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AIDS Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938707/hot-news-dr-robert-redfield-appointed-as-new-cdc-director
#1
Pablo Barreiro
Well-known AIDS researcher Robert Redfield picked to lead the CDC on March 2018. He is one of the HIV/AIDS pioneers in the United States. During two decades at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, in Bethesda, MD, he made pivotal contributions, highlighting the importance of heterosexual HIV transmission, developing the Walter Reed staging system for HIV infection, and demonstrating that active HIV replication takes place during all stages of HIV disease. In 1996, he was one of the cofounders of the Institute of Human Virology in Baltimore, MD...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938706/hot-news-hepatitis-b-gene-therapy-coming-to-age
#2
REVIEW
Vicente Soriano
The major pandemics caused by chronic viral infections is produced by HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV), with estimates of 38, 70, and 250 million people worldwide, respectively (Fig. 1). During the last couple of years, the advent of direct oral antivirals has allowed pursuing global HCV eradication. In an unprecedented manner, these drugs cure more than 95% of hepatitis C patients when given for only 2-3 months. The enthusiasm on HCV has renewed the interest for curative strategies for both HIV and HBV...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938705/prevalence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-positive-prisoners-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Mostafa Dianatinasab, Hassan Joulaei, Mohammad Ghorbani, Nooshin Zarei, Shahab Rezaeian, Mohammad Fararouei, Zoë R Greenwald
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV constitute the main burden of infectious diseases worldwide. Imprisonment is an important risk factor for contracting TB, especially among those living with HIV. This systematic review summarizes the available data on the prevalence of TB among HIV-positive prisoners; which may support improved targeted TB/HIV prevention plans. We electronically examined published studies up to December 2017 with the aim of finding articles that investigated the prevalence of TB in HIV-positive prisoners...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938704/hiv-aids-in-sierra-leone-characterizing-the-hidden-epidemic
#4
REVIEW
George A Yendewa, Eva Poveda, Sahr A Yendewa, Foday Sahr, Miguel E Quiñones-Mateu, Robert A Salata
Sierra Leone is a low-income West African country that has dealt with waves of economic, political, and public health challenges in its recent past, including a decade-long brutal civil war and the Ebola epidemic of 2014-2016. The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which has raged on in the country since 1987, has long been characterized as stable. The latest UNAIDS report estimates a countrywide HIV prevalence rate of 1.7% in 2016 among adults aged 15-49 years. However, there are indications that the epidemic may be in fact escalating and unless arrested urgently, has the potential to deteriorate into a major public health emergency...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938703/the-role-of-hiv-in-the-progression-through-the-stages-of-the-human-papillomavirus-to-cervical-cancer-pathway
#5
REVIEW
Kristopher O Myers, Nasar U Ahmed
Globally, an estimated 36.9 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS, and approximately 291 million women worldwide are carriers of human papillomavirus (HPV). A large number of women currently infected with either or both viruses constitute a large burden on the national health care system. Women with HIV have significantly higher rates of HPV infections than women without HIV. Approximately 77% of women with HIV are carriers of HPV. While research has established a linkage between HIV and progression to cervical cancer in general, there are currently no review articles exploring the role HIV has in the progression from HPV to each stage of carcinogenesis that leads to cervical cancer...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938702/is-unaids-90-90-90-target-a-dream-or-a-reality-for-middle-east-and-north-africa-region-on-ending-the-aids-epidemic-a-review-study
#6
REVIEW
Hassan Joulaei, Sowgol Shooshtarian, Mostafa Dianatinasab
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is lagging far behind the global average to reach 90-90-90 targets. This study uses the UNAIDS 90-90-90 program to evaluate the HIV current situation in MENA countries, and understand the challenges that exist in the way of approaching the program goals. All articles and publications were searched based on the 90-90-90 program indexes among national and international data resources such as official national reports and online scientific databases such as PubMed, Medline, and Scopus up to December 2017...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938701/a-comprehensive-development-agenda-on-tenofovir-alafenamide-in-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Antonio Di Biagio, Niccolò Riccardi, Stefano Rusconi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Marco Borderi, Andrea De Luca, Nicola Gianotti, Sergio Lo Caputo, Paolo Maggi, Renato Maserati, Franco Maggiolo
The introduction of tenofovir (TFV) alafenamide (TAF) into clinical practice will be a further revolution in antiretroviral therapy. Currently available HIV-1 regimens are wide enough to allow diversified usage in different settings. Despite the fact that TAF is not capillary accessible, even in industrialized countries, ultimate International Guidelines have already included TAF in backbone or in single-tablet regimens. Due to a better safety profile, TAF will progressively replace TFV disoproxil fumarate, both in naïve and experienced patients...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328844/hot-news
#8
Vicente Soriano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264829/hot-news
#9
George A Yendewa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264828/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#10
Marianthi Papagianni, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with HIV infection and appears to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected patients. Both metabolic (e.g., obesity and insulin resistance) and HIV-related factors (e.g., antiretroviral treatment and inflammation) play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in this population. Accordingly, all patients with HIV infection should be evaluated for the presence of NAFLD. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic procedure, but non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has to be diagnosed with liver biopsy...
2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264827/treatment-as-prevention-for-hiv-infection-current-data-challenges-and-global-perspectives
#11
Jean C Yombi, Helena Mertes
In 2008, the Swiss National AIDS Commission issued a statement about the safety of HIV treatment in terms of reduced transmission in serodiscordant couples to reduce transmission in serodiscordant couples. This was subjected to debate until 2011 when the HIV prevention trial network 052 published the first randomized study about HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples, where no transmission was observed when the infected person was under effective antiretroviral treatment (ART). Later, the Partners of People on ART-A New Evaluation of the Risks (PARTNER) and the opposites attract studies, which first involved a large number of men who have sex with men (MSM), also showed no transmission, even in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CLAI)...
