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Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs

Cher-Rin Chong, Gao J Ong, John D Horowitz
Angina pectoris, or symptomatic myocardial ischaemia, reflects an impairment of coronary blood flow, and usually a deficiency of available myocardial energetics. Treatment options vary with the precise cause, which may vary with regards to the roles of increased myocardial oxygen demand versus reduced supply. Traditionally, organic nitrates, β-adrenoceptor antagonists, and non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists were the only commonly used prophylactic anti-anginal agents. However, many patients failed to respond adequately to such therapy, and/or were unsuitable for their use...
October 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Francesco Panza, Davide Seripa, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Bruno P Imbimbo, Madia Lozupone, Antonio Leo, Rodolfo Sardone, Gaetano Gagliardi, Lucia Lofano, Bianca C Creanza, Paola Bisceglia, Antonio Daniele, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino
Currently available drugs against Alzheimer's disease (AD) target cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions without affecting the underlying disease process. Putative disease-modifying drugs are in development and target β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and tau protein, the principal neurophatological hallmarks of the disease. Areas covered: Phase III clinical studies of emerging anti-Aβ drugs for the treatment of AD were searched in US and EU clinical trial registries and in the medical literature until May 2016...
October 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Haris Zahoor, Brian I Rini
The landscape of systemic treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has dramatically changed with the introduction of targeted agents including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Recently, multiple new agents including growth factor receptor antagonists and a checkpoint inhibitor were approved for the treatment of refractory metastatic RCC based on encouraging benefit shown in clinical trials. Areas Covered: The background and biological rationale of existing treatment options including a brief discussion of clinical trials, which led to their approval, is presented...
October 3, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Hugo Farne, David J Jackson, Sebastian L Johnston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Ignacio Matos, Elena Elez, Jaume Capdevila, Josep Tabernero
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Over the last decade, the addition of antibodies that block the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or angiogenesis to the classic chemotherapy backbone has improved overall survival in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the role of the other major targeted therapy, the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), is not yet fully clarified. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses key published and ongoing studies with TKIs in mCRC, the mechanisms of resistance to standard treatments that are potentially targetable with these small molecules, along with the role of biomarkers in therapeutic decision-making process...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Aydogan Aydogdu, Ronald S Swerdloff
INTRODUCTION: Male hypogonadism is characterized by inadequate production of Testosterone (T) (hypoandrogenism) and deficiencies in spermatogenesis. The main treatment of male hypogonadism is T replacement therapy (TRT), but for some of the patients, alternative drugs may be more suitable. AREAS COVERED: The available literature of T and alternative treatments for male hypogonadism are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Transdermal application of T gels are the most commonly used route of T administration...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Massimo Morfini, Ezio Zanon
INTRODUCTION: Replacement therapy with clotting factor concentrates is the most appropriate and effective way to treat bleedings of Hemophilia A&B to prevent chronic arthropathy. Unfortunately, the short half-life (HL) of FVIII/IX concentrates obliges the patients to receive frequent infusions, a big concern for children. The development of inhibitors in about 30-45% of hemophilia A and in 3-5% of hemophilia B patient is the major adverse event of replacement therapy. AREAS COVERED: In the last few years, new rFIX have been developed with HL...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Michael B Atkins, George K Philips
INTRODUCTION: Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was considered refractory to most cancer therapies until the 1980s, after which immune modulating agents and targeted agents were developed. Recently the rapid development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint pathways has provided significant clinical benefit in patients with many distinct cancer types. Nivolumab, an anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody showed improvement in response rate and overall survival in patients with previously treated RCC and received US FDA approval in late 2015...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Jolanta Malyszko, Jacek S Malyszko
INTRODUCTION: Anemia has been remained one of the most characteristic and visible manifestations of chronic renal failure. Correction of anemia requires two main treatment strategies: increased stimulation of erythropoiesis, and maintenance of an adequate iron supply to the bone marrow. AREAS COVERED: Erythropoiesis activating agents became a mainstay in the treatment of renal anemia for more than 25 years. Recently, there have been several attempts to introduce new drugs to stimulate erythropoiesis or affect the hepcidin-ferroportin pathway...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Mazen Noureddin, Alice Zhang, Rohit Loomba
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common etiology for abnormal aminotransferase levels and chronic liver disease. Its growing prevalence is largely linked to the presence of metabolic syndrome, particularly diabetes and insulin resistance. It is estimated that 60-80% of the type 2 diabetic population has NAFLD. NAFLD encompasses a range of conditions ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A subset of patients with hepatic steatosis progress to NASH, while 15-20% of patients with NASH develop cirrhosis...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Amer M Zeidan, Maximilian Stahl, Rami Komrokji
