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Cardiovascular Toxicology

Lifang Zhao, Li Zhang, Minghui Chen, Chuan Dong, Ruijin Li, Zongwei Cai
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) increased the risks of cardiovascular diseases. PM2.5 -bound 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 9-nitroanthracene (9-NA) are released from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The toxicities of 1-NP and 9-NA are mainly reflected in their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. However, studies of PM2.5 -bound 1-NP and 9-NA on the cardiac genotoxicity are limited so far. In this study, histopathology, DNA damage, DNA repair-related gene expression, and oxidative stress were investigated in the hearts of male Wistar rats exposed to PM2...
November 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Raphael Anakwue
Cardiovascular disease has maintained the unenviable position as the number one cause of death in the world. It is now clear that the traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease are driven by primary factors like globalisation, urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural practices. Pesticide use is an integral component of modern and improved agriculture. The abuse and misuse of these chemicals has caused significant poisoning worldwide and particularly in low- and middle-income countries where Africa belongs...
November 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Vida Naderi-Boldaji, Siyavash Joukar, Ali Noorafshan, Mohammad-Ali Bahreinipour
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of blood flow restriction (BFR) training on cardiac resistance to isoproterenol (ISO) induced heart injury in old rats and examined the hypothesis that BFR training may interfere with age-associated impairment of mitochondria by the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9. Old male Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: CTL (control), ISO (isoproterenol-treated), Sh + ISO (sham-operated plus ISO), BFR + ISO (blood flow restriction plus ISO), Sh-Ex + ISO (sham-operated subjected to exercise and ISO), and BFR-Ex + ISO (blood flow restriction along with exercise and ISO)...
November 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Leslie C Thompson, Nicole L Sheehan, Dianne M Walters, Robert M Lust, Jared M Brown, Christopher J Wingard
The broad list of commercial applications for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can be further expanded with the addition of various surface chemistry modifications. For example, standard commercial grade MWCNT (C-grade) can be carboxylated (COOH) or nitrogen-doped (N-doped) to suite specific utilities. We previously reported dose-dependent expansions of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, 24 h after intratracheal instillation of C-grade, COOH, or N-doped MWCNT in mice. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that airway exposure to MWCNT perturbs cardiovascular adenosinergic signaling, which could contribute to exacerbation of cardiac I/R injury...
October 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Kyung Sik Yoon, Sun Mi Gu, Santosh Lamichhane, Kyoung Moon Han, Jisoon Shin, Young-Hoon Kim, Soo Kyung Suh, Hye Jin Cha, Jaesuk Yun
The abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is an emerging social problem. Methoxetamine, one of the NPS, was designed as an alternative to ketamine and it was considered an NPS candidate owing to its high addictive potential. However, cardiotoxicity of the phencyclidine analogue, methoxetamine, has not been extensively evaluated. P21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK-1) is associated with the drug-induced cardiotoxicity and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of methoxetamine on rat cardiomyocytes and PAK-1...
October 30, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Daniela Dias-Pedroso, Joel Guerra, Andreia Gomes, Carole Oudot, Catherine Brenner, Cláudia N Santos, Helena L A Vieira
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a public health concern, and the third cause of death worldwide. Several epidemiological studies and experimental approaches have demonstrated that consumption of polyphenol-enriched fruits and vegetables can promote cardioprotection. Thus, diet plays a key role in CVD development and/or prevention. Physiological β-adrenergic stimulation promotes beneficial inotropic effects by increasing heart rate, contractility and relaxation speed of cardiomyocytes. Nevertheless, chronic activation of β-adrenergic receptors can cause arrhythmias, oxidative stress and cell death...
