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Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213831/a-phenomenological-cohesive-model-for-the-macroscopic-simulation-of-cell-matrix-adhesions
#1
M Cóndor, J M García-Aznar
Cell adhesion is crucial for cells to not only physically interact with each other but also sense their microenvironment and respond accordingly. In fact, adherent cells can generate physical forces that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix, regulating the formation of cell-matrix adhesions. The main purpose of this work is to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions through a cohesive formulation within the framework of the finite element method and based on the principles of continuum damage mechanics...
February 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210824/ultrasound-palpation-for-fast-in-situ-quantification-of-articular-cartilage-stiffness-thickness-and-relaxation-capacity
#2
M Schöne, R M Schulz, H Tzschätzsch, P Varga, K Raum
Most current cartilage testing devices require the preparation of excised samples and therefore do not allow intra-operative application for diagnostic purposes. The gold standard during open or arthroscopic surgery is still the subjective perception of manual palpation. This work presents a new diagnostic method of ultrasound palpation (USP) to acquire applied stress and strain data during manual palpation of articular cartilage. With the proposed method, we obtain cartilage thickness and stiffness. Moreover, repeated palpations allow the quantification of relaxation effects...
February 16, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204985/comparison-of-strain-measurement-in-the-mouse-forearm-using-subject-specific-finite-element-models-strain-gaging-and-digital-image-correlation
#3
Mark Begonia, Mark Dallas, Mark L Johnson, Ganesh Thiagarajan
Mechanical loading in bone leads to the activation of bone-forming pathways that are most likely associated with a minimum strain threshold being experienced by the osteocyte. To investigate the correlation between cellular response and mechanical stimuli, researchers must develop accurate ways to measure/compute strain both externally on the bone surface and internally at the osteocyte level. This study investigates the use of finite element (FE) models to compute bone surface strains on the mouse forearm...
February 15, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194537/strain-induced-inflammation-in-pulmonary-alveolar-tissue-due-to-mechanical-ventilation
#4
Parya Aghasafari, Israr Bin M Ibrahim, Ramana Pidaparti
Inflammation is the body's attempt at self-protection to remove harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens and begin the healing process. In this study, strain-induced inflammation in pulmonary alveolar tissue under high tidal volume is investigated through a combination of an inflammation model and fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis. A realistic three-dimensional organ model for alveolar sacs is built, and FSI is employed to evaluate strain distribution in alveolar tissue for different tidal volume (TV) values under the mechanical ventilation (MV) condition...
February 13, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188386/improved-identifiability-of-myocardial-material-parameters-by-an-energy-based-cost-function
#5
Anastasia Nasopoulou, Anoop Shetty, Jack Lee, David Nordsletten, C Aldo Rinaldi, Pablo Lamata, Steven Niederer
Myocardial stiffness is a valuable clinical biomarker for the monitoring and stratification of heart failure (HF). Cardiac finite element models provide a biomechanical framework for the assessment of stiffness through the determination of the myocardial constitutive model parameters. The reported parameter intercorrelations in popular constitutive relations, however, obstruct the unique estimation of material parameters and limit the reliable translation of this stiffness metric to clinical practice. Focusing on the role of the cost function (CF) in parameter identifiability, we investigate the performance of a set of geometric indices (based on displacements, strains, cavity volume, wall thickness and apicobasal dimension of the ventricle) and a novel CF derived from energy conservation...
February 10, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181018/biomedical-implications-from-a-morphoelastic-continuum-model-for-the-simulation-of-contracture-formation-in-skin-grafts-that-cover-excised-burns
#6
Daniël C Koppenol, Fred J Vermolen
A continuum hypothesis-based model is developed for the simulation of the (long term) contraction of skin grafts that cover excised burns in order to obtain suggestions regarding the ideal length of splinting therapy and when to start with this therapy such that the therapy is effective optimally. Tissue is modeled as an isotropic, heterogeneous, morphoelastic solid. With respect to the constituents of the tissue, we selected the following constituents as primary model components: fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen molecules, and a generic signaling molecule...
February 8, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132108/towards-the-understanding-of-cytoskeleton-fluidisation-solidification-regulation
#7
Horacio López-Menéndez, José Félix Rodríguez
The understanding of the self-regulation of the mechanical properties in non-sarcomeric cells, such as lung cells or cells during tissue development, remains an open research problem with many unresolved issues. Their behaviour is far from the image of the traditionally studied sarcomeric cells, since the crosstalk between the signalling pathways and the complexity of the mechanical properties creates an intriguing mechano-chemical coupling. In these situations, the inelastic effects dominate the cytoskeletal structure showing phenomena like fluidisation and subsequent solidification...
