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AIDS Reviews

Pablo Barreiro
Well-known AIDS researcher Robert Redfield picked to lead the CDC on March 2018. He is one of the HIV/AIDS pioneers in the United States. During two decades at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, in Bethesda, MD, he made pivotal contributions, highlighting the importance of heterosexual HIV transmission, developing the Walter Reed staging system for HIV infection, and demonstrating that active HIV replication takes place during all stages of HIV disease. In 1996, he was one of the cofounders of the Institute of Human Virology in Baltimore, MD...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
Vicente Soriano
The major pandemics caused by chronic viral infections is produced by HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV), with estimates of 38, 70, and 250 million people worldwide, respectively (Fig. 1). During the last couple of years, the advent of direct oral antivirals has allowed pursuing global HCV eradication. In an unprecedented manner, these drugs cure more than 95% of hepatitis C patients when given for only 2-3 months. The enthusiasm on HCV has renewed the interest for curative strategies for both HIV and HBV...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
Mostafa Dianatinasab, Hassan Joulaei, Mohammad Ghorbani, Nooshin Zarei, Shahab Rezaeian, Mohammad Fararouei, Zoë R Greenwald
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV constitute the main burden of infectious diseases worldwide. Imprisonment is an important risk factor for contracting TB, especially among those living with HIV. This systematic review summarizes the available data on the prevalence of TB among HIV-positive prisoners; which may support improved targeted TB/HIV prevention plans. We electronically examined published studies up to December 2017 with the aim of finding articles that investigated the prevalence of TB in HIV-positive prisoners...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
George A Yendewa, Eva Poveda, Sahr A Yendewa, Foday Sahr, Miguel E Quiñones-Mateu, Robert A Salata
Sierra Leone is a low-income West African country that has dealt with waves of economic, political, and public health challenges in its recent past, including a decade-long brutal civil war and the Ebola epidemic of 2014-2016. The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which has raged on in the country since 1987, has long been characterized as stable. The latest UNAIDS report estimates a countrywide HIV prevalence rate of 1.7% in 2016 among adults aged 15-49 years. However, there are indications that the epidemic may be in fact escalating and unless arrested urgently, has the potential to deteriorate into a major public health emergency...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
Kristopher O Myers, Nasar U Ahmed
Globally, an estimated 36.9 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS, and approximately 291 million women worldwide are carriers of human papillomavirus (HPV). A large number of women currently infected with either or both viruses constitute a large burden on the national health care system. Women with HIV have significantly higher rates of HPV infections than women without HIV. Approximately 77% of women with HIV are carriers of HPV. While research has established a linkage between HIV and progression to cervical cancer in general, there are currently no review articles exploring the role HIV has in the progression from HPV to each stage of carcinogenesis that leads to cervical cancer...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
Hassan Joulaei, Sowgol Shooshtarian, Mostafa Dianatinasab
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is lagging far behind the global average to reach 90-90-90 targets. This study uses the UNAIDS 90-90-90 program to evaluate the HIV current situation in MENA countries, and understand the challenges that exist in the way of approaching the program goals. All articles and publications were searched based on the 90-90-90 program indexes among national and international data resources such as official national reports and online scientific databases such as PubMed, Medline, and Scopus up to December 2017...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
Antonio Di Biagio, Niccolò Riccardi, Stefano Rusconi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Marco Borderi, Andrea De Luca, Nicola Gianotti, Sergio Lo Caputo, Paolo Maggi, Renato Maserati, Franco Maggiolo
The introduction of tenofovir (TFV) alafenamide (TAF) into clinical practice will be a further revolution in antiretroviral therapy. Currently available HIV-1 regimens are wide enough to allow diversified usage in different settings. Despite the fact that TAF is not capillary accessible, even in industrialized countries, ultimate International Guidelines have already included TAF in backbone or in single-tablet regimens. Due to a better safety profile, TAF will progressively replace TFV disoproxil fumarate, both in naïve and experienced patients...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
Charles A Boucher, Marina R Bobkova, Anna Maria Geretti, Chien-Ching Hung, Rolf Kaiser, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Jean van Wyk, Pat Dorr, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify data gaps that exist in the field of HIVDR and discuss their clinical implications. A subsequent literature review of trials and current practices was carried out to provide supporting evidence...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Charles A Boucher, Marina R Bobkova, Chien-Ching Hung, Rolf Kaiser, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Jean van Wyk, Pat Dorr, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
This article is the second of a two-part review aiming to identify gaps in the knowledge and management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance (HIVDR) from global and regional perspectives. Here, we examine the policy and programmatic gaps in HIVDR surveillance, the affected populations and settings, and implications for clinical practice. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify gaps in HIVDR surveillance, with a particular focus on specific regional variations within and between Europe and Asia, to highlight directions for research and implementation...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
