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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228856/uncovering-the-proteome-response-of-murine-neuroblastoma-cells-against-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin
#1
Xiao Chen, Ye Sun, Haiyan Huang, Wei Liu, Panpan Hu, Xinfeng Huang, Fei Zou, Jianjun Liu
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton causes paralytic shellfish poisoning syndrome. The toxicity and mode of action of the acute exposure of high-dose saxitoxin have been intensively studied for decades; however, the potential risk of exposure of low-dose saxitoxin remained to be uncovered. Here we present a proteomics study of murine neuroblastoma N2A cell with low-dose saxitoxin exposure (1 nM and 10 nM, 24-h intoxication). Differential proteins were profiled by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
December 11, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161937/the-interplay-between-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-and-bmp-smad-signaling-pathways-in-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-a549-cells-induced-by-silica
#2
Yanhua Yu, Yanming Lin, Gengxia Yang, Lin Tian
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype transdifferentiation of epithelial into mesenchymal cells and contributes to pulmonary fibrotic disease. SMAD-dependent pathway has been reported to play a key role in the multiple fibrotic diseases. We hypothesized that TGF-β/SMAD signaling could cross-interact with BMP/SMAD signaling pathways in silica-induced EMT in A549 cells. We investigated that the ability of silica-induced EMT in A549 cells, and this process was significantly inhibited by SB431542 through up-regulation of Vimentin, α-SMA and collagen type I expression and down-regulation of E-cadherin expression...
December 7, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210319/carcinogenicity-of-ethylene-oxide-key-findings-and-scientific-issues
#3
Jennifer Jinot, Jason M Fritz, Suryanarayana V Vulimiri, Nagalakshmi Keshava
In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed an evaluation of the inhalation carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide (EtO) in December 2016. This article reviews key findings and scientific issues regarding the carcinogenicity of EtO in EPA's Carcinogenicity Assessment. EPA's assessment critically reviewed and characterized epidemiologic, laboratory animal, and mechanistic studies pertaining to the human carcinogenicity of EtO, and addressed some key scientific issues such as the analysis of mechanistic data as part of the cancer hazard evaluation and to inform the quantitative risk assessment...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185389/n-acetyl-l-tryptophan-a-substance-p-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-aluminum-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-rats
#4
Joylee Fernandes, Jayesh Mudgal, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Devinder Arora, Sanchari Basu Mallik, K S R Pai, Madhavan Nampoothiri
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Neurokinin substance P, is a key mediator which modulates neuroinflammation through neurokinin receptor. Involvement of substance P in Alzheimer's disease is still plausible and various controversies exist in this hypothesis. Preventing the deleterious effects of substance P using N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance P antagonist could be a promising therapeutic strategy. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan on aluminum induced spatial memory alterations in rats...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185369/cellular-effects-of-thirdhand-tobacco-smoke-from-smokers-homes
#5
Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Rafael Linden, Ana Luiza Ziulkoski, Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas
After the cigarette is extinguished, many toxic compounds remain in the environment and accumulate in the air or on surfaces. This exposure is termed Thirdhand Smoke (THS) and its risks are poorly known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cellular effects of THS from smokers' homes. Papers were placed in nine smoker's home and three nonsmoker's homes. An area equivalent to the paper size was cleaned with a cotton wipe. A549, Hep-2, and 3T3 cells were exposed to THS for 24 hours and cellular functions were assessed by MTT, Neutral Red reuptake (NR) and Trypan blue exclusion assays...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182074/enclosure-design-for-flock-level-chronic-exposure-of-birds-to-air-contaminant-mixtures
#6
Michelle A North, David W Kinniburgh, Judit E G Smits
The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for five hours per day, six days per week for four weeks...
November 28, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179619/urban-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-exposure-destroys-blood-testis-barrier-btb-integrity-through-excessive-ros-mediated-autophagy
#7
Yi Wei, Xi-Ning Cao, Xiang-Liang Tang, Lian-Ju Shen, Tao Lin, Da-Wei He, Sheng-de Wu, Guang-Hui Wei
BACKGROUND: Blood-testis barrier (BTB), constituted by tight junctions, adherens junctions and gap junctions, is important for spermatogenesis. PM2.5, is known to impair testicular functions and reproduction. However, its effects on BTB and the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS: In this study, we constructed a rat model to investigate the roles of autophagy in BTB toxicity induced by PM2.5. Sprague-Dawley rats were developmentally exposed to normal saline (NS) or PM2...
