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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

Paulina Natalia Kopa, Rafał Pawliczak
Cigarette smoke has an crucial impact on transcriptome alteration by its effect on chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation status. The first mechanism is associated with the histone acetylation/deacetylation balance damage as a result of increased activity of NFĸB and lipid peroxidation products, which lead to an increased activity of HATs and DNMTs and reduced HDACs. The second mechanism is connected with direct damaging of DNA by smoke components, activation of downstream repair mechanism and recruitment of DNMTs into the breakage site, "nicotine effect" and carbon monoxide activity on gene transcription and DNA methylation reduction...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Xiuyun Zhai, Mingtong Chen, Wencong Lu
For safely using the untested metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) in industrial and commercial applications, it is important to predict their potential toxicities quickly and efficiently. In this research, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model based on support vector regression (SVR) with a residual bootstrapping technique (BTSVR) was proposed to predict the toxicities of MONPs. It was found that the main features influencing the toxicities of MONPs were RAatom (atomic ratio of oxygen to metal), ΔHm (enthalpy of melting), and Ecoh (cohesive energy)...
April 12, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Nisha A R, Hazilawati H, M L Mohd Azmi, Noordin M M
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are pollutants which are persistent in nature. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a ligand-activated cytosolic transcription factor activated by xenobiotics. The objective was to isolate and identify AHR m RNA transcript in immune organs of developing chicks and to interpret the correlation between AHR induction and dose of PAHs. Specific pathogen free embryonated eggs on day nine were inoculated with solutions of pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene dissolved in tricaprylin (vehicle) through the allantoic route at three dose levels: 0...
April 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Yi Wei, Yu Zhou, Xiang-Liang Tang, Bin Liu, Lian-Ju Shen, Chun-Lan Long, Tao Lin, Da-Wei He, Sheng-de Wu, Guang-Hui Wei
BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism is a common condition of childhood, and it is known to impair fertility potential. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: This study constructed two cryptorchid rat models to investigate the roles of apoptosis and autophagy in testicular impairment induced by cryptorchidism. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I: non-treated rats were used as controls. Group II: injected with drug Flutamide (Flu) 25 mg/kg/bw/d from Gestation Day (GD) 11-19...
April 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Marta Walczyńska, Witold Jakubowski, Tomasz Wasiak, Kinga Kądzioła, Nina Bartoszek, Sylwia Kotarba, Małgorzata Siatkowska, Piotr Komorowski, Bogdan Walkowiak
Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used to investigate the impact of silver nanoparticles (SNP), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM) used in concentration of 1010 particle/mL. Population based observations and gene expression analysis were employed in this study. SNP and PAMAM caused decrease in the number of live nematodes and their body length, but MWCNT did not affect the population of nematodes. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes caused by the presence of all studied nanomaterials, and the results strongly suggest a specific metabolic response of the nematode organism to exposure to various nanomaterials...
April 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Atefeh Mirshafa, Niusha Yekta Moghaddam, Behnoosh Birjandian, Fatemeh Shaki
INTRODUCTION: Uncontrolled chronic hyperglycemia in diabetic patients could result in various complications, including neurotoxicity. Urticadioica L. (UD) is known for its hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of UD and pioglitazone (PIO) in reduction of neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male mice were divided into seven groups: control, diabetic, DMSO-treated control, PIO-treated, UD-treated, UD-PIO-treated and Vitamin E-treated...
April 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Nehal M Elsherbiny, Sawsan A Zaitone, Hala M F Mohammad, Mohamed El-Sherbiny
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is drastically increased worldwide. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of DM and a common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). DN has been recently reported as the most common cause among ESRD patients. Shortage of a definitive cure for DN and the social and economic burden of this disease provide considerable impetus for development of new therapies. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of nifuroxazide, a potent inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3, on NFκB, oxidative stress and apoptosis in diabetic kidney...
April 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
José Luis Martínez-Rodríguez, Rosalinda Gutiérrez-Hernández, Claudia Araceli Reyes-Estrada, Angelica Judith Granados-López, Tatiana Arcos-Ortega, Jesús Adrián López
The metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons by the organism forms products that cause cell death depending on the type of exposure. Benzene exposure has been linked to oxidative stress, hepatic damage, aplastic anemia and hematopoietic cancer as lymphoid and myeloid leukemia. However, there are not fast methods to evaluate chronically benzene exposure in human blood. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the correlation between oxidative damage with benzene exposure and the level of Cellular Plasma Membrane Stability (CPMS) in erythrocytes to use it as a future indicator to determine the grade of benzene intoxications...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Jayme P Coyle, Robert J Rinaldi, Giffe T Johnson, Marie M Bourgeois, James D McCluskey, Raymond D Harbison
Acrolein is a reactive electrophilic aldehyde known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of signaling transduction in vitro. Most in vitro systems employ standard cell culture maintenance conditions of 95% air/5% CO2 , translating to a culture oxygen tension of approximately 20%, far above most physiological tissues. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether low-serum, retinoic acid differentiated H9c2 cells were less sensitive to acrolein insult when cultured under reduced oxygen tension...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Nam Nhut Phan, Kuan-Lun Li, Yen-Chang Lin
BACKGROUND: Arsenic has been shown to cause various diseases (such as blackfoot disease, cardiovascular diseases, bladder cancer and skin cancer) in many areas of the world. However, the effects of arsenic on cardiac rhythm functions still lack investigation. METHODS: In this study, different concentrations of arsenic were orally applied to Sprague Dawley rats in order to examine the relationship between arsenic and cardiovascular rhythm (i.e. long QT) via electrocardiography measurement...
