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Neuromolecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536997/plxna3-variant-rs5945430-is-associated-with-severe-clinical-course-in-male-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#1
Moaz Qureshi, Mohamed Hatem, Raed Alroughani, Sindhu P Jacob, Rabeah Abbas Al-Temaimi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibits sex bias in disease clinical course as male MS patients develop severe, progressive clinical course with accumulating disability. So far, no factors have been found associating with this sex bias in MS severity. We set out to determine the genetic factor contributing to MS male-specific progressive disease. This is an MS cross-sectional study involving 213 Kuwaiti MS patients recruited at Dasman Diabetes Institute. Exome sequencing was performed on 18 females and 8 male MS patients' genomic DNA...
May 23, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536996/models-for-studying-myelination-demyelination-and-remyelination
#2
REVIEW
I Osorio-Querejeta, M Sáenz-Cuesta, M Muñoz-Culla, D Otaegui
One of the most widely studied demyelinating diseases is multiple sclerosis, which is characterised by the appearance of demyelinating plaques, followed by myelin regeneration. Nevertheless, with disease progression, remyelination tends to fail, increasing the characteristic neurodegeneration of the disease. It is essential to understand the mechanisms that operate in the processes of myelination, demyelination and remyelination to develop treatments that promote the production of new myelin, thereby protecting the central nervous system...
May 23, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523591/assessment-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-arginine-rich-protamine-peptides-poly-arginine-peptides-r12-cyclic-r22-and-arginine-tryptophan-containing-peptides-following-in-vitro-excitotoxicity-and-or-permanent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#3
Bruno P Meloni, Diego Milani, Jane L Cross, Vince W Clark, Adam B Edwards, Ryan S Anderton, David J Blacker, Neville W Knuckey
We have demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties with arginine content and peptide positive charge being particularly critical for neuroprotective efficacy. In addition, the presence of other amino acids within arginine-rich peptides, as well as chemical modifications, peptide length and cell-penetrating properties also influence the level of neuroprotection. Against this background, we have examined the neuroprotective efficacy of arginine-rich protamine peptides, a cyclic (R12-c) poly-arginine peptide and a R22 poly-arginine peptide, as well as arginine peptides containing tryptophan or other amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, glycine or leucine) in in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity and in vivo rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion models of stroke...
May 18, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592002/pro198leu-polymorphism-in-the-glutathione-peroxidase-1-gene-contributes-to-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-type-2-diabetes-patients
#4
Monika Buraczynska, Kinga Buraczynska, Michal Dragan, Andrzej Ksiazek
Glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) is an endogenous antioxidant enzyme. The T allele of the Pro198Leu polymorphism in the Gpx1 (rs1050450, 198C > T) gene is associated with reduced enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Pro198Leu polymorphism and risk of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We examined 1244 T2DM patients and 730 healthy controls. In the patient group, 33 % had diabetic peripheral neuropathy. All subjects were genotyped for the Gpx1 Pro198Leu polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis...
March 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488499/identification-of-novel-scirr69-interacting-proteins-during-er-stress-using-silac-immunoprecipitation-quantitative-proteomics-approach
#5
Yujian Chen, Yong Liu, Shide Lin, Shuguang Yang, Haiping Que, Shaojun Liu
Spinal cord injury and regeneration-related protein #69 (SCIRR69),also known as cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 2, belongs to the CREB/ATF family, some members of which play significant roles in ER stress. However, it is still not fully elucidated whether SCIRR69 involves in ER stress and its biochemical and functional roles during ER stress. In this study, we firstly treated fetal rat spinal cord neuron cells (SCN) and PC12 cells with ER stress activator thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TM) and then detected the expression pattern of SCIRR69 in response to ER stress at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR assay and immunoblotting...
March 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388466/increased-plasma-levels-of-select-deoxy-ceramide-and-ceramide-species-are-associated-with-increased-odds-of-diabetic-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#6
Samar M Hammad, Nathaniel L Baker, Jad M El Abiad, Stefanka D Spassieva, Jason S Pierce, Barbara Rembiesa, Jacek Bielawski, Maria F Lopes-Virella, Richard L Klein
Plasma deoxy-sphingoid bases are elevated in type 2 diabetes patients and correlate with the stage of diabetic distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy; however, associations between deoxy-sphingolipids (DSL) and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes have not been examined. The primary aim of this exploratory pilot study was to assess the associations between multiple sphingolipid species including DSL and free amino acids and the presence of symptomatic neuropathy in a DCCT/EDIC type 1 diabetes subcohort. Using mass spectroscopy, plasma levels of DSL and free amino acids in DCCT/EDIC type 1 diabetes participants (n = 80), with and without symptoms of neuropathy, were investigated...
