceptor proteins by formation of a bond between the protein and the ADP-ribose residue...
July 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Basant Sharma, Udit Chaube, Bhoomika M Patel
The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of silymarin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction (PAAC) in Wistar rats. Silymarin was administered for 9 weeks at the end of which we evaluated hypertrophic, hemodynamic, non-specific cardiac markers, oxidative stress parameters, and determined mitochondrial DNA concentration. Hypertrophic control animals exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, altered hemodynamics, oxidative stress, and decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) concentration...
July 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Brian B Hasinoff, Daywin Patel
The proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, which are used in the treatment of multiple myeloma have greatly improved response rates. Several other proteasome inhibitors, including delanzomib and oprozomib, are in clinical trials. Carfilzomib and oprozomib are epoxyketones that form an irreversible bond with the 20S proteasome, whereas bortezomib, ixazomib, and delanzomib are boronic acids that form slowly reversible adducts. Several of the proteasome inhibitors have been shown to exhibit specific cardiac toxicities...
June 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Haiyan Tong, Jonathan D Krug, Q Todd Krantz, Charly King, Marie M Hargrove, M Ian Gilmour, Stephen H Gavett
The health effects of individual criteria air pollutants have been well investigated. However, little is known about the health effects of air pollutant mixtures that more realistically represent environmental exposures. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of inhaled simulated smog atmospheres (SA) generated from the photochemistry of either gasoline and isoprene (SA-G) or isoprene (SA-Is) in mice. Four-month-old female mice were exposed for 4 h to filtered air (FA), SA-G, or SA-Is...
June 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Célia Lachuer, Jennifer Corny, Yvonnick Bézie, Sadri Ferchichi, Bernard Durand-Gasselin
Lacosamide, one of the last antiepileptic drugs marketed, can cause extension of PR interval. Precautions are recommended when used in elderly and with other drugs extending PR interval. Cases of severe third-degree atrioventricular block have been reported only in post-marketing case reports when used at high-doses and remain rare. We report the case of an 88-year-old woman treated with bisoprolol, who experienced a complete atrioventricular block after initiation of lacosamide for epilepsy associated with neurodegenerative disease...
June 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Saylav Bora, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Gürkan Yiğittürk, Oytun Erbaş, İsmet Parlak
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoprolol, lipid emulsion and MgSO4 which can be recommended for prevention of long QT that is one of the lethal consequences of amitriptyline intoxication. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were included. Five groups respectively received the following: saline intraperitoneally (i.p.); amitriptyline (AMT) 100 mg/kg per os (p.o.) and saline i.p.; AMT 100 mg/kg p.o. and 5 mg/kg metoprolol i.p.; AMT 100 mg/kg p.o. and 20 ml/kg lipid emulsion i.p.; AMT 100 mg/kg p...
June 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Luis Such-Miquel, Irene Del Canto, Manuel Zarzoso, Laia Brines, Carlos Soler, Germán Parra, Antonio Guill, Antonio Alberola, Luis Such, Francisco J Chorro
Electromechanical coupling studies have described the intervention of nitric oxide and S-nitrosylation processes in Ca2+ release induced by stretch, with heterogeneous findings. On the other hand, ion channel function activated by stretch is influenced by nitric oxide, and concentration-dependent biphasic effects upon several cellular functions have been described. The present study uses isolated and perfused rabbit hearts to investigate the changes in mechanoelectric feedback produced by two different concentrations of the nitric oxide carrier S-nitrosoglutathione...
June 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Li-Jun Zhao, Ying Xiao, Xia Meng, Ning Wang, Y James Kang
Rabbits are widely used for the study of atherosclerosis; however, the lack of a unified and quantitative analysis of atheroma limits data interpretation and comparisons between laboratories. In this study, we applied a simple quantitative method, referred to as the oil red O (ORO) dye-eluting method, for analysis of atherosclerotic plaques in freshly isolated aortas. It employs ORO staining of the plaques followed by elution of the dye that is subjected to quantitative measurement. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by feeding a 1% (w/w) high cholesterol diet for 4 or 12 weeks...
June 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Ai Goto, Yuji Nakamura, Nur Jaharat Lubna, Koki Chiba, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Atsushi Sugiyama
Lithium is one of the classical drugs that have been widely used for treating bipolar disorder. However, several cardiac side effects including sick sinus syndrome, bundle branch block, ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, non-specific T-wave abnormalities in addition to Brugada-type electrocardiographic changes have been noticed in patients who were given antidepressant, anticonvulsant, and/or antipsychotic drugs besides lithium. In this study, we assessed cardiohemodynamic and electrophysiological effects of lithium carbonate by itself to begin to analyze onset mechanisms of its cardiovascular side effects...