March 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Kuder Reshma Shabnam, Gundala Harold Philip
Synthetic pyrethroids (SP's) are the major insecticides used widely in agriculture and household pest control. Deltamethrin (DM), a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid (PBA) is the major metabolite formed due to metabolism of DM. In order to illustrate the toxic response of zebrafish embryos/larvae to DM and PBA the present research was carried out. For this 4hpf embryos were treated with two concentrations of DM (100 and 200μg/L) for 48hrs and PBA (1000 and 2000μg/L) for 96 hrs or 99...
February 8, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Devinder Arora, Susan Hall, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Rachel Morrison, Amelia McFarland, Anthony V Perkins, Andrew K Davey, Gary D Grant
Pyocyanin (PCN) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) that has been shown to have numerous toxic effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Such toxicities include pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediated responses. It is hypothesized that PCN can cross biological membranes and reach the systemic circulation, but no previous studies have investigated this. The aim of this study was, therefore, to quantify PCN in plasma and assess if systemic responses were occurring after localized intranasal administration in C57BL/6 J mice...
February 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
He Wang, Wei Li, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiaoqi Sun, Xiaoxu Cui, Ping Cheng, Abdul Qayum, Xiuying Zhang
In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying age-related susceptibility in broilers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The results showed that AFB1 induced significant changes in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity & liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity at day 7, 21 and 42 relative to control group. However, AFB1-induced changes in serum biochemical parameters and liver antioxidant activities become less severe with increasing age of broilers...
June 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Carlemi Calitz, Josias H Hamman, Stephen J Fey, Krzysztof Wrzesinski, Chrisna Gouws
The liver is a vital organ fulfilling a central role in over 500 major metabolic functions, including serving as the most essential site for drug biotransformation. Dysfunction of the drug biotransformation processes may result in the exposure of the liver (and other organs) to hepatotoxins, potentially interacting with cellular constituents and causing toxicity and various lesions. Hepatotoxicity can be investigated on a tissue, cellular and molecular level by employing various in vivo and in vitro techniques, including novel three-dimensional (3 D) cell culturing methods...
June 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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June 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Radhakrishnan Chandraprabha Vineetha, Prakash Binu, Pettamanna Arathi, Raveendran Harikumaran Nair
Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) is a potent drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has achieved remarkable remissions in patients. Unfortunately, clinical reports have shown that the treatment is associated with cardiotoxicity. Many efforts have been made to mitigate drug-mediated cardiac damage using naturally occurring antioxidant compounds possessing free radical scavenging activity. The present investigation aims to explore protective role of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and α-tocopherol (α-TOC) from As2 O3 -induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes through the evaluation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) transcription factors...
June 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Andrey A Toropov, Alla P Toropova, Emilio Benfenati, Mario Salmona
The aim of the present work is an attempt to define computable measure of similarity between different endpoints. The similarity of structural alerts of different biochemical endpoints can be used to solve tasks of medicinal chemistry. Optimal descriptors are a tool to build up models for different endpoints. The optimal descriptor is calculated with simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES). A group of elements (single symbol or pair of symbols) can represent any SMILES. Each element of SMILES can be represented by so-called correlation weight i...
June 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Rafael Linden, Ana Luiza Ziulkoski, Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas
After the cigarette is extinguished, many toxic compounds remain in the environment and accumulate in the air or on surfaces. This exposure is termed thirdhand smoke (THS) and its risks are poorly known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cellular effects of THS from smokers' homes. Papers were placed in nine smoker's home and three nonsmoker's homes. An area equivalent to the paper size was cleaned with a cotton wipe. A549, Hep-2 and 3T3 cells were exposed to THS for 24 h and cellular functions were assessed by MTT, neutral red (NR) reuptake and trypan blue exclusion assays...
May 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Michelle A North, David W Kinniburgh, Judit E G Smits
The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for 5 h/day, 6 days/week for 4 weeks...
May 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Yi Wei, Xi-Ning Cao, Xiang-Liang Tang, Lian-Ju Shen, Tao Lin, Da-Wei He, Sheng-De Wu, Guang-Hui Wei
CONTEXT: Blood-testis barrier (BTB), constituted by tight junctions (TJs), adherens junctions and gap junctions, is important for spermatogenesis. PM2.5 is known to impair testicular functions and reproduction. However, its effects on BTB and the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of autophagy in BTB toxicity induced by PM2.5. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were developmentally exposed to normal saline (NS) or PM2...
May 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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