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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421951/developmental-toxicity-of-deltamethrin-and-3-phenoxybenzoic-acid-in-embryo-larval-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Kuder Reshma Shabnam, Gundala Harold Philip
Synthetic pyrethroids (SP's) are the major insecticides used widely in agriculture and household pest control. Deltamethrin (DM), a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid (PBA) is the major metabolite formed due to metabolism of DM. In order to illustrate the toxic response of zebrafish embryos/larvae to DM and PBA the present research was carried out. For this 4hpf embryos were treated with two concentrations of DM (100 and 200μg/L) for 48hrs and PBA (1000 and 2000μg/L) for 96 hrs or 99...
February 8, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297235/l-ascorbic-acid-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-attenuate-arsenic-trioxide-induced-toxicity-in-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-by-the-activation-of-nrf2-and-bcl2-transcription-factors
#2
Radhakrishnan Chandraprabha Vineetha, Prakash Binu, Pettamanna Arathi, Raveendran Harikumaran Nair
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a potent drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has achieved remarkable remissions in patients. Unfortunately, clinical reports have shown that the treatment is associated with cardiotoxicity. Many efforts have been made to mitigate drug-mediated cardiac damage using naturally occurring antioxidant compounds possessing free radical scavenging activity. The present investigation aims to explore protective role of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and α-tocopherol (α-TOC) from As2O3-induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes through the evaluation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) transcription factors...
January 18, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338525/pyocyanin-induces-systemic-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-behavioral-changes-in-vivo
#3
Devinder Arora, Susan Hall, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Rachel Morrison, Amelia McFarland, Anthony V Perkins, Andrew K Davey, Gary D Grant
Pyocyanin (PCN) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) that has been shown to have numerous toxic effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Such toxicities include pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediated responses. It is hypothesized that PCN can cross biological membranes and reach the systemic circulation but no previous studies have investigated this. The aim of this study was, therefore, to quantify PCN in plasma and assess if systemic responses were occurring after localized intranasal administration in C57BL/6J mice...
January 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327633/biochemical-basis-for-the-age-related-sensitivity-of-broilers-to-aflatoxin-b1
#4
He Wang, Wei Li, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiaoqi Sun, Xiaoxu Cui, Ping Cheng, Qayum Abdul, Xiuying Zhang
In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying age-related susceptibility in broilers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The results showed that AFB1 induced significant changes in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity & liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity at day 7, 21 and 42 relative to control group. However, AFB1-induced changes in serum biochemical parameters and liver antioxidant activities becomes less severe with increasing age of broilers...
January 12, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297242/recent-advances-in-three-dimensional-cell-culturing-to-assess-liver-function-and-dysfunction-from-a-drug-biotransformation-and-toxicity-perspective
#5
Carlemi Calitz, Josias H Hamman, Stephen J Fey, Krzysztof Wrzesinski, Chrisna Gouws
The liver is a vital organ fulfilling a central role in over 500 major metabolic functions, including serving as the most essential site for drug biotransformation. Dysfunction of the drug biotransformation processes may result in the exposure of the liver (and other organs) to hepatotoxins, potentially interacting with cellular constituents and causing toxicity and various lesions. Hepatotoxicity can be investigated on a tissue, cellular and molecular level by employing various in vivo and in vitro techniques, including novel three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing methods...
January 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297239/correction-to-singh-sinha-and-sinnollareddy-role-of-apoptosis-in-mediating-salicylic-acid-induced-teratogenesis-in-vitro
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281931/mutagenicity-anticancer-activity-and-blood-brain-barrier-similarity-and-dissimilarity-of-molecular-alerts
#7
Andrey A Toropov, Alla P Toropova, Emilio Benfenati, Mario Salmona
The aim of the present work is an attempt to define computable measure of similarity between different endpoints. The similarity of structural alerts of different biochemical endpoints can be used to solve tasks of medicinal chemistry. Optimal descriptors are a tool to build up models for different endpoints. The optimal descriptor is calculated with simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES). A group of elements (single symbol or pair of symbols) can represent any SMILES. Each element of SMILES can be represented by so-called correlation weight i...