May 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Nejat Mahdieh, Ahmad Rabbani, Ata Firouzi, Ali Zahedmehr, Maryam Hoseinimoghaddam, Sedigheh Saeidi, Hamidreza Sanati, Hosseinali Basiri, Feridoun Noohi, Bahareh Rabbani, Majid Maleki
Clopidogrel is used in patients with coronary syndromes and at risk of thrombotic events or receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for reducing heart attack and stroke. Here we present genotype and phenotype study of Iranian patients undergoing PCI treated with clopidogrel during a 6-month period of follow-up; common variants of CYP2C19, CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 genes were determined as well as the patients' cardiovascular outcomes to find out the effect of these variants individually and in combination...
May 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Blake A Bennett, Ernst W Spannhake, Ana M Rule, Patrick N Breysse, Clarke G Tankersley
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality with the elderly considered to be the most susceptible. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to PM would cause a greater impact on heart regulation in older DBA/2 (D2) male mice as determined by changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). D2 mice at the ages of 4, 12, and 19 months were instilled with 100 µg of PM or saline by aspiration. Before and after the aspiration, 3-min echocardiogram (ECG) samples for HR and HRV were recorded at 15-min intervals for 3 h along with corresponding measurements of homeostasis, such as temperature, metabolism, and ventilation...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Xing'ai Ju, Degang Xue, Tongyi Wang, Baiping Ge, Yu Zhang, Zhanquan Li
Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation has been recognized as an effective method for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, its efficacy is always restricted by the low survival of transplanted BMSCs in the ischemic myocardium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of catalpol pre-treatment on the survival and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion of BMSCs under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) condition and their role in myocardial repair in a rat model of MI...
May 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Varsha K Sonawane, Umesh B Mahajan, Sachin D Shinde, Subhajit Chatterjee, Sandip S Chaudhari, Harshada A Bhangale, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N Goyal, Chanakya N Kundu, Chandragouda R Patil
In the present study, the preventive effects of orally administered disulfiram (DS) against the doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity were investigated in rats. DS was orally administered for 7 days at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day. DOX (30 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered on the 5th day of the initiation of DS treatment. Within 48 h of injection, DOX treatment significantly altered ECG, elevated the ST height, and increased the QT and QRS intervals. It reduced the cardiac levels of injury markers like creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB and lactate dehydrogenase...
May 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Fang Zhou, Xike Lu, Xun Zhang
Cardiotoxicity is a common adverse effect induced by drug chemotherapy. miR-30c has been reported to be involved in the progress of heart diseases. In the present study, miR-30c was used to predict the cardiotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with bevacizumab chemotherapy. Eighty NSCLC patients were included in this study. Serum miR-30c levels were detected at pre-chemotherapy, during-chemotherapy (the 2nd, 4th, and 8th week) and 1 month after chemotherapy. miR-30c expression was elevated with the duration of the chemotherapy cycle and decreased 1 month after chemotherapy...
May 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Cansu Arslan Turan, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Rohat Ak, Kemal Aygun, Ali Sahiner, Engin Sumer, Adnan Somay, Ozge Ecmel Onur
Although the mechanism of action is not well known, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that, ILE probably separates the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high-dose free fatty acids activating the voltage-gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose were searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival...
August 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Wen Yin, Rui Li, Xiaorong Feng, Y James Kang
Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) is a copper-dependent enzyme of mitochondrial respiratory chain. In pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, copper level and CCO activity are both depressed, along with disturbance in mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics. Copper repletion leads to recovery of CCO activity and normalized mitochondrial dynamics. The present study was undertaken to define the link between CCO activity and mitochondrial dynamic changes. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with phenylephrine to induce cell hypertrophy...
August 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Mehdi Goudarzi, Iman Fatemi, Amir Siahpoosh, Seyed Hashem Sezavar, Esrafil Mansouri, Saeed Mehrzadi
Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic constituent in certain fruits and nuts with wide range of biological activities, including potent antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimutagen properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EA on sodium arsenic (SA)-induced cardio- and hematotoxicity in rats. Animals were divided into five groups. The first group was used as control. Group 2 was orally treated with sodium arsenite (SA, 10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Group 3 was orally treated with EA (30 mg/kg) for 14 days...
August 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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