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Neuromolecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744773/cd271-cxcr7-cxcr4-and-cd133-stem-progenitor-cells-and-clinical-characteristics-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#1
Anna Gójska-Grymajło, Maciej Zieliński, Dariusz Gąsecki, Kamil Kowalczyk, Mariusz Kwarciany, Barbara Seroczyńska, Walenty M Nyka
Ischemic stroke causes mobilization of various groups of progenitor cells from bone marrow to bloodstream and this correlates with the neurological status of stroke patients. The goal of our study was to identify the activity of chosen progenitor/stem cells in the peripheral blood of acute ischemic stroke patients in the first 7 days after the incident, through associations between the levels of the cells and clinical features of the patients. Thirty-three acute ischemic stroke patients and 15 non-stroke control subjects had their venous blood collected repeatedly in order to assess the levels of the CD45-CD34 + CD271+, the CD45-CD34 + CXCR4+, the CD45-CD34 + CXCR7+, and the CD45-CD34 + CD133+ stem/progenitor cells by means of flow cytometry...
May 9, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728813/the-dynamics-of-neurosteroids-and-sex-related-hormones-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Milad Hasanpour, Alireza Nourazarian, Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Masoud Nikanfar, Fatemeh Khaki-Khatibi, Reza Rahbarghazi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is commonly diagnosed by vast extracellular amyloid deposits and existence of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. In accordance with the literature, age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in either males or females was found in relation to AD subjects. The dynamics of these hormones have been previously described in both physiological and pathological conditions with the evidence of changes in various intracellular signalings regarding the neurodegenerative disease. The potent protective effects of sex steroid hormones and their synthetic analogs are indicative of the decrease in the accumulated levels of intercellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein and an increase of specific proteases activity, resulting in the improvement of pathological features...
May 4, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713907/association-of-calm1-rs3179089-polymorphism-with-ischemic-stroke-in-chinese-han-population
#3
Lian Gu, Jingyan Huang, Jinhong Li, Siyun Huang, Minhua Li, Lin Gong, Tongshun Li, Li Su
A quantitative transcriptomics analysis has reported that Calmodulin 1 (CALM1) is highly expressed in human brain tissues. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between CALM1 rs3179089 polymorphism and ischemic stroke (IS) in Chinese Han population. A total of 550 patients with IS and 550 control subjects were recruited and genotyped using Sequenom MassArray technology. The mRNA expression of CALM1 was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. CALM1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in patients with IS than that in control subjects (P = 0...
April 30, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704115/bdnf-trkb-pathway-mediates-the-antidepressant-like-role-of-h-2-s-in-cums-exposed-rats-by-inhibition-of-hippocampal-er-stress
#4
Le Wei, Li-Yuan Kan, Hai-Ying Zeng, Yi-Yun Tang, Hong-Lin Huang, Ming Xie, Wei Zou, Chun-Yan Wang, Ping Zhang, Xiao-Qing Tang
Our previous works have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) significantly attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) generates an antidepressant-like effect by its receptor tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB). We have previously found that H2 S upregulates the expressions of BDNF and p-TrkB in the hippocampus of CUMS-exposed rats. Therefore, the present work was to explore whether BDNF/TrkB pathway mediates the antidepressant-like role of H2 S by blocking hippocampal ER stress...
April 27, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696585/improved-bioavailability-of-levodopa-using-floatable-spray-coated-microcapsules-for-the-management-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Jong-Suep Baek, Jie Kai Tee, Yi Yun Pang, Ern Yu Tan, Kah Leong Lim, Han Kiat Ho, Say Chye Joachim Loo
Oral administration of levodopa (LD) is the gold standard in managing Parkinson's disease (PD). Although LD is the most effective drug in treating PD, chronic administration of LD induces levodopa-induced dyskinesia. A continuous and sustained provision of LD to the brain could, therefore, reduce peak-dose dyskinesia. In commercial oral formulations, LD is co-administrated with an AADC inhibitor (carbidopa) and a COMT inhibitor (entacapone) to enhance its bioavailability. Nevertheless, patients are known to take up to five tablets a day because of poor sustained-releasing capabilities that lead to fluctuations in plasma concentrations...
April 25, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696584/how-to-spot-congenital-myasthenic-syndromes-resembling-the-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-a-brief-review-of-clinical-electrophysiological-and-genetics-features
#6
REVIEW
Paulo José Lorenzoni, Rosana Herminia Scola, Claudia Suemi Kamoi Kay, Lineu Cesar Werneck, Rita Horvath, Hanns Lochmüller
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous genetic diseases in which neuromuscular transmission is compromised. CMS resembling the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (CMS-LEMS) are emerging as a rare group of distinct presynaptic CMS that share the same electrophysiological features. They have low compound muscular action potential amplitude that increment after brief exercise (facilitation) or high-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation. Although clinical signs similar to LEMS can be present, the main hallmark is the electrophysiological findings, which are identical to autoimmune LEMS...
