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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446067/the-chemical-disruption-of-human-metabolism
#1
Stephen J Genuis, Edmond Kyrillos
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence highlights the reality of unprecedented human exposure to toxic chemical agents found throughout our environment - in our food and water supply, in the air we breathe, in the products we apply to our skin, in the medical and dental materials placed into our bodies, and even within the confines of the womb. With biomonitoring confirming the widespread bioaccumulation of myriad toxicants among population groups, expanding research continues to explore the pathobiological impact of these agents on human metabolism...
April 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443691/correction-to-krithika-jyothi-prasantha-and-ramtej-mechanism-of-protective-effect-of-phyllanthin-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-experimental-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440100/detrimental-effects-of-nicotine-on-thioacetamide-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#3
Zixiong Zhou, Surim Park, Jong Won Kim, Jing Zhao, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung Chul Choi, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
AIM: Nicotine exerts a number of physiological effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For in vivo experiments, hepatic fibrosis was induced by TAA (0.25 g/kg, i.p.) three times a week for 6 weeks. Mice of TAA treated groups were administered daily with distilled water and nicotine (50 or 100 μg/mL) via gastrogavage throughout the experimental period...
April 25, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436716/skin-score-correlates-with-global-dna-methylation-and-gsto1-a140d-polymorphism-in-arsenic-affected-population-of-eastern-india
#4
Moumita Majumder, Uma B DasGupta, D N Guha Mazumder, Nilansu Das
Arsenic is a potent environmental toxicant causing serious public health concerns in India, Bangladesh and other parts of the world. Gene and promoter specific hypermethylation has been reported in different arsenic exposed cell lines, whereas whole genome DNA methylation study suggested genomic hypo and hypermethylation after arsenic exposure in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Along with other characteristic biomarkers, arsenic toxicity leads to typical skin lesions. The present study demonstrates significant correlation between severities of skin manifestations with their whole genome DNA methylation status as well as with a particular polymorphism (Ala 140 Asp) status in arsenic metabolizing enzyme Glutathione S-transferase Omega-1 (GSTO1) in arsenic exposed population of the district of Nadia, West Bengal, India...
April 24, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413934/commonly-used-air-filters-fail-to-eliminate-secondhand-smoke-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-responses
#5
Thivanka Muthumalage, Karen Pritsos, Kenneth Hunter, Chris Pritsos
Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes approximately 50,000 deaths per year. Despite all the health warnings, smoking is still allowed indoors in many states exposing both workers and patrons to SHS on a daily basis. The opponents of smoking bans suggest that the present day air filtration systems remove the health hazards of exposure to SHS. In this study, using an acute SHS exposure model, we looked at the impact of commonly used air filters (MERV 8 pleated and MERV 8 pleated activated charcoal) on SHS by assessing the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response in C57BL/6 mice...
April 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413915/oxidative-stress-status-in-congenital-hypogonadism-an-appraisal
#6
C Haymana, A Aydoğdu, B Soykut, O Erdem, T Ibrahimov, M Dinc, C Meric, Y Basaran, A Sonmez, O Azal
Patients with hypogonadism are at increased risk of cardiac and metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of increased cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism is not clear. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate possible differences in oxidative stress conditions between patients with hypogonadism and healthy controls. In this study, 38 male patients with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age: 21...
April 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413899/changes-in-the-oxidative-stress-anti-oxidant-system-after-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard-and-antioxidant-strategies-in-the-therapy-a-review
#7
Miroslav Pohanka, Pavla Martinkova, Martin Brtnicky, Jindrich Kynicky
Sulfur mustard, in a chemical name bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, is a chemical warfare agent. It is cytotoxic and blister forming once spread over the skin. Though exact molecular mechanism of sulfur mustard toxic action remains unknown, inflammation and oxidative stress development are considered as the most relevant pathological consequences. Applications of either low molecular weight antioxidants or cofactors for enzymatic antioxidants are considered as suitable ways how to ameliorate the poisoning. In the presented paper, survey of literature on countermeasures against sulfur mustard poisoning are given and evidence of oxidative stress role during sulfur mustard poisoning and availability of antioxidants for the therapy are discussed...
