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Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808796/structural-alteration-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribution-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#1
Weiqi Li, Wen Wang
The endothelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-protein layer that lines the luminal surface of the endothelium. It anchors to the cell membrane via its core proteins that share extended link to the actin cytoskeleton. It is widely accepted that those protein domains and the attached carbohydrates are susceptible to pathological changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent the actin cytoskeleton contributes to the glycocalyx stability. In this study, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the maintenance of the glycocalyx under static and laminar flow conditions in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795282/microscale-poroelastic-metamodel-for-efficient-mesoscale-bone-remodelling-simulations
#2
C C Villette, A T M Phillips
Bone functional tissue adaptation is a multiaspect physiological process driven by interrelated mechanical and biological stimuli which requires the combined activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In previous work, the authors developed a phenomenological mesoscale structural modelling approach capable of predicting internal structure of the femur based on daily activity loading, which relied on the iterative update of the cross-sectional areas of truss and shell elements representative of trabecular and cortical bones, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785830/peristaltic-biofluids-flow-through-vertical-porous-human-vessels-using-third-grade-non-newtonian-fluids-model
#3
Pooria Akbarzadeh
In this paper, the heat and flow characteristic of third-grade non-Newtonian biofluids flow through a vertical porous human vessel due to peristaltic wall motion are studied. The third-grade model can describe shear thinning (or shear thickening) and normal stress differences, which is acceptable for biofluids modeling. In order to solve the governing equations, the assumption of long-wavelength approximation is utilized. This hypothesis emphasizes that the wavelength of the peristaltic wall motion is large in comparison with the radius of the human vessel, which is widely acceptable in biological investigations...
August 7, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780705/a-viscoelastic-anisotropic-hyperelastic-constitutive-model-of-the-human-cornea
#4
Charles Whitford, Natalia V Movchan, Harald Studer, Ahmed Elsheikh
A constitutive model based on the continuum mechanics theory has been developed which represents interlamellar cohesion, regional variation of collagen fibril density, 3D anisotropy and both age-related viscoelastic and hyperelastic stiffening behaviour of the human cornea. Experimental data gathered from a number of previous studies on 48 ex vivo human cornea (inflation and shear tests) enabled calibration of the constitutive model by numerical analysis. Wide-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy provided measured data which quantify microstructural arrangements associated with stiffness...
August 5, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779266/in-silico-study-of-bone-tissue-regeneration-in-an-idealised-porous-hydrogel-scaffold-using-a-mechano-regulation-algorithm
#5
Feihu Zhao, Myles J Mc Garrigle, Ted J Vaughan, Laoise M McNamara
Mechanical stimulation, in the form of fluid perfusion or mechanical strain, enhances osteogenic differentiation and overall bone tissue formation by mesenchymal stems cells cultured in biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In silico techniques can be used to predict the mechanical environment within biomaterial scaffolds, and also the relationship between bone tissue regeneration and mechanical stimulation, and thereby inform conditions for bone tissue engineering experiments. In this study, we investigated bone tissue regeneration in an idealised hydrogel scaffold using a mechano-regulation model capable of predicting tissue differentiation, and specifically compared five loading cases, based on known experimental bioreactor regimes...
August 4, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755237/uncertainty-quantification-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-an-arterial-wall-mechanics-model-for-evaluation-of-vascular-drug-therapies
#6
Maarten H G Heusinkveld, Sjeng Quicken, Robert J Holtackers, Wouter Huberts, Koen D Reesink, Tammo Delhaas, Bart Spronck
Quantification of the uncertainty in constitutive model predictions describing arterial wall mechanics is vital towards non-invasive assessment of vascular drug therapies. Therefore, we perform uncertainty quantification to determine uncertainty in mechanical characteristics describing the vessel wall response upon loading. Furthermore, a global variance-based sensitivity analysis is performed to pinpoint measurements that are most rewarding to be measured more precisely. We used previously published carotid diameter-pressure and intima-media thickness (IMT) data (measured in triplicate), and Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden models...
July 28, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741084/towards-the-prediction-of-flow-induced-shear-stress-distributions-experienced-by-breast-cancer-cells-in-the-lymphatics
#7
S T Morley, D T Newport, M T Walsh
Tumour metastasis in the lymphatics is a crucial step in the progression of breast cancer. The dynamics by which breast cancer cells (BCCs) travel in the lymphatics remains poorly understood. The goal of this work is to develop a model capable of predicting the shear stresses metastasising BCCs experience using numerical and experimental techniques. This paper models the fluidic transport of large particles ([Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the particle diameter and W is the channel width) subjected to lymphatic flow conditions ([Formula: see text]), in a [Formula: see text] microchannel...
