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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

Sanjiv Singh
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the most commonly used nanoparticles among different nanoparticles. Its applications ranged from personal care products, sensors, antibacterial creams and biomedical applications. The broad range of applications raises concern in regards to their potential toxicity. Therefore it is required to understand their toxicity mechanism and pattern on various levels. The primary aim of this review is to summarize the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in various kinds of cells in vitro and in vivo...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Mohita Sharma, Ramanpreet Kaur, Kuldeep Kaushik, Naveen Kaushal
Ulcerative colitis (UC), a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is an immune-modulated disorder characterized by chronic and recurring inflammatory episodes. Oxidative stress and COX pathway of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis is indispensable to pathogenesis of UC. Any imbalance between PGs can compromise the mucosal homeostasis, leading to mucosal damage and chronic inflammation. However, blocking these PGs using classical Cox inhibitors such as Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can instead aggravate signs of IBD...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Atsushi Kawase, Ayaka Kaneto, Mao Ishibashi, Akihiro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Shimada, Masahiro Iwaki
Direct hepatotoxic effects of drugs can occur when a parent drug and/or its reactive metabolites induces the formation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive metabolites of diclofenac (DIC) such as DIC acyl-β-D-glucuronide (DIC-AG) bind covalently to proteins, potentially decreasing protein function or inducing an immune response. However, it is unclear whether the macrophages and GSH depletion participate in DIC-induced cytotoxicity. Mouse hepatocytes (Hep) co-cultured with peritoneal macrophages (PM) were used to clarify the effects of presence of PM with GSH depletion on DIC-induced cytotoxicity in Hep...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Barkha Shakya, Sonam Shakya, Yasir Hasan Siddique
In the present study geraniol at the final concentration of 10, 20, 30, and 40 µM was mixed in the diet along with 80 µM of arecoline and the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9 were allowed to feed on it for 24 hrs. After the exposure of 24 hrs the larvae were subjected to ONPG, X-gal, trypan blue exclusion test, oxidative stress markers and apoptotic and comet assays. The exposure of larvae to geraniol showed a dose dependent decrease in the activity of β-galactosidase, tissue damage and oxidative stress markers...
November 28, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Tajamul Hussain, Salman Alamery, Dikshit Gambhir, Arif A Mohammed, Shaik M Naushad, Salman Alrokayan
Incense smoke is reported to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in exposed individuals. However, the mechanism underlying the toxic effect of incense smoke on cardiovascular system is unclear. To test this, we chronically exposed male albino rats to two different types of Arabian incense smoke and studied their effects on oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function. Rats exposed to either of incense smoke showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH)...
November 27, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Onur Gökhan Yildirim, Esra Sumlu, Esra Aslan, H Buğra Koca, M Bilgehan Pektas, Gökhan Sadi, Fatma Akar
The increased consumption of high-fructose in diet may contribute to high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the world. The influence of high-fructose diet on male reproductive system has been poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary high-fructose on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in association with certain testicular proteins and sex hormones in the testis of rats. Fructose was given to the rats as 20% solution (7.8 mg/kg) in drinking water for 15 weeks. Dietary high-fructose caused testicular degeneration, also decreased testicular concentration of testosterone and right testis absolute weight...
November 27, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Asma Sultana Shaik, Abjal Pasha Shaik, Achraf Al Faraj, Vamsi K Bammidi
The current study evaluated in vitro and in vivo toxicity of carboxyl or amine PEG surface functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Assessments of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and oxidative stress were performed in vitro and in vivo (in a one-month follow-up study). The SWCNT biodistribution was investigated using noninvasive MRI. Results confirmed the enhanced biocompatibility of PEG-functionalized SWCNTs compared to non-functionalized materials with significant decreases (p < 0...
November 27, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Mengdie Jiang, Bihan Wu, Yongbing Sun, Yanhuai Ding, Yixi Xie, Liangliang Liu, Yi Cao
In a biological microenvironment, free fatty acids (FFA) as ubiquitous biological molecules might interact with nanoparticles (NPs) and consequently change the toxicological responses. However, whether the chemical structures of FFA could influence their interactios with NPs remains unknown. This study investigated the interactions between ZnO NPs and saturated or unsaturated FFA (complexed to BSA), namely stearic acid (SA, C18:0), oleic acid (OA, C18:1), and α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3). It was shown that BSA, SA, OA and ALA increased the atomic force microscope (AFM) heights as well the the polydispersity index (PDI) of ZnO NPs...
November 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Ponnulakshmi R, Shyamaladevi B, Vijayalakshmi P, Selvaraj J
Adipose tissue is the primary site of storage for excess energy as triglyceride and it helps in synthesizing a number of biologically active compounds that regulate metabolic homeostasis. Consumption of high dietary fat increases stored fat mass and is considered as a main risk factor for metabolic diseases. Beta-sitosterol (β-sitosterol) is a plant sterol. It has the similar chemical structure like cholesterol. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that β-sitosterol has anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic and hepatoprotective role...
November 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Biao Zhang, Shuangshuang Li, Jinlong Men, Cheng Peng, Hua Shao, Zhihu Zhang
Crotonaldehyde is a ubiquitous hazardous pollutant, present in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust and is endogenously generated by lipid peroxidation. Most of the current studies focus on its lung toxicity. However, there have been few investigations on the cardiac and renal toxicity caused by crotonaldehyde exposure. We hypothesized that oral intake of crotonaldehyde can cause inflammatory and oxidative/nitrosative damage to the heart and kidneys. Therefore, we treated male rats with crotonaldehyde by gavage at 0, 2...
