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Cardiovascular Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220374/lipopolysaccharide-activates-toll-like-receptor-4-and-prevents-cardiac-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-differentiation
#1
Samir Bolívar, Roxana Santana, Pedro Ayala, Rodolfo Landaeta, Pía Boza, Claudio Humeres, Raúl Vivar, Claudia Muñoz, Viviana Pardo, Samuel Fernandez, Renatto Anfossi, Guillermo Diaz-Araya
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which is expressed in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Differentiation of CF to cardiac myofibroblasts (CMF) is induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), increasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. In endothelial cells, an antagonist effect between LPS-induced signaling and canonical TGF-β1 signaling was described; however, it has not been studied whether in CF and CMF the expression of α-SMA induced by TGF-β1 is antagonized by LPS and the mechanism involved...
February 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213753/electrophysiologic-studies-on-the-risks-and-potential-mechanism-underlying-the-proarrhythmic-nature-of-azithromycin
#2
Mengdan Zhang, Ming Xie, Sha Li, Ying Gao, Shuyin Xue, Huili Huang, Kesu Chen, Fuming Liu, Long Chen
The mechanisms underlying arrhythmia induced by the clinical use of azithromycin are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the proarrhythmic effects of azithromycin using electrocardiogram (ECG) and ion channel models. In vivo and in vitro guinea pig ECG and current and voltage clamp recordings were carried out. Azithromycin at 114.6 mg/kg (three times the clinically relevant dose) reduced heart rate (HR) and prolonged the PR, QRS and rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals of guinea pig ECG in vivo. In vitro technique revealed that azithromycin at 207...
February 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194639/ultrafine-particulate-matter-increases-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore
#3
Nathan A Holland, Chad R Fraiser, Ruben C Sloan, Robert B Devlin, David A Brown, Christopher J Wingard
Ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms that drive PM-associated cardiovascular disease and dysfunction remain unclear. We examined the impact of oropharyngeal aspiration of 100 μg UFP from the Chapel Hill, NC, air shed in Sprague-Dawley rats on cardiac function, arrhythmogenesis, and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using a Langendorff working heart model. We found that exposure to UFP was capable of significantly exacerbating cardiac I/R injury without changing overall cardiac function or major changes in arrhythmogenesis...
February 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185059/severe-proarrhythmic-potential-of-the-antiemetic-agents-ondansetron-and-domperidone
#4
Gerrit Frommeyer, Christina Fischer, Christian Ellermann, Philipp S Lange, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Michael Fehr, Lars Eckardt
The potential of ondansetron and domperidone, both clinically established antiemetic agents, to increase the QT-interval has been described in several case reports. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these drugs may provoke polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive experimental model of drug-induced proarrhythmia. In 10 female rabbits, ondansetron (1, 5 and 10 µM, n = 10) or domperidone (0.5, 1 and 2 µM, n = 8) was infused after obtaining baseline data. Eight endo- and epicardial monophasic action potentials and a simultaneously recorded 12-lead ECG reproduced the clinically observed QT-prolongation (ondansetron: 1 µM:+17 ms, 5 µM:+41 ms, 10 µM:+78 ms, p < 0...
February 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097518/beneficial-effects-of-ozone-therapy-on-oxidative-stress-cardiac-functions-and-clinical-findings-in-patients-with-heart-failure-reduced-ejection-fraction
#5
Mutlu Buyuklu, Fatih Mehmet Kandemir, Turan Set, Eftal Murat Bakırcı, Husnu Degirmenci, Hikmet Hamur, Ergun Topal, Sefa Kucukler, Kultigin Turkmen
The aim of study was to determine the effects of ozone therapy on the oxidative stress, cardiac functions and clinical findings in patients with heart failure reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). A total of 40 patients with New York Heart Association 2 and 3 HF with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35%, and 40 subjects without HF as control group were included in the study. Patients with HFrEF were given additional ozone therapy of major and minor administrations along with conventional HF treatment for 5 weeks...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097517/in-utero-exposure-of-hyperlipidemic-mice-to-diesel-exhaust-lack-of-effects-on-atherosclerosis-in-adult-offspring-fed-a-regular-chow-diet
#6
Jenna Harrigan, Divya Ravi, Jerry Ricks, Michael E Rosenfeld
Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/m(3) PM2.5 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (FA) throughout gestation. Treatment effects on litter size and gender distribution were recorded. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084566/hyperthermia-severely-affects-the-vascular-effects-of-mdma-and-metabolites-in-the-human-internal-mammary-artery-in-vitro
#7
D A Fonseca, A F Guerra, F Carvalho, E Fernandes, L M Ferreira, P S Branco, P E Antunes, M J Antunes, M D Cotrim
