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Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792782/emerging-antibody-drug-conjugates-for-treating-lymphoid-malignancies
#1
Anna Wolska-Washer, Pawel Robak, Piotr Smolewski, Tadeusz Robak
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) attached to biologically active drugs through specialized chemical linkers. They deliver and release cytotoxic agents at the tumor site, reducing the likelihood of systemic exposure and therefore toxicity. These agents should improve the potency of chemotherapy by increasing the accumulation of the cytotoxic drug within or near the neoplastic cells with reduced systemic effects. Areas covered and methods: A literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE database, PubMed, for articles in English examining Mabs, B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors and immunomodulating drugs...
August 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783977/new-therapeutic-directions-for-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-cell-cycle-inhibitors-stromal-modifiers-and-conjugated-therapies
#2
Robert Matera, Muhammad Wasif Saif
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. These tumors progress rapidly and somewhat silently with few specific symptoms and are relatively resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Many agents, including cell cycle inhibitors, are under development for the treatment of this cancer for which there are disappointingly few treatment options. Areas Covered: Here we outline the existing approved treatments for advanced pancreatic disease and discuss a range of novel therapies currently under development including cell cycle inhibitors, stromal modifiers and conjugated therapies...
August 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756707/emerging-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-antagonists-to-treat-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
Rehan M Hussain, Thomas A Ciulla
Evolving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) include long acting agents, combination strategies involving new pathways, topical agents, sustained-release, and genetic therapy strategies. Areas covered: Brolucizumab and abicipar pegol have smaller molecular size, facilitating higher concentrations and potentially longer duration than current anti-VEGF agents. Agents being combined with anti-VEGFs include OPT-302 (to inhibit VEGF-C and VEGF-D); pegpleranib and rinucumab (to inhibit platelet derived growth factor, PDGF - but both failed to show consistently improved visual outcomes compared to anti-VEGF monotherapy); and RG7716, ARP-1536 and nesvacumab (to activate the Tie-2 tyrosine kinase receptor, which reduces permeability)...
August 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756709/emerging-anabolic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#4
Christina Lovato, E Michael Lewiecki
Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease with serious consequences due to osteoporotic fractures and high costs to society for post-fracture care. Most patients at high risk for fracture are not receiving care to reduce fracture risk. The osteoporosis treatment gap has reached crisis proportions. Strategies to reduce the treatment gap include systematic methods for identifying and treating high risk patients, better education of patients and healthcare providers, better use of currently available drugs, and development of new drugs to treat osteoporosis...
July 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604110/emerging-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Laure de Rosamel, Jean-Frederic Blanc
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most diagnosed cancer in the world and the third leading cause of death. Unfortunately, when diagnosed two thirds of patients have an advanced disease for which only palliative treatment can be proposed and most likely systemic therapy. Areas covered: As of today only one systemic therapy is validated in the treatment of advanced HCC, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI): Sorafenib. Treatment options are therefore lacking. With the advent of Sorafenib other TKIs have been studied with some disappointing results...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562096/emerging-growth-factor-receptor-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-melanoma
#6
REVIEW
Sarah E Fenton, Jeffrey A Sosman, Sunandana Chandra
Therapy for metastatic melanoma has undergone a rapid transformation over the past 5-10 years. Advances in immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors, including both anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1, have led to durable responses in up to 50% of patients. As our understanding of the processes driving the transformation of melanocytes has improved, progress in targeted therapies has also continued. Areas covered: Angiogenesis and the tumor's dependence on an expanded vascular supply has been a target for novel therapies since the 1970's, as this tissue is derived from endothelial cells that are genetically stable in adults...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556678/emerging-drugs-for-urothelial-bladder-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Kerwin Cumberbatch, Tianfang He, Zachary Thorogood, Benjamin A Gartrell
Metastatic urothelial carcinoma has been associated with poor prognosis and a median survival of approximately 12-14 months with standard therapy. Treatment options for decades have been limited to platinum based chemotherapy as first line with few therapeutic options available to the majority who will ultimately progress beyond platinum. Areas covered: This review focuses on the various targeted, antiangiogenic, chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents currently being developed for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506135/emerging-cell-cycle-inhibitors-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#8
REVIEW
Abdallah Abou Zahr, Gautam Borthakur
AML therapy remains very challenging despite our increased understanding of its molecular heterogeneity. Outcomes with chemotherapy and targeted therapy remain poor. Targeting cell cycle regulators might complement chemotherapy and targeted therapy and help in improving outcomes. Areas covered: Here we cover the pre-clinical and clinical data for both for cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) and cell-cycle checkpoint inhibitors. While CDK inhibition can inhibit proliferation, checkpoint inhibitors can facilitate cell cycle progression in presence of DNA damage and can induce mitotic catastrophe...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506080/hepatocellular-carcinoma-treatment-a-comparative-review-of-emerging-growth-factor-receptor-antagonists
#9
REVIEW
Su Jin Lee, Ho Yeong Lim
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Over the last decade, sorafenib has been the only available therapeutic option for advanced HCC, although regorafenib recently showed a survival benefit compared with placebo in a second-line setting. Areas covered: This review discusses key published and ongoing studies with targeted agents in HCC, molecular targets of HCC, the mechanism of resistance to sorafenib, and the role of biomarker-enriched clinical trials. Expert opinion: The multiplicity of drivers and the existence of substantial molecular heterogeneity limit the benefits of targeted therapies in HCC...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503959/emerging-drugs-for-prevention-of-t-cell-mediated-rejection-in-liver-and-kidney-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Tiffany Cl Wong, Chung-Mau Lo, James Yy Fung
