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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565931/histopathology-and-analyses-of-inflammation-intensity-in-the-gills-of-mussels-exposed-to-silver-nanoparticles-role-of-nanoparticle-size-exposure-time-and-uptake-pathways
#1
Younes Bouallegui, Ridha Ben Younes, Houda Bellamine, Ridha Oueslati
Environmentally induced perturbation of health parameters lead to morphological changes associated to the inflammatory response. Hematoxyline and eosin (H&E)-stained gill filaments sections were examined for such changes and inflammation intensity was scored according to a quantitative model in order to evaluate the health status of in vivo exposed (for 3, 6, and 12 h) mussels to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs <50 nm and Ag-NPs <100 nm) prior and after the inhibition of two potential uptake pathways (clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis) with the aid of pharmaceutical inhibitors (amantadine and nystatin)...
June 21, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565962/the-role-of-pro-anti-inflammation-imbalance-in-a%C3%AE-42-accumulation-of-rat-brain-co-exposed-to-fine-particle-matter-and-sulfur-dioxide
#2
Zhenhua Yang, Yunzhu Chen, Yuexia Zhang, Ruijin Li, Chuan Dong
Taiyuan is a center of coal-based electricity production and many chemicals industries, where mixtures of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter may be more prominent. The focus of the present study was to determine if there is a link between adverse effects in the brain and the combined-exposure to SO2 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Rats were exposed alternately to PM2.5 with different dosages (1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) and SO2 at the level of 5.6 mg/m(3). The results showed that the combined exposure to PM2...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552037/evaluation-of-genetic-toxicity-of-6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine-don
#3
Rohan M Kulkarni, Emily W Dakoulas, Ken E Miller, Pramod S Terse
DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine), a glutamine antagonist, was demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer properties. The study was performed to characterize its in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity potential. DON was tested in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains (TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537) and Escherichia coli tester strain (WP2 uvrA) with and without S9 and also with reductive S9. In addition, DON was tested for the chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with or without S9 to evaluate the clastogenic potential...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532211/rotenone-induces-nephrotoxicity-in-rats-oxidative-damage-and-apoptosis
#4
Xiao-Wen Jiang, Lu Qiao, Xin-Xin Feng, Lin Liu, Qing-Wei Wei, Xue-Wei Wang, Wen-Hui Yu
Previous studies have examined rotenone toxicity on the human central nervous system, especially in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, but few have investigated the effects of rotenone on the kidney. Here, rotenone-induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated by determining morphological, biochemical, oxidative stress-related, and apoptotic factor alterations in rat renal tissue. Morphological and biochemical analyzes showed that rotenone administration to rats damaged renal tissue. Western blot results revealed that rotenone-induced oxidative damage, causing overproduction of glutathione, malonaldehyde, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibiting superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627266/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-a-powder-formulation-of-coconut-inflorescence-sap-against-ox-ldl-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-by-modulating-tlr-nf-%C3%B2-b-signaling-pathway
#5
Ratheesh M, Svenia P Jose, Asha S, Sandya S, Girish Kumar B, Krishnakumar Im
An inflammatory response induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) was reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel powder formulation of coconut inflorescence sap (CSP) against ox-LDL induced inflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). The hPBMCs were isolated from healthy human volunteers and cultured in collagen coated plates at 37°C. The cells were grouped as Group I (Control), Group II (ox-LDL treated) and Group III (ox-LDL+CSP treated)...
June 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627253/protective-effects-of-quercetin-on-nicotine-induced-oxidative-stress-in-hepg2-cells
#6
Amir Yarahmadi, Fatemeh Zal, Ayeh Bolouki
Nicotine is a natural component of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nicotine has been recognized to result in oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this work was to estimate the hepatotoxicity effect of nicotine on viability and on antioxidant defense system in cultures of HepG2 cell line and the other hand, ameliorative effect of querctin (Q) as an antioxidant was analyzed. Nicotine induced concentration dependent loss in HepG2 cell line viability...
June 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535741/effects-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-on-oxidative-stress-and-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-diclofenac-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#7
Ali Nouri, Esfandiar Heidarian, Morteza Nikoukar
The consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as diclofenac, can lead to hepatotoxicity. In the present study, protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (control group) was treated with normal saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) for 4 d. Group 2 (test without treatment) received diclofenac only (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 4 d. Groups 3 and 4 received diclofenac (50 mg/kg, i.p.) plus NAC (150 mg/kg, p...