April 25, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691724/neuroimmunologic-and-neurotrophic-interactions-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-relationship-to-neuroinflammation
#7
REVIEW
Kshama Ohja, Evelyne Gozal, Margaret Fahnestock, Lu Cai, Jun Cai, Jonathan H Freedman, Andy Switala, Ayman El-Baz, Gregory Neal Barnes
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are the most prevalent set of pediatric neurobiological disorders. The etiology of ASD has both genetic and environmental components including possible dysfunction of the immune system. The relationship of the immune system to aberrant neural circuitry output in the form of altered behaviors and communication characterized by ASD is unknown. Dysregulation of neurotrophins such as BDNF and their signaling pathways have been implicated in ASD. While abnormal cortical formation and autistic behaviors in mouse models of immune activation have been described, no one theory has been described to link activation of the immune system to specific brain signaling pathways aberrant in ASD...
April 24, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603067/secretome-of-differentiated-pc12-cells-restores-the-monocrotophos-induced-damages-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-shsy-5y-cells-role-of-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#8
A Srivastava, S Singh, C S Rajpurohit, P Srivastava, A Pandey, D Kumar, V K Khanna, A B Pant
A perturbed cellular homeostasis is a key factor associated with xenobiotic exposure resulting in various ailments. The local cellular microenvironment enriched with secretory components aids in cell-cell communication that restores this homeostasis. Deciphering the underlying mechanism behind this restorative potential of secretome could serve as a possible solution to many health hazards. We, therefore, explored the protective efficacy of the secretome of differentiated PC12 cells with emphasis on induction of autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis...
March 30, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572723/thermodynamics-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-interplay-between-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-ppar-gamma-energy-metabolism-and-circadian-rhythms
#9
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Entropy production rate is increased by several metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Irreversible processes are quantified by changes in the entropy production rate. This review is focused on the opposing interactions observed in NDs between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated, whereas PPAR gamma is downregulated...
March 23, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556980/gwas-supported-crp-gene-polymorphisms-and-functional-outcome-of-large-artery-atherosclerotic-stroke-in-han-chinese
#10
Zusen Ye, Hao Zhang, Lingli Sun, Huan Cai, Yonggang Hao, Zongliang Xu, Zhizhong Zhang, Xinfeng Liu
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increase the risk of poor functional disability in patients with ischemic stroke (IS). This study aimed to investigate the association between CRP gene polymorphisms and 3-month functional disability of large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke in Han Chinese. Patients with first-ever LAA IS were prospectively enrolled in Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between August 2013 and October 2015. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs876537, rs2794520, rs3093059, rs7553007 and rs11265260) in CRP gene related to CRP levels in Asian by genome-wide association study were genotyped...
March 19, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476479/vitamin-d-3-supplementation-reduces-subsequent-brain-injury-and-inflammation-associated-with-ischemic-stroke
#11
Megan A Evans, Hyun Ah Kim, Yeong Hann Ling, Sandy Uong, Antony Vinh, T Michael De Silva, Thiruma V Arumugam, Andrew N Clarkson, Graeme R Zosky, Grant R Drummond, Brad R S Broughton, Christopher G Sobey
Acute inflammation can exacerbate brain injury after ischemic stroke. Beyond its well-characterized role in calcium metabolism, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VitD3 ), has potent immunomodulatory properties. Here, we aimed to determine whether 1,25-VitD3 supplementation could reduce subsequent brain injury and associated inflammation after ischemic stroke. Male C57Bl6 mice were randomly assigned to be administered either 1,25-VitD3 (100 ng/kg/day) or vehicle i...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468499/resveratrol-improves-neuroimmune-dysregulation-through-the-inhibition-of-neuronal-toll-like-receptors-and-cox-2-signaling-in-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mice
#12
Sheikh F Ahmad, Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Mohammad Z Alzahrani, Saleh A Bakheet, Sabry M Attia
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in qualitative impairments in communication, repetitive and social interaction, restricted, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Resveratrol has been extensively studied pharmacologically and biologically and has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders. The BTBR T+ Itpr3tf /J (BTBR) autistic mouse model has been explored for treatment of autism, which shows low reciprocal social interactions, impaired juvenile play, and decreased social approach...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450841/differential-binding-of-human-apoe-isoforms-to-insulin-receptor-is-associated-with-aberrant-insulin-signaling-in-ad-brain-samples
#13
Elizabeth S Chan, Christopher Chen, Tuck Wah Soong, Boon-Seng Wong
Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), where inheritance of this isoform predisposes development of AD in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although the mode of action of ApoE4 on AD onset and progression remains unknown, we have previously shown that ApoE4, and not ApoE3 expression, resulted in insulin signaling deficits in the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ). However, these reports were not conducted with clinical samples that more accurately reflect human disease...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435951/correction-of-huntington-s-disease-phenotype-by-genistein-induced-autophagy-in-the-cellular-model