The level of HIV-RNA in plasma (HIV viral load) is the main marker used to monitor the virological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. The threshold used to define virological suppression has historically been dictated by the limits of detection of the commercial assays used to quantify the plasma viral load. Thus, as more sensitive assays have proliferated and become more widely available, the definition has shifted from < 400 cop/mL with the first generation assays, to < 50 cop/mL, to < 20 cop/mL currently...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Pablo Barreiro
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral Truvada (tenofovir plus emtricitabine) is effective at preventing HIV infection in high-risk homosexual men. In the United States, PrEP was approved in 2012 and is reimbursed by Medicaid and the majority of private insurers. The situation is diverse and not uniform in the European Union, being PrEP more widely used in France than in the rest of countries. Concerns have been raised that PrEP use may be accompanied by the phenomena of risk compensation or behavioral disinhibition, whereby PrEP users' perception of decreased risk of HIV acquisition may lead them to engage in overall riskier sexual practices and increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Blumenthal, et al...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Jean Cyr Yombi
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are a newer class of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected patient. INSTIs currently available for use are raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir (DTG), and bictegravir. Clinical studies using INSTIs have demonstrated an 80-90% efficiency in treating HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy - naive patients. They are recommended by internatioal guidelines as the preferred agents for the first-line regimen. INSTIs have also been demonstrated as safe and tolerable...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Joaquin Burgos, Esteban Ribera, Vicenç Falcó
Advanced HIV disease, defined as a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/μl or the presence of an AIDS-defining illness, remains common among HIV-infected individuals who first present for medical care. In developed countries, nearly 30% of new HIV diagnoses occurred at advanced stages of the disease, and it is important because advanced HIV disease has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, including lower rates of virological response, higher morbidity, and higher mortality. However, there are scarce data regarding which is the best antiretroviral regimen in these patients...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Vicente Soriano, Benjamin Young, Nancy Reau
The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Joanna Smoleń-Dzirba, Magdalena Rosińska, Janusz Janiec, Marek Beniowski, Mariusz Cycoń, Jolanta Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Tomasz J Wąsik
CC-chemokine receptor 5 serves as the coreceptor for the HIV-1 R5 strains, which are responsible for the majority of HIV transmissions. A deletion of 32 nucleotides in the gene encoding this receptor (termed CCR5-Δ32) leads to the suppression of CC-chemokine receptor 5 presentation at the cell surface, thus impeding process of HIV entry into the cell. Individuals homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 allele are resistant to infection with HIV-1 R5 strains, and are extremely rare among HIV-1-infected individuals. We have described a case of person homozygous for CCR5-Δ32, who was infected with subtype B HIV-1...
December 2017: AIDS Reviews
Carmen de Mendoza
The latest estimate from the WHO is of nearly 37 million people living with HIV worldwide by the end of 2016. Roughly 20 million are receiving antiretroviral therapy. Despite this progress in diagnosis and treatment, nearly 2 million new HIV infections continue to occur annually. Whereas men having sex with men (MSM) represent the major risk population for incident cases in North America and the European Union, infection of heterosexual women is the major group in Sub-Saharan Africa. Injection drug use is a leading mechanism of HIV acquisition in Asia, including Russia and the former Soviet republics...
October 2017: AIDS Reviews
José Vicente Fernández-Montero, Esther J Aspinall, James E Burns
Long-term experience in the treatment of HIV-infected individuals has shown indirect benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, particularly in preventing HIV transmission. With the advent of direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of hepatitis C, the strategy of treatment-as-prevention has become feasible. However, economic, clinical, ethical, and public health issues arise from the concept of using therapeutic interventions only as prevention strategies.
October 2017: AIDS Reviews
Mohamed H Ahmed, Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Akif Malik, Clare Woodward, Dushyant Mital
With the advent and subsequent success of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has largely become a chronic condition and is increasingly seen alongside metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the administration of antiretroviral therapy itself is associated with an increase in the incidence of metabolic risk factors, namely insulin resistance, lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of fat distribution, in HIV patients. Thus, further challenges in the management of HIV patients include the management of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
October 2017: AIDS Reviews
Pompeyo Viciana
During the past 30 years of antiretroviral therapy, continuous improvements in drug discovery have provided increasingly potent and safer antivirals that have transformed HIV infection in a chronic illness, rarely fatal. Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are frequently used as part of any antiretroviral combination therapy. Side effects and low resistance barrier of fi rst-generation NNRTIs (e.g., nevirapine and efavirenz) have been overcome with rilpivirine (RPV), and the last NNRTI approved for the treatment of HIV infection...
October 2017: AIDS Reviews
George A Yendewa, Robert A Salata
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the 1990s has fundamentally transformed the landscape of HIV medicine, greatly improved disease morbidity and mortality, and reduced transmission rates across all demographic groups. Central to this success was the idea that to achieve best disease outcomes and minimize the development of drug resistance, at least three antiretroviral agents should be used for HIV treatment. This therapeutic strategy is a core tenet of HIV medicine, backed by incontrovertible scientific evidence, and made easy to deploy by the high compliance levels with once-daily coformulations, which have generally been well tolerated...
October 2017: AIDS Reviews
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