December 27, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254411/reproductive-toxicity-of-melamine-against-male-mice-and-the-related-mechanism
#8
Jian Huang, Guozhen Yang, Fengqiong Xia, Shu Zhang
Melamine is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic organic compound with a triazine skeleton, which has been widely applied in industrial and chemical fields. Previous toxicity studies of melamine mainly focused on renal toxicity and hepatic pathological changes, but its toxicity against the reproductive system has seldom been assessed. We investigated the effects of melamine on the reproductive system of male mice. Forty healthy male Kunming mice were randomly divided into a normal saline negative control group, a low-dose melamine group, a medium-dose melamine group and a high-dose melamine group (n = 10)...
December 18, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228856/uncovering-the-proteome-response-of-murine-neuroblastoma-cells-against-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin
#9
Xiao Chen, Ye Sun, Haiyan Huang, Wei Liu, Panpan Hu, Xinfeng Huang, Fei Zou, Jianjun Liu
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton causes paralytic shellfish poisoning syndrome. The toxicity and mode of action of the acute exposure of high-dose saxitoxin have been intensively studied for decades; however, the potential risk of exposure of low-dose saxitoxin remained to be uncovered. Here we present a proteomics study of murine neuroblastoma N2A cell with low-dose saxitoxin exposure (1 nM and 10 nM, 24-h intoxication). Differential proteins were profiled by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
December 11, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161937/the-interplay-between-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-and-bmp-smad-signaling-pathways-in-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-a549-cells-induced-by-silica
#10
Yanhua Yu, Yanming Lin, Gengxia Yang, Lin Tian
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype transdifferentiation of epithelial into mesenchymal cells and contributes to pulmonary fibrotic disease. SMAD-dependent pathway has been reported to play a key role in the multiple fibrotic diseases. We hypothesized that TGF-β/SMAD signaling could cross-interact with BMP/SMAD signaling pathways in silica-induced EMT in A549 cells. We investigated that the ability of silica-induced EMT in A549 cells, and this process was significantly inhibited by SB431542 through up-regulation of Vimentin, α-SMA and collagen type I expression and down-regulation of E-cadherin expression...
December 7, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210319/carcinogenicity-of-ethylene-oxide-key-findings-and-scientific-issues
#11
Jennifer Jinot, Jason M Fritz, Suryanarayana V Vulimiri, Nagalakshmi Keshava
In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed an evaluation of the inhalation carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide (EtO) in December 2016. This article reviews key findings and scientific issues regarding the carcinogenicity of EtO in EPA's Carcinogenicity Assessment. EPA's assessment critically reviewed and characterized epidemiologic, laboratory animal, and mechanistic studies pertaining to the human carcinogenicity of EtO, and addressed some key scientific issues such as the analysis of mechanistic data as part of the cancer hazard evaluation and to inform the quantitative risk assessment...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185389/n-acetyl-l-tryptophan-a-substance-p-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-aluminum-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-rats
#12
Joylee Fernandes, Jayesh Mudgal, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Devinder Arora, Sanchari Basu Mallik, K S R Pai, Madhavan Nampoothiri
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Neurokinin substance P, is a key mediator which modulates neuroinflammation through neurokinin receptor. Involvement of substance P in Alzheimer's disease is still plausible and various controversies exist in this hypothesis. Preventing the deleterious effects of substance P using N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance P antagonist could be a promising therapeutic strategy. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan on aluminum induced spatial memory alterations in rats...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185369/cellular-effects-of-thirdhand-tobacco-smoke-from-smokers-homes
#13
Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Rafael Linden, Ana Luiza Ziulkoski, Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas
After the cigarette is extinguished, many toxic compounds remain in the environment and accumulate in the air or on surfaces. This exposure is termed Thirdhand Smoke (THS) and its risks are poorly known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cellular effects of THS from smokers' homes. Papers were placed in nine smoker's home and three nonsmoker's homes. An area equivalent to the paper size was cleaned with a cotton wipe. A549, Hep-2, and 3T3 cells were exposed to THS for 24 hours and cellular functions were assessed by MTT, Neutral Red reuptake (NR) and Trypan blue exclusion assays...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182074/enclosure-design-for-flock-level-chronic-exposure-of-birds-to-air-contaminant-mixtures
#14
Michelle A North, David W Kinniburgh, Judit E G Smits
The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for five hours per day, six days per week for four weeks...
