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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812438/acute-formaldehyde-exposure-induced-early-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#1
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Ruliu Wu, Meng Ye, Yuqing Zhao, Jun Kang, Ping Ma, Jinquan Li, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Although an association between AD and exposure to air pollutants has been discussed, the effects of pollutants on the functioning of the brain remain unclear. The indoor environment is where exposure to formaldehyde (FA) can occur. Whether exposure to FA contributes to the development of AD needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily to FA (0, 0...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812436/the-mechanism-of-protective-effect-of-crocin-against-liver-mitochondrial-toxicity-caused-by-arsenic-iii
#2
Bahareh Sadat Yousefsani, Jalal Pourahmad, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
In this study, we want to understand whether crocin could prevent mitochondrial damage caused by As III. For this purpose, we determined different mitochondrial toxicity endpoints caused by As III. We evaluated mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity and cytochrome c release. Our results showed that pretreatment with crocin at a concentration of 25 µg/ml significantly (P < 0.001) reduced As III induced mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and mitochondrial swelling...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805483/tet1-mediated-dna-demethylation-involves-in-neuron-damage-induced-by-bilirubin-in-vitro
#3
Panhong Gou, Xiaoling Qi, Rui Yuan, Haojie Li, Xiaoling Gao, Junling Wang, Benzhong Zhang
The aim of this study is to identify the role of Tet1-mediated DNA demethylation in the neurotoxicity caused by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in vitro. Primary neuronal cells after cultured for 72 h were exposed to UCB (0-100 μmol/L) for 24 h. Following exposure to UCB cytotoxicity was determined with the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3 activity in neuron cells were measured with the corresponding assay kits. The expression of Tet1 and Klotho was determined with RT-PCR at mRNA level and western blot at protein level...
August 14, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805101/effect-of-size-and-shape-on-toxicity-of-zinc-oxide-zno-nanomaterials-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#4
Shalini D, Senthilkumar S, Rajaguru P
The multi-industrial applications of zinc oxide nanomaterials (ZnO NMs) lead to increasing exposure to humans. Though the ZnO nanoparticles toxicity had been evaluated previously, toxicity of other forms of ZnO nanomaterials has not been evaluated. In this study, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four different types of ZnO NMs were evaluated using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL). In addition, the effect of anti-oxidants on ZnO NMs induced toxicity was also evaluated. Our results suggest that, size and shape of the nanomaterials have profound effects on their toxicity...
August 13, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774209/analysis-of-cytotoxic-effects-of-nickel-on-human-blood-lymphocytes
#5
Mohammad Hadi Zarei, Seyed Farshad Hosseini Shirazi, Marjan Aghvami, Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad
Nickel compounds possess many applications in different industrial processes. Human beings are exposed to nickel commonly through occupational exposure and food. Although a few studies so far have investigated the effects of nickel compounds on human lymphocytes, the complete mechanism of cytotoxicity of this metal on human lymphocytes is yet to be determined. The intention of this paper was to determine the cytotoxicity mechanism of water soluble NiCl2 towards human lymphocytes using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanisms screening (ACMS) technique...
August 4, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693362/veterinary-utility-of-dried-blood-spots-for-analysis-of-toxic-chlorinated-hydrocarbons
#6
Andreas F Lehner, Margaret Johnson, John Buchweitz
Dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper provide a simple and convenient means of collecting, storing and shipping samples for veterinary diagnostics related to toxin exposures. This paper presents validation data on analysis of DBS for chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, specifically 4,4'-dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT) and its breakdown product 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE), lindane and a representative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener PCB-153. Analysis was by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD)...