October 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Magdalena Szumska, Aleksandra Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Justyna Czubilińska, Michał Długaszek, Kaja Gawlik, Anna Krywult, Konrad Synowiec, Tomasz Wielkoszyński, Krystyna Tyrpień-Golder
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a high-molecular zinc-binding metalloproteinase that was first detected in the serum of pregnant women. It can also be detected in men and non-pregnant women. Recently, a growing interest in determining the concentration of PAPP-A as a marker of oxidative stress and atherosclerotic processes has been observed. Among the factors that could potentially influence the PAPP-A formation is the exposure to tobacco smoke. Some components of tobacco smoke have an immediate effect on the body and also direct influence on the cardiovascular system...
October 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Chien-Cheng Huang, Chung-Han Ho, Yi-Chen Chen, Hung-Jung Lin, Chien-Chin Hsu, Jhi-Joung Wang, Shih-Bin Su, How-Ran Guo
Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) may lead to ischemic changes in organs, and heart is one of the most susceptible targets to ischemic condition. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of myocardial infarction following COP. Using a nationwide database of insurance claims in Taiwan, we conducted a population-based cohort study to identify COP patients diagnosed between 1999 and 2012. At a ratio of 3:1, we identified non-COP patients who were matched by the index date and age and compared the risk of myocardial infarction between the two cohorts by time after the index dates of the COP patients, until 2013...
September 22, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh Shabestari, Leila Alizadeh, Mohammad Moshiri, Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Mahdi Balali-Mood
It was aimed to investigate possible late cardiac effects of Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure in Iranian veterans. Thirty-eight veterans with late complications of SM exposure were investigated. Clinical history, physical examinations, 12 leads electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were performed. Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) was performed as clinically indicated for angiographic assessment and patients were stratified according to the CTCA findings. Incomplete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation were detected in 3 (7...
September 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Irina Studneva, Marina Palkeeva, Oksana Veselova, Alexander Molokoedov, Michael Ovchinnikov, Maria Sidorova, Oleg Pisarenko
The clinical use of antineoplastic agent doxorubicin (DOX) is limited due to its cardiotoxic action. [βAla14, His15]-galanine (2-15) (G) is a novel synthetic agonist of galanin receptors GalR1-3 having cardioprotective properties in animal models in vivo. The aim of the present study was to explore effects of G on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated with DOX (D group), DOX and G (D + G group), G (G group), and saline (control). Before treatment and at the end of the study, concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were determined in blood plasma, the animals were weighed, and cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography...
September 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Gerrit Frommeyer, Jan Weller, Christian Ellermann, Patrick Leitz, Simon Kochhäuser, Philipp S Lange, Dirk G Dechering, Lars Eckardt
Ivabradine has recently been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in atrial fibrillation. The aim of the present study was to assess the electrophysiologic profile of ivabradine in an experimental whole-heart model of long-QT-syndrome. In 12 isolated rabbit hearts long-QT-2-syndrome (LQT2) was simulated by infusion of D,L-sotalol (100 µM). 12 rabbit hearts were treated with veratridine (0.5 µM) to mimic long-QT-3-syndrome (LQT3). Sotalol induced a significant prolongation of QT-interval (+ 40 ms, p < 0...
September 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Hyo-In Choi, Jung Ae Hong, Min-Seok Kim, Sang Eun Lee, Sung-Ho Jung, Pil Whan Yoon, Joon Seon Song, Jae-Joong Kim
Cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy is a well-known but uncommon disease, and the physician must maintain a high index of suspicion in order to make a timely diagnosis. We report two patients with cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy. Both patients developed progressively worsening symptoms of cobalt toxicity following revision of a fractured ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacement to a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. In both patients, echocardiography showed LV hypertrophy, biventricular systolic dysfunction, and a large amount of pericardial effusion...
August 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Nejat Mahdieh, Ahmad Rabbani, Ata Firouzi, Ali Zahedmehr, Maryam Hoseinimoghaddam, Sedigheh Saedi, Hamidreza Sanati, Hosseinali Basiri, Feridoun Noohi, Bahareh Rabbani, Majid Maleki
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a typo in the co-author name.