January 28, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124191/modeling-tumor-growth-with-peridynamics
#8
Emma Lejeune, Christian Linder
Computational models of tumors have the potential to connect observations made on the cellular and the tissue scales. With cellular scale models, each cell can be treated as a discrete entity, while tissue scale models typically represent tumors as a continuum. Though the discrete approach often enables a more mechanistic and biologically driven description of cellular behavior, it is often computationally intractable on the tissue scale. Here, we adapt peridynamics, a theoretical and computational approach designed to unify the mechanics of discrete and continuous media, for the growth of biological materials...
January 26, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120197/a-general-framework-for-the-numerical-implementation-of-anisotropic-hyperelastic-material-models-including-non-local-damage
#9
J P S Ferreira, M P L Parente, M Jabareen, R M Natal Jorge
The highly nonlinear mechanical behaviour of soft tissues solicited within the physiological range usually involves degradation of the material properties. Mechanically, having these biostructures undergoing such stretch patterns may bring about pathological conditions related to the steady deterioration of both collagen fibres and material's ground substance. Tissue and subject variability observed in the phenomenological mechanical characterisation of soft tissues often hinder the choice of the computational constitutive model...
January 25, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116532/reversible-stress-softening-in-layered-rat-esophagus-in-vitro-after-potassium-chloride-activation
#10
Hongbo Jiang, Donghua Liao, Jingbo Zhao, Guixue Wang, Hans Gregersen
Significant stress softening recovery after potassium chloride (KCl) administration was previously demonstrated in the intact rat esophageal wall. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of KCl activation on stress softening recovery in the separated mucosa-submucosa layer and muscle layer of rat esophagus. Three series of loading-unloading distensions were carried out on 10 rat esophagi where the two separated layers were distended at luminal pressure levels 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kPa. Numerous distension cycles were done in [Formula: see text]-free Krebs solution before and after activation with KCl (110 mmol) for 3 min in calcium-containing media...
January 23, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093648/predicting-cell-viability-within-tissue-scaffolds-under-equiaxial-strain-multi-scale-finite-element-model-of-collagen-cardiomyocytes-constructs
#11
Mostafa Elsaadany, Karen Chang Yan, Eda Yildirim-Ayan
Successful tissue engineering and regenerative therapy necessitate having extensive knowledge about mechanical milieu in engineered tissues and the resident cells. In this study, we have merged two powerful analysis tools, namely finite element analysis and stochastic analysis, to understand the mechanical strain within the tissue scaffold and residing cells and to predict the cell viability upon applying mechanical strains. A continuum-based multi-length scale finite element model (FEM) was created to simulate the physiologically relevant equiaxial strain exposure on cell-embedded tissue scaffold and to calculate strain transferred to the tissue scaffold (macro-scale) and residing cells (micro-scale) upon various equiaxial strains...
January 16, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091803/a-study-of-hyperelastic-models-for-predicting-the-mechanical-behavior-of-extensor-apparatus
#12
Nahid Elyasi, Kimia Karimi Taheri, Keivan Narooei, Ali Karimi Taheri
In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus...
January 16, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070737/in-silico-analysis-of-the-anti-hypertensive-drugs-impact-on-myocardial-oxygen-balance
#13
A Guala, D Leone, A Milan, L Ridolfi
Hypertension is a very common pathology, and its clinical treatment largely relies on different drugs. Some of these drugs exhibit specific protective functions in addition to those resulting from blood pressure reduction. In this work, we study the impact of commonly used anti-hypertensive drugs (RAAS, [Formula: see text] and calcium channel blockers) on myocardial oxygen supply-consumption balance, which plays a crucial role in type 2 myocardial infarction. To this aim, 42 wash-out hypertensive patients were selected, a number of measured data were used to set a validated multi-scale cardiovascular model to subject-specific conditions, and the administration of different drugs was suitably simulated...