June 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534445/differential-expression-of-micrornas-and-their-predicted-targets-in-renal-cells-exposed-to-amphotericin-b-and-its-complex-with-copper-ii-ions
#8
Joanna Magdalena Gola, Barbara Strzałka-Mrozik, Celina Kruszniewska-Rajs, Jolanta Adamska, Mariusz Gagoś, Urszula Mazurek
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate essential biological processes, and their expression was shown to be affected by pathological processes and drug-induced toxicity. Amphotericin B (AmB) can cause liver and kidney injury, but a recently developed complex of AmB with copper (II) ions (AmB-Cu(2+)) exhibits a lower toxicity to human renal cells while retaining a high antifungal activity. The aim of our study was to assess AmB-Cu(2+)-induced changes in the miRNA profile of renal cells and examine which biological processes are significantly affected by AmB-Cu(2+)...
June 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532275/protective-effects-of-vitamin-e-against-reproductive-toxicity-induced-by-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-via-ppar-dependent-mechanisms
#9
Yangcai Wang, Bailin Chen, Tao Lin, Shengde Wu, Guanghui Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective/ameliorative effects of vitamin E on di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)-induced reproductive toxicity, particularly in testicular toxicity in male rats, emphasizing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-dependent mechanism. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley females were exposed by oral route to DEHP alone or associated with vitamin E from gestation day (GD) 12.5 to postnatal day (PND) 3 according to the following treatment regimens: vehicle control (corn oil), vitamin E (200 mg/kg)+corn oil, DEHP (500 mg/kg)+corn oil, and DEHP (500 mg/kg)+vitamin E (200 mg/kg)+corn oil...
June 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532222/bromuconazole-induced-hepatotoxicity-is-accompanied-by-upregulation-of-pxr-cyp3a1-and-downregulation-of-car-cyp2b1-gene-expression
#10
Doaa H Abdelhadya, Mohammed Abu El-Magd, Zizy I Elbialy, Ayman A Saleh
Despite widespread use of bromuconazole as a pesticide for food crops and fruits, limited studies have been done to evaluate its toxic effects. Here, we evaluated the hepatotoxic effect of bromuconazole using classical toxicological (biochemical analysis and histopathological examination) and gene-based molecular methods. Male rats were treated either orally or topically with bromuconazole at doses equal to no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and 1/10 LD50 for 90 d. Bromuconazole increased activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, and ACP), and levels of bilirubin...
June 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592194/2-3-4-4-5-pentachlorobiphenyl-impairs-insulin-induced-no-production-partly-through-excessive-ros-production-in-endothelial-cells
#11
Yang Long, Can Huang, Jian Wu, Jin-Nan Cheng, Guan-Nan Liang, Chun-Xia Jiang, Qin Wan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to be associated with increased risk to hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, et al. 2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl, known as PCB118, is a member of coplanar PCBs which renders their structure similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and has dioxin-like activity. In our current study, we investigated the effect of PCB118 exposure on nitric oxide (NO) production and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Exposure of PCB 118 impaired insulin-induced NO production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with no significant effect on cell viability...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446067/the-chemical-disruption-of-human-metabolism
#12
Stephen J Genuis, Edmond Kyrillos
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence highlights the reality of unprecedented human exposure to toxic chemical agents found throughout our environment - in our food and water supply, in the air we breathe, in the products we apply to our skin, in the medical and dental materials placed into our bodies, and even within the confines of the womb. With biomonitoring confirming the widespread bioaccumulation of myriad toxicants among population groups, expanding research continues to explore the pathobiological impact of these agents on human metabolism...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583009/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-contributes-to-the-ameliorative-effects-of-dietary-flavonoids-luteolin-on-arsenite-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-in-the-dopaminergic-pc-12-cells
#13
Yi Wu, Xuejun Jiang, Kai Yang, Yinyin Xia, Shuqun Cheng, Qianghu Tang, LuLu Bai, Jingfu Qiu, Chengzhi Chen
Arsenite is a toxic metalloid that may increase the risk of Parkinson's disease by inducing dopaminergic neuronal apoptosis. Luteolin, a common dietary flavonoid, possesses variety of biological functions, but potential effects of luteolin on arsenite toxicity remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that luteolin prevented arsenite-induced apoptosis in the dopaminergic PC12 cells. Administering of luteolin to cells attenuated arsenite-induced ROS production, enhanced caspase-3 activity and γ-H2AX expression...