INTRODUCTION: No drug has resulted in a survival advantage in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). While hypomethylating agents (HMA) have revolutionized treatment options for patients with higher-risk MDS, the prognosis remains dismal after HMA treatment failure. Novel effective therapies are urgently needed especially after HMA failure. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the current approach to disease prognostication and risk-adaptive therapy, as well as novel therapeutic approaches...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
David Saadoun, Patrice Cacoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Adamantia Liapikou, Antoni Torres
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the leading nosocomial infections worldwide and is associated with an elevated morbidity and mortality and increased hospital costs. Nevertheless, prompt and adequate antimicrobial treatment is mandatory following VAP development, especially in the face of multidrug resistant pathogens. AREAS COVERED: We searched Pubmed and site reports in English language of phase III clinical trials, between 2000-2016 referring to the antibiotic treatment of nosocomial pneumonia...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Rupen Desai, Carter M Suryadevara, Kristen A Batich, S Harrison Farber, Luis Sanchez-Perez, John H Sampson
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy for brain cancer has evolved dramatically over the past decade, owed in part to our improved understanding of how the immune system interacts with tumors residing within the central nervous system (CNS). Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, carries a poor prognosis (<15 months) and only few advances have been made since the FDA's approval of temozolomide (TMZ) in 2005. Importantly, several immunotherapies have now entered patient trials based on promising preclinical data, and recent studies have shed light on how GBM employs a slew of immunosuppressive mechanisms that may be targeted for therapeutic gain...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Flora Zagouri, Evangelos Terpos, Efstathios Kastritis, Meletios A Dimopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Monoclonal antibodies mark the beginning of a new era in the context of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment. Numerous antibodies have been tested or are currently in development for patients with MM, in order to improve tolerability and quality of life. AREAS COVERED: This manuscript reviews emerging antibodies for the treatment of MM i.e. elotuzumab, daratumumab, MOR03087, isatuximab, bevacizumab, cetuximab, siltuximab, tocilizumab, elsilimomab, azintrel, rituximab, tositumomab, milatuzumab, lucatumumab, dacetuzumab, figitumumab, dalotuzumab, AVE1642, tabalumab, pembrolizumab, pidilizumab, nivolumab...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Harikumar Nair, Annalisa Berzigotti, Jaime Bosch
INTRODUCTION: Counteracting splanchnic vasodilatation and increased portal-collateral blood flow has been the mainstay for the treatment of portal hypertension (PH) over the past three decades. However, there is still large room for improvement in the treatment of PH. AREAS COVERED: The basic mechanism leading to portal hypertension is the increased hepatic vascular resistance to portal blood flow caused by liver structural abnormalities inherent to cirrhosis and increased hepatic vascular tone...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Douglas B Johnson, Megan H Pollack, Jeffrey A Sosman
INTRODUCTION: Melanoma is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy associated with poor response to traditional therapies. Recent regulatory approval for immune checkpoint inhibitors and agents targeting mutated BRAF has led to a tremendous expansion of effective treatment options for patients with advanced melanoma. Unfortunately, primary or acquired resistance develops in most patients, highlighting the need for additional therapies. Numerous genetic and other molecular features of this disease may provide effective targets for therapy development...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Alexios Matikas, Vassilis Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
INTRODUCTION: The administration of myeloid growth factors is the only approved treatment for the prevention of chemotherapy induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. However, their specific indications and contraindications and potential side effects limit their application to only a relatively small subset of patients at the highest risk for complications, such as infection. AREAS COVERED: A computerized systematic literature search was performed through Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, the Pharmaprojects database and the clinicaltrials...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Valentina Zuccaro, Paola Columpsi, Alice Apollinari, Paolo Sacchi, Marco Mussa, Andrea Schimmenti, Maria Grazia Lucà, Stefano Fagiuoli, Raffaele Bruno
INTRODUCTION: New direct-acting antiviral agents have changed the landscape of treatment of chronic HCV infection. Despite current treatments are well tolerated with a high rate of sustained virological response (SVR), some medical needs remain. Nowadays there are a large number of approved medications for the treatment of HCV infection; nevertheless, new studies are conducted to find new agents and new combinations. AREAS COVERED: A literature research of new antiviral compounds indicated for the treatment of HCV infection was achieved by an online search of medication undergoing development on Pubmed and clinicalTrials...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Janaki Sharma, Vipul Pareek, Huijie Liu, Haiying Cheng
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is associated with poor prognosis and limited benefit from chemotherapy. The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been revolutionized by the discovery of targetable genetic alterations, including the ALK fusion oncogene. AREAS COVERED: Three drugs have been approved for clinical use in ALK-positive patients - crizotinib, ceritinib and alectinib. Unfortunately, treatment resistance inevitably develops. Several mechanisms of acquired resistance are reported...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
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