July 24, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735415/cfd-simulation-of-aerosol-delivery-to-a-human-lung-via-surface-acoustic-wave-nebulization
#8
Morteza Yousefi, Oveis Pourmehran, Mofid Gorji-Bandpy, Kiao Inthavong, Leslie Yeo, Jiyuan Tu
Administration of drug in the form of particles through inhalation is generally preferable in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Conventional inhalation therapy devices such as inhalers and nebulizers, nevertheless, suffer from low delivery efficiencies, wherein only a small fraction of the inhaled drug reaches the lower respiratory tract. This is primarily because these devices are not able to produce a sufficiently fine drug mist that has aerodynamic diameters on the order of a few microns. This study employs computational fluid dynamics to investigate the transport and deposition of the drug particles produced by a new aerosolization technique driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) into an in silico lung model geometrically reconstructed using computed tomography scanning...
July 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735414/bone-mechanobiology-in-mice-toward-single-cell-in-vivo-mechanomics
#9
Ariane Scheuren, Esther Wehrle, Felicitas Flohr, Ralph Müller
Mechanically driven bone (re)modeling is a multiscale process mediated through complex interactions between multiple cell types and their microenvironments. However, the underlying mechanisms of how cells respond to mechanical signals are still unclear and are at the focus of the field of bone mechanobiology. Traditionally, this complex process has been addressed by reducing the system to single scales and cell types. It is only recently that more integrative approaches have been established to study bone mechanobiology across multiple scales in which mechanical load at the organ level is related to molecular responses at the cellular level...
July 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733924/cellular-mechanosensitivity-to-substrate-stiffness-decreases-with-increasing-dissimilarity-to-cell-stiffness
#10
Tamer Abdalrahman, Laura Dubuis, Jason Green, Neil Davies, Thomas Franz
Computational modelling has received increasing attention to investigate multi-scale coupled problems in micro-heterogeneous biological structures such as cells. In the current study, we investigated for a single cell the effects of (1) different cell-substrate attachment (2) and different substrate modulus [Formula: see text] on intracellular deformations. A fibroblast was geometrically reconstructed from confocal micrographs. Finite element models of the cell on a planar substrate were developed. Intracellular deformations due to substrate stretch of [Formula: see text], were assessed for: (1) cell-substrate attachment implemented as full basal contact (FC) and 124 focal adhesions (FA), respectively, and [Formula: see text]140 KPa and (2) [Formula: see text], 140, 1000, and 10,000 KPa, respectively, and FA attachment...
July 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733923/cardiovascular-mechanics-in-the-early-stages-of-pulmonary-hypertension-a-computational-study
#11
Sebastián Acosta, Charles Puelz, Béatrice Rivière, Daniel J Penny, Ken M Brady, Craig G Rusin
We formulate and study a new mathematical model of pulmonary hypertension. Based on principles of fluid and elastic dynamics, we introduce a model that quantifies the stiffening of pulmonary vasculature (arteries and arterioles) to reproduce the hemodynamics of the pulmonary system, including physiologically consistent dependence between compliance and resistance. This pulmonary model is embedded in a closed-loop network of the major vessels in the body, approximated as one-dimensional elastic tubes, and zero-dimensional models for the heart and other organs...
July 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733922/effect-of-collagen-fibre-orientation-on-intervertebral-disc-torsion-mechanics
#12
Bo Yang, Grace D O'Connell
The intervertebral disc is a complex fibro-cartilaginous material, consisting of a pressurized nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, which has an angle-ply structure. Disc injury and degeneration are noted by significant changes in tissue structure and function, which significantly alters stress distribution and disc joint stiffness. Differences in fibre orientation are thought to contribute to changes in disc torsion mechanics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibre orientation on internal disc mechanics under compression combined with axial rotation...
July 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699120/valve-related-modes-of-pump-failure-in-collecting-lymphatics-numerical-and-experimental-investigation
#13
C D Bertram, C Macaskill, M J Davis, J E Moore
Lymph is transported along collecting lymphatic vessels by intrinsic and extrinsic pumping. The walls have muscle of a type intermediate between blood-vascular smooth muscle and myocardium; a contracting segment between two valves (a lymphangion) constitutes a pump. This intrinsic mechanism is investigated ex vivo in isolated, spontaneously contracting, perfused segments subjected to controlled external pressures. The reaction to varying afterload is probed by slowly ramping up the outlet pressure until pumping fails...
July 11, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685238/functional-in-situ-assessment-of-human-articular-cartilage-using-mri-a-whole-knee-joint-loading-device
#14
Sven Nebelung, Manuel Post, Stefan Raith, Horst Fischer, Matthias Knobe, Benedikt Braun, Andreas Prescher, Markus Tingart, Johannes Thüring, Philipp Bruners, Holger Jahr, Christiane Kuhl, Daniel Truhn
The response to loading of human articular cartilage as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains to be defined in relation to histology and biomechanics. Therefore, an MRI-compatible whole-knee joint loading device for the functional in situ assessment of cartilage was developed and validated in this study. A formalin-fixed human knee was scanned by computed tomography in its native configuration and digitally processed to create femoral and tibial bone models. The bone models were covered by artificial femoral and tibial articular cartilage layers in their native configuration using cartilage-mimicking polyvinyl siloxane...
