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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535741/effects-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-on-oxidative-stress-and-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-diclofenac-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#1
Ali Nouri, Esfandiar Heidarian, Morteza Nikoukar
The consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as diclofenac, can lead to hepatotoxicity. In the present study, protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated. Thirty two male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (control group) was treated with normal saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) for 4 days. Group 2 (test without treatment) received diclofenac only (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 4 days. Groups 3 and 4 received diclofenac (50 mg/kg, i.p.) plus NAC (150mg/kg, p...
May 24, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534445/differential-expression-of-micro-rnas-and-their-predicted-targets-in-renal-cells-exposed-to-amphotericin-b-and-its-complex-with-copper-ii-ions
#2
Joanna Magdalena Gola, Barbara Strzałka-Mrozik, Celina Kruszniewska-Rajs, Jolanta Adamska, Mariusz Gagoś, Urszula Mazurek
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate essential biological processes, and their expression was shown to be affected by pathological processes and drug-induced toxicity. Amphotericin B (AmB) can cause liver and kidney injury, but a recently developed complex of AmB with copper (II) ions (AmB-Cu(2+)) exhibits a lower toxicity to human renal cells while retaining a high antifungal activity. The aim of our study was to assess AmB-Cu(2+)- induced changes in the miRNA profile of renal cells and to examine which biological processes are significantly affected by AmB-Cu(2+)...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532222/bromuconazole-induced-hepatotoxicity-is-accompanied-by-upregulation-of-pxr-cyp3a1-and-downregulation-of-car-cyp2b1-gene-expression
#3
Doaa H Abdelhady, Mohammed A El-Magd, Zizy I Elbialy, Ayman A Saleh
Despite widespread use of bromuconazole as a pesticide for food crops and fruits, limited studies have been done to evaluate its toxic effects. Here, we evaluated the hepatotoxic effect of bromuconazole using classical toxicological (biochemical analysis and histopathological examination) and gene-based molecular methods. Male rats were treated either orally or topically with bromuconazole at doses equal to no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and 1/10 LD50 for 90 days. Bromuconazole increased activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, and ACP), and levels of bilirubin...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532275/protective-effects-of-vitamin-e-against-reproductive-toxicity-induced-by-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-via-ppar-dependent-mechanisms
#4
Yangcai Wang, Bailin Chen, Tao Lin, Shengde Wu, Guanghui Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective/ameliorative effects of vitamin E on di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)-induced reproductive toxicity, particularly in testicular toxicity in male rats, emphasizing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) -Dependent mechanism. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley females were exposed by oral route to DEHP alone or associated with vitamin E from gestation day (GD) 12.5 to postnatal day (PND) 3 according to the following treatment regimens: vehicle control (corn oil), vitamin E (200 mg/kg) + corn oil, DEHP (500 mg/kg) + corn oil, and DEHP (500 mg/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg) + corn oil...
May 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532211/rotenone-induces-nephrotoxicity-in-rats-oxidative-damage-and-apoptosis
#5
Xiao-Wen Jiang, Lu Qiao, Xin-Xin Feng, Lin Liu, Qing-Wei Wei, Xue-Wei Wang, Wen-Hui Yu
Previous studies have examined rotenone toxicity on the human central nervous system, especially in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, but few have investigated the effects of rotenone on the kidney. Here, rotenone-induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated by determining morphological, biochemical, oxidative stress-related, and apoptotic factor alterations in rat renal tissue. Morphological and biochemical analyses showed that rotenone administration to rats damaged renal tissue. Western blot results revealed that rotenone induced oxidative damage, causing overproduction of glutathione, malonaldehyde, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibiting superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity...
