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Psychology and Psychotherapy

Suzanne P M Blythin, Hannah L Nicholson, Vanessa G Macintyre, Joanne M Dickson, John R E Fox, Peter J Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Emotional states may play an important role in the development and maintenance of anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This systematic review aimed to examine the evidence regarding the relationship that shame and guilt have with two eating disorders, AN and BN. METHODS: Four major databases (Pubmed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Medline) were searched (up until April 2018) for studies measuring guilt or shame in clinically diagnosed AN and BN groups...
September 4, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Kelly Davenport, Gillian Hardy, Sara Tai, Warren Mansell
PURPOSE: To conduct a thematic synthesis to evaluate qualitative studies exploring individuals' experiences of psychological-based interventions for bipolar disorder (BD). METHOD: A systematic search of relevant databases (Web of Science, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL) was conducted using predefined search terms related to 'Bipolar' 'Qualitative method', 'Psychological-based interventions' and 'Adults'. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected and were then evaluated using established quality appraisal criteria...
September 3, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Cristiana Duarte, James R Stubbs, Paul Gilbert, Carol Stalker, Francisca Catarino, Jaskaran Basran, Graham Horgan, Liam Morris
OBJECTIVES: The Weight-Focused Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (WFSCRS) is based on the original Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCSRS; Gilbert et al., 2004, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 31) and assesses the inadequate and hated forms of self-criticism and the ability to self-reassure when coping with attempts to control body weight, shape, and eating. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure, consistency, and reliability of the WFSCRS in overweight and obese women...
August 22, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Katharina Sophie Vogt, Paul Norman
OBJECTIVE: This review sought to systematically review evidence on the efficacy of mentalization-based therapy (MBT) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD), in particular, in decreasing psychiatric symptoms associated with BPD and its comorbid disorders. METHOD: Fourteen papers were included in the review which examined the effectiveness of MBT in the context of BPD; these included 11 original studies and three follow-up papers. RESULTS: Mentalization-based therapy was found to achieve either superior or equal reductions in psychiatric symptoms when compared with other treatments (supportive group therapy, treatment as usual/standard psychiatric care, structured clinical management, and specialized clinical management)...
August 11, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Javier Malda-Castillo, Claire Browne, Guillermo Perez-Algorta
PURPOSE: This study reviewed the evidence-base status of mentalization-based treatment (MBT), its quality, strengths, and limitations. The aim was to pave the way for further MBT research. METHOD: An electronic database and reference lists search identified MBT outcome papers, and these were systematically reviewed. The quality of the studies and the risk of bias were determined using two validated checklist tools. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included in the review...
August 9, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Jakob Scheunemann, Björn Schlier, Leonie Ascone, Tania M Lincoln
OBJECTIVES: Self-shaming and self-criticism have been shown to contribute to the emergence of distressing psychotic symptoms and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). In contrast, a self-compassionate mindset may protect against negative evaluations in response to PLEs leading to less distress. This study explores the association between self-compassion, the frequency of PLEs, and their associated distress. DESIGN: The study used a correlational, cross-sectional design on a German community sample...
August 9, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Evyn M Peters, Rudy Bowen, Lloyd Balbuena
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mood instability in people with anxiety disorders contributes to trait impulsivity, non-suicidal self-injury, and binge eating/purging. METHODS: Data were analysed from a general population sample of 7,221 adults (Mage  = 51.0 years; 56.9% female). Logistic regression analyses with effect decompositions were used to establish the associations of five anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) with impulsivity, non-suicidal self-injury, and binge eating/purging, and then to determine the extent that adding mood instability to each model reduced these relationships...
July 12, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Rachel R Tambling, Lee N Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Measuring client motivation to change, and then using information from that assessment to plan and conduct treatment, has been of great interest to therapists. Researchers have modified a measure of motivation to change to develop the R-URICA (Tambling & Johnson, 2012, Fam. J., 20, 59). DESIGN: This manuscript presents the results of an exploration of the validity of the R-URICA in a sample of individuals in couple therapy. Sample included 581 couples from a treatment-as-usual sample of counselling clinic clients...