November 27, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160133/inhibition-of-metastasis-and-angiogenesis-in-hep-2-cells-by-wheatgrass-extract-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approach
#8
Garima Shakya, Sangeetha Balasubramanian, Muddasarul Hoda, Rukkumani Rajagopalan
Metastasis is the major hindrance in the treatment of all cancers, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Intensive researches are under way to identify the effective natural polyphenols with anti-metastatic ability for cancer treatment. Wheatgrass, an herbal plant has been reported to show anticancer effects. Hence, in this study, we aimed to analyze the anti-metastatic effect of methanol extract of wheatgrass (MEWG). The levels of metastatic marker proteins were determined by western blot. PI3K and AKT levels were determined by real time (RT)-PCR analysis...
November 21, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129129/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-furia-%C3%A2-180-sc-zeta-cypermethrin-and-bulldock-125%C3%A2-sc-%C3%AE-cyfluthrin-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#9
María Elena Calderón-Segura, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Josefina Cortés-Eslava, Carmen Martínez-Valenzuela, Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Magdiel Sosa-López, Diana Flores-Ramírez, Zaira Edtih Romero-Velázquez
In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 μg/mL Furia ®180 SC (zeta-cypermethrin) and 0, 6.3, 12.5, 18.8, 25, and 31.3 μg/mL Bulldock ®125 SC (β-cyfluthrin). Exposure to 32 µg/mL bleomycin for 24 h served as a positive control. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of each insecticide were analyzed using alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated through three genotoxicity parameters: tail length (TL), tail moment (TM) and tail intensity (TI)...
November 12, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117763/pilose-antler-peptide-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-injury
#10
Lixin Xu, Lijun Yan, Weiwei Tao
This study was performed to investigate the action of pilose antler peptide (PAP) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: control group, Model group receiving high-fat diet (HFD) group, Atorvastatin group receiving high-fat diet (HFD) + Atorvastatin (20 mg/kg), PAP-L group receiving HFD +PAP (50 mg/kg), PAP-H group receiving HFD+ DB (100 mg/kg). PAP administration significantly reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), with improvement in liver histopathological examination...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117755/contribution-of-oxidative-stress-in-acute-intestinal-mucositis-induced-by-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-and-its-pro-drug-capecitabine-in-rats
#11
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was designed to examine the contribution of oxidative stress in gastrointestinal disorders after an intraperitoneal administration of 5-FU (100mg/kg b.w.) and capecitabine oral administration (500mg/kg b.w.). The animals were divided into three groups: Group A (NaCl, 10ml/kg b.w.) considered as control group, group B was intoxicated by 5-FU and the group of animals (group C) treated with capecitabine (CAP). To evaluate the secretory and enteropooling effects, we were used as a hypersecretion agent (MgSO4, 1ml/100g b...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105552/effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-on-apoptosis-and-heat-shock-protein-hsp70-expression-in-adult-rat-testis
#12
Fahimeh Mobaraki, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam, Alireza Fazel, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) on apoptosis and heat shock protein expression in adult rat testis. METHODS: Twenty male rats were divided into four groups, two experimental groups (1 and 2), sham control and control. For 16 consecutive days, the experimental groups 1 and 2 were received 5 and 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ecstasy, respectively, and in the sham control group, the only saline was injected...
November 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082812/impact-of-selenium-status-on-aroclor-1254-induced-dna-damage-in-sperm-and-different-tissues-of-rats
#13
Sevtap Aydin, Pinar Erkekoglu, Nurşen Başaran, Belma Kocer-Gumusel
Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are widespread environmental pollutants. It is used as non-flammable heat transfer agent and plasticizer. Animal studies have reported that Aroclor 1254 exerted toxic effects in different organs and systems. Although the evidences are limited, it seems reasonable that Aroclor 1254 may have a potential for similar adverse effects in humans. Selenium (Se) is a trace element and an important component of cellular antioxidant defense...
October 30, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980857/oral-administration-of-oxalate-enriched-spinach-extract-as-an-improved-methodology-for-the-induction-of-dietary-hyperoxaluric-nephrocalcinosis-in-experimental-rats
#14
Abhishek Albert, Vidhi Tiwari, Eldho Paul, Sasikumar Ponnusamy, Divya Ganesan, Rajkumar Prabhakaran, Selvi Mariaraj Sivakumar, Selvam Govindan Sadasivam
Experimental induction of hyperoxaluria by ethylene glycol (EG) administration is disapproved as it causes metabolic acidosis while the oral administration of chemically synthesized potassium oxalate (KOx) diet does not mimic our natural system. Since existing models comprise limitations, this study is aimed to develop an improved model for the induction of dietary hyperoxaluria, and nephrocalcinosis in experimental rats by administration of naturally available oxalate rich diet. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups...