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a recreational drug used worldwide for its distinctive psychotropic effects. Although important cardiovascular effects, such as increased blood pressure and heart rate, have also been described, the vascular effects of MDMA and metabolites and their correlation with hyperthermia (major side effect of MDMA) are not yet fully understood and have not been previously reported. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of MDMA and its main catechol metabolites, alpha-methyldopamine (α-MeDA), N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA), 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(GSH)-α-MeDA] and 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(GSH)-N-Me-α-MeDA], on the 5-HT-dependent vasoactivity in normothermia (37 °C) and hyperthermia (40 °C) of the human internal mammary artery (IMA) in vitro...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084565/acrolein-can-cause-cardiovascular-disease-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Robert J Henning, Giffe T Johnson, Jayme P Coyle, Raymond D Harbison
Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is formed during the burning of gasoline and diesel fuels, cigarettes, woods and plastics. In addition, acrolein is generated during the cooking or frying of food with fats or oils. Acrolein is also used in the synthesis of many organic chemicals and as a biocide in agricultural and industrial water supply systems. The total emissions of acrolein in the United States from all sources are estimated to be 62,660 tons/year. Acrolein is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a high-priority air and water toxicant...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050758/effect-of-the-anti-retroviral-drugs-efavirenz-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-on-endothelial-cell-function-role-of-parp
#9
Mary Faltz, Hild Bergin, Elly Pilavachi, Guy Grimwade, Jon G Mabley
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has proved successful in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection though it has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To date, the direct effects of the anti-retroviral drugs Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine on the vasculature relaxant response have not been elucidated, which impaired may predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease. Increased cellular oxidative stress and overactivation of the DNA repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have been identified as central mediators of vascular dysfunction...
January 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990620/role-of-peroxynitrite-induced-activation-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-in-circulatory-shock-and-related-pathological-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Badar Ul Islam, Safia Habib, Syed Amaan Ali, Moinuddin, Asif Ali
Peroxynitrite is a powerful oxidant, formed from the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide. It is known to interact and modify different biological molecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins leading to alterations in their structure and functions. These events elicit various cellular responses, including cell signaling, causing oxidative damage and committing cells to apoptosis or necrosis. This review discusses nitrosative stress-induced modification in the DNA molecule that results in the formation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxoguanine, and its role in disease conditions...
December 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990619/doxorubicin-and-liposomal-doxorubicin-differentially-affect-expression-of-mir-208a-and-let-7g-in-rat-ventricles-and-atria
#11
Jan Novak, Jiri Sana, Tibor Stracina, Marie Novakova, Ondrej Slaby
Anthracyclines use is limited by profound cardiotoxicity. Involvement of miRNAs in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) is still not completely understood. Thus, the expression of AIC-related microRNAs was determined in rat atria and ventricles after doxorubicin (DOX) and liposomal doxorubicin (L-DOX) administration. Vehiculum, DOX or L-DOX were applied intraperitoneally in a single dose to male Wistar rats (3 groups: control, DOX and L-DOX, respectively). Rats were sacrificed after 24 h, and samples from left atrium (LA)/ventricle (LV) and right atrium (RA)/ventricle (RV) were obtained...
December 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990618/lipid-emulsion-inhibits-apoptosis-induced-by-a-toxic-dose-of-verapamil-via-the-delta-opioid-receptor-in-h9c2-rat-cardiomyoblasts
#12
Seong-Ho Ok, Mun Hwan Choi, Il-Woo Shin, Soo Hee Lee, Sebin Kang, Jiah Oh, Jeong Yeol Han, Ju-Tae Sohn
The goals of this study were to investigate the effects of lipid emulsion (LE) on apoptosis induced by a toxic dose of verapamil in H9c2 cells and to elucidate the associated cellular mechanism. The effects of LE alone and combined with an inhibitor on the decreases in cell counts and viability induced by verapamil and diltiazem were examined using the MTT assay. The effects of verapamil alone, combined LE and verapamil treatment, and combined inhibitor, LE and verapamil treatment on cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and Bax expression, were examined using Western blotting...
December 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990617/stroke-temporal-trends-and-association-with-atmospheric-variables-and-air-pollutants-in-northern-spain
#13
Ana Santurtún, Patricia Bolivar Ruiz, Laura López-Delgado, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Javier Riancho, María T Zarrabeitia
Stroke, the second cause of death and the most frequent cause of severe disability among adults in developed countries, is related to a large variety of risk factors. This paper assesses the temporal patterns in stroke episodes in a city in Northern Spain during a 12-year period and analyzes the possible effects that atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables may have on stroke on a daily scale. Our results show that there is an increase in stroke admissions (r = 0.818, p = 0.001) especially in patients over 85 years old...
December 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717923/exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-and-the-morphology-of-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-the-extracranial-arteries-assessed-by-computed-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension
#14
Paweł Gać, Przemysław Jaźwiec, Grzegorz Mazur, Rafał Poręba
The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques in the extracranial arteries assessed by computed tomography angiography in patients with hypertension. The study included 61 hypertensive patients: 17 active smokers (group A), 18 non-smokers, declaring environmental exposure to tobacco smoke (group B), and 26 non-smokers, not declaring exposure to cigarette smoke (group C). The number of segments with plaques was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717922/the-expression-of-microrna-223-and-fam5c-in-cerebral-infarction-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Yuming Long, Qiong Zhan, Mei Yuan, Xiaomei Duan, Juan Zhou, Jinfeng Lu, Zhibin Li, Fang Yu, Xiaoqing Zhou, Qidong Yang, Jian Xia
The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of miR-223 and FAM5C in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of cerebral infarction patients with or without diabetes. Sixteen cases with diabetes mellitus (DM), 14 cases with cerebral infarction (CI), 12 cases with cerebral infarction and diabetes mellitus (CIDM), and 18 healthy subjects were included in this study. Real-time PCR was used to quantify mRNA expression. Western blot was used to detect FAM5C protein level. Recombinant plasmids expressing miR-223-3p and 3' UTR of FAM5C were constructed...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26707720/rutin-attenuates-carfilzomib-induced-cardiotoxicity-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-hypertrophic-gene-expression-and-oxidative-stress
#16
Faisal Imam, Naif O Al-Harbi, Mohammed M Al-Harbia, Hesham M Korashy, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Mohamed M Sayed-Ahmed, Mahmoud N Nagi, Muzaffar Iqbal, Md Khalid Anwer, Imran Kazmi, Muhammad Afzal, Saleh Bahashwan
Carfilzomib is a proteasome inhibitor, commonly used in multiple myeloma, but its clinical use may be limited due to cardiotoxicity. This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of rutin in carfilzomib-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Wistar albino male rats weighing 200-250 g (approximately 10 weeks old) were taken for this study. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 served as normal control (NC), received normal saline; group 2 animals received carfilzomib (dissolved in 1 % DMSO) alone; group 3 animals received rutin (20 mg/kg) + carfilzomib; and group 4 animals received rutin (40 mg/kg) + carfilzomib...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26696240/cardioprotective-and-anti-arrhythmic-effects-of-magnesium-pretreatment-against-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-isoprenaline-induced-hypertrophic-rat-heart
#17
Matthew Amoni, Roisin Kelly-Laubscher, Morea Petersen, Asfree Gwanyanya
The effects of magnesium (Mg(2+)) on ischaemic complications of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are unclear. In this study, we investigated effects of Mg(2+) pretreatment on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in isoprenaline (ISO)-induced hypertrophic hearts. Wistar rats were treated for 7 days with different combinations of ISO (1.25 mg/kg) subcutaneously, MgSO4 (270 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, or vehicle (saline). On the eighth day, hearts were either subjected to regional I/R during Langendorff perfusion or histologically stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690082/nqo1-c609t-polymorphism-is-associated-with-coronary-artery-disease-in-a-gender-dependent-manner
#18
Mohammadali Boroumand, Leyla Pourgholi, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Shayan Ziaee, Azita Hajhosseini-Talasaz, Maryam Sotoudeh-Anvari, Ali Mandegary
Findings on the association of NQO1 C609T polymorphism in the NQO1 gene and cardiovascular disease susceptibility are controversial. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between this polymorphism and the presence and severity of angiographically determined coronary artery disease (CAD). One-hundred and forty-five patients with newly diagnosed angiographically documented CAD (≥50 % luminal stenosis of any coronary vessel) as case group were compared to 139 controls (subjects with no luminal stenosis at coronary arteries)...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679939/ppar%C3%AE-agonist-ameliorates-the-impaired-fluidity-of-the-myocardial-cell-membrane-and-cardiac-injury-in-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#19
Ye Wu, Xiutao Tan, Jue Tian, Xin Liu, Yehong Wang, Huanxin Zhao, Zi Yan, Huirong Liu, Xinliang Ma
Hypercholesterolemia can increase the risk of cardiac injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study aimed to determine whether changes in the fluidity of the cardiomyocyte membrane may contribute to the increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury observed in hypercholesterolemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a normal (n = 24) or high-cholesterol diet (n = 32) for 10 weeks. At the 6th week, the rats in the high-cholesterol diet group were treated with vehicle (n = 16, HC + V) or pioglitazone (n = 16, HC + PIO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist, and treatment lasted for the next 4 weeks...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826876/exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-and-the-carotid-arteries-calcification-index-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension
#20
Paweł Gać, Przemysław Jaźwiec, Grzegorz Mazur, Rafał Poręba
The arteries calcification index is a quantitative, mathematically estimated parameter characterizing the total amount of calcium within atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The objective is to determine a relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the carotid arteries calcification index in patients with essential hypertension. The tested group included 66 patients with essential hypertension: 19 active smokers (subgroup A), 20 non-smokers, environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (subgroup B) and 27 persons without exposure to cigarette smoke (subgroup C)...
November 8, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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