May 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413934/commonly-used-air-filters-fail-to-eliminate-secondhand-smoke-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-responses
#6
Thivanka Muthumalage, Karen Pritsos, Kenneth Hunter, Chris Pritsos
Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes approximately 50,000 deaths per year. Despite all the health warnings, smoking is still allowed indoors in many states exposing both workers and patrons to SHS on a daily basis. The opponents of smoking bans suggest that present day air filtration systems remove the health hazards of exposure to SHS. In this study, using an acute SHS exposure model, we looked at the impact of commonly used air filters (MERV-8 pleated and MERV-8 pleated activated charcoal) on SHS by assessing the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response in C57BL/6 mice...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413899/changes-in-the-oxidative-stress-anti-oxidant-system-after-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard-and-antioxidant-strategies-in-the-therapy-a-review
#7
Miroslav Pohanka, Pavla Martinkova, Martin Brtnicky, Jindrich Kynicky
Sulfur mustard, in a chemical name bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, is a chemical warfare agent. It is cytotoxic and blister forming once spread over the skin. Though exact molecular mechanism of sulfur mustard toxic action remains unknown, inflammation and oxidative stress development are considered as the most relevant pathological consequences. Applications of either low-molecular weight antioxidants or cofactors for enzymatic antioxidants are considered as suitable ways how to ameliorate the poisoning. In this article, survey of literature on countermeasures against sulfur mustard poisoning are given and evidence of oxidative stress role during sulfur mustard poisoning and availability of antioxidants for the therapy are discussed...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463034/altered-mirna-expression-in-aniline-mediated-cell-cycle-progression-in-rat-spleen
#8
Gangduo Wang, Jianling Wang, M Firoze Khan
Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen, however, early molecular events in aniline-induced cell cycle progression in the spleen remain unknown. miRNAs have been implicated in tumor development by modulating key cell cycle regulators and controlling cell proliferation. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the expression of miRNAs, regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in an experimental condition that precedes a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (1 mmol/kg/day by gavage) for 7 days, and expression of miRNAs, cyclins and CDKs in rat spleens were analyzed...
May 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413915/oxidative-stress-status-in-congenital-hypogonadism-an-appraisal
#9
C Haymana, A Aydoğdu, B Soykut, O Erdem, T Ibrahimov, M Dinc, C Meric, Y Basaran, A Sonmez, O Azal
Patients with hypogonadism are at increased risk of cardiac and metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of increased cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism is not clear. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate possible differences in oxidative stress conditions between patients with hypogonadism and healthy controls. In this study, 38 male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age: 21...
May 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412881/glutathione-s-transferase-a1-gsta1-as-a-marker-of-acetaminophen-induced-hepatocyte-injury-in-vitro
#10
Rui Li, Fangping Liu, Yicong Chang, Xin Ma, Minmin Li, Changwen Li, Chenxi Shi, Jingshan He, Ying Li, Zhi Li, Yuexia Lin, Qing Han, Yulin Zhao, Dening Wang
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes serious hepatocyte injury, and new markers are needed to predict APAP-induced hepatic injury. Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) plays a significant role in the metabolism of APAP. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step perfusion in situ. An APAP-induced hepatocyte injury model was used to characterize GSTA1 in APAP treated cells and determine whether GSTA1 could be a prognostic marker in vitro. A significant increase (p < .05) in GSTA1 in cell culture supernatant was detected at 6 h after APAP treatment, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) showed marked differences (p < ...
May 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446067/the-chemical-disruption-of-human-metabolism
#11
Stephen J Genuis, Edmond Kyrillos
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence highlights the reality of unprecedented human exposure to toxic chemical agents found throughout our environment - in our food and water supply, in the air we breathe, in the products we apply to our skin, in the medical and dental materials placed into our bodies, and even within the confines of the womb. With biomonitoring confirming the widespread bioaccumulation of myriad toxicants among population groups, expanding research continues to explore the pathobiological impact of these agents on human metabolism...
April 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443691/correction-to-krithika-jyothi-prasantha-and-ramtej-mechanism-of-protective-effect-of-phyllanthin-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-experimental-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412883/polyphenols-of-virgin-coconut-oil-prevent-pro-oxidant-mediated-cell-death
#13
Soorya Parathodi Illam, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Virgin coconut oil (VCO), extracted from the fresh coconut kernel, is a food supplement enriched with medium chain saturated fatty acids and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is reported to have several health benefits including lipid lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological benefits of VCO have been attributed to its polyphenol content (VCOP), the mechanistic basis of which is less explored. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis of VCOP documented the presence of gallic acid, ferulic acid (FA), quercetin, methyl catechin, dihydrokaempferol and myricetin glycoside...
April 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440100/detrimental-effects-of-nicotine-on-thioacetamide-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#14
Zixiong Zhou, Surim Park, Jong Won Kim, Jing Zhao, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung Chul Choi, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
AIM: Nicotine exerts a number of physiological effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For in vivo experiments, hepatic fibrosis was induced by TAA (0.25 g/kg, i.p.) three times a week for 6 weeks. Mice of TAA treated groups were administered daily with distilled water and nicotine (50 or 100 μg/mL) via gastrogavage throughout the experimental period...