April 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412883/polyphenols-of-virgin-coconut-oil-prevent-pro-oxidant-mediated-cell-death
#8
Soorya Parathodi Illam, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Virgin coconut oil (VCO), extracted from the fresh coconut kernel, is a food supplement enriched with medium chain saturated fatty acids and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is reported to have several health benefits including lipid lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological benefits of VCO have been attributed to its polyphenol contents (VCOP), the mechanistic basis of which is less explored. LC/MS analysis of VCOP documented the presence of gallic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, methyl catechin, dihydrokaempferol, and myricetin glycoside...
April 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412881/glutathione-s-transferase-a1-gsta1-as-a-marker-of-acetaminophen-induced-hepatocyte-injury-in-vitro
#9
Rui Li, Fangping Liu, Yicong Chang, Xin Ma, Minmin Li, Changwen Li, Chenxi Shi, Jingshan He, Ying Li, Zhi Li, Yuexia Lin, Qing Han, Yulin Zhao, Dening Wang
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes serious hepatocyte injury, and new markers are needed to predict APAP-induced hepatic injury. Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) plays a significant role in the metabolism of APAP. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step perfusion in situ. An APAP-induced hepatocyte injury model was used to characterize GSTA1 in APAP treated cells and determine whether GSTA1 could be a prognostic marker in vitro. A significant increase (p<0.05) in GSTA1 in cell culture supernatant was detected at 6 h after APAP treatment, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) showed marked differences (p<0...
April 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395574/naringenin-a-bioflavonoid-impairs-the-reproductive-potential-of-male-mice
#10
Pavitra Ranawat, Nikita Bakshi
Present study analyzed the effect of naringenin, a bioflavonoid, on male reproductive function in adult mouse, after intraperitoneal treatment with varying concentrations of naringenin (2, 8 and 20 mg/kg b.wt.) for two weeks. Naringenin increased the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the testis with concomitant decrease in sperm count and motility in a dose-dependent manner. Activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of reduced glutathione were found to be decreased in a dose-dependent manner...
April 10, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372472/in-vitro-study-of-putative-genomic-biomarkers-of-nephrotoxicity-through-differential-gene-expression-using-gentamicin
#11
Sarah Cristina Teixeira Silva, Leonardo Augusto de Almeida, Stellamaris Soares, Marina Felipe Grossi, Anete Maria Santana Valente, Carlos Alberto Tagliati
Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequently observed effects in long-term pharmacotherapy. The effects of nephrotoxicity are commonly discovered later due to a lack of sensitivity in in vivo methods. Therefore, researchers have tried to develop in vitro alternative methods for early identification of toxicity. In this study, LLC-PK1 cells were exposed to gentamicin through MTT and trypan blue assay. Concentrations of 4 (low), 8 (medium), and 12 (high) mM, were used to evaluate differential gene expression...
April 3, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325086/application-of-bacterial-reverse-mutation-assay-for-detection-of-non-genotoxic-carcinogens
#12
Rewan Kanode, Saurabh Chandra, Sharad Sharma
Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole)...
March 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322069/increasing-maneb-doses-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-overproduction-and-nephrotoxicity-in-adult-mice
#13
Imen Jaballi, Hajer Ben Saad, Intidhar Bkhairia, Intissar Kammoun, Michael Droguet, Christian Magné, Tahia Boudawara, Choumous Kallel, Monsef Nasri, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the biochemical, molecular and histopathological aspects of the kidney injuries as well as the hematological perturbations induced after adult mice exposure to increasing doses of maneb (MB). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Adult mice were intraperitoneally treated for seven days with four graded doses of MB, corresponding to 1/8, 1/6, 1/4 and 1/2 of its lethal dose (LD50=1500 mg/kg body weight). RESULTS: Hematological analysis revealed a significant disruption in total white blood cells and platelets and a significant decrease in the plasmatic levels of ferrozine in mice treated with 1/8, 1/6 and 1/4 of MB LD50...
