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Cardiovascular Toxicology

Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh Shabestari, Leila Alizadeh, Mohammad Moshiri, Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Mahdi Balali-Mood
It was aimed to investigate possible late cardiac effects of Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure in Iranian veterans. Thirty-eight veterans with late complications of SM exposure were investigated. Clinical history, physical examinations, 12 leads electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were performed. Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) was performed as clinically indicated for angiographic assessment and patients were stratified according to the CTCA findings. Incomplete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation were detected in 3 (7...
September 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Irina Studneva, Marina Palkeeva, Oksana Veselova, Alexander Molokoedov, Michael Ovchinnikov, Maria Sidorova, Oleg Pisarenko
The clinical use of antineoplastic agent doxorubicin (DOX) is limited due to its cardiotoxic action. [βAla14, His15]-galanine (2-15) (G) is a novel synthetic agonist of galanin receptors GalR1-3 having cardioprotective properties in animal models in vivo. The aim of the present study was to explore effects of G on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated with DOX (D group), DOX and G (D + G group), G (G group), and saline (control). Before treatment and at the end of the study, concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were determined in blood plasma, the animals were weighed, and cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography...
September 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Gerrit Frommeyer, Jan Weller, Christian Ellermann, Patrick Leitz, Simon Kochhäuser, Philipp S Lange, Dirk G Dechering, Lars Eckardt
Ivabradine has recently been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in atrial fibrillation. The aim of the present study was to assess the electrophysiologic profile of ivabradine in an experimental whole-heart model of long-QT-syndrome. In 12 isolated rabbit hearts long-QT-2-syndrome (LQT2) was simulated by infusion of D,L-sotalol (100 µM). 12 rabbit hearts were treated with veratridine (0.5 µM) to mimic long-QT-3-syndrome (LQT3). Sotalol induced a significant prolongation of QT-interval (+ 40 ms, p < 0...
September 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Hyo-In Choi, Jung Ae Hong, Min-Seok Kim, Sang Eun Lee, Sung-Ho Jung, Pil Whan Yoon, Joon Seon Song, Jae-Joong Kim
Cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy is a well-known but uncommon disease, and the physician must maintain a high index of suspicion in order to make a timely diagnosis. We report two patients with cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy. Both patients developed progressively worsening symptoms of cobalt toxicity following revision of a fractured ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacement to a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. In both patients, echocardiography showed LV hypertrophy, biventricular systolic dysfunction, and a large amount of pericardial effusion...
August 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Shafreena Shaukat Ali, Siti Fatimah Azaharah Mohamed, Nur Hafiqah Rozalei, Yap Wei Boon, Satirah Zainalabidin
Heart failure-associated morbidity and mortality is largely attributable to extensive and unregulated cardiac remodelling. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyces are enriched with natural polyphenols known for antioxidant and anti-hypertensive effects, yet its effects on early cardiac remodelling in post myocardial infarction (MI) setting are still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the actions of roselle extract on cardiac remodelling in rat model of MI. Male Wistar rats (200-300 g) were randomly allotted into three groups: Control, MI, and MI + Roselle...
August 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Nahid Azdaki, Samaneh Nakhaee, Nasim Zamani, Omid Mehrpour
Tricyclic antidepressants are used to treat a variety of mental disorders, and are considered a common cause of fatal drug poisoning. This study reports a young woman with no history of cardiac diseases who presented to the emergency department with heart palpitation, weakness, and lethargy. After a short period of time, she became unconscious and experienced hypotension and refractory arrhythmia, finally being diagnosed with imipramine poisoning. Accurate history taking and the possible causes of these complications including cardio-toxic drug poisoning should be considered in such patients...
August 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Mark Salter, Annabel Kenney
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are known to cause hypertensive crisis when combined with intake of tyramine, classically found in cheese. We present a case of MAOI-induced hypertensive crisis leading to significant troponin release after soft cheese intake. A 51-year-old lady presented with left-sided chest pain, palpitations and headache in the context of significant hypertension after eating soft cheese. She had a similar episode 2 month prior to this presentation, which resulted in a diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction after a troponin of 2768 ng/L (Ref < 17 ng/L) with normal cardiac investigations and CT pulmonary angiogram...
August 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Mehdi Sheibani, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
We aimed to evaluate electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in mortalities due to pure methadone toxicity in ICU patients since methadone-related mortality may be due to cardiac complications even in acute toxicities. In a retrospective single-center study, files of all patients who had died with confirmed diagnosis of pure methadone toxicity between 2011 and 2016 were evaluated. Autopsy was performed in all cases. A cardiologist measured all ECG quantitative and qualitative indices. Fifty-one deaths were recorded...
July 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Yavuzer Koza, Ednan Bayram, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Canan Atalay, Mehmet Resit Onen, Cengiz Ozturk, Sare Sipal, Elif Demirci, Akin Levent
Bilateral common carotid artery ligation (BCCAL) leads to acute craniocervicocerebral ischemia, retrograde blood flow, increased blood pressure, and significant hemodynamic and histomorphological changes at the posterior cerebral vasculature. We examined the potential relationship between denervation injury following BCCAL-induced cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) ischemia and heart rate after permanent BCCAL. Rabbits (n = 25) were randomly divided into three groups: an unoperated control group (GI, n = 6); a sham-operated control group (GII, n = 6), and an experimental group subjected to BCCAL (GIII, n = 13); and then followed for one month...