Acute and chronic graft rejection continues to be an important problem after solid organ transplantation. With the introduction of potent immunosuppressive agents such as calcineurin inhibitors, the risk of rejection has been significantly reduced. However, the adverse effects of life-long immunosuppression remain a concern, and there exist a fine balance between over-immunosuppression and risk of rejection. Areas covered: In this review, the current standard of care in immunosuppressive therapy, including the use of steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, mycophenolate prodrugs and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, will be discussed...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253833/emerging-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Kalliopi Andrikou, Chiara Peterle, Stefania Pipitone, Massimiliano Salati, Stefano Cascinu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recently, two chemotherapy regimens have proven to improve median overall survival in comparison with gemcitabine. Based on better understanding of tumor molecular biology and of the role of tumor microenvironment, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be an interesting and new type of targeted treatment of PDAC. Areas covered: Preclinical and clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of several mAbs in pancreatic cancer treatment...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253832/emerging-chemical-therapies-targeting-5-hydroxytryptamine-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Amanda Calhoun, Je Ko, George T Grossberg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neuropsychiatric disorder affecting more than 5 million Americans over age 65. By the year 2050, AD is expected to affect over 30 million. Characterized by neuronal cell death accompanied by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques, AD results in devastating clinical symptomatology with a lasting psychosocial and financial impact. Studies have shown that the current treatments for AD, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI's) and NMDA receptor antagonists, have limited efficacy...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253831/an-update-on-emerging-therapies-for-urinary-tract-infections
#13
REVIEW
Aneela Majeed, Sumaiah Alarfaj, Rabih Darouiche, Mayar Mohajer
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common healthcare-acquired infections, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Worldwide use of antibiotics has led to a significant rise in resistant uropathogens emanating from both hospitals and communities. The huge concern of multidrug resistance (MDR) has led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to encourage drug companies to invest in the development of new antibiotics. Area covered: In this review we summarized data on already approved antibiotics, and selected emerging therapies that are currently in phase II and III trials with emphasis on complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs)...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253830/advances-in-emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-neuroblastoma
#14
REVIEW
Pablo Berlanga, Adela Cañete, Victoria Castel
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial tumor of childhood. Outcome for children with high-risk neuroblastoma remains suboptimal. More than half of children diagnosed with high-risk neuroblastoma either do not respond to conventional therapies or relapse after treatment with dismal prognosis. Areas covered: This paper presents a short review of the state of the art in the current treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma. An updated review of new targeted therapies in this group of patients is also presented...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253829/emerging-drugs-for-immune-thrombocytopenia-itp
#15
REVIEW
Abdulgabar Salama
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibody production against platelets, increased platelet destruction, and, in some cases, impaired thrombopoiesis. The majority of affected patients have significant bleeding risks due to low platelet counts and require treatment. The etiology of ITP is an immunological labyrinth. Currently available treatment options are usually not only nonspecific, but are also associated with some risks. Areas covered: Several useful drugs for the treatment of ITP are currently available...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253828/emerging-protein-kinase-inhibitors-for-treating-pancreatic-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Junji Furuse, Fumio Nagashima
Pancreatic cancer, the incidence and mortality of which are increasing around the world, has the most dismal prognosis among the commonly encountered cancers. Systemic chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer, and development of more effective chemotherapies is being sought. Areas covered: This review article provides a summary about protein kinase inhibitors that have been investigated for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, not only existing agents targeting RAS, EGFR, VEGFR, MEK, etc...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927063/inflammation-and-beyond-new-directions-and-emerging-drugs-for-treating-atherosclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Marie-Jeanne Bertrand, Jean-Claude Tardif
Cardiovascular (CV) atherosclerotic disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the advances in contemporary therapies. Inflammation is an important process in atherosclerosis, leading to plaque rupture and acute coronary syndrome. Although statin therapy has substantially reduced CV events in primary and secondary prevention, many treated patients will have recurrent adverse CV events despite the standard of care. Thus, drug development aiming to target inflammatory pathways seems a promising avenue for novel therapies in atherosclerosis...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927032/emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Christoffer Martinussen, Kirstine Nyvold Bojsen-Moller, Maria Saur Svane, Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Sten Madsbad
The increasing prevalence of obesity represents a huge threat to public health and the current pharmacological treatment options are limited. Bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for severe obesity, highlighting the urgent need for new and improved drug therapies. Areas covered: Based on the physiological regulation of energy homeostasis, pharmacological strategies to treat obesity are evaluated with focus on drugs in phase 2 and 3 clinical development. The potential impact of these drugs on current treatment standards and the barriers for development are discussed and set in a historical perspective of previous antiobesity medications...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820973/emerging-biological-therapies-to-treat-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#19
REVIEW
Françoise Huguet, Suzanne Tavitian
Various settings of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represent unmet medical needs: first remission at high risk of relapse, such as persistent minimal residual disease (MRD); relapse/refractoriness (R/R); elderly patients. Biological therapies targeting widely-shared antigens of blast cells have entered the clinic in B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL. Area covered: Results of phase II/III trials of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and phase I/II trials of adoptive cell therapy by chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells (CAR-T cells) are presented...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813425/emerging-drugs-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-and-neuropathic-pain
#20
REVIEW
Nikolaos Papanas, Dan Ziegler
Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a common complication of diabetes. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the emerging drugs for DSPN, which aim either at improving alleviation of neuropathic pain or addressing the putative mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy. Expert Opinion: Current treatment does not address the sensory deficits and pathogenesis underlying DSPN, so there is an unmet need for treatment options targeting the natural history of the condition. Some of these pathogenetic therapies have demonstrated clinically relevant improvements in neuropathic endpoints in recent randomised controlled trials...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
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