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Psychology and Psychotherapy

Erkki Heinonen, Tiia Heiskanen, Olavi Lindfors, Kristiina Härkäpää, Paul Knekt
OBJECTIVES: Dispositional optimism predicts various beneficial outcomes in somatic health and treatment, but has been little studied in psychotherapy. This study investigated whether an optimistic disposition differentially predicts patients' ability to benefit from short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. DESIGN: A total of 326 adult outpatients with mood and/or anxiety disorder were randomized into short-term (solution-focused or short-term psychodynamic) or long-term psychodynamic therapy and followed up for 3 years...
October 15, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
James A Banham, Robert D Schweitzer
OBJECTIVE: Reflexivity is the process of critically examining one's own experience. Emerging literature suggests that reflexivity is a positive predictor of outcomes in psychotherapy. However, limited research has been conducted regarding therapists' use of reflexivity as a therapeutic technique. In particular, we have a limited understanding of how therapists use language to initiate reflexive conversations. This study investigates the characteristics of therapist language that elicit reflexivity focused on internal and external processes...
October 15, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Alice E Liddell, Steven Allan, Ken Goss
OBJECTIVES: Compassion-focused therapy (CFT) has shown promising results for a range of clinical presentations. This study explored the therapeutic competencies required to deliver CFT and organized these into a coherent framework. DESIGN: The Delphi method was used to explore and refine competencies for delivering CFT in three rounds of data collection. METHODS: The first round involved interviews with 12 experts in CFT. Data were analysed using template analysis to generate a draft competency framework...
October 15, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Alice Diedrich, Julian Burger, Mareike Kirchner, Matthias Berking
OBJECTIVES: To identify the mechanisms involved in the association between self-compassion and depression, we examined whether adaptive emotion regulation would mediate the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression. Furthermore, we explored which specific emotion regulation skills would be most important in this relationship. DESIGN AND METHOD: Sixty-nine individuals with unipolar depression were assessed with the Self-Compassion Scale and the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire at baseline and with the Beck Depression Inventory-II 1 week later...
October 15, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Susanna Pallini, Agnese Alfani, Lucrezia Marech, Fiorenzo Laghi
OBJECTIVES: Women victims of IPV are more likely insecurely attached and have experienced childhood abuse, which according to the attachment theory is deeply related to disorganized attachment. This case-control study was performed with the aim to compare the attachment status and the defensive processing patterns of women victims of IPV (cases) with women with no experiences of IPV (controls). METHODS: Cases were 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 51 years...
October 4, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
James N Kirby
PURPOSE: Over the last 10-15 years, there has been a substantive increase in compassion-based interventions aiming to improve psychological functioning and well-being. METHODS: This study provides an overview and synthesis of the currently available compassion-based interventions. What do these programmes looks like, what are their aims, and what is the state of evidence underpinning each of them? RESULTS: This overview has found at least eight different compassion-based interventions (e...
September 24, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Danny Horesh, Meng Qian, Sara Freedman, Arieh Shalev
: A question remains regarding differential effects of exposure-based versus non-exposure-based therapies on specific post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters. Traumatized emergency room patients were randomized to receive prolonged exposure (PE) or cognitive therapy (CT) without exposure. PE/CT had no differential effect on individual symptom clusters, and change in total PTSD score remained significant even after controlling for the reductions in all three symptom clusters...
August 25, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
María Carrera, Andrés Cabero, Sonia González, Nuria Rodríguez, Carlos García, Lara Hernández, Javier Manjón
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) for psychological distress and mild to moderate depression in a routine clinical practice setting. DESIGN AND METHODS: A naturalistic pre/post-study involving 132 mental health service users was carried out. Clients received seven structured sessions of SFGT, and pre-therapy self-report scores (Spanish brief version of Beck Depression Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were compared with post-therapy scores...
September 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Paul Ince, Gillian Haddock, Sara Tai
PURPOSE: A systematic review of the literature exploring if the UK recommendations for psychological interventions for schizophrenia were being met was carried out. Rates of implementation for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and family intervention (FI) were compared. The barriers against implementation and described strategies aimed at improving implementation were reviewed. METHODS: A literature search of electronic bibliography databases (Psychinfo, Medline, Pubmed, AMED, CINHAL, and EMBASE), reference and citation lists, the Evaluation and Review of NICE Implementation (ERNIE) database, a manual search of Clinical Psychology Forum, governmental reports, charity, and service user group reports was conducted...
September 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Jessica Willner-Reid, Damiya Whitaker, David H Epstein, Karran A Phillips, Amber R Pulaski, Kenzie L Preston, Paul Willner
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of homework-task difficulty and electronic-diary reminders on written homework completion during cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for addiction. Completion of homework is an important element in CBT that may affect outcome. DESIGN: All participants received all combinations of our two interventions in a factorial 2 × 2 counterbalanced Latin-square design. METHODS: Methadone-maintained cocaine and heroin users were given homework between each of 12 weekly CBT sessions and carried electronic diaries that collected ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data on craving and exposure to drug-use triggers in four 3-week blocks assessing two levels of homework difficulty and prompted and unprompted homework...
