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Cardiovascular Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302859/acetaminophen-poisoning-may-increase-coronary-artery-disease-risk-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#1
Yu-Ting Chung, Che-Yi Chou, Wen-Chen Tsai, Wei-Kung Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Wei-Sheng Chung
The purpose of this nationwide cohort study was to investigate the incidence and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning. We identified the patients with APAP poisoning and randomly selected comparison patients according to a 1:4 ratio, matching them by age, sex, and the index year using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010. We traced both cohorts until a diagnosis of CAD, loss to follow-up, or the end of 2011. In total, 2723 patients with APAP poisoning and 10,892 comparison patients have followed...
January 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299822/necrostatin-1-protects-against-paraquat-induced-cardiac-contractile-dysfunction-via-rip1-rip3-mlkl-dependent-necroptosis-pathway
#2
Liping Zhang, Qiming Feng, Teng Wang
Paraquat is a highly toxic prooxidant that triggers oxidative stress and multi-organ failure including that of the heart. To date, effective treatment of paraquat toxicity is still not established. Necroptosis, a newly discovered form of programmed cell death, was recently shown to be strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. Receptor interaction proteins 1 (RIP1), receptor interaction proteins 3 (RIP3), and mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL) are key proteins in the necroptosis pathway. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific inhibitor of necroptosis which acts by blocking the interaction between RIP1 and RIP3...
January 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222635/cardiovascular-response-of-rat-aorta-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-exposure
#3
Melissa Mariana, Joana Feiteiro, Elisa Cairrao
Phthalates are one of the main constituents of plastic, reaching up to 40% of the total plastic weight, and their main function is to impart flexibility/elasticity to polymers that would otherwise be rigid. Phthalates are known as endocrine disruptors, since they can interfere with hormone homeostasis. Regarding the cardiovascular system, it was already shown the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure with significant changes in several calcium-handling proteins and an increase in the blood pressure of mice offspring, suggesting that DEHP leads to vasocontraction...
December 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204738/the-association-between-myocardial-fibrosis-and-depressed-capillary-density-in-rat-model-of-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#4
Ying Xiao, Yinjie Liu, Jiaming Liu, Y James Kang
Myocardial fibrogenesis is initiated once the coordination between oxygen supply and demand is disrupted in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Clinical observations showed that myocardial fibrosis did not evenly occur in the hypertrophic myocardium. The present study was undertaken to specifically address differential vulnerabilities to fibrogenesis of different regions in the myocardium subjected to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. SD rats were divided into two groups, sham-operated control and ascending artery constriction-induced cardiac hypotrophy...
December 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196978/the-role-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-enzyme-on-daunorubicin-mediated-cardiotoxicity
#5
Zaid H Maayah, Ghada Abdelhamid, Osama H Elshenawy, Ahmed A El-Sherbeni, Hassan N Althurwi, Erica McGinn, Doaa Dawood, Ahmad H Alammari, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Several studies have demonstrated the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and its associated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in the anthracyclines-induced cardiac toxicity. However, the ability of daunorubicin (DNR) to induce cardiotoxicity through the modulation of CYP and its associated AA metabolites has not been investigated yet. Therefore, we hypothesized that DNR-induced cardiotoxicity is mediated through the induction of cardiotoxic hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and/or the inhibition of cardioprotctive epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)...
December 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188590/characteristics-of-cobalt-related-cardiomyopathy-in-metal-hip-implant-patients-an-evaluation-of-15-published-reports
#6
REVIEW
Ernest S Fung, Andrew Monnot, Michael Kovochich, Kenneth M Unice, Brooke E Tvermoes, David Galbraith, Brent L Finley, Dennis J Paustenbach
Over 300,000 hip replacements occurred in the USA in 2010, and the frequency is likely increasing annually. Blood Cobalt (Co) concentrations in patients with well-functioning cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) hip implants are usually elevated above background concentrations relative to the general population. Excessive Co exposure, in rare cases, can result in cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this review was to identify cases of cardiomyopathy in metal-containing hip implant patients and to evaluate the possible cause of each patient's cardiomyopathy...