January 9, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064404/heterogeneous-nanomechanical-properties-of-type-i-collagen-in-longitudinal-direction
#14
Ming Tang, Tong Li, Neha S Gandhi, Kevin Burrage, YuanTong Gu
Collagen is an abundant structural biopolymer in mammal vertebrates, providing structural support as well as mechanical integrity for connective tissues such as bone, ligament, and tendon. The mechanical behaviours of these tissues are determined by the nanomechanics of their structures at different hierarchies and the role of collagen structures in the extracellular matrix. Some studies revealed that there is significant microstructural difference in the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibril, which challenges the conventional rod-like assumption prevalently adopted in the existing studies...
January 7, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050744/simulation-studies-of-the-role-of-esophageal-mucosa-in-bolus-transport
#15
Wenjun Kou, John E Pandolfino, Peter J Kahrilas, Neelesh A Patankar
Based on a fully coupled computational model for esophageal transport, we analyzed the role of the mucosa (including the submucosa) in esophageal bolus transport and how bolus transport is affected by mucosal stiffness. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, a base case that represents normal esophageal transport and two hypothetical cases were simulated: (1) esophageal mucosa replaced by muscle and (2) esophagus without mucosa. For the base case, the geometric configuration of the esophageal wall was examined and the mechanical role of mucosa was analyzed...
January 3, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040867/a-validated-model-of-passive-skeletal-muscle-to-predict-force-and-intramuscular-pressure
#16
Benjamin B Wheatley, Gregory M Odegard, Kenton R Kaufman, Tammy L Haut Donahue
The passive properties of skeletal muscle are often overlooked in muscle studies, yet they play a key role in tissue function in vivo. Studies analyzing and modeling muscle passive properties, while not uncommon, have never investigated the role of fluid content within the tissue. Additionally, intramuscular pressure (IMP) has been shown to correlate with muscle force in vivo and could be used to predict muscle force in the clinic. In this study, a novel model of skeletal muscle was developed and validated to predict both muscle stress and IMP under passive conditions for the New Zealand White Rabbit tibialis anterior...
December 31, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005223/metastatic-breast-cancer-cells-adhere-strongly-on-varying-stiffness-substrates-initially-without-adjusting-their-morphology
#17
Sonbula Massalha, Daphne Weihs
We show that metastatic breast cancer cells are quantitatively identifiable from benign cells during adherence onto soft, elastic gels. We identify differences in time-dependent morphology and strength of adherence of single breast cells that are likely related to their malignancy and metastatic potential (MP). Specifically, we compare high and low MP breast cancer cells with benign cells as a control on collagen-coated, polyacrylamide gels with Young's modulus in the physiological range of 2.4-10.6 kPa. We observe that the evaluated metastatic breast cancer cells remain rounded, with small contact area, up to 6...
December 22, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004226/prediction-of-femoral-strength-using-3d-finite-element-models-reconstructed-from-dxa-images-validation-against-experiments
#18
Lorenzo Grassi, Sami P Väänänen, Matti Ristinmaa, Jukka S Jurvelin, Hanna Isaksson
Computed tomography (CT)-based finite element (FE) models may improve the current osteoporosis diagnostics and prediction of fracture risk by providing an estimate for femoral strength. However, the need for a CT scan, as opposed to the conventional use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for osteoporosis diagnostics, is considered a major obstacle. The 3D shape and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution of a femur can be reconstructed using a statistical shape and appearance model (SSAM) and the DXA image of the femur...
December 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004225/modeling-viscous-dissipation-during-vocal-fold-contact-the-influence-of-tissue-viscosity-and-thickness-with-implications-for-hydration
#19
Byron D Erath, Matías Zañartu, Sean D Peterson
The mechanics of vocal fold contact during phonation is known to play a crucial role in both normal and pathological speech production, though the underlying physics is not well understood. Herein, a viscoelastic model of the stresses during vocal fold contact is developed. This model assumes the cover to be a poroelastic structure wherein interstitial fluid translocates in response to mechanical squeezing. The maximum interstitial fluid pressure is found to generally increase with decreasing viscous dissipation and/or decreasing tissue elasticity...
December 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933417/on-the-characterization-of-the-heterogeneous-mechanical-response-of-human-brain-tissue
#20
Antonio E Forte, Stephen M Gentleman, Daniele Dini
The mechanical characterization of brain tissue is a complex task that scientists have tried to accomplish for over 50 years. The results in the literature often differ by orders of magnitude because of the lack of a standard testing protocol. Different testing conditions (including humidity, temperature, strain rate), the methodology adopted, and the variety of the species analysed are all potential sources of discrepancies in the measurements. In this work, we present a rigorous experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of human brain, covering both grey and white matter...
December 8, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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