November 28, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179619/urban-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-exposure-destroys-blood-testis-barrier-btb-integrity-through-excessive-ros-mediated-autophagy
#15
Yi Wei, Xi-Ning Cao, Xiang-Liang Tang, Lian-Ju Shen, Tao Lin, Da-Wei He, Sheng-de Wu, Guang-Hui Wei
BACKGROUND: Blood-testis barrier (BTB), constituted by tight junctions, adherens junctions and gap junctions, is important for spermatogenesis. PM2.5, is known to impair testicular functions and reproduction. However, its effects on BTB and the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS: In this study, we constructed a rat model to investigate the roles of autophagy in BTB toxicity induced by PM2.5. Sprague-Dawley rats were developmentally exposed to normal saline (NS) or PM2...
November 27, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117755/contribution-of-oxidative-stress-in-acute-intestinal-mucositis-induced-by-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-and-its-pro-drug-capecitabine-in-rats
#16
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was designed to examine the contribution of oxidative stress in gastrointestinal disorders after an intraperitoneal administration of 5 fluorouracil (5-FU; 100 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)) and capecitabine oral administration (500 mg/kg b.w.). The animals were divided into three groups: Group A (NaCl,10 ml/kg of b.w.) considered as control group, group B was intoxicated by 5-FU and group C was the group of animals treated with capecitabine (CAP). To evaluate the secretory and enteropooling effects, we used magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), 1 ml/100 g of b...
November 24, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160133/inhibition-of-metastasis-and-angiogenesis-in-hep-2-cells-by-wheatgrass-extract-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approach
#17
Garima Shakya, Sangeetha Balasubramanian, Muddasarul Hoda, Rukkumani Rajagopalan
Metastasis is the major hindrance in the treatment of all cancers, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Intensive researches are under way to identify the effective natural polyphenols with anti-metastatic ability for cancer treatment. Wheatgrass, an herbal plant has been reported to show anticancer effects. Hence, in this study, we aimed to analyze the anti-metastatic effect of methanol extract of wheatgrass (MEWG). The levels of metastatic marker proteins were determined by western blot. PI3K and AKT levels were determined by real time (RT)-PCR analysis...
November 21, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129129/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-furia-%C3%A2-180-sc-zeta-cypermethrin-and-bulldock-125%C3%A2-sc-%C3%AE-cyfluthrin-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#18
María Elena Calderón-Segura, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Josefina Cortés-Eslava, Carmen Martínez-Valenzuela, Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Magdiel Sosa-López, Diana Flores-Ramírez, Zaira Edtih Romero-Velázquez
In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 μg/mL Furia ®180 SC (zeta-cypermethrin) and 0, 6.3, 12.5, 18.8, 25, and 31.3 μg/mL Bulldock ®125 SC (β-cyfluthrin). Exposure to 32 µg/mL bleomycin for 24 h served as a positive control. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of each insecticide were analyzed using alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated through three genotoxicity parameters: tail length (TL), tail moment (TM) and tail intensity (TI)...
November 12, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117763/pilose-antler-peptide-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-injury
#19
Lixin Xu, Lijun Yan, Weiwei Tao
This study was performed to investigate the action of pilose antler peptide (PAP) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: control group, Model group receiving high-fat diet (HFD) group, Atorvastatin group receiving high-fat diet (HFD) + Atorvastatin (20 mg/kg), PAP-L group receiving HFD +PAP (50 mg/kg), PAP-H group receiving HFD+ DB (100 mg/kg). PAP administration significantly reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), with improvement in liver histopathological examination...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105552/effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-on-apoptosis-and-heat-shock-protein-hsp70-expression-in-adult-rat-testis
#20
Fahimeh Mobaraki, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam, Alireza Fazel, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) on apoptosis and heat shock protein expression in adult rat testis. METHODS: Twenty male rats were divided into four groups, two experimental groups (1 and 2), sham control and control. For 16 consecutive days, the experimental groups 1 and 2 were received 5 and 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ecstasy, respectively, and in the sham control group, the only saline was injected...
November 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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