October 24, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057713/estrogenic-activity-of-zearalenone-%C3%AE-zearalenol-and-%C3%AE-zearalenol-assessed-using-the-e-screen-assay-in-mcf-7-cells
#15
Elena Tatay, Silvia Espín, Antonio-Juan García-Fernández, María-José Ruiz
Mycotoxins, including zearalenone (ZEA), can occur worldwide in cereals. They can enter the food chain and cause several health disorders. ZEA and its derivatives (α-zearalenol, α-ZOL and β-zearalenol, β-ZOL) have structural analogy to estrogen, thus they can bind to estrogen receptors (ERs). In order to characterize the estrogenic activity of ZEA, α-ZOL and β-ZOL, the proliferation of ER-positive human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) exposed to these mycotoxins was measured. After exposure at levels ranging from 6...
October 23, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022416/effects-of-2-amino-9h-pyrido-2-3-b-indole-a%C3%AE-c-metabolic-bio-activation-on-oxidative-dna-damage-in-human-hepatoma-g2-hepg2-cells
#16
Xianjun Liu, Tingting Zhang, Xiang Li, Ge Zhao, Fuwei Xie
2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), which is a hazardous compound present in cigarette smoke, has been listed as probable human carcinogens (Group 2B). The carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of AαC were activated by the process of metabolic bio-activation. Whereas, few studies about genotoxicity induced by AαC have been reported. In this study, we took HepG2 cells as the model to investigate the relationship between oxidative DNA damage induced by AαC and metabolic bio-activation of AαC, which is of importance to unveil the mechanism of AαC genotoxicity...
October 12, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980851/optimization-and-validation-of-rp-hplc-method-for-simultaneous-estimation-of-palbociclib-and-letrozole
#17
Yuvraj Dange, Somnath Bhinge, Vijay Salunkhe
A simple, rapid, and robust RP-HPLC method have been developed and validated to measure Palbociclib and Letrozole at single wavelength (254 nm). A isocratic elution of samples performed on Intersil C8 (4.6 mm x 250 mm particle size 5 μm) column with mobile phase consisting 0.02M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 5.5): acetonitrile: methanol (80: 10: 10 v/v/v) delivered at flow rate 1.0 mL min(-1). A good linear response was achieved over the range of 5-50 μg mL(-1). The LODs for Palbociclib and Letrozole were found to be 0...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868958/selective-in-vitro-anti-melanoma-activity-of-ursolic-and-oleanolic-acids
#18
Camelia Oprean, Alexandra Ivan, Florina Bojin, Mirabela Cristea, Codruta Soica, Lavinia Drăghia, Angela Caunii, Virgil Paunescu, Calin Tatu
Products of natural origin have become important agents in the treatment of cancer, and the active principles of natural sources could be used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to increase their effects and to minimize their toxicity. Oleanolic (OA) and ursolic (UA) acids are intensely studied for their promising anticancer potential. The aim of this study was focused on the in vitro toxicological effects induced by UA and OA human mesenchymal stem cells and on melanoma, one of the most frequent cancers whose incidence is increasing every year...
September 29, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874085/comparing-the-dopaminergic-neurotoxic-effects-of-benzylpiperazine-and-benzoylpiperazine
#19
Daniel P Katz, Mohammed Majrashi, Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Aimen Shlghom, Chastity Bradford, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Jack Deruiter, C Randall Clark, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
Benzylpiperazine has been designated as Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act by Drug Enforcement Administration. Benzylpiperazine is a piperazine derivative, elevates both dopamine and serotonin extracellular levels producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects, respectively, similar to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, the comparative neurotoxic effects of Piperazine derivatives (benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine) have not been elucidated. Here, piperazine derivatives (benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine) were synthesized in our lab and the mechanisms of cellular-based neurotoxicity were elucidated in a dopaminergic human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y)...
September 28, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854833/nitrogen-balance-after-a-single-oral-consumption-of-sacha-inchi-plukenetia-vol%C3%A3%C2%BAbilis-l-protein-compared-to-soy-protein-a-randomized-study-in-humans
#20
Gustavo F Gonzales, Jennifer Tello, Alisson Zevallos-Concha, Luis Baquerizo, Lidia Caballero
Sacha inchi is a seed produced in the Peruvian Amazonian and its oil is recognized by the lowering lipids effect in humans. The remaining material transformed to flour has a higher amount of protein, but, the nitrogen balance once ingested orally has not been studied. The present study was designed to evaluate the nitrogen balance after single consumption of 30 g of sacha inchi flour and compared with that obtained after consumption of 30 g soybean flour in adult men and women. This was a double-blind cohort study in 15 men and 15 women between 18 and 55 years old...
September 18, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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