July 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722512/in-silico-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-two-novel-oximes-k378-and-k727-in-comparison-to-k27-and-pralidoxime-against-paraoxon-ethyl-intoxication
#7
Maria Chaudhry, Muhammad Qaiser Fatmi, Kamil Musilek, Alamdar Hussain, Kamil Kuca, Georg Petroianu, Huba Kalasz, Syed Muhammad Nurulain
Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a major global health issue; while compounds from this group have been used intensively over the last century, an effective antidote is still lacking. Oxime-type AChE reactivators are used to reactivate the OP inhibited AChE. Pralidoxime is the only US Food and Drug Administration, (FDA) approved oxime for therapeutic use but its efficacy has been disappointing. Two novel oximes (K378 and K727) were investigated in silico and in vitro and compared with an experimental oxime (kamiloxime; K-27) and pralidoxime...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721743/responses-of-human-hepatoma-hepg2-cells-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#8
Francisco Filipak Neto, Ludiana Cardoso da Silva, Samuel Liebel, Carmen Lúcia Voigt, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro
The nanotechnology has revolutionized the global market with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) occupying a prominent position due to their remarkable anti-bacterial properties. However, there is no data about the adverse and toxic effects of associations of AgNP and ubiquitous compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In the current study, we investigated the responses of HepG2 cells to realistic concentrations of AgNP (0.09, 0.9 and 9 ng ml(-1)) and mixture of PAH (30 and 300 ng ml(-1)), separately and in association...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715929/molecular-interactions-of-bisphenols-and-analogs-with-glucocorticoid-biosynthetic-pathway-enzymes-an-in-silico-approach
#9
Garima Verma, Mohemmed Faraz Khan, Wasim Akhtar, Mohammad Mumtaz Alam, Mymoona Akhter, Mohammad Shaquiquzzaman
Glucocorticoids are known to have vital effects on metabolism, behavior and immunity. Any sort of impairment in their synthesis may lead to the generation of numerous ill health effects. Different environmental toxicants, including bisphenols and their analogs pose deleterious effect on the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids, thereby leading to endocrine disruption. In order to assess the effect of these environmental toxicants on gluocorticoid biosynthetic pathway, an in silico study was performed. This involved molecular docking studies of 18 ligands with the selected participating enzymes of the pathway...
July 17, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707553/ziram-inhibits-rat-neurosteroidogenic-5%C3%AE-reductase-1-and-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase
#10
Ying Su, Huitao Li, Xiaomin Chen, Yiyan Wang, Xiaoheng Li, Jianliang Sun, Ren-Shan Ge
The neurotoxicity of ziram is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the direct inhibitions of ziram on rat neurosteroid synthetic and metabolizing enzymes, 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C14), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RDH2). Rat SRD5A1, AKR1C14, and RDH2 were cloned and transiently expressed in COS1 cells, and the effects of ziram on these enzymes were measured. Ziram inhibited rat SRD5A1 and AKR1C14 with IC50 values of 1.556 ± 0.078 and 1.017 ± 0.072 μM, respectively, when 1000 nM steroid substrates were used...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592194/2-3-4-4-5-pentachlorobiphenyl-impairs-insulin-induced-no-production-partly-through-excessive-ros-production-in-endothelial-cells
#11
Yang Long, Can Huang, Jian Wu, Jin-Nan Cheng, Guan-Nan Liang, Chun-Xia Jiang, Qin Wan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to be associated with increased risk to hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, etc. 2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl, known as PCB-118, is a member of coplanar PCBs which renders their structure similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and has dioxin-like activity. In our current study, we investigated the effect of PCB-118 exposure on nitric oxide (NO) production and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Exposure of PCB-118 impaired insulin-induced NO production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with no significant effect on cell viability...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701067/metabolomic-approach-to-understand-the-acute-and-chronic-hepatotoxicity-of-veratrum-nigrum-extract-in-mice-based-on-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#12
Ziheng Wei, Qingqing Qian, Xu Dong, Na Li, Guangchun Sun, Songyan Gao, Xin Dong
Veratrum nigrum L. (VN) is a poisonous traditional Chinese Medicine herb with thousands of years in China. Clinical studies have shown that VN has ability to cause hepatotoxicity, which severely limits its clinical use. The mechanism of its hepatotoxicity has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a model of acute and chronic hepatotoxicity induced by Veratrum nigrum L. extract (VNE) to understand the mechanism by the liver tissue metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOFMS)...