November 14, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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November 9, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Jue-Long Wang, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Cherng-Jer Wu, Chun-Chi Kuo, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Pochuen Shieh, Chung-Ren Jan
Timolol is a medication used widely to treat glaucoma. Regarding Ca2+ signaling, timolol was shown to modulate Ca2+ -related physiology in various cell types, however, the effect of timolol on Ca2+ homeostasis and cell viability has not been explored in human prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of timolol on intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]i ) and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Timolol at concentrations of 100-1000 μM induced [Ca2+ ]i rises. The Ca2+ signal in Ca2+ -containing medium was reduced by removal of extracellular Ca2+ by approximately 75%...
November 5, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Abdo Mahli, Wolfgang Erwin Thasler, Claus Hellerbrand
CYP2E1 is a mammalian cytochrome P450 enzyme, which oxidizes a structurally diverse class of endogenous and exogenous (xenobiotic) compounds. Best studied is the role of CYP2E1 in phase I metabolism of xenobiotics including alcohol. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and is active in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress in the hepatic tissues. Several studies have shown and discussed the importance of CYP2E1 in the hepatotoxic actions of alcohol. However, the vast majority assessed the CYP2E1 activity only in isolated microsomes...
October 31, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Asghar Ashrafi Hafez, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Bita Mehravi, Khadijeh Ashtari, Enayatollah Seydi, Ahmad Salimi
Today, nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in various fields. Manganese oxide nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention due to many applications. One of the major concerns regarding the widespread use of various NPs is the exposure and accumulation in human organs and finally toxicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria is one of the most important mechanisms of toxicity suggested by published studies induced by other NPs. However, limited studies have been conducted on the mechanism of toxicity of MnO2 -NPs and MnO2 -microparticles (MnO2 -MPs)...
October 24, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Yamina Kadri, Riadh Nciri, Sana Bardaa, Noura Brahmi, Saidi Saber, Abdel Halim Harrath, Waleed Aldahmash, Saleh Alwasel, Mohamed Mohany, Abdelfatteh El Feki, Mohamed Salah Allagui
Previous studies have brought to light the toxic effect of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ) but very little is known about the oxidative brain injury caused by this metal. Medical plants have a well-recognized role in the management of damage caused by pollutants such as CeCl3 . Syzygium aromaticum, a potent natural source of bioactive compounds and rich in secondary metabolites, has a broad range of biological functions. The aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract (ESA) to improve the adverse effects of CeCl3 in the brain tissue...
October 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Kathiroli Sujithra, Srinivasan Subramani, Indumathi Dhananjayan, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
Diabetes is a major non-communicable life threatening chronic and pervasive condition that is consuming the world health in a petrifying rate. The circulatory system is one of the major sources of hyperglycemia induced ROS generation. Historically, garlic has been revered as part of a healthful diet. Organosulfur compounds have been attributed to the medicinal properties and health benefits of garlic. The present study focuses on the ameliorative role of Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in combating diabetic complications in diabetic rats...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Erjie Tian, Wanjun Hu, Yusong Miao, Ishfaq Muhammad, Ling Zhang, Chunli Xia, Liangjun Ding, Qiaomei Zhang, Rui Li, Chunli Chen, Jichang Li
In this study, the preventive effects of NGF against colistin-induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC12 cells have been investigated. Fluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometery and western blotting technique were used. The results showed that large amounts of autophagosomes and apoptotic markers were triggered by colistin. Consistently, a significant increase has been noted at mRNA and protein levels in autophagy and apoptosis related genes. Besides, TEM analysis showed that autophagic vacuoles were obvious at 12 h, while nuclear chromatin condensation and edge accumulation were clearly seen at 24 h in colistin alone group...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Guangyao Huang, Liang Yang, Zhaoyan Zhang, Sijia Ren, Xianglin Tang, Wei Zhou, Yuguang Wang, Zengchun Ma, Shan Gao, Yue Gao
OBJECTIVE: This study focused on determining whether the "Fuzi" (FZ) extracts from different extraction methods are related to pregnane X receptor (PXR) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), and explore the mechanism. METHODS: FZ was extracted under various conditions, and the components were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quad Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining assays were used to measure the cell cytotoxicity of these extracts...
October 10, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Heba M Hafez, Mohamed A Ibrahim, Mervat Z Zedan, Marwa Hassan, Hanaa Hassanein
Cilostazol and verapamil are widely used cardiovascular drugs, explored a beneficial effect on different organs-induced toxicities. We investigated whether the Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid factor 2) and its downstream pathway may be involved in the protective role of these drugs against TAA-induced renal damage. Renal biomarkers (creatinine and urea) and histopathology were observed. Antioxidant and oxidant indicators; superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total nitrite (NO) were also measured...
October 8, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Hela Chalouati, Mohamed Moncef Ben Sâad, Laurence Payrastre
The protective effects of α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) on liver injury induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were investigated in adult male rats of Wistar strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of eight rats each. Group 1 and 2 have received HCB, dissolved in olive oil, at a dose of 4 mg or 16 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Group 3 and 4 were treated by the same doses of HCB (4 mg and 16 mg/kg b.w.) after 1 h of pretreatment with α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 b.w. The other two groups served as controls; which received either olive oil only, a solvent of HCB, or α-tocopherol...
October 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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