June 29, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Paola Lucena-Santos, José Pinto-Gouveia, Sérgio A Carvalho, Margareth da Silva Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: Although the Ruminative Responses Scale is one of the most widely used measures of rumination, its two-factor structure remains controversial. Taking this into account, we aimed to test the RRS-10 two-factor invariance (Brazilian version) between different samples of women and to study its internal consistency and convergent validity. METHODS: A sample of 321 women (general population, n = 106; college students, n = 115; and medical population of patients with overweight and obesity, n = 100) participated in the study...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Charlotte Huggett, Michèle D Birtel, Yvonne F Awenat, Paul Fleming, Sophie Wilkes, Shirley Williams, Gillian Haddock
OBJECTIVES: Prior research has examined various components involved in the impact of public and internalized stigma on people with mental health problems. However, studies have not previously investigated the subjective experiences of mental health stigma by those affected in a non-statutory treatment-seeking population. DESIGN: An in-depth qualitative study was conducted using thematic analysis to investigate the experiences of stigma in people with mental health problems...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Kathryn Powell, Nick Maguire
OBJECTIVES: Current research has implicated a role for cognitive and emotional processes in the pathways to becoming homeless. Evidence implicates three risk factors, which are often associated with an increased incidence of homelessness: paranoid thinking, emotion regulation, and engaging in maladaptive behaviours. Maladaptive behaviours include deliberate self-harm, substance misuse, and high-risk sexual practices. Currently, no studies have investigated the specific psychological mechanisms, such as difficulty regulating emotions, which underpin the association between paranoia and maladaptive behaviours...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Fuminori Yamada, Yoichi Hiramatsu, Tomokazu Murata, Yoichi Seki, Mizue Yokoo, Remi Noguchi, Takayuki Shibuya, Mari Tanaka, Rieko Takanashi, Eiji Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Mental imagery has a more powerful impact on our emotions than thinking in words about the same material. Treating intrusive images with imagery rescripting (IR) has been reported for various disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder. There has been less research about IR as a major depressive disorder (MDD). AIMS: We examined whether IR without focusing on early traumatic memories is effective in MDD...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Lucy Carter, John Read, Melissa Pyle, Heather Law, Richard Emsley, Anthony Morrison
PURPOSE: Research suggests that the way an individual understands a health difficulty can influence their subsequent behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of a new causal belief questionnaire for people who have experience of psychosis. We also planned to provide an overview of current causal beliefs within this group and to explore the relationship between these beliefs and the perceived helpfulness of treatment and the treatment accessed. METHODS: Three hundred and eleven service-users with experience of psychosis completed a questionnaire designed to explore how they understand the cause of their difficulties...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Emma Forsén Mantilla, David Clinton, Andreas Birgegård
OBJECTIVES: In published clinical and autobiographical accounts of eating disorders, patients often describe their disorder in personified ways, that is, relating to the disorder as if it were an entity, and treatment often involves techniques of externalization. By encouraging patients to think about their eating disorder as a relationship, this study aimed to examine how young female patients experience their eating disorder as acting towards them, how they react in response, and whether these interactions are associated with symptoms, illness duration, and self-image...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
John Cheetham, Sue Holttum, Neil Springham, Kate Butt
OBJECTIVES: Research has shown interpersonal relationships influence experiences of inpatient psychiatric services. This study explored inpatient staff and service users' talk about relating, and consequences on available/limited social actions. DESIGN: A Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to analyse transcribed semi-structured interviews and focus groups with current inpatient staff members and members of a service-user involvement group. METHOD: Two focus groups (service users n = 10; staff n = 6) and five interviews (service users n = 2; staff n = 3) were held, with participants responding to questions regarding the discursive object of 'experiences of relating on inpatient wards'...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
John Read, Christopher Harrop, Jim Geekie, Julia Renton
OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be used in England, but without comprehensive national auditing. Therefore, information was gathered on usage, demographics, consent, and adherence to the guidelines of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (N.I.C.E.) and to the Mental Health Act. DESIGN AND METHODS: Freedom of Information Act requests were sent to 56 National Health Service Trusts. RESULTS: Thirty-two trusts provided some usable data...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Hannah Little, Anna Tickle, Roshan das Nair
PURPOSE: To identify, appraise, and synthesize findings from qualitative studies of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who have experienced dialectical behaviour therapy, to gain further understanding of their perceptions of the process and impact of therapy. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive systematic search of the literature from several online databases, and appraised them using an adapted version of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool...
September 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Nicola Petrocchi, Francesco Dentale, Paul Gilbert
OBJECTIVES: Several studies suggest that self-criticism and self-reassurance operate through different mechanisms and might interact with each other. This study examined the hypothesis that self-reassurance serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms in a way that self-esteem, which is rooted in a different motivational system, may not. DESIGN: We hypothesized that self-criticism would be correlated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but that this association would be weaker at higher levels of self-reassurance abilities...
June 15, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Nadia Ayed, Sarah Toner, Stefan Priebe
PURPOSE: This review aims to identify how the term 'resilience' is conceptualized across adult mental health research due to ongoing criticism regarding the lack of consistency in its conceptualization. METHOD: A systematic search, including hand searches of book chapters, was conducted using search terms ('resilien*') AND ('mental illness' OR 'mental health problem'). Papers were excluded if they did not meet the following criteria: written in English, provide a clear conceptualization of resilience, include only adults (aged 18 + ) in the sample, solely focus on individuals with a primary diagnosis of mental illness, and peer-reviewed...
June 11, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Rachel Sellers, Richard Emsley, Adrian Wells, Anthony P Morrison
OBJECTIVES: It is increasingly accepted that paranoia lies on a continuum of severity that can be observed in the general population. Several psychological factors have been implicated in the development of more distressing persecutory ideas including negative affect (i.e., anxiety and depression), beliefs about oneself and other people (i.e., schemas), and metacognitive beliefs. This study aimed to explore the combined role of cognition and metacognition in paranoia. Specifically, unhelpful metacognitive beliefs and schematic beliefs were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between non-clinical paranoid ideation and negative affect...
June 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
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