June 6, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463034/altered-mirna-expression-in-aniline-mediated-cell-cycle-progression-in-rat-spleen
#14
Gangduo Wang, Jianling Wang, M Firoze Khan
Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen, however, early molecular events in aniline-induced cell cycle progression in the spleen remain unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in tumor development by modulating key cell cycle regulators and controlling cell proliferation. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the expression of miRNAs, regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in an experimental condition that precedes a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (1 mmol/kg/day by gavage) for 7 days, and expression of miRNAs, cyclins and CDKs in rat spleens were analyzed...
June 6, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573904/dichloroacetonitrile-induces-cytotoxicity-through-oxidative-stress-mediated-and-p53-dependent-apoptosis-pathway-in-lo2-cells
#15
Hao Luo, Lu Zhai, Hui Yang, Longmei Xu, Jiaxian Liu, Hairong Liang, Huanwen Tang
Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), one of the disinfection byproducts of water chlorination, induces cell proliferation and apoptosis, however, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress participates in various biological processes, including DNA damage and cytotoxicity. To explore whether oxidative stress mediated DCAN-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis, we assessed the effect of redox imbalance and apoptosis in LO2 cells. We observed increase of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde and increased apoptosis by 13...
June 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440100/detrimental-effects-of-nicotine-on-thioacetamide-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#16
Zixiong Zhou, Surim Park, Jong Won Kim, Jing Zhao, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung Chul Choi, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
AIM: Nicotine exerts a number of physiological effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For in vivo experiments, hepatic fibrosis was induced by TAA (0.25 g/kg, i.p.) three times a week for 6 weeks. Mice of TAA treated groups were administered daily with distilled water and nicotine (50 or 100 μg/mL) via gastrogavage throughout the experimental period...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413934/commonly-used-air-filters-fail-to-eliminate-secondhand-smoke-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-responses
#17
Thivanka Muthumalage, Karen Pritsos, Kenneth Hunter, Chris Pritsos
Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes approximately 50,000 deaths per year. Despite all the health warnings, smoking is still allowed indoors in many states exposing both workers and patrons to SHS on a daily basis. The opponents of smoking bans suggest that present day air filtration systems remove the health hazards of exposure to SHS. In this study, using an acute SHS exposure model, we looked at the impact of commonly used air filters (MERV-8 pleated and MERV-8 pleated activated charcoal) on SHS by assessing the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response in C57BL/6 mice...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413899/changes-in-the-oxidative-stress-anti-oxidant-system-after-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard-and-antioxidant-strategies-in-the-therapy-a-review
#18
Miroslav Pohanka, Pavla Martinkova, Martin Brtnicky, Jindrich Kynicky
Sulfur mustard, in a chemical name bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, is a chemical warfare agent. It is cytotoxic and blister forming once spread over the skin. Though exact molecular mechanism of sulfur mustard toxic action remains unknown, inflammation and oxidative stress development are considered as the most relevant pathological consequences. Applications of either low-molecular weight antioxidants or cofactors for enzymatic antioxidants are considered as suitable ways how to ameliorate the poisoning. In this article, survey of literature on countermeasures against sulfur mustard poisoning are given and evidence of oxidative stress role during sulfur mustard poisoning and availability of antioxidants for the therapy are discussed...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413915/oxidative-stress-status-in-congenital-hypogonadism-an-appraisal
#19
C Haymana, A Aydoğdu, B Soykut, O Erdem, T Ibrahimov, M Dinc, C Meric, Y Basaran, A Sonmez, O Azal
Patients with hypogonadism are at increased risk of cardiac and metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of increased cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism is not clear. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate possible differences in oxidative stress conditions between patients with hypogonadism and healthy controls. In this study, 38 male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age: 21...
May 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412881/glutathione-s-transferase-a1-gsta1-as-a-marker-of-acetaminophen-induced-hepatocyte-injury-in-vitro
#20
Rui Li, Fangping Liu, Yicong Chang, Xin Ma, Minmin Li, Changwen Li, Chenxi Shi, Jingshan He, Ying Li, Zhi Li, Yuexia Lin, Qing Han, Yulin Zhao, Dening Wang
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes serious hepatocyte injury, and new markers are needed to predict APAP-induced hepatic injury. Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) plays a significant role in the metabolism of APAP. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step perfusion in situ. An APAP-induced hepatocyte injury model was used to characterize GSTA1 in APAP treated cells and determine whether GSTA1 could be a prognostic marker in vitro. A significant increase (p < .05) in GSTA1 in cell culture supernatant was detected at 6 h after APAP treatment, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) showed marked differences (p < ...
May 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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