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Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

Alexey Kamenskiy, Andreas Seas, Paul Deegan, William Poulson, Eric Anttila, Sylvie Sim, Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart
Femoropopliteal artery (FPA) mechanics play a paramount role in pathophysiology and the artery's response to therapeutic interventions, but data on FPA mechanical properties are scarce. Our goal was to characterize human FPAs over a wide population to derive a constitutive description of FPA aging to be used for computational modeling. Fresh human FPA specimens ([Formula: see text]) were obtained from [Formula: see text] predominantly male (80 %) donors 54±15 years old (range 13-82 years). Morphometric characteristics including radius, wall thickness, opening angle, and longitudinal pre-stretch were recorded...
October 22, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Jun Qiu, Fang-Fang Li
Mechanical properties of a single cell and its mechanical response under stimulation play an important role in regulating interactions between cell and extracellular matrix and affecting mechanotransduction. Osteocytes exhibit solid-like viscoelastic behavior in response to the interstitial fluid shear resulting from tissue matrix deformation. This study intends to quantitatively describe the mechanical behavior of osteocytes combining in vitro experiment and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element (FE) model...
October 17, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
L L Xiao, Y Liu, S Chen, B M Fu
Adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to the microvessel wall largely depends on the blood hydrodynamic conditions, one of which is the blood viscosity. Since blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity increases with hematocrit, in the microvessels at low shear rate. In this study, the effects of hematocrit, vessel size, flow rate and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation on adhesion of a CTC in the microvessels were numerically investigated using dissipative particle dynamics. The membrane of cells was represented by a spring-based network connected by elastic springs to characterize its deformation...
October 13, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Wolfgang Wiedemair, Zeljko Tukovic, Hrvoje Jasak, Dimos Poulikakos, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
Encapsulated microbubbles (MBs) serve as endovascular agents in a wide range of medical ultrasound applications. The oscillatory response of these agents to ultrasonic excitation is determined by MB size, gas content, viscoelastic shell properties and geometrical constraints. The viscoelastic parameters of the MB capsule vary during an oscillation cycle and change irreversibly upon shell rupture. The latter results in marked stress changes on the endothelium of capillary blood vessels due to altered MB dynamics...
October 12, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Jonathan P Mynard, Remi Kowalski, Michael M H Cheung, Joseph J Smolich
Wave reflection from the site of aortic coarctation produces a reflected backward compression wave (BCW) that raises left ventricular (LV) afterload. However, not all reflected wave power will propagate back to the LV. This study investigated the hypothesis that the BCW is partially transmitted into supra-aortic vessels as a forward wave and explored the consequences of this phenomenon for cerebral and LV haemodynamic load. In eight sheep, high fidelity pressure and flow were measured in the aortic trunk (AoT) and brachiocephalic trunk (BCT, the single supra-aortic vessel present in sheep) at baseline and during two levels of proximal descending aortic constriction...
October 11, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
M Sierra, J Grasa, M J Muñoz, F J Miana-Mena, D González
A novel technique is proposed to predict force reduction in skeletal muscle due to fatigue under the influence of electrical stimulus parameters and muscle physiological characteristics. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were divided in four groups ([Formula: see text]) to obtain the active force evolution of in vitro Extensor Digitorum Longus muscles for an hour of repeated contractions under different electrical stimulation patterns. Left and right muscles were tested, and a total of 24 samples were used to construct a response surface based in the proper generalized decomposition...
October 6, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Merryn H Tawhai, Eric A Hoffman, Sally E Wenzel, Ching-Long Lin
We propose a method to construct three-dimensional airway geometric models based on airway skeletons, or centerlines (CLs). Given a CT-segmented airway skeleton and surface, the proposed CL-based method automatically constructs subject-specific models that contain anatomical information regarding branches, include bifurcations and trifurcations, and extend from the trachea to terminal bronchioles. The resulting model can be anatomically realistic with the assistance of an image-based surface; alternatively a model with an idealized skeleton and/or branch diameters is also possible...
October 4, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Reza Avazmohammadi, Michael R Hill, Marc A Simon, Will Zhang, Michael S Sacks
The function of right ventricle (RV) is recognized to play a key role in the development of many cardiopulmonary disorders, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Given the strong link between tissue structure and mechanical behavior, there remains a need for a myocardial constitutive model that accurately accounts for right ventricular myocardium architecture. Moreover, most available myocardial constitutive models approach myocardium at the length scale of mean fiber orientation and do not explicitly account for different fibrous constituents and possible interactions among them...
October 1, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
M M van Rijsbergen, V M P Barthelemy, A C T Vrancken, S P M Crijns, H-J Wilke, W Wilson, B van Rietbergen, K Ito
The two main load bearing tissues of the intervertebral disc are the nucleus pulposus and the annulus fibrosus. Both tissues are composed of the same basic components, but differ in their organization and relative amounts. With degeneration, the clear distinction between the two tissues disappears. The changes in biochemical content lead to changes in mechanical behaviour of the intervertebral disc. The aim of the current study was to investigate if well-documented moderate degeneration at the biochemical and fibre structure level leads to instability of the lumbar spine...
