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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

Amr A Fouad, Marwa M M Refaie, Manal I Abdelghany
Cisplatin (CP) and doxorubicin (DX) can cause testicular injury by inducing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, Naringenin (NG) has antioxidant, antinitrative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This study investigated the potential ability of NG to block gonadotoxicity induced CP and DX in male rats. The rats received one injection of either CP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or DX (15 mg/kg, i,p.), and treated with NG (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 10 days beginning 6 days prior to CP and DX administration...
August 14, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Anouar Abidi, Sana Bahri, Saloua Ben Khamsa, Alexandre Legrand
We aimed to investigate in the present work, using metabonomics approaches, the scalability of lung fibrosis-biomarkers, in bleomycin (BLM) model of pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Sixty male wistar rats, weighing 250±10 g, were randomly divided into three groups: a negative control group receiving normal saline treatment (G1 ), an intratracheal BLM instilled group (G2 ) and an aerosol BLM instilled group (G3 ). Rats were investigated at various times after BLM instillation. Metabolic changes observed in different biofluids have been integrated into the results of the histological examination (increase in inflammation, fibrosis score and TGF-β immunosatining) which provide a novel pathway of biomarkers in pulmonary fibrosis...
August 14, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Nadja Grobe, Latha Narayanan, Dominique N Brown, Sarah T Law, Isaie Sibomana, Pavel Shiyanov, Nicholas V Reo, C Eric Hack, Teresa R Sterner, David R Mattie
Environments combining JP-8 jet fuel exposure with heightened ambient noise may accelerate hearing loss induced by noise. To reduce animal use and facilitate kinetic modeling of this military aviation fuel, tissue-specific parameters are required, including water, protein and lipid content. However, tissues involved in hearing, including cochlea, brainstem, frontal and temporal lobe, have not been characterized before. Therefore, water content was determined by lyophilization of rat auditory tissues and the protein of the freeze dried remainder was quantified using a bicinchoninic acid assay...
August 7, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Hela Chalouati, Mohamed Moncef Ben Sâad, Laurence Payrastre
The protective effects of α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) on liver injury induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were investigated in adult male rats of Wistar strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of eight rats each. Group 1 and 2 have received HCB, dissolved in olive oil, at a dose of 4 mg or 16 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were treated by the same doses of HCB (4 mg and 16 mg/kg b.w) after 1h of pretreatment with α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 b.w. The other two groups served as controls; which received either olive oil only, a solvent of HCB, or α-tocopherol...
July 31, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Stuart J Knight, Alexander D Smith, Tricia E Wright, Abby C Collier
In pregnancy, opioids may be used medically and also misused. We hypothesized that the umbilical cord (UC) could be a good screening tool for determining opioid exposure and improving medical care. One hundred and one UC, each with 50 associated ICD9/ICD10 codes were used. Using predictive pharmacokinetic analysis we determined that opioids could be detected since last ingestion prior to birth. The UC were lysed and screened using ELISA detecting multiple opioids and their metabolites. Statistical comparisons to obstetric and neonatal outcomes were performed...
July 31, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Andrey A Toropov, Alla P Toropova
The CORAL software is a tool to build up quantitative structure - property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs). The project of updated version of the CORAL software is discussed in terms of practical applications for building up various models. The updating is the possibility to improve the predictive potential of models using the so-called Index of Ideality of Correlation (IIC) as a criterion of the predictive potential for QSPR/QSAR models. Efficacy of the IIC is examined with three examples of building up QSARs: (i) models for anticancer activity; (ii) models for mutagenicity; and (iii) models for toxicity of psychotropic drugs...
July 31, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Yamina Kadri, Riadh Nciri, Sana Bardaa, Noura Brahmi, Saidi Saber, Abdel Halim Harrath, Waleed Aldahmash, Saleh Alwasel, Mohamed Mohany, Abdelfatteh El Feki, Mohamed Salah Allagui
Previous studies have brought to light the toxic effect of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ) but very little is known about the oxidative brain injury caused by this metal. Medical plants have a well-recognized role in the management of damage caused by pollutants such as CeCl3 . Syzygium aromaticum, a potent natural source of bioactive compounds and rich in secondary metabolites, has a broad range of biological functions. The aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract (ESA) to improve the adverse effects of CeCl3 in the brain tissue...
July 31, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Evangelia Flampouri, Dimitra Theodosi-Palimeri, Spyridon Kintzios
In this paper we report the effects of the complex III inhibitor, strobilurin fungicide kresoxim-methyl, on the cellular homeostasis of a mammalian cancerous neural cell line. We examined whether exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of kresoxim-methyl induce cellular and biochemical mechanisms of toxicity on the murine neuroblastoma N2a cells. Results revealed elevation of mitochondrial superoxide generation, decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, losses on GPx enzyme activity, along with increased nitrite release...
July 31, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Uma Saminathan, Pachiyappan Pugalendhi, Suganthi Subramaniyan, Rajendran Jayaganesh
The present study was aimed to investigate the dose dependent chemopreventive activity of brucine against 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in rats. The mammary tumor was induced by a single dose of DMBA (25 mg/rat) injected subcutaneously near the mammary gland. We observed reduced body weight and increased in tumor incidence the total number of tumors and tumor volume in DMBA alone injected rats and also observed decreased antioxidant status (SOD, CAT, GPX, and GSH) and increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS and LOOH) in plasma and mammary tissues...
