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Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734746/spina-bifida-management
#1
Leslie A Phillips, Justin M Burton, Sarah Helen Evans
Myelomeningocele, commonly known as spina bifida, is a birth defect in which the spinal cord does not develop properly due to incomplete closure of the neural tube at 28 days of gestation. With advances in treatment modalities, technologies, and medical knowledge, people with spina bifida in the United States are living well into adulthood. Myelomeningocele management includes life-long comprehensive neurologic, urologic, musculoskeletal, skin, and habilitation management. We describe approaches to the same, with an emphasis on the signs and symptoms of medical urgencies and emergencies of which every pediatrician must be aware...
July 19, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716516/hypertonia
#2
Sarah Helen Evans, Mark William Cameron, Justin Michael Burton
Hypertonia is the abnormal increase in muscle tone as a result of upper motor neuron lesions. There are three following clinical types: spasticity, dystonia, and rigidity. Management of hypertonia is individualized and should be directed by the patient and/or family׳s goals of care as well as the underlying cause of the hypertonia. Treatment options include stretching, strengthening, positioning, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, phenol injections, as well as surgical procedures. Without effective management, hypertonia can result in muscle imbalance, abnormal movement patterns, pain, joint contracture, joint deformity, and ultimately negatively impact a patient׳s function...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716515/calming-the-storm-dysautonomia-for-the-pediatrician
#3
Justin M Burton, Olga M Morozova
Dysautonomia is a potentially life-threatening syndrome seen in many different types of brain injuries. It involves paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity and typically includes a constellation of symptoms, including: tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, hypertension, diaphoresis, hypertonia, and/or decerebrate or decorticate posturing. It is a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. A multimodal treatment approach is necessary including environmental modifications along with pharmacotherapy. Early management can help prevent comorbidities including secondary brain injury while also improving patient outcomes...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716514/toe-walking-when-do-we-need-to-worry
#4
Olga M Morozova, Thomas F Chang, Mackenzie E Brown
Toe walking refers to the lack of heel strike during the stance phase of the gait cycle. It is a common variation of normal gait development in children. Persistent toe walking past 2-3 years of age warrants further evaluation as toe walking can be associated with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and autism spectrum disorders. The diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking is a diagnosis of exclusion used for children with persistent toe walking and no associated medical condition. Despite variable pathophysiology, the treatment of toe walking has similarities across diagnoses as it is focused on the maintenance of range of motion through the ankle...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716513/update-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-within-pediatric-patients
#5
Jeffrey Rabin, Mackenzie Brown, Sean Alexander
Pediatric chronic pain is a challenging entity to evaluate and treat as it encompasses a wide variety of presentations often with overlapping psychosocial implications. Chronic pain may have significant effects upon a child's involvement in academic, athletic, and social participation. If unrecognized, it may have deleterious effects upon family interactions and stability. The treatment of pediatric chronic pain is focused on not only providing analgesia, but also on assisting the child and family with reintegrating into a more functional lifestyle...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712649/forward-for-pediatric-rehabilitation-medicine
#6
EDITORIAL
Mary C Ottolini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709767/obstetrical-brachial-plexus-palsy
#7
Patricia O'Berry, Mackenzie Brown, Leslie Phillips, Sarah Helen Evans
Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system and occurs in as many as 0.4% of infants born. It is associated with shoulder dystocia, use of mechanical extraction, and macrosomia; it occurs more frequently in infants born by vaginal delivery. The unilateral injury to the brachial plexus complex occurs during the delivery phase as lateral traction is applied to the head to permit shoulder clearance. The infant typically presents in the delivery room with decreased active movements of the affected arm and asymmetrical primitive reflex responses...
July 11, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693785/introduction-to-pediatric-rehabilitation
#8
EDITORIAL
Mackenzie Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566129/foreword-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-consumer-products
#9
EDITORIAL
Ruth A Etzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526231/exposures-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-consumer-products-a-guide-for-pediatricians
#10
Katelyn H Wong, Timur S Durrani
Endocrine disrupting chemicals, a group of exogenous chemicals that can interfere with hormone action in the body, have been implicated in disrupting endocrine function, which negatively affects human health and development. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are ubiquitously detected in consumer products, foods, beverages, personal care products, and household cleaning products. Due to concerns about their negative effects on human health, several professional health provider societies have recommended the reduction of common endocrine disrupting chemical exposures...