September 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Emma Taborelli, Abigail Easter, Rosalind Keefe, Ulrike Schmidt, Janet Treasure, Nadia Micali
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine in depth the individual experience of transition from pregnancy to motherhood, among women with current eating disorders (EDs), focusing on differences between the first and subsequent pregnancies. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed the narratives of 12 women with severe ED during pregnancy using interpretative phenomenological analysis. We employed a sequential structure, and the emerging themes were ordered according to consecutive pregnancy stages...
September 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Elena Bilotta, Mauro Giacomantonio, Luigi Leone, Francesco Mancini, Giovanna Coriale
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify the associations between negative emotionality, avoidant coping, and alexithymia. We hypothesized that negative emotionality and avoidance strategies would interact negatively in associating with alexithymia. DESIGN: We examined, in one study conducted in Italy and another in the US (total N = 415), the associations among avoidant coping, negative emotionality, and alexithymia, using cross-sectional designs. METHOD: Study 1: Participants completed paper-and-pencil measures of alexithymia, avoidant coping, and negative emotionality...
September 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Ciarán O'Driscoll, Esther Flanagan
OBJECTIVE: Difficulties with sex often develop following sexual trauma, yet are rarely targeted within treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Where outcomes of sexual function are included, they are secondary to other measures. This review aimed to assess whether psychological treatment for PTSD (from sexual trauma) has an effect on sexual functioning. METHODS: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and trial registers were performed. Five studies met inclusion criteria...
September 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Ingeborg Eikenaes, Geir Pedersen, Theresa Wilberg
OBJECTIVES: Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP) are common, closely related conditions. Little is known about the underlying processes related to the social discomfort of subjects with AvPD and SP. Both disorders are associated with interpersonal problems. An attachment perspective may shed light on similarities and differences in close relationships between the disorders. The aim of the study was to compare self-reported attachment styles in patients with AvPD and SP...
September 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Peter Pearce, Ros Sewell, Mick Cooper, Sarah Osman, Andrew J B Fugard, Joanne Pybis
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to pilot a test of the effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) in an ethnically diverse group of young people (aged 11-18 years old), with follow-up assessments at 6 and 9 months. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled trial, using linear-mixed effect modelling and intention-to-treat analysis to compare changes in levels of psychological distress for participants in SBHC against usual care (UC). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN44253140...
July 29, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Shani Ofir-Eyal, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Shlomo Kravetz, Paul H Lysaker
OBJECTIVE: Studies have showed that therapists and mental health workers of persons with schizophrenia tend to estimate their patients' social quality of life (SQoL) as poorer than the clients' own estimation. This study explores the hypothesis that this discrepancy is related to clients' social cognition and symptomatology. DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of both clients and their mental health workers. METHODS: Ninety persons with schizophrenia and 12 persons who were formal care providers participated in the study...
July 20, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Abel Lerma, Héctor Perez-Grovas, Luis Bermudez, María L Peralta-Pedrero, Rebeca Robles-García, Claudia Lerma
OBJECTIVES: Psychological treatment of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has focused on severely depressed patients. We designed and tested a brief (5 weeks) cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) to reduce mild and moderate depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with ESRD. DESIGN: For the purpose of this study, a single-blind, randomized controlled design was used to compare patients with ESRD under haemodialysis treatment with and without the CBI...
July 20, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
David Kealy, Michelle Tsai, John S Ogrodniczuk
: Ninety-two adults attending outpatient mental health services completed measures of attachment style and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. Correlation and linear regression analyses found anxious attachment to be positively associated with treatment-seeking distress and found avoidant attachment to be negatively associated with openness to personal disclosure in the therapy relationship. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Insecure attachment may influence prospective patients' readiness for psychotherapy...
July 19, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Clare Backer, Rebecca Murphy, John R E Fox, Fiona Ulph, Rachel Calam
OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of young children of living with a parent with bipolar disorder (BD) and how this impacts on their emotional well-being. DESIGN: Qualitative study using a computer-assisted semi-structured interview, 'In My Shoes' (IMS). METHODS: Ten children aged between 4 and 10 years with a parent with BD identified via self-help groups were interviewed about their experience of family life. Thematic analysis was used following transcription...
July 19, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Alison Scope, Lesley Uttley, Anthea Sutton
PURPOSE: This systematic review aimed to synthesize qualitative evidence relating to user and service provider perspective on the acceptability and relative benefits and potential harms of art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental disorders. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in 13 major bibliographic databases from May to July 2013. A qualitative evidence synthesis was conducted using thematic framework synthesis. RESULTS: The searches identified 10,270 citations from which 12 studies were included...
June 3, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
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