November 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185192/a-functional-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-genetic-variant-alone-and-in-combination-with-parental-exposure-is-a-risk-factor-for-congenital-heart-disease
#7
Silvia Pulignani, Andrea Borghini, Cecilia Vecoli, Ilenia Foffa, Lamia Ait-Ali, Maria Grazia Andreassi
Recent experimental studies showed that ablation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as well as its activation by exogenous ligands disrupt the molecular networks involved in heart formation and function, leading to congenital heart disease (CHD). However, no evidence is available about the role of AhR in humans. We assessed the prevalence of a functional AhR genetic variant (p.Arg554Lys) in CHD patients as well as its joint effects with parental exposure. A total of 128 CHD patients (76 males; age 6.2 ± 6...
November 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139031/in-vivo-analysis-of-the-anti-atrial-fibrillatory-proarrhythmic-and-cardiodepressive-profiles-of-dronedarone-as-a-guide-for-safety-pharmacological-evaluation-of-antiarrhythmic-drugs
#8
Yoshiyuki Motokawa, Yuji Nakamura, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Ai Goto, Koki Chiba, Nur Jaharat Lubna, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugiyama
Anti-atrial fibrillatory, proarrhythmic and cardiodepressive profiles of dronedarone were analyzed using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n = 4) to create a standard protocol for clarifying both efficacy and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs. Intravenous administration of dronedarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s attained the peak plasma concentrations of 61 and 1248 ng/mL, respectively, reflecting sub- to supra-therapeutic ones. The low dose decreased the left ventricular contraction and mean blood pressure, which were enhanced at the high dose...
November 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134326/inhibition-of-the-voltage-dependent-k-current-by-the-tricyclic-antidepressant-desipramine-in-rabbit-coronary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
Sung Eun Shin, Hongliang Li, Jin Ryeol An, Mi Seon Seo, Sung Hun Na, Won-Kyo Jung, Amy L Firth, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Il-Whan Choi, Won Sun Park
We describe the effect of a tricyclic antidepressant drug desipramine on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Application of desipramine rapidly decreased the Kv current amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 5.91 ± 0.18 μM and a Hill coefficient of 0.61 ± 0.09. The steady-state inactivation curves of the Kv channels were not affected by desipramine. However, desipramine shifted the steady-state inactivation curves toward a more negative potential...
November 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110132/novel-mesenchymal-stem-cell-strategy-in-alleviating-toll-like-receptor-4-p53-and-nrf2-signaling-in-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rat-model
#10
Mai O Kadry, Rehab M Abdel-Megeed
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that merit the differentiation into various cell types. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the cardioprotective effect of MSCs transplantation and digoxin treatment is mediated via the regulation of messenger RNA gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic markers. Myocardial infarction was induced in Wistar rats via isoproterenol injection in a dose of (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously, twice at an interval of 24 h)...
November 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094243/alleviation-of-cardiac-damage-by-dietary-fenugreek-trigonella-foenum-graecum-seeds-is-potentiated-by-onion-allium-cepa-in-experimental-diabetic-rats-via-blocking-renin-angiotensin-system
#11
Seetur R Pradeep, Krishnapura Srinivasan
Hyperglycemia is one of the metabolic and homeostatic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients by increased oxidative stress. We have recently reported amelioration of oxidative stress in cardiac tissue by dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The mechanistic aspects of the cardio-protective influence of dietary fenugreek seeds (10%) and onion (3% powder) both individually and in combination on hyperglycemia-mediated cardiac damage was further investigated in this study on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
November 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080123/beneficial-role-of-some-natural-products-to-attenuate-the-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-through-nrf2-pathway-in-cell-culture-and-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Parim Brahmanaidu, P R Nivedha, S Vadivukkarasi, Ganapathy Saravanan
Diabetic cardiomyopathy, as one of the main cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is identified to connect with oxidative stress that is due to interruption in balance between reactive oxygen species or/and reactive nitrogen species generation and their clearance by antioxidant protection systems. Transcription factor the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a significant role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. The Nrf2 plays a significant role in ARE-mediated basal and inducible expression of more than 200 genes that can be grouped into numerous categories as well as antioxidant genes and phase II detoxifying enzymes...