July 20, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Saba Khanam, Falaq Naz, Fahad Ali, Smita Jyoti, Ambreen Fatima, Wasi Khan, Braj Raj Singh, A H Naqvi, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is common neurodenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the mid brain. Dopamine agonists help PD patients by reversing the dopamine depletion and related motor deficits. Cabergoline, a potent ergot dopamine agonist was given in the form of cabergoline alginate nanocomposite (CANC) to the Parkinson's disease (PD) model flies to study its effects on climbing ability, activity pattern, life span, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, dopamine content, protein carbonyl content (PCC), mean gray scale values, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities...
July 18, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Rikin D Patel, Sivakumar Prasanth Kumar, Himanshu A Pandya, Hitesh A Solanki
Structure-based models to understand the transport of small molecules through biological membrane can be developed by enumerating intermolecular interactions of the small molecule with a biological membrane, usually a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) monolayer. This ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) property based on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line demonstrates intestinal drug absorption of small molecules and correlated to human intestinal absorption which acts as a determining factor to forecast small molecule prioritization in drug discovery projects...
July 12, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Abdulaziz M S Alsaad
Dasatinib is a new selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets certain kinases involved in cellular growth and development. This drug belongs to a novel anticancer therapy aiming to increase the survival in patients with imatinib-resistant mutations. However, the dasatinib toxicity was reported as a side effect leading to arrhythmias and/or heart failure. Here, we investigated the possibility of dasatinib-induced toxicity in rat cardiomyocyte H9C2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate the ability of dasatinib to induce expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and cardiac hypertrophy markers (BNP, β-MHC) genes in H9C2 cells...
July 5, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Farzaneh Dehghani, Hamideh Aboutalebi, Tahereh Esmaeilpour, Mohammad Reza Panjeh Shahin, Hossein Bordbar
BACKGROUND: Ovarian failure is diagnosed by ovarian destruction and reducing sex hormonal levels. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains several growth factors that induce tissue repair and may induce folliculogenesis. OBJECTIVE(S): This study evaluates the effect of PRP on ovarian structures and function in Cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced ovarian failure in female rats by a stereological method. METHODS: Thirty-two adult female rats were divided into 4 groups (Control, Cy, Cy+ PRP, and PRP)...
July 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Simona Latronico, Maria Elena Giordano, Emanuela Urso, Maria Giulia Lionetto, Trifone Schettino
Tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is one of the most diffused phosphorus flame retardants in the environment and is highly persistent and abundant in residential dust samples. To date the cellular targets and mechanisms underlying its toxic effects are not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the effects of TDCPP on ion transport mechanisms fundamental for the cellular ionic homeostasis, such as Na+ -K+ -ATPase and Cl- transport. HeLa cells were used as experimental model. TDCPP showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability in cells exposed for 24 h as assessed by MTT test (IC50  = 52...
June 26, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
M Carreón-Garcidueñas, D Godínez-Hernández, N Alvarado-Gómez, L F Ortega-Varela, C Cervantes-Durán, M Y Gauthereau-Torres
Inhaling solvents can lead to occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden sniffing death. Mechanisms related to this phenomenon are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute toluene exposure on heart reactivity to epinephrine and the participation of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. We found that acute toluene exposure increased perfusion pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, and heart rate. These actions were inhibited by lidocaine and nifedipine...
June 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Shikha Sharma, Shahzad Ahmad, Mohemmed Faraz Khan, Suhel Parvez, Sheikh Raisuddin
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is known for endocrine disrupting activity. In order to replace BPA a number of bisphenol analogues have been designed. However, their activity profile is poorly described and little information exists about their endocrine disrupting potential and interactions with nuclear receptors. An understanding of such interaction may unravel mechanism of their molecular action and provide valuable inputs for risk assessment. BPA binds and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) which act as transcription factors and regulate genes involved in glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism and adipogenesis...
June 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Hadi Poorbagher, Hamed Ghaffari Farsani, Hamid Farahmand
DNA breakage has been frequently used as a biomarker of the pesticide toxicity. The present study introduced a method to quantify the DNA breakage in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to the pesticide malathion. Specimens were exposed to different concentrations of malathion for 1-9 days and their gill and liver were sampled. DNA was extracted and electrophoresed using agarose gel. The pixel density curves were obtained from the gel smears. The area under the curves was arbitrarily divided from three up to seven segments using a Java macro in the software ImageJ...
June 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Hongying Liang, Tong He, Jimin Long, Liangliang Liu, Guochao Liao, Yanhuai Ding, Yi Cao
When entering a biological environment, proteins could be adsorbed onto nanoparticles (NPs), which can potentially influence the toxicity of NPs. This study used bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model for serum protein and investigated its interactions with three different types of ZnO NPs, coded as XFI06 (pristine NPs of 20 nm), NM110 (pristine NPs of 100 nm) and NM111 (hydrophobic NPs of 130 nm). Atomic force microscope indicated the adsorption of BSA to ZnO NPs, leading to the increase of NP diameters...
June 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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June 20, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Olorunfemi Raphael Molehin, Omotade Ibidun Oloyede, Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha
White Butterfly (Clerodendrum volubile) leaf is commonly used in traditional medicine for the management of various diseases including diabetes without the full understanding of the scientific basis for its use. This study sought to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effect of C. volubile leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of C. volubile was prepared and its effect assessed on relevant enzymes associated with diabetes. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly separated into 10 groups each containing five rats...
June 20, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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