July 13, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697680/t-2-toxin-induces-apoptosis-via-the-bax-dependent-caspase-3-activation-in-mouse-primary-leydig-cells
#13
Yong Fa Zhang, Pan Ke Su, Lun Ji Wang, Hui Qi Zheng, Xue Fei Bai, Ping Li, Xiang Ping Meng, Jian Ying Yang
To explore the toxic effect of T-2 toxin on mouse Leydig cells and its underlying molecular mechanisms, we isolated Leydig cells from mature mice, set-up Leydig cells culture, treated cells with T-2 toxin, evaluated cell proliferation, detected the caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial activity and apoptosis rate, and measured the mRNA levels of Bcl-2, Bax, PARP and caspase-3. T-2 toxin inhibited cell proliferation at concentrations higher than 10(-9) M or time more than 12 h, T-2 toxin also decreased Bcl-2 expression at the mRNA levels and mitochondrial activity at concentrations higher than 10(-9) M...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683652/effects-of-barium-graded-doses-on-redox-status-membrane-bound-atpases-and-histomorphological-aspect-of-the-liver-in-adult-rats
#14
Awatef Elwej, Mariem Chaabane, Imen Ghorbel, Sabrine Chelly, Tahia Boudawara, Najiba Zeghal
Nowadays, liver diseases constitute a major health problem in the world. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the hepatotoxicity induced by barium chloride (BaCl2) administered at graded doses in order to evaluate redox state and membrane-bound ATP-ases in the liver of adult rats. Our results showed, after 21 days of treatment with barium at doses 67,150 and 300 ppm, an increase in hepatic biomarkers such as AST, ALT and GGT activities and in bilirubin and albumin levels. A significant increase in MDA, LOOHs, H2O2, AOPP and PCO levels in liver of treated rats with graded doses of BaCl2 was also observed suggesting the implication of oxidative stress with a significant relation between dose and response...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679351/modulatory-effects-of-quercetin-on-liver-histopathological-biochemical-hematological-oxidative-stress-and-dna-alterations-in-rats-exposed-to-graded-doses-of-score-250
#15
Sabrine Kasmi, Intithar Bkhairia, Bahira Harrabi, Hela Mnif, Rim Marrakchi, Hanen Ghozzi, Choumous Kallel, Moncef Nasri, Khaled Zeghal, Kamel Jamoussi, Ahmed Hakim
This study investigated the morphological, biochemical and molecular aspects of liver injury in rats after the exposure to difenoconazole and the protective effects of quercetin against hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by this fungicide. Rats were given graded doses of difenoconazole associated or not to quercetin daily for 20 days. Our results showed a significant increase in PLT (Platelets) and WBC (white blood cells) in rats treated with higher doses of difenoconazole (1/38 and 1/9 of LD50). However, a significant decrease in Hb (Hemoglobin) rate and RBC (Red blood cells) number in rats treated with higher doses of difenoconazole (1/38 and 1/9 of LD50) was obtained...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679314/pre-treatment-of-different-biological-matrices-for-exogenous-testosterone-analysis-a-review
#16
Edna Carolina Pizzato, Marcelo Filonzi, Hemerson Silva da Rosa, André Valle de Bairros
Exogenous testosterone presence has been monitored mainly in urine and blood, however other biological matrices such as hair, nails and saliva samples can be used with successful for in vivo measurement. Chromatographic analysis requires pre-treatment to obtain free testosterone and its metabolites. Among the pre-treatment procedures, digestion, hydrolysis and solvolysis steps are used to reach the analytical purpose. Digestion assay is indicated for hair and nails samples. First, it is recommended decontamination step...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678657/a-significant-mechanism-of-molecular-recognition-between-bioflavonoids-and-p-glycoprotein-leading-to-herb-drug-interactions
#17
Pathomwat Wongrattanakamon, Piyarat Nimmanpipug, Busaban Sirithunyalug, