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Cardiovascular Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766181/treatment-of-amlodipine-intoxication-with-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Funda Karbek Akarca, Ece Akceylan, Selahattin Kıyan
We report the case of a 25-year-old female presenting to the emergency department after committing suicide by ingesting 100 mg amlodipine. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluids, calcium gluconate, catecholamines and glucagone without effect. The clinical condition of the patient improved quickly and dramatically on the 20th minute of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy. Different treatment methods have been developed for calcium channel blocker intoxication over the last years. Among these, lipid emulsion therapy has risen over the last decade as a salvation in cases which do not respond to other treatments...
August 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702745/quercetin-reverses-altered-energy-metabolism-in-the-heart-of-rats-receiving-adriamycin-chemotherapy
#2
Naglaa Zakaria, Samah R Khalil, Ashraf Awad, Ghada M Khairy
The primary aim of this study was to find the potential modulatory roles of quercetin (QUE) against Adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiotoxicity. A total of 50 rats were assigned to five groups: a control group, an ADR-treated group, a QUE-treated group, a prophylaxis-cotreated group, and a therapeutic-cotreated group, respectively. QUE exhibited a significant cardioprotective effect, particularly, when it was administered prior to and concurrently with ADR treatment (prophylaxis-cotreated group). This effect was biochemically evident by the significant decreases in the serum levels of myocardial injury biomarkers such as troponin, creatine kinase-myocardium bound, and creatine phosphokinase...
July 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688059/a-case-of-severe-refractory-hypotension-after-amlodipine-overdose
#3
Melissa Chudow, Kevin Ferguson
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are responsible for a substantial portion of the mortality associated with cardiovascular medication overdose cases. Amlodipine, a dihydropyridine CCB, can cause prolonged hypotension in overdose. This report describes a severe amlodipine overdose case that was refractory to multiple therapeutic approaches. A 53-year-old male presented after ingesting eighty 10 mg amlodipine tablets in a suicide attempt. The patient was initially managed with calcium boluses, glucagon, multiple vasoactive agents, lipid emulsion infusions and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic therapy...
July 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620885/modulatory-effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats-with-different-ages
#4
Mehdi Ahmadian, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan
We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training (AET) would modulate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats of various ages. Wistar male rats (n = 72) were assigned to three groups (young, adult, and elderly) with three subgroups for each age: doxorubicin (DG, n = 8), AET + doxorubicin (AETDG, n = 8), AET + Saline (AETSG, n = 8). Following the AET intervention, rats were anesthetized and killed to collect heart tissues in order to determine heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-10 (IL10), and c-reactive protein (CRP)...
June 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616803/amitriptyline-may-have-possibility-to-induce-brugada-syndrome-rather-than-long-qt-syndrome
#5
Nur Jaharat Lubna, Takeshi Wada, Yuji Nakamura, Koki Chiba, Xin Cao, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Yoshioki Satoh, Atsushi Sugiyama
Amitriptyline has been reported to induce long QT syndrome in addition to Brugada syndrome. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the potential of amitriptyline to induce these lethal syndromes by using the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 6). Amitriptyline was intravenously administered in doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg over 10 min every 20 min, which would provide approximately 1, 10 and 100 times higher plasma concentrations than a therapeutic one, respectively. The low dose hardly altered any of the cardiovascular variables...
June 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612305/the-cardiovascular-effect-of-single-injection-and-toxicologic-effects-of-repetitive-2-week-intravenous-administration-of-activin-a-bmp-2-chimera-in-beagle-dog
#6
Jae Hyup Lee, Senyon Choe, Shihuan Han
This study was performed for the purpose to evaluate the effect of activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) on cardiovascular system and toxicological effect in beagle dogs. When administered AB204 at the dose of 0.32 mg/kg via intravenous injection in beagle dogs, there were no changes in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure as well as in pulse rate, in addition that there were no differences in ORS complex, PR interval, R-R interval, QT interval and QTcV interval on the electrocardiography. Also, when administered AB204 at the doses of 0...
June 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612304/cardiovascular-effects-and-fatality-may-differ-according-to-the-formulation-of-glyphosate-salt-herbicide
#7
Jeong Mi Moon, Byeong Jo Chun, Yong Soo Cho, Sung Do Lee, Young Joon Hong, Min Ho Shin, Eu Jene Jung, Hyun Ho Ryu
This study aimed to compare adverse cardiovascular events and fatalities and to identify the risk factors for fatalities associated with the glyphosate salt herbicide formulation. Additionally, we examined whether glyphosate ammonium salt herbicides increased serum ammonia levels. One hundred forty-seven patients were divided into an ammonium group (glyphosate ammonium salt herbicide) and an isopropylamine (IPA) group (glyphosate IPA salt herbicide) according to the type of glyphosate salt formulation ingested...
June 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612303/additive-proarrhythmic-effect-of-combined-treatment-with-qt-prolonging-agents
#8
Gerrit Frommeyer, Christina Fischer, Christian Ellermann, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Philipp S Lange, Kristina Wasmer, Michael Fehr, Lars Eckardt
Drug combinations may elevate the risk of proarrhythmia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combinations of non-cardiovascular agents induce an additive increase in the proarrhythmic risk. In 12 female rabbit hearts, a drug combination of cotrimoxazole (300 µM), ondansetron (5 µM) and domperidone (1 µM) was infused after obtaining baseline data. In another 13 hearts, a combination of cotrimoxazole (300 µM), ondansetron (5 µM) and erythromycin (300 µM) was infused. Monophasic action potentials and ECG displayed a significant QT prolongation in all groups...
June 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593443/impact-of-diclofenac-sodium-on-tilmicosin-induced-acute-cardiotoxicity-in-rats-tilmicosin-and-diclofenac-cardiotoxicity
#9
Samah S Oda, Amira E Derbalah
To assess the influence of diclofenac sodium (DIC) treatment on tilmicosin (TIL) prompted cardiotoxicity, forty albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: control, TIL group (single subcutaneous injection of 75 mg/kg BW tilmicosin phosphate 30%), TIL + DIC group (single subcutaneous injection of tilmicosin phosphate 30% and then injection intramuscularly of 13.5 mg/kg BW/day for 6 days diclofenac sodium) and DIC group (intramuscular injection of 13.5 mg/kg BW/day diclofenac sodium for 6 days)...
June 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540470/effects-of-remifentanil-pretreatment-on-bupivacaine-cardiotoxicity-in-rats
#10
Özcan Pişkin, Hilal Ayoğlu
Unintentional intravascular administration of bupivacaine may cause local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Although many systems are affected in LAST, the cardiovascular effects can be life-threatening. Remifentanil is a selective, ultra-short-acting, µ-opioid receptor agonist opioid. This study assessed the effects of combined pretreatment with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) and remifentanil on the cardiotoxicity caused by bupivacaine in an experimental model of anesthetized rats. The rats were divided into three groups...
May 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536949/exercise-and-doxorubicin-treatment-modulate-cardiac-mitochondrial-quality-control-signaling
#11
I Marques-Aleixo, E Santos-Alves, J R Torrella, P J Oliveira, J Magalhães, A Ascensão
The cross-tolerance effect of exercise against heart mitochondrial-mediated quality control, remodeling and death-related mechanisms associated with sub-chronic Doxorubicin (DOX) treatment is yet unknown. We therefore analyzed the effects of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free wheel activity-FW) performed during the course of the sub-chronic DOX treatment on mitochondrial susceptibility to permeability transition pore (mPTP), apoptotic and autophagic signaling and mitochondrial dynamics...
May 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534245/flecainide-induced-left-ventricular-dysfunction-fact-or-fiction
#12
Umair Khalid, Francia Rojas, Nasser Lakkis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696211/the-myocyte-damaging-effects-of-the-bcr-abl1-targeted-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-increase-with-potency-and-decrease-with-specificity
#13
Brian B Hasinoff, Daywin Patel, Xing Wu
Five clinically approved BCR-ABL1-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib) used for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia have been studied in a neonatal rat myocyte model for their relative ability to induce myocyte damage. This was done in order to determine if kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage was a consequence of inhibiting ABL1 (on-target effects), or due to a lack of kinase selectivity (off-target effects) since previous studies have come up with conflicting conclusions about whether imatinib-induced cardiotoxicity results directly from inhibition of ABL1...
July 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402292/roselle-polyphenols-exert-potent-negative-inotropic-effects-via-modulation-of-intracellular-calcium-regulatory-channels-in-isolated-rat-heart
#14
Yi-Cheng Lim, Siti Balkis Budin, Faizah Othman, Jalifah Latip, Satirah Zainalabidin
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) calyces have demonstrated propitious cardioprotective effects in animal and clinical studies; however, little is known about its action on cardiac mechanical function. This study was undertaken to investigate direct action of roselle polyphenols (RP) on cardiac function in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. We utilized RP extract which consists of 12 flavonoids and seven phenolic acids (as shown by HPLC profiling) and has a safe concentration range between 125 and 500 μg/ml in this study...
July 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388042/molecular-mechanisms-of-the-cardiotoxicity-of-the-proteasomal-targeted-drugs-bortezomib-and-carfilzomib
#15
Brian B Hasinoff, Daywin Patel, Xing Wu
Bortezomib and carfilzomib are anticancer drugs that target the proteasome. However, these agents have been shown to exhibit some specific cardiac toxicities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Bortezomib and carfilzomib are also being used clinically in combination with doxorubicin, which is also cardiotoxic. A primary neonatal rat myocyte model was used to study these cardiotoxic mechanisms. Exposure to submicromolar concentrations of bortezomib and carfilzomib resulted in significant myocyte damage and induced apoptosis...
July 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510081/qt-prolongation-as-an-isolated-long-term-cardiac-manifestation-of-dichlorvos-organophosphate-poisoning-in-rats
#16
Arthur Shiyovich, Ran Matot, Sigal Elyagon, Noah Liel-Cohen, Yossi Rosman, Shai Shrot, Michael Kassirer, Amos Katz, Yoram Etzion
Organophosphates (OP) are used extensively as pesticides and as chemical weapons. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern in survivors of the acute poisoning. To characterize the delayed cardiac effects of OP, rats were poisoned by intraperitoneal administration of dichlorvos. In group I, poisoning (0.25-, 0.75-, 1.4-LD50) was followed by application of atropine and obidoxime. In group II, poisoning (0.35-, 0.5-LD50) was done without antidotes. Cardiac evaluation included electrocardiography and echocardiography 2- and 6-week post-exposure, arrhythmia susceptibility following administration of Isoproterenol (150 mcg/kg), and histological evaluation...
May 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439707/protective-role-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-isoprenaline-induced-myocardial-injury-histological-immunohistochemical-and-morphometric-study
#17
Sherif Mohamed Zaki, Ibrahim Labib Abdalla, Abir Oueida El Sadik, Enas Ahmad Mohamed, Sarah Kaooh
Several researchers studied the protective effect of the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) when it was given before the induction of myocardial infarction (MI). Other researchers studied such protective effect when it was before done and after done of the MI. The missing data are the comparison between the protective effect of NAC before myocardial injury with its protective effect both before and after myocardial injury. The aim of the study was to compare the cardioprotective effect of NAC on the isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury before the isoprenaline (ISP) injection with its protective effect both before and after the ISP injection...
April 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389765/sodium-butyrate-controls-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-experimental-models-of-rats
#18
Bhoomika M Patel
The aim of the present research was to study the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on partial abdominal aorta constriction (PAAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and determine its mechanism of action. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to PAAC for eight weeks. After eight weeks, we carried out hypertrophic and hemodynamic evaluation and measured oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial DNA concentration. PAAC control animals exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, decreased hemodynamic functions and oxidative stress. Treatment with SB reduced hypertrophic indices, LV wall thickness, LV collagen levels, cardiomyocyte diameter, serum lipid levels and serum cardiac biomarkers...
April 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240781/refractory-cardiogenic-shock-during-tramadol-poisoning-a-case-report
#19
Nicolas Belin, Anne-Laure Clairet, Sidney Chocron, Gilles Capellier, Gaël Piton
Tramadol is a weak opioid analgesic indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Tramadol intoxication can be lethal, and this drug is frequently involved in voluntary overdose. Classically, tramadol intoxication is associated with neurological and respiratory side effects. In contrast, cardiac effects are poorly documented in the literature. We report a case of severe tramadol intoxication, with plasma concentration 20 times the toxic threshold, complicated by refractory cardiogenic shock, successfully treated by extra corporeal life support (ECLS) with a favorable cardiac outcome and ECLS weaning at day 10...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052339/environmentally-persistent-free-radicals-cause-apoptosis-in-hl-1-cardiomyocytes
#20
Gin C Chuang, Huijing Xia, Sarah E Mahne, Kurt J Varner
Samples of environmental particulate matter contain environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) capable of sustained generation of oxygen radicals. While exposure to EPFRs produces cardiac toxicity and oxidative stress in experimental animals, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To determine whether EPFRs could directly damage cardiomyocytes, cultured mouse cardiomyocytes (HL-1) and primary rat adult left ventricular myocytes (ALVM) were incubated with an EPFR consisting of 1,2-dichlorobenzene chemisorbed to CuO-coated silica beads (DCB230)...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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