July 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Tatiana Filatova, Vadim Mitrokhin, Olga Kamkina, Irina Lovchikova, Mitko Mladenov, Andre Kamkin
The following study examined the impact of IL-2 on Ca2+ channel activity in the event of several hours' incubation in IL-2. The right ventricle free wall for action potential measurements was isolated and perfused with Tyrode solution. The whole-cell voltage clamp experiments were performed on enzymatically isolated single cardiomyocytes. The whole-cell voltage clamp recording of Ca2+ currents was performed using the Cs+ -based pipette and bath solutions. The protocol with depolarizing prepulse (- 40 mV) was used to inactivate both Na+ current and Ca2+ T-type current...
July 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Suvendu Giri, Jagadesh Chandra Bose, Ajay Chandrasekar, Basant K Tiwary, Palanivel Gajalakshmi, Suvro Chatterjee
Chemotherapy induced cardiotoxicity leads to development of hypertension, conduction abnormalities, and congestive heart failure. However, there is no simple test to detect and assess cardiovascular risk in a chemotherapy treated cancer patient. The aim of the present study on cancer patients treated with (n = 66) and without (n = 66) chemotherapy is to identify indicators from plasma for vascular injury. The levels of plasma nitrite, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), von Willebrand factor (vWF), cardiac troponins, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were estimated...
July 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Robert J Henning, Marie Bourgeois, Raymond D Harbison
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an immediate cellular repair response to DNA damage and is catalyzed primarily by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP1), which is the most abundant of the 18 different PARP isoforms and accounts for more than 90% of the catalytic activity of PARP in the cell nucleus. Upon detection of a DNA strand break, PARP1 binds to the DNA, cleaves nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide between nicotinamide and ribose and then modifies the DNA nuclear acceptor proteins by formation of a bond between the protein and the ADP-ribose residue...
July 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Basant Sharma, Udit Chaube, Bhoomika M Patel
The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of silymarin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction (PAAC) in Wistar rats. Silymarin was administered for 9 weeks at the end of which we evaluated hypertrophic, hemodynamic, non-specific cardiac markers, oxidative stress parameters, and determined mitochondrial DNA concentration. Hypertrophic control animals exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, altered hemodynamics, oxidative stress, and decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) concentration...
July 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Brian B Hasinoff, Daywin Patel
The proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, which are used in the treatment of multiple myeloma have greatly improved response rates. Several other proteasome inhibitors, including delanzomib and oprozomib, are in clinical trials. Carfilzomib and oprozomib are epoxyketones that form an irreversible bond with the 20S proteasome, whereas bortezomib, ixazomib, and delanzomib are boronic acids that form slowly reversible adducts. Several of the proteasome inhibitors have been shown to exhibit specific cardiac toxicities...
June 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Nejat Mahdieh, Ahmad Rabbani, Ata Firouzi, Ali Zahedmehr, Maryam Hoseinimoghaddam, Sedigheh Saedi, Hamidreza Sanati, Hosseinali Basiri, Feridoun Noohi, Bahareh Rabbani, Majid Maleki
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a typo in the co-author name.
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Varsha K Sonawane, Umesh B Mahajan, Sachin D Shinde, Subhajit Chatterjee, Sandip S Chaudhari, Harshada A Bhangale, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N Goyal, Chanakya N Kundu, Chandragouda R Patil
In the present study, the preventive effects of orally administered disulfiram (DS) against the doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity were investigated in rats. DS was orally administered for 7 days at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day. DOX (30 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered on the 5th day of the initiation of DS treatment. Within 48 h of injection, DOX treatment significantly altered ECG, elevated the ST height, and increased the QT and QRS intervals. It reduced the cardiac levels of injury markers like creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB and lactate dehydrogenase...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Nejat Mahdieh, Ahmad Rabbani, Ata Firouzi, Ali Zahedmehr, Maryam Hoseinimoghaddam, Sedigheh Saedi, Hamidreza Sanati, Hosseinali Basiri, Feridoun Noohi, Bahareh Rabbani, Majid Maleki
Clopidogrel is used in patients with coronary syndromes and at risk of thrombotic events or receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for reducing heart attack and stroke. Here we present genotype and phenotype study of Iranian patients undergoing PCI treated with clopidogrel during a 6-month period of follow-up; common variants of CYP2C19, CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 genes were determined as well as the patients' cardiovascular outcomes to find out the effect of these variants individually and in combination...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Annick Judenherc-HaouzI, Takashi Sonobe, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Philippe Haouzi
This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or H2 S solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Hai-Jian Liu, Bin Liu
Isoflurane is one of the most frequently used volatile anesthetics in clinical practice for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely studied that isoflurane mediates cardioprotection during multiple pathological processes. However, the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, followed by treatments with isoflurane at 0, 50, 100 or 200 µM. Rat cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2, was treated with H2 O2 . Expression of miR-23 was measured by qRT-PCR. The cell survival rate of H9c2 in response to H2 O2 treatments was evaluated by MTT assay...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Ana Rita G Francisco, Daniela Alves, Cláudio David, Lurdes Guerra, Fausto J Pinto, Ana G Almeida
Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is a growing concern. The cardiotoxic impact of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors is unknown, especially the ones used for chronic myeloid leukemia. We aim to evaluate nilotinib- and imatinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Single-center prospective study of consecutive patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors was conducted during 2015. Patients underwent an initial clinical, laboratorial and echocardiographic evaluation, repeated after 1 year...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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