October 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022233/unanticipated-cardiotoxicity-associated-with-targeted-anticancer-therapy-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-patients-natural-history-and-risk-factors
#13
Chintan Shah, Yan Gong, Anita Szady, Qian Sun, Carl J Pepine, Taimour Langaee, Alexandra R Lucas, Jan S Moreb
Our aim is to study unanticipated cardiotoxicity associated with the use of anticancer targeted agents, a problem that remains poorly understood. Using diagnosis codes, we retrospectively identified patients with both hematologic malignancies (HM) and cardiovascular diseases (n = 820 patients). Cardiotoxicity was defined per published criteria. The targeted agents of interest included tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and immunomodulatory agents. Patients found with cardiotoxicity (n = 29) were compared with 70 case-matched reference subjects...
October 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986777/predicting-cardiotoxic-effects-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-using-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#14
Erhan Saraçoğlu, Ertan Vuruşkan, Salih Kılıç, Yusuf Çekici, Bahaeddin Onur, Yavuz Arslan, Ertuğrul Kılıç, Ömer Aykut
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning could cause significant cardiac injury. This study aimed to evaluate patients with CO poisoning by using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), a potentially more sensitive technique, to identify left systolic ventricular dysfunction for the first time in the literature. Seventy-two patients who were exposed to CO poisoning were studied. Blood collection and echocardiography were performed at admission and after patients' discharge on days 10-15 (mean 12 days). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were calculated using STE...
October 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980197/xanthine-oxidase-activation-modulates-the-endothelial-vascular-dysfunction-related-to-hgcl2-exposure-plus-myocardial-infarction-in-rats
#15
Thaís de O Faria, Maylla Ronacher Simões, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Ludimila Forechi, Camila Cruz Pereira Almenara, Bruna Antoniassi Marchezini, Ivanita Stefanon, Paula Frizera Vassallo
Heavy metal exposure is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). Vascular dysfunction is related to both the causes and the consequences of MI. We investigated whether chronic exposure to low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2) worsens MI-induced endothelial dysfunction 7 days after MI. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (vehicle), HgCl2 (4 weeks of exposure), surgically induced MI and combined HgCl2-MI. Morphological and hemodynamic measurements were used to characterize the MI model 7 days after the insult...
October 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861837/cardiovascular-effects-of-the-mek-inhibitor-trametinib-a-case-report-literature-review-and-consideration-of-mechanism
#16
REVIEW
Mary Banks, Karen Crowell, Amber Proctor, Brian C Jensen
The MEK inhibitor trametinib was approved in 2013 for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E mutation, the most common pathogenic mutation in melanoma. Trametinib blocks activation of ERK1/2, inhibiting cell proliferation in melanoma. ERK1/2 also protects against multiple types of cardiac insult in mouse models. Trametinib improves survival in melanoma patients, but evidence of unanticipated cardiotoxicity is emerging. Here we describe the case of a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed acute systolic heart failure after trametinib treatment and present the results of the literature review prompted by this case...
October 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853025/is-there-a-place-for-ozone-therapy-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#17
Bernardino Clavo, Khaled Eltobgy, Eduardo Caballero, Cipriano Abad, Francisco Rodríguez-Esparragón, Norberto Santana-Rodríguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766181/treatment-of-amlodipine-intoxication-with-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Funda Karbek Akarca, Ece Akceylan, Selahattin Kıyan
We report the case of a 25-year-old female presenting to the emergency department after committing suicide by ingesting 100 mg amlodipine. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluids, calcium gluconate, catecholamines and glucagone without effect. The clinical condition of the patient improved quickly and dramatically on the 20th minute of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy. Different treatment methods have been developed for calcium channel blocker intoxication over the last years. Among these, lipid emulsion therapy has risen over the last decade as a salvation in cases which do not respond to other treatments...
October 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534245/flecainide-induced-left-ventricular-dysfunction-fact-or-fiction
#19
Umair Khalid, Francia Rojas, Nasser Lakkis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283905/association-of-fasting-serum-bilirubin-levels-with-clinical-outcomes-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-prospective-study
#20
Ming-Ming Zhang, Ying Gao, Ying-Ying Zheng, You Chen, Fen Liu, Yi-Tong Ma, Xiang Xie
The aim is to investigate the association of fasting serum bilirubin (FSB) levels with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 450 hospitalized patients with CAD undergoing PCI were enrolled. The clinical data including FSB levels, basic biochemical indices, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded after admission, and all patients were followed up for 2.17 ± 0.67 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE)...
October 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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