#14
Karolina Pierzynowska, Lidia Gaffke, Aleksandra Hać, Jagoda Mantej, Natalia Niedziałek, Joanna Brokowska, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic disorder, caused by mutations in the HTT gene which result in expansion of CAG triplets. The product of the mutated gene is misfolded huntingtin protein that forms aggregates leading to impairment of neuronal function, neurodegeneration, motor abnormalities and cognitive deficits. No effective cure is currently available for HD. Here we studied effects of genistein (trihydroxyisoflavone) on a HD cellular model consisting of HEK-293 cells transfected with a plasmid bearing mutated HTT gene...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429076/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-link-between-multiple-sclerosis-osteoporosis-and-neurodegeneration
#15
REVIEW
Zohara Sternberg
The high prevalence of osteoporosis, observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, has been attributed to reduced mobility and or the use of disease-modifying drugs. However, MS-impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has the potential of reducing bone mass density (BMD) by altering the expression and/or function of the neuronal, systemic, and local mediators of bone remodeling. This review describes the complex regulation of bone homeostasis with a focus on MS, providing evidence that ANS dysfunction and low BMD are intertwined with MS inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, and with other MS-related morbidities, including depression, fatigue, and migraine...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423895/molecular-insights-into-the-roles-of-rab-proteins-in-intracellular-dynamics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Shobi Veleri, Pradeep Punnakkal, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti
In eukaryotes, the cellular functions are segregated to membrane-bound organelles. This inherently requires sorting of metabolites to membrane-limited locations. Sorting the metabolites from ribosomes to various organelles along the intracellular trafficking pathways involves several integral cellular processes, including an energy-dependent step, in which the sorting of metabolites between organelles is catalyzed by membrane-anchoring protein Rab-GTPases (Rab). They contribute to relaying the switching of the secretory proteins between hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411248/neuroprotective-effect-and-mechanism-of-action-of-tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-for-ischemic-stroke-therapy
#17
Gaoxiao Zhang, Tao Zhang, Liangmiao Wu, Xinhua Zhou, Jianbo Gu, Cuimei Li, Wei Liu, Cheng Long, Xifei Yang, Luchen Shan, Lipeng Xu, Yuqiang Wang, Yewei Sun, Zaijun Zhang
Our previous studies demonstrated that the multifunctional agent TBN, a derivative of tetramethylpyrazine armed with a nitrone moiety, displayed high therapeutic efficacy in experimental ischemic stroke models. However, its molecular mechanisms of action underlying the neuroprotective effect need further exploration. In the present study, we found that TBN had significant activities scavenging free radicals such as · OH, O 2 ·- and ONOO- , inhibiting Ca2+ overload, maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing neuronal damage in primary cortical cultures...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335819/nmda-receptor-glun2-subtypes-control-epileptiform-events-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Pradeep Punnakkal, Deity Dominic
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Subtype-specific role of NMDAR in neural disorders is an emerging area. Recent studies have revealed that mutations in NMDARs are a cause for epilepsy. Hippocampus is a known focal point for epilepsy. In hippocampus, expression of the NMDAR subtypes GluN1/GluN2A and GluN1/GluN2B is temporally regulated. However, the pharmacological significance of these subtypes is not well understood in epileptic context/models. To investigate this, epilepsy was induced in hippocampal slices by the application of artificial cerebrospinal fluid that contained high potassium but no magnesium...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332269/behavioral-biochemical-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-using-the-neurotoxin-2-ch-3-mptp-a-novel-approach
#19
Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Agihane Rodrigues Almeida, Sarah Martins Presti-Silva, Evaldo Vitor Pereira, Filipe Andrich, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
The neurotoxin MPTP has long been used to create a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, several MPTP analogues have been developed, including 2'-CH3 -MPTP, which was shown to induce nigrostriatal DA neuronal depletion more potently than MPTP. However, no study on behavioral and molecular alterations in response to 2'-CH3 -MPTP has been carried out so far. In the present work, 2'-CH3 -MPTP was administered to mice (2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg per injection, once a day, 5 days) and histological, biochemical, molecular and behavioral alterations were evaluated...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307058/serum-mortalin-correlated-with-%C3%AE-synuclein-as-serum-markers-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#20
Amrendra Pratap Singh, Teena Bajaj, Divya Gupta, Sundararajan Baskar Singh, Avinash Chakrawarty, Vinay Goyal, Aparajit B Dey, Sharmistha Dey
Mortalin, a mitochondrial chaperone, plays a crucial role in reducing toxicity of Lewy bodies. Earlier studies had reported that Mortalin level gets downregulated in astrocytes and other brain tissue samples in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to estimate the Mortalin concentration in serum and correlate with α-synuclein (α-Syn) in PD. The concentration of Mortalin and α-Syn in serum samples of 38 PD patients and 33 control group (CG) individuals was quantified by surface plasmon resonance. The receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to develop it as blood-based protein marker...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
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