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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

Yamina Kadri, Riadh Nciri, Sana Bardaa, Noura Brahmi, Saidi Saber, Abdel Halim Harrath, Waleed Aldahmash, Saleh Alwasel, Mohamed Mohany, Abdelfatteh El Feki, Mohamed Salah Allagui
Previous studies have brought to light the toxic effect of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ) but very little is known about the oxidative brain injury caused by this metal. Medical plants have a well-recognized role in the management of damage caused by pollutants such as CeCl3 . Syzygium aromaticum, a potent natural source of bioactive compounds and rich in secondary metabolites, has a broad range of biological functions. The aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract (ESA) to improve the adverse effects of CeCl3 in the brain tissue...
October 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Farzaneh Dehghani, Hamideh Aboutalebi, Tahereh Esmaeilpour, Mohammad Reza Panjehshahin, Hossein Bordbar
BACKGROUND: Ovarian failure is diagnosed by ovarian destruction and reducing sex hormonal levels. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains several growth factors that induce tissue repair and may induce folliculogenesis. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effect of PRP on ovarian structures and function in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced ovarian failure in female rats by a stereological method. METHODS: Thirty-two adult female rats were divided into four groups (Control, Cy, Cy + PRP, and PRP)...
October 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Barkha Shakya, Sonam Shakya, Yasir Hasan Siddique
In the present study Geraniol at the final concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40 µM was mixed in the diet along with 80 µM of arecoline and the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9 were allowed to feed on it for 24 hrs. After the exposure of 24 hrs the larvae were subjected to ONPG, X-gal, trypan blue exclusion test, oxidative stress markers and apoptotic and comet assays. The exposure of larvae to geraniol showed a dose dependent decrease in the activity of β-galactosidase, tissue damage and oxidative stress markers...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Kathiroli Sujithra, Srinivasan Subramani, Indumathi Dhananjayan, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
Diabetes is a major non-communicable life threatening chronic and pervasive condition that is consuming the world health in a petrifying rate. The circulatory system is one of the major sources of hyperglycemia induced ROS generation. Historically, garlic has been revered as part of a healthful diet. Organosulfur compounds have been attributed to the medicinal properties and health benefits of garlic. The present study focuses on the ameliorative role of Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in combating diabetic complications in diabetic rats...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Erjie Tian, Wanjun Hu, Yusong Miao, Ishfaq Muhammad, Ling Zhang, Chunli Xia, Liangjun Ding, Qiaomei Zhang, Rui Li, Chunli Chen, Jichang Li
In this study, the preventive effects of NGF against colistin-induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC12 cells have been investigated. Fluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometery and western blotting technique were used. The results showed that large amounts of autophagosomes and apoptotic markers were triggered by colistin. Consistently, a significant increase has been noted at mRNA and protein levels in autophagy and apoptosis related genes. Besides, TEM analysis showed that autophagic vacuoles were obvious at 12 h, while nuclear chromatin condensation and edge accumulation were clearly seen at 24 h in colistin alone group...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Guangyao Huang, Liang Yang, Zhaoyan Zhang, Sijia Ren, Xianglin Tang, Wei Zhou, Yuguang Wang, Zengchun Ma, Shan Gao, Yue Gao
OBJECTIVE: This study focused on determining whether the "Fuzi" (FZ) extracts from different extraction methods are related to pregnane X receptor (PXR) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), and explore the mechanism. METHODS: FZ was extracted under various conditions, and the components were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quad Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining assays were used to measure the cell cytotoxicity of these extracts...
October 10, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Heba M Hafez, Mohamed A Ibrahim, Mervat Z Zedan, Marwa Hassan, Hanaa Hassanein
Cilostazol and verapamil are widely used cardiovascular drugs, explored a beneficial effect on different organs-induced toxicities. We investigated whether the Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid factor 2) and its downstream pathway may be involved in the protective role of these drugs against TAA-induced renal damage. Renal biomarkers (creatinine and urea) and histopathology were observed. Antioxidant and oxidant indicators; superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total nitrite (NO) were also measured...
October 8, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Shikha Sharma, Shahzad Ahmad, Mohemmed Faraz Khan, Suhel Parvez, Sheikh Raisuddin
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is known for endocrine disrupting activity. In order to replace BPA, a number of bisphenol analogues have been designed. However, their activity profile is poorly described and little information exists about their endocrine disrupting potential and interactions with nuclear receptors. An understanding of such interaction may unravel mechanism of their molecular action and provide valuable inputs for risk assessment. BPA binds and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) which act as transcription factors and regulate genes involved in glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism and adipogenesis...
October 5, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Hela Chalouati, Mohamed Moncef Ben Sâad, Laurence Payrastre
The protective effects of α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) on liver injury induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were investigated in adult male rats of Wistar strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of eight rats each. Group 1 and 2 have received HCB, dissolved in olive oil, at a dose of 4 mg or 16 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Group 3 and 4 were treated by the same doses of HCB (4 mg and 16 mg/kg b.w.) after 1 h of pretreatment with α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 b.w. The other two groups served as controls; which received either olive oil only, a solvent of HCB, or α-tocopherol...
October 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Andrey A Toropov, Alla P Toropova
The CORAL software is a tool to build up quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs). The project of updated version of the CORAL software is discussed in terms of practical applications for building up various models. The updating is the possibility to improve the predictive potential of models using the so-called Index of Ideality of Correlation (IIC) as a criterion of the predictive potential for QSPR/QSAR models. Efficacy of the IIC is examined with three examples of building up QSARs: (i) models for anticancer activity; (ii) models for mutagenicity; and (iii) models for toxicity of psychotropic drugs...