March 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277280/potent-protection-against-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-via-activating-transcription-factor-mef2d-by-a-novel-derivative-of-naturally-occurring-danshensu-tetramethylpyrazine
#7
Shengquan Hu, Liang Wang, Shinghung Mak, Zaijun Zhang, Daping Xu, Haitao Li, Yide Li, Yuanjia Hu, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Yuqiang Wang, Yifan Han
Danshensu (DSS) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) are active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort that are widely used in oriental medicine. Structural combination of compounds with known biological activity may lead to the formation of a molecule with multiple properties or new function profile. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of DT-010, a novel analogue in which TMP was coupled to DSS through an ester bond and two allyl groups at the carboxyl group, were evaluated in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
December 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234618/plasma-amyloid-beta-1-42-and-dna-methylation-pattern-predict-accelerated-aging-in-young-subjects-with-down-syndrome
#8
Rima Obeid, Ulrich Hübner, Marion Bodis, Juergen Geisel
Gene methylation is an age-related dynamic process that influences diseases. Premature aging and disturbed methylation are components of Down syndrome (DS). We studied blood biomarkers and DNA methylation (DNAm) of three CpG sites (ASPA, ITGA2B, and PDE4C) in 60 elderly subjects (mean age = 68 years), 31 subjects with DS (12.1 years) and 44 controls (12.8 years). Plasma concentrations of amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 and biomarkers of methylation were measured in the young groups. Subjects with DS had significantly higher concentrations of plasma S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and Aβ and reduced S-adenosylmethionine/SAH ratio compared with the controls...
December 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230661/the-diversity-of-spine-synapses-in-animals
#9
REVIEW
Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Mark P Mattson, Pamela J Yao
Here we examine the structure of the various types of spine synapses throughout the animal kingdom. Based on available evidence, we suggest that there are two major categories of spine synapses: invaginating and non-invaginating, with distributions that vary among different groups of animals. In the simplest living animals with definitive nerve cells and synapses, the cnidarians and ctenophores, most chemical synapses do not form spine synapses. But some cnidarians have invaginating spine synapses, especially in photoreceptor terminals of motile cnidarians with highly complex visual organs, and also in some mainly sessile cnidarians with rapid prey capture reflexes...
December 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225841/metformin-protects-cells-from-mutant-huntingtin-toxicity-through-activation-of-ampk-and-modulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics
#10
Jing Jin, Hao Gu, Nicole M Anders, Tianhua Ren, Mali Jiang, Michael Tao, Qi Peng, Michelle A Rudek, Wenzhen Duan
Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease caused by the pathological elongation of the CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene. Caloric restriction (CR) has been the most reproducible environmental intervention to improve health and prolong life span. We have demonstrated that CR delayed onset and slowed disease progression in a mouse model of HD. Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, mimics CR by acting on cell metabolism at multiple levels. Long-term administration of metformin improved health and life span in mice...
December 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216615/a-novel-association-of-the-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-1-socs1-gene-polymorphisms-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#11
Qi Ma, Nana Liu, Ruyou Zhang, Xiaoying Li, Hui Zhang, Zongmin Li, Shuang Zhang, Wenying Hou, Qianhui Zhu, Hewei Zheng, Litao Sun
Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disease and a leading cause of permanent disability in many countries. Recent studies provide evidence on the role of the suppressor of the cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) gene in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. However, few studies have assessed the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on SOCS1 gene and ischemic stroke. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of SOCS1 polymorphism in ischemic stroke risk in a northern Chinese Han population...
December 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209362/targeting-micrornas-involved-in-the-bdnf-signaling-impairment-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Hwa Jeong You, Jae Hyon Park, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Alejandro Lucia, Jae Il Shin
Neurodegenerative diseases are becoming an ever-increasing problem in aging populations. Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have previously been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential novel therapeutic targets for treating various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), and interestingly, few studies have reported several miRNAs that downregulate the expression levels of BDNF. However, substantial challenges exist when attempting to translate these findings into practical anti-miRNA therapeutics, especially when the targets remain inside the CNS...
December 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119371/identification-of-mirnas-as-potential-biomarkers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#13
Michele Benigni, Claudia Ricci, Ashley R Jones, Fabio Giannini, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Stefania Battistini
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Since no diagnostic laboratory test exists, the identification of specific biomarkers could be fundamental in clinical practice. microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered promising biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the study was to identify a CSF miRNA set that could differentiate ALS from non-ALS condition. miRNA profiling in CSF from ALS patients (n = 24; eight with C9orf72 expansion) and unaffected control subjects (n = 24) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified fourteen deregulated miRNAs...