September 23, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Abdelwahed Barkaoui, Rabeb Ben Kahla, Tarek Merzouki, Ridha Hambli
Bone remodeling is a physiological process by which bone constantly adapts its structure to changes in long-term loading manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This process can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cells differentiation and proliferation, which are produced by bone cells and act in a paracrine or autocrine way. The aim of the current work is to provide mechanobiological finite elements modeling coupling both cellular activities and mechanical behavior in order to investigate age and gender effects on bone remodeling evolution...
September 22, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Shiva Ebrahimi Nejad, Jason P Carey, M Sean McMurtry, Jin-Oh Hahn
In this study, we developed and examined the feasibility of a model-based system identification approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis. The basic premise of the approach is that it may be possible to diagnose cardiovascular disease from disease-induced alterations in the arterial mechanical properties manifested in the proximal and distal arterial blood pressure waveforms. It first individualizes the lumped-parameter model of wave propagation and reflection in the artery using the measurement of proximal and distal arterial blood pressure waveforms...
September 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Tae-Rin Lee, Sung Sic Yoo, Jiho Yang
In microvascular transport, where both blood and drug carriers are involved, plasma skimming has a key role on changing hematocrit level and drug carrier concentration in capillary beds after continuous vessel bifurcation in the microvasculature. While there have been numerous studies on modeling the plasma skimming of blood, previous works lacked in consideration of its interaction with drug carriers. In this paper, a generalized plasma skimming model is suggested to predict the redistributions of both the cells and drug carriers at each bifurcation...
September 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Tengxiao Liu, Timothy J Hall, Paul E Barbone, Assad A Oberai
Disease alters tissue microstructure, which in turn affects the macroscopic mechanical properties of tissue. In elasticity imaging, the macroscopic response is measured and is used to infer the spatial distribution of the elastic constitutive parameters. When an empirical constitutive model is used, these parameters cannot be linked to the microstructure. However, when the constitutive model is derived from a microstructural representation of the material, it allows for the possibility of inferring the local averages of the spatial distribution of the microstructural parameters...
September 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Junqing Sun, Wenjun Xie, Liang Shi, Liyin Yu, Jianbao Zhang
Intracellular [Formula: see text] transient induced by fluid shear stress (FSS) plays an important role in mechanical regulation of osteoblasts, but the cellular mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here, we constructed a mathematical model combined with experiments to elucidate it. Our simulated and experimental results showed that it was the delay of membrane potential repolarization to produce the refractory period of FSS-induced intracellular calcium transients in osteoblasts. Moreover, the results also demonstrated that the amplitude of FSS-induced intracellular calcium transient is crucial to the proliferation, while its duration is critical to the differentiation, of osteoblasts...
September 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Wei Zhao, Songbai Ji
Head angular velocity, instead of acceleration, is more predictive of brain strains. Surprisingly, no study exists that investigates how shape variation in angular velocity profiles affects brain strains, beyond characteristics such as peak magnitude and impulse duration. In this study, we evaluated brain strain uncertainty due to variation in angular velocity profiles and further compared with that resulting from simplifying the profiles into idealized shapes. To do so, we used reconstructed head impacts from American National Football League for shape extraction and simulated head uniaxial coronal rotations from onset to full stop...
September 19, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Ashley A Weaver, Sarah M Stitzel, Joel D Stitzel
A predictive Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element eye model was used to analyze 2.27 and 0.45 kg trinitrotoluene equivalent blasts detonated from 24 different locations. Free air and ground level blasts were simulated directly in front of the eye and at lateral offset locations with box, average, less protective, and more protective orbital anthropometries, resulting in 96 simulations. Injury risk curves were developed for hyphema, lens dislocation, retinal damage, and globe rupture from experimental and computational data to compute risk from corneoscleral stress and intra-ocular pressure computational outputs...
September 19, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Arturo Nicola Natali, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Alessandro Frigo, Silvia Todros, Alessandro Rubini, Giulia Maria De Benedictis, Maria Angela Cerruto, Walter Artibani
Urinary incontinence, often related to sphincter damage, is found in male patients, leading to a miserable quality of life and to huge costs for the healthcare system. The most effective surgical solution currently considered for men is the artificial urinary sphincter that exerts a pressure field on the urethra, occluding the duct. The evaluation of this device is currently based on clinical and surgical competences. The artificial sphincter design and mechanical action can be investigated by a biomechanical model of the urethra under occlusion, evaluating the interaction between tissues and prosthesis...
September 16, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Varun Manhas, Yann Guyot, Greet Kerckhofs, Yoke Chin Chai, Liesbet Geris
A variety of natural or synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based scaffolds are currently produced for dental and orthopaedic applications. These scaffolds have been shown to stimulate bone formation due to their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. The release of the [Formula: see text] ions from these scaffolds is of great interest in light of the aforementioned properties. It can depend on a number of biophysicochemical phenomena such as dissolution, diffusion and degradation, which in turn depend on specific scaffold characteristics such as composition and morphology...
September 16, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Zhipeng Liao, Nobuhiro Yoda, Junning Chen, Keke Zheng, Keiichi Sasaki, Michael V Swain, Qing Li
This paper aimed to develop a clinically validated bone remodeling algorithm by integrating bone's dynamic properties in a multi-stage fashion based on a four-year clinical follow-up of implant treatment. The configurational effects of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) were explored using a multi-stage remodeling rule. Three-dimensional real-time occlusal loads during maximum voluntary clenching were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer and were incorporated into a computerized tomography-based finite element mandibular model...
September 15, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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