October 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Saba Khanam, Falaq Naz, Fahad Ali, Rahul Smita Jyoti, Ambreen Fatima, Wasi Khan, Braj Raj Singh, A H Naqvi, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. Dopamine agonists help the patients with PD by reversing the dopamine depletion and related motor deficits. In the present work, cabergoline, a potent ergot dopamine agonist, was given in the form of cabergoline alginate nanocomposite (CANC) to the PD model flies to study its effects on climbing ability, activity pattern, life span, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, dopamine content, protein carbonyl content, mean gray-scale values, and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities...
October 2, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Adipa Saha, Sandip Mukherjee, Ankita Bhattacharjee, Deotima Sarkar, Arijit Chakraborty, Arnab Banerjee, Amar K Chandra
Altered lymphocytic activity and its subset ratio found responsible for initiating abnormal autoimmune responses in mans and animals after excess iodine exposure. Study objective is to reveal excess iodine induced impairment of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), its functional status, antioxidant balance, DNA damage, proliferation assay and serum cytokine levels (IL6 and TNF α)in adult male rats to understand the onset of autoimmune alterations if any indirectly that is unexplored. Experimental animals were grouped depending on doses of iodine (KI) treatment with moderately excess-7mg/kg bw (100EI) and excessively excess-35mg/kg bw (500EI)for 30 days to analyze IL6 and TNF α, haematological indices, oxidative stress, lymphocytic DNA damage and proliferation status...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Olubukola T Oyebode, Oluwaseun R Adebiyi, Olufunso O Olorunsogo
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Amoxycillin/Clavulanate (AC) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are commonly administered for treatment of various bacterial infections. Studies have reported the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of CIP in several cancer cell lines while AC has been implicated in drug-induced liver injury. We investigated the influence of CIP and AC on mitochondrial Permeability Transition (mPT) pore, ATPase activity, and cytochrome C release of normal Rat Liver Mitochondria (RLM) spectrophotmetrically...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty
Now-a-days, the life-line of urban population has been formed by commercial foods due to industrialization, urbanization and rapid increase in working class. Commercial foods are time and energy saving foods but it compromising the nutritional value of foods. The term adulteration refers to the deliberate addition of compound which is usually not present in food. These compounds are known as food additives or food adulterant. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is one of the most common food additives. Several studies revealed that MSG has toxic effect on foetal development/foetus, children's, adolescent and adults...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Hesham M Korashy, Abdulaziz M Alsaad, Mohamed N Al-Arifi, Zaid H Maayah, Ibraheem M Attafi, Fawaz E Alanazi, Osama M Belali, Ali Alhoshani
Although a plethora of studies have examined tobacco smoke-cancer disease association, the involvement of cellular genetic toxicity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study provides molecular evidence for a pathway involved in the DNA damage induced by long-term cigarette and Waterpipe smoke in human subjects. The study population consisted of 45 subjects who were divided into three groups; healthy non-smokers group, cigarette-smokers group, and Waterpipe-smokers group. A questionnaire and consent form was distributed and signed by all participants...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Saba Farooqi, K Rajendran, Razia Khanam
Phthalates are used as plasticizers in a wide range of products and are known to affect the human health adversely. Hence, the present study was carried out to identify and quantify the presence of four phthalates namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the two baby products i.e. baby oils and baby lotions. The daily exposure levels and hazard index of each phthalate were also calculated. It was an analytical study where two different brands of samples of baby oil and baby lotion each, from the date of manufacturing of 3, 10, and 20 months were collected...
September 26, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Carlemi Calitz, Josias H Hamman, Alvaro M Viljoen, Stephen J Fey, Krzysztof Wrzesinski, Chrisna Gouws
Xysmalobium undulatum (Uzara) is one of the most widely used indigenous traditional herbal remedies in Southern Africa. Commercially available Uzara plant material was used to prepare a crude aqueous extract, of which the toxicity potential was investigated in the hepatic HepG2/C3A cell line in both traditional two-dimensional (2D) and rotating three-dimensional (3D) spheroid cell cultures. These cultures were treated over a period of 4 days at concentrations of 200, 350, 500, and 750 mg/kg plant extract to protein content...
September 26, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Evangelia Flampouri, Dimitra Theodosi-Palimeri, Spyridon Kintzios
In this paper we report the effects of the complex III inhibitor, strobilurin fungicide kresoxim-methyl, on the cellular homeostasis of a mammalian cancerous neural cell line. We examined whether exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of kresoxim-methyl induce cellular and biochemical mechanisms of toxicity on the murine neuroblastoma N2a cells. Results revealed elevation of mitochondrial superoxide generation, decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, losses on GPx enzyme activity, along with increased nitrite release...
September 12, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Abdulaziz M S Alsaad
Dasatinib is a new selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets certain kinases involved in cellular growth and development. This drug belongs to a novel anticancer therapy aiming to increase the survival in patients with imatinib-resistant mutations. However, the dasatinib toxicity was reported as a side effect leading to arrhythmias and/or heart failure. Here, we investigated the possibility of dasatinib-induced toxicity in rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate the ability of dasatinib to induce expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and cardiac hypertrophy markers (BNP, β-MHC) genes in H9c2 cells...
September 11, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Asghar Ashrafi Hafez, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Bita Mehravi, Khadijeh Ashtari, Enayatollah Seydi, Ahmad Salimi
Today, nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in various fields. Manganese oxide nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention due to many applications. One of the major concerns regarding the widespread use of various NPs is the exposure and accumulation in human organs and finally toxicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria is one of the most important mechanisms of toxicity suggested by published studies induced by other NPs. However, limited studies have been conducted on the mechanism of toxicity of MnO2 -NPs and MnO2 -microparticles (MnO2 -MPs)...
August 22, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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