May 16, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648304/foreword
#11
EDITORIAL
Ruth A Etzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583817/wood-stove-pollution-in-the-developed-world-a-case-to-raise-awareness-among-pediatricians
#12
Lisa B Rokoff, Petros Koutrakis, Eric Garshick, Margaret R Karagas, Emily Oken, Diane R Gold, Abby F Fleisch
Use of wood for residential heating is regaining popularity in developed countries. Currently, over 11 million US homes are heated with a wood stove. Although wood stoves reduce heating costs, wood smoke may adversely impact child health through the emission of gaseous and particulate air pollutants. Our purpose is to raise awareness of this environmental health issue among pediatricians. To summarize the state of the science, we performed a narrative review of articles published in PubMed and Web of Science...
June 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532967/avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-arfid
#13
Jacqueline Zimmerman, Martin Fisher
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders...
April 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532966/bulimia-nervosa-purging-disorder
#14
Marigold Castillo, Eric Weiselberg
Bulimia nervosa was first described in 1979 by British psychiatrist Gerald Russell as a "chronic phase of anorexia nervosa" in which patients overeat and then use compensatory mechanisms, such as self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or prolonged periods of starvation. The characterization of bulimia nervosa continues to evolve with the introduction of the DSM-5 in 2013. In this article, the epidemiology and risk factors of bulimia nervosa are identified and reviewed, along with the medical complications and psychiatric comorbidities...
April 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532965/anorexia-nervosa-atypical-anorexia-nervosa
#15
Lindsay Moskowitz, Eric Weiselberg
Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate among all psychiatric illnesses, as it can result in significant psychopathology along with life-threatening medical complications. Atypical anorexia nervosa is a new variant described in the latest DSM edition, which has much in common with anorexia nervosa and also can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The evolution of the criteria for these illnesses is reviewed, and the two are compared and contrasted in this article. Important labs to monitor for in those with these illnesses, along with an emphasis on the monitoring of vital signs and weight, are reviewed here...
April 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532964/foreword-diagnosis-and-management-of-eating-disorders-in-the-dsm-5-era
#16
EDITORIAL
Martin Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366491/pediatric-headache-an-overview
#17
Raquel Langdon, Marc T DiSabella
Headache represents the most common neurologic disorder in the general population including children and is increasingly being recognized as a major source of morbidity in youth related to missed school days and activities. In this article, we take a holistic approach to the child presenting with headache with a focus on the detailed headache history, physical and neurologic examinations, and diagnostic evaluation of these patients. Clinical presentations and classification schema of multiple primary and secondary headache types in children are discussed using the International Headache Criteria (IHCD-3) as a guide, and a summary provided of the various treatment modalities employed for pediatric headache including lifestyle modifications, behavioral techniques, and abortive and preventive medications...
March 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366490/foreword
#18
EDITORIAL
Mary C Ottolini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267431/foreword-sleep-regulation-physiology-and-development-sleep-duration-and-patterns-and-sleep-hygiene-in-infants-toddlers-and-preschool-age-children
#19
EDITORIAL
Arthur H Fierman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117135/sleep-regulation-physiology-and-development-sleep-duration-and-patterns-and-sleep-hygiene-in-infants-toddlers-and-preschool-age-children
#20
REVIEW
Eleanor Bathory, Suzy Tomopoulos
Sleep problems are common, reported by a quarter of parents with children under the age of 5 years, and have been associated with poor behavior, worse school performance, and obesity, in addition to negative secondary effects on maternal and family well-being. Yet, it has been shown that pediatricians do not adequately address sleep in routine well-child visits, and underdiagnose sleep issues. Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is critical to a pediatrician׳s ability to effectively and confidently counsel patients about sleep...
February 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
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