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Varsha K Sonawane, Umesh B Mahajan, Sachin D Shinde, Subhajit Chatterjee, Sandip S Chaudhari, Harshada A Bhangale, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N Goyal, Chanakya N Kundu, Chandragouda R Patil
In the present study, the preventive effects of orally administered disulfiram (DS) against the doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity were investigated in rats. DS was orally administered for 7 days at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day. DOX (30 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered on the 5th day of the initiation of DS treatment. Within 48 h of injection, DOX treatment significantly altered ECG, elevated the ST height, and increased the QT and QRS intervals. It reduced the cardiac levels of injury markers like creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB and lactate dehydrogenase...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Nejat Mahdieh, Ahmad Rabbani, Ata Firouzi, Ali Zahedmehr, Maryam Hoseinimoghaddam, Sedigheh Saedi, Hamidreza Sanati, Hosseinali Basiri, Feridoun Noohi, Bahareh Rabbani, Majid Maleki
Clopidogrel is used in patients with coronary syndromes and at risk of thrombotic events or receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for reducing heart attack and stroke. Here we present genotype and phenotype study of Iranian patients undergoing PCI treated with clopidogrel during a 6-month period of follow-up; common variants of CYP2C19, CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 genes were determined as well as the patients' cardiovascular outcomes to find out the effect of these variants individually and in combination...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Annick Judenherc-HaouzI, Takashi Sonobe, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Philippe Haouzi
This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or H2 S solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Hai-Jian Liu, Bin Liu
Isoflurane is one of the most frequently used volatile anesthetics in clinical practice for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely studied that isoflurane mediates cardioprotection during multiple pathological processes. However, the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, followed by treatments with isoflurane at 0, 50, 100 or 200 µM. Rat cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2, was treated with H2 O2 . Expression of miR-23 was measured by qRT-PCR. The cell survival rate of H9c2 in response to H2 O2 treatments was evaluated by MTT assay...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Ana Rita G Francisco, Daniela Alves, Cláudio David, Lurdes Guerra, Fausto J Pinto, Ana G Almeida
Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is a growing concern. The cardiotoxic impact of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors is unknown, especially the ones used for chronic myeloid leukemia. We aim to evaluate nilotinib- and imatinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Single-center prospective study of consecutive patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors was conducted during 2015. Patients underwent an initial clinical, laboratorial and echocardiographic evaluation, repeated after 1 year...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Shuai Wang, Miao Tian, Ronglai Yang, Yating Jing, Wei Chen, Jinliang Wang, Xian Zheng, Fengrong Wang
Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been demonstrated to contribute to atherosclerosis. 6-gingerol (6-Gin), a phenolic component of ginger (Zingiber officinale), has been shown to exert numerous pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. Here we investigated the role of CMS in the development of atherosclerosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE-/- mice and evaluated the potential therapeutic effects of 6-Gin. Mice were exposed to CMS for 20 weeks, at week 5, they were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), then received 6-Gin (20 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) treatment...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Joseph Y Cheung, JuFang Wang, Xue-Qian Zhang, Jianliang Song, John M Davidyock, Fabian Jana Prado, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Alison M Worth, Muniswamy Madesh, Annick Judenherc-Haouzi, Philippe Haouzi
We have previously demonstrated that methylene blue (MB) counteracts the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) cardiotoxicity by improving cardiomyocyte contractility and intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis disrupted by H2 S poisoning. In vivo, MB restores cardiac contractility severely depressed by sulfide and protects against arrhythmias, ranging from bundle branch block to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. To dissect the cellular mechanisms by which MB reduces arrhythmogenesis and improves bioenergetics in myocytes intoxicated with H2 S, we evaluated the effects of H2 S on resting membrane potential (Em ), action potential (AP), Na+ /Ca2+ exchange current (INaCa ), depolarization-activated K+ currents and ATP levels in adult mouse cardiac myocytes and determined whether MB could counteract the toxic effects of H2 S on myocyte electrophysiology and ATP...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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