April 25, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436716/skin-score-correlates-with-global-dna-methylation-and-gsto1-a140d-polymorphism-in-arsenic-affected-population-of-eastern-india
#15
Moumita Majumder, Uma B DasGupta, D N Guha Mazumder, Nilansu Das
Arsenic is a potent environmental toxicant causing serious public health concerns in India, Bangladesh and other parts of the world. Gene and promoter specific hypermethylation has been reported in different arsenic exposed cell lines, whereas whole genome DNA methylation study suggested genomic hypo and hypermethylation after arsenic exposure in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Along with other characteristic biomarkers, arsenic toxicity leads to typical skin lesions. The present study demonstrates significant correlation between severities of skin manifestations with their whole genome DNA methylation status as well as with a particular polymorphism (Ala 140 Asp) status in arsenic metabolizing enzyme Glutathione S-transferase Omega-1 (GSTO1) in arsenic exposed population of the district of Nadia, West Bengal, India...
April 24, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298158/intake-of-saffron-reduces-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#16
Apurva Koul, Suresh K Abraham
Saffron (SAF), the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, is commonly used for flavoring and coloring food. Studies on bioactivity of SAF have demonstrated its in vivo antioxidant activity. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of SAF intake on γ-radiation (RAD) induced (a) chromosomal damage, (b) oxidative stress in liver and brain, and (c) histopathological effects in the intestinal cells and male germ cells in mice. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of SAF was used for the experiments. Our preliminary cell-free DNA nicking assay using pBR322 DNA revealed protective effects of freeze-dried SAF extract against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage...
April 12, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395574/naringenin-a-bioflavonoid-impairs-the-reproductive-potential-of-male-mice
#17
Pavitra Ranawat, Nikita Bakshi
Present study analyzed the effect of naringenin, a bioflavonoid, on male reproductive function in adult mouse, after intraperitoneal treatment with varying concentrations of naringenin (2, 8 and 20 mg/kg b.wt.) for two weeks. Naringenin increased the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the testis with concomitant decrease in sperm count and motility in a dose-dependent manner. Activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of reduced glutathione were found to be decreased in a dose-dependent manner...
April 10, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372472/in-vitro-study-of-putative-genomic-biomarkers-of-nephrotoxicity-through-differential-gene-expression-using-gentamicin
#18
Sarah Cristina Teixeira Silva, Leonardo Augusto de Almeida, Stellamaris Soares, Marina Felipe Grossi, Anete Maria Santana Valente, Carlos Alberto Tagliati
Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequently observed effects in long-term pharmacotherapy. The effects of nephrotoxicity are commonly discovered later due to a lack of sensitivity in in vivo methods. Therefore, researchers have tried to develop in vitro alternative methods for early identification of toxicity. In this study, LLC-PK1 cells were exposed to gentamicin through MTT and trypan blue assay. Concentrations of 4 (low), 8 (medium), and 12 (high) mM, were used to evaluate differential gene expression...
April 3, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325086/application-of-bacterial-reverse-mutation-assay-for-detection-of-non-genotoxic-carcinogens
#19
Rewan Kanode, Saurabh Chandra, Sharad Sharma
Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole)...
March 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322069/increasing-maneb-doses-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-overproduction-and-nephrotoxicity-in-adult-mice
#20
Imen Jaballi, Hajer Ben Saad, Intidhar Bkhairia, Intissar Kammoun, Michael Droguet, Christian Magné, Tahia Boudawara, Choumous Kallel, Monsef Nasri, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the biochemical, molecular and histopathological aspects of the kidney injuries as well as the hematological perturbations induced after adult mice exposure to increasing doses of maneb (MB). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Adult mice were intraperitoneally treated for seven days with four graded doses of MB, corresponding to 1/8, 1/6, 1/4 and 1/2 of its lethal dose (LD50=1500 mg/kg body weight). RESULTS: Hematological analysis revealed a significant disruption in total white blood cells and platelets and a significant decrease in the plasmatic levels of ferrozine in mice treated with 1/8, 1/6 and 1/4 of MB LD50...
March 21, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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