2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264826/tolerability-of-current-antiretroviral-single-tablet-regimens
#12
Pere Domingo, Mª Gracia Mateo, Mª Del Mar Gutierrez, Francesc Vidal
The advent of protease inhibitors (PI) in the mid-nineties and its use as part of triple combinations revolutionized the management of HIV infection. Since then, progression to AIDS and AIDS-related deaths can be prevented. However, antiretroviral therapy based on PI has been discouraged for a while given its lower tolerability compared to alternative options; and only recent improvements in pharmacotherapy have renewed the interest for the newest agents within this class. First, the tolerability of the latest PI darunavir (DRV) and atazanavir is much better than for older PI, such as indinavir or lopinavir...
2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264825/clinical-impact-of-virological-failure-and-resistance-analysis-definitions-used-in-pivotal-clinical-trials-of-initial-antiretroviral-treatment-a-systematic-review
#13
Josep M Llibre, Hortensia Álvarez, Miguel Yzusqui
There are no standardized criteria to characterize confirmed protocol-defined virological failure (PDVF) nor the inclusion criteria for the resistance analysis population (RAP) in Phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed the clinical impact of mismatching between virological non-response (HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL), confirmed PDVF (48 weeks), and RAP definition in studies with the newest first-line ART. A systematic review of all Phase III RCTs was performed, including preferred once-daily ART (EACS European AIDS guidelines) or recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration...
2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264824/chronic-lung-disease-in-hiv-patients
#14
Simone Neri, Janice Leung, Giulia Besutti, Antonella Santoro, Leonardo M Fabbri, Giovanni Guaraldi
This narrative review discusses literature on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in people living with HIV (PLWH). Existing data indicate that HIV itself, independent of smoking, constitutes a pathogenic agent implicated in this disease condition. COPD can be viewed not exclusively as a pulmonary disease but rather as a systemic syndrome sparked and fueled by a persistent low-grade HIV-attributable inflammatory state. We speculate that even in the absence of airflow obstruction on spirometry, HIV-related lung disease can manifest with respiratory symptoms and structural lung derangement...
2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628515/state-of-the-art-in-hiv-drug-resistance-science-and-technology-knowledge-gap
#15
REVIEW
Charles A Boucher, Marina R Bobkova, Anna Maria Geretti, Chien-Ching Hung, Rolf Kaiser, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Jean van Wyk, Pat Dorr, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify data gaps that exist in the field of HIVDR and discuss their clinical implications. A subsequent literature review of trials and current practices was carried out to provide supporting evidence...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628514/state-of-the-art-in-hiv-drug-resistance-surveillance-and-regional-gaps
#16
REVIEW
Charles A Boucher, Marina R Bobkova, Chien-Ching Hung, Rolf Kaiser, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Jean van Wyk, Pat Dorr, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
This article is the second of a two-part review aiming to identify gaps in the knowledge and management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance (HIVDR) from global and regional perspectives. Here, we examine the policy and programmatic gaps in HIVDR surveillance, the affected populations and settings, and implications for clinical practice. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify gaps in HIVDR surveillance, with a particular focus on specific regional variations within and between Europe and Asia, to highlight directions for research and implementation...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628513/hot-news-impact-of-low-level-viremia-on-treatment-outcomes-during-art-is-it-time-to-revise-the-definition-of-virological-failure
#17
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
The level of HIV-RNA in plasma (HIV viral load) is the main marker used to monitor the virological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. The threshold used to define virological suppression has historically been dictated by the limits of detection of the commercial assays used to quantify the plasma viral load. Thus, as more sensitive assays have proliferated and become more widely available, the definition has shifted from < 400 cop/mL with the first generation assays, to < 50 cop/mL, to < 20 cop/mL currently...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628512/hot-news-sexually-transmitted-infections-on-the-rise-in-prep-users
#18
Pablo Barreiro
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral Truvada (tenofovir plus emtricitabine) is effective at preventing HIV infection in high-risk homosexual men. In the United States, PrEP was approved in 2012 and is reimbursed by Medicaid and the majority of private insurers. The situation is diverse and not uniform in the European Union, being PrEP more widely used in France than in the rest of countries. Concerns have been raised that PrEP use may be accompanied by the phenomena of risk compensation or behavioral disinhibition, whereby PrEP users' perception of decreased risk of HIV acquisition may lead them to engage in overall riskier sexual practices and increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Blumenthal, et al...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628511/dolutegravir-neuropsychiatric-adverse-events-specific-drug-effect-or-class-effect
#19
REVIEW
Jean Cyr Yombi
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are a newer class of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected patient. INSTIs currently available for use are raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir (DTG), and bictegravir. Clinical studies using INSTIs have demonstrated an 80-90% efficiency in treating HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy - naive patients. They are recommended by internatioal guidelines as the preferred agents for the first-line regimen. INSTIs have also been demonstrated as safe and tolerable...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369304/antiretroviral-therapy-in-advanced-hiv-disease-which-is-the-best-regimen
#20
REVIEW
Joaquin Burgos, Esteban Ribera, Vicenç Falcó
Advanced HIV disease, defined as a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/μl or the presence of an AIDS-defining illness, remains common among HIV-infected individuals who first present for medical care. In developed countries, nearly 30% of new HIV diagnoses occurred at advanced stages of the disease, and it is important because advanced HIV disease has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, including lower rates of virological response, higher morbidity, and higher mortality. However, there are scarce data regarding which is the best antiretroviral regimen in these patients...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
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