December 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664052/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-a-cohort-of-spanish-patients-with-ataxia-telangiectasia
#14
Diana Carranza, Ana Karina Vega, Sara Torres-Rusillo, Enrique Montero, Luis Javier Martinez, Manuel Santamaría, Juan Luis Santos, Ignacio J Molina
Ataxia-telangiectasia is a multisystemic disease with severe neurological affectation, immunodeficiency and telangiectasia. The disorder is caused by alterations in the ATM gene, whose size and complexity make molecular diagnosis difficult. We designed a target-enrichment next-generation sequencing strategy to characterize 28 patients from several regions of Spain. This approach allowed us to identify gene variants affecting function in 54 out of the 56 alleles analyzed, although the two unresolved alleles belong to brothers...
September 23, 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646979/cerebrospinal-fluid-stanniocalcin-1-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
Pashtun Shahim, Kaj Blennow, Per Johansson, Johan Svensson, Simone Lista, Harald Hampel, Leif Christer Andersson, Henrik Zetterberg
Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) is a nerve cell-enriched protein involved in intracellular calcium homeostasis regulation. Changes in calcium regulation are hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The expression of STC-1 increases in response to ischemic stroke, but whether it is altered in neurodegenerative disorder, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), has not been investigated before. We measured STC-1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a total of 163 individuals including AD, prodromal AD (pAD), mixed AD, stable mild cognitive impairment (sMCI), and diagnoses of other dementia than AD, as well as cognitively normal controls (CNC) enrolled at academic centers in France and Sweden...
September 19, 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507593/nutraceuticals-in-neurodegeneration-and-aging
#16
EDITORIAL
Wei-Yi Ong, Grace Y Sun, W Gibson Wood, Teng-Nan Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465151/role-of-dietary-phenols-in-mitigating-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation
#17
REVIEW
Parakalan Rangarajan, Aparna Karthikeyan, S T Dheen
Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and is mediated by sustained activation of microglial cells, the innate immune cells of the CNS. Studies have mainly focused on identifying the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of microglial activation. This is crucial in designing therapeutic strategies for neuropathologies in which prolonged microglial activation is known to exacerbate disease condition. In recent years, increasing evidence show that naturally occurring compounds present in regular diet could function as "nutraceuticals," arresting microglial activation, and thus conferring neuroprotection...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455862/effects-of-grape-skin-extract-on-age-related-mitochondrial-dysfunction-memory-and-life-span-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#18
Heike Asseburg, Carmina Schäfer, Madeleine Müller, Stephanie Hagl, Maximilian Pohland, Dirk Berressem, Marta Borchiellini, Christina Plank, Gunter P Eckert
Dementia contributes substantially to the burden of disability experienced at old age, and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) was identified as common final pathway in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Due to its early appearance, MD is a promising target for nutritional prevention strategies and polyphenols as potential neurohormetic inducers may be strong neuroprotective candidates. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape skin extract (PGE) on age-related dysfunctions of brain mitochondria, memory, life span and potential hormetic pathways in C57BL/6J mice...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430236/neuroprotective-effects-of-germinated-brown-rice-in-rotenone-induced-parkinson-s-like-disease-rats
#19
Supin Chompoopong, Sunit Jarungjitaree, Tideeporn Punbanlaem, Thanaporn Rungruang, Sukumal Chongthammakun, Aikkarach Kettawan, Thongchai Taechowisan
The effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the motor deficits and the dopaminergic (DA) cell death were investigated in Parkinson's-like disease (PD) rats. Reactive oxidative species generated by chronic subcutaneous injection of rotenone (RT) lead to neuronal apoptosis particularly in the nigrostriatal DA system and produce many features of PD, bradykinesis, postural instability and rigidity. In this study, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), previously reported to inhibit RT-induced DA cell death, was used as the positive control...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393119/biological-effects-of-naturally-occurring-sphingolipids-uncommon-variants-and-their-analogs
#20
REVIEW
Mitchell K P Lai, Wee Siong Chew, Federico Torta, Angad Rao, Greg L Harris, Jerold Chun, Deron R Herr
Sphingolipids (SPs) comprise a highly diverse class of lipids that serve biological roles both as structural components of cell membranes and as mediators of cell signaling. Pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of SPs and their signaling systems have underscored their importance in most biological processes, including central nervous system development and function. Likewise, perturbations of SP accumulation or signaling have been associated with a number of disease states, such as neural tube defects, neuroinflammation, stroke, and dementia...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
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