March 21, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298158/intake-of-saffron-reduces-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#14
Apurva Koul, Suresh K Abraham
Saffron (SAF), the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus is commonly used for flavouring and coloring food. Studies on bioactivity of SAF have demonstrated its in vivo antioxidant activity. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of SAF intake on γ-radiation (RAD) induced: (a) chromosomal damage, (b) oxidative stress in liver and brain and (c) histopathological effects in the intestinal cells and male germ cells in mice. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of SAF was used for the experiments. Our preliminary cell-free DNA nicking assay using pBR322 DNA revealed protective effects of freeze-dried SAF extract against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264634/effects-of-tartrazine-on-proliferation-and-genetic-damage-in-human-lymphocytes
#15
Zülal Atlı Şekeroğlu, Büşra Güneş, Seval Kontaş Yedier, Vedat Şekeroğlu, Birsen Aydın
The color additive, tartrazine (TRZ), is widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. Genotoxicity of TRZ and its metabolites has not been investigated in detail in the presence and absence of a metabolic activator (S9 mix) in human. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TRZ and its metabolites on cultured human lymphocytes by using chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Cultures were treated with 625, 1250 and 2500 μg/ml of TRZ in the presence and absence of S9 mix...
March 7, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277162/modulation-of-chemotherapy-induced-cytotoxicity-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-by-caffeine-and-chlorogenic-acid
#16
Susan Hall, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Ben Desbrow, Richard Lai, Devinder Arora, Yinna Hong
Chemotherapy is an important treatment modality for malignancy but is limited by significant toxicity and it susceptibility to numerous drug interactions. While the interacting effects with medications are well known, there is limited evidence on the interaction with commonly consumed food and natural products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive constituents of coffee (caffeine and chlorogenic acid) on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel in vitro. Pretreatment with caffeine (100 nM and 10 μM) sensitized SH-SY5Y cells to doxorubicin-induced toxicity and increased apoptosis and sensitized PC3 cells to gemcitabine-induced toxicity...
March 6, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142338/toxicity-assessment-of-molindone-hydrochloride-a-dopamine-d2-d5-receptor-antagonist-in-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#17
Gopala Krishna, Gopa Gopalakrishnan, Saryu Goel
Neuroleptic drug molindone hydrochloride is a dopamine D2/D5 receptor antagonist and it is in late stage development for the treatment of impulsive aggression in children and adolescents who have attention deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This new indication for this drug would expand the target population to include younger patients, and therefore, toxicity assessments in juvenile animals were undertaken in order to determine susceptibility differences, if any, between this age group and the adult rats...
February 20, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132579/genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-passive-smoking-and-urban-air-pollutants-in-buccal-mucosa-cells-of-children-enrolled-in-public-school
#18
Deborah Navit de Carvalho Cavalcante, Juliana Caroline Vivian Sposito, Bruno do Amaral Crispim, André Vieira do Nascimento, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
Nuclear abnormalities (micronuclei and meta-nuclear changes) have been used as biomarkers to identify cell damages. As children are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of pollution when compared to adults, assessing genetic damage caused by environmental influences is of great interest. As such, the objective was to determine metanuclear (karyolysis, pycnosis, karyorrhexis, binucleated cells, chromosome bridges and micronuclei) in cells from the oral mucosa of children associated with the school environment, gender, exposure to cigarette smoke and vehicular traffic...
February 20, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110610/evaluation-of-methylglyoxal-toxicity-in-human-erythrocytes-leukocytes-and-platelets
#19
Alessandro de Souza Prestes, Matheus Mülling Dos Santos, Assis Ecker, Daniela Zanini, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Denis Broock Rosemberg, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Nilda Vargas Barbosa
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl metabolite originated mainly from glucose degradation pathway that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Reactions of MG with biological macromolecules (proteins, DNA and lipids) can induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Here, human erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets were acutely exposed to MG at concentration ranging from 0.025 to 10 mM. Afterwards, hemolysis and osmotic fragility in erythrocytes, DNA damage and cell viability in leukocytes, and the activity of purinergic ecto-nucleotidases in platelets were evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110594/protective-effect-of-fragaria-ananassa-methanolic-extract-on-cadmium-chloride-cdcl2-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#20
Manal F Elkhadragy, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim
This study investigated the protective effect of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. CdCl2 was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 6.5 mg/kg of body weight for 5 d with or without methanol extract of Fragaria ananassa (250 mg/kg). The hepatic cadmium concentration, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione (GSH) content, and antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), GSH peroxidase, and GSH reductase, were estimated...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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