July 6, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660343/tissue-mineral-density-measured-at-the-sub-millimetre-scale-can-provide-reliable-statistics-of-elastic-properties-of-bone-matrix
#15
Davide Gagliardi, Salah Naili, Christophe Desceliers, Vittorio Sansalone
Reliability of multiscale models of bone is related to the accuracy of the experimental information available on bone microstructure. X-ray-based imaging techniques allow to inspect bone structure and mineralization in vitro at the micrometre scale. However, spatial resolution achievable in vivo is much coarser and can produce blurry, uncertain information on bone microstructure. Working with uncertain data calls for new modelling paradigms able to propagate uncertainty through the scales. In this paper we investigate the effects of uncertain bone mineralization on the elastic coefficients of the bone matrix...
June 28, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656515/computational-predictions-of-the-embolus-trapping-performance-of-an-ivc-filter-in-patient-specific-and-idealized-ivc-geometries
#16
Kenneth I Aycock, Robert L Campbell, Frank C Lynch, Keefe B Manning, Brent A Craven
Embolus transport simulations are performed to investigate the dependence of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter embolus-trapping performance on IVC anatomy. Simulations are performed using a resolved two-way coupled computational fluid dynamics/six-degree-of-freedom approach. Three IVC geometries are studied: a straight-tube IVC, a patient-averaged IVC, and a patient-specific IVC reconstructed from medical imaging data. Additionally, two sizes of spherical emboli (3 and 5 mm in diameter) and two IVC orientations (supine and upright) are considered...
June 27, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643141/estimation-of-the-effective-yield-properties-of-human-trabecular-bone-using-nonlinear-micro-finite-element-analyses
#17
Patrik Wili, Ghislain Maquer, Jarunan Panyasantisuk, Philippe K Zysset
Micro-finite element ([Formula: see text]FE) analyses are often used to determine the apparent mechanical properties of trabecular bone volumes. Yet, these apparent properties depend strongly on the applied boundary conditions (BCs) for the limited size of volumes that can be obtained from human bones. To attenuate the influence of the BCs, we computed the yield properties of samples loaded via a surrounding layer of trabecular bone ("embedded configuration"). Thirteen cubic volumes (10.6 mm side length) were collected from [Formula: see text]CT reconstructions of human vertebrae and femora and converted into [Formula: see text]FE models...
June 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639152/influence-of-muscle-groups-activation-on-proximal-femoral-growth-tendency
#18
Priti Yadav, Sandra J Shefelbine, Eva Pontén, Elena M Gutierrez-Farewik
Muscle and joint contact force influence stresses at the proximal growth plate of the femur and thus bone growth, affecting the neck shaft angle (NSA) and femoral anteversion (FA). This study aims to illustrate how different muscle groups' activation during gait affects NSA and FA development in able-bodied children. Subject-specific femur models were developed for three able-bodied children (ages 6, 7, and 11 years) using magnetic resonance images. Contributions of different muscle groups-hip flexors, hip extensors, hip adductors, hip abductors, and knee extensors-to overall hip contact force were computed...
June 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634682/searching-for-the-sweet-spot-the-foot-rotation-and-parallel-engagement-of-ankle-ligaments-in-maximizing-injury-tolerance
#19
Bingbing Nie, Jason L Forman, Alexander R Mait, John-Paul Donlon, Matthew B Panzer, Richard W Kent
Ligament sprains, defined as tearing of bands of fibrous tissues within ligaments, account for a majority of injuries to the foot and ankle complex in field-based sports. External rotation of the foot is considered the primary injury mechanism of syndesmotic ankle sprains with concomitant flexion and inversion/eversion associated with particular patterns of ligament trauma. However, the influence of the magnitude and direction of loading vectors to the ankle on the in situ stress state of the ligaments has not been quantified in the literature...
June 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631145/biaxial-mechanical-properties-of-bovine-jugular-venous-valve-leaflet-tissues
#20
Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang, Jiaqi Lu
Venous valve incompetence has been implicated in diseases ranging from chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) to intracranial venous hypertension. However, while the mechanical properties of venous valve leaflet tissues are central to CVI biomechanics and mechanobiology, neither stress-strain curves nor tangent moduli have been reported. Here, equibiaxial tensile mechanical tests were conducted to assess the tangent modulus, strength and anisotropy of venous valve leaflet tissues from bovine jugular veins. Valvular tissues were stretched to 60% strain in both the circumferential and radial directions, and leaflet tissue stress-strain curves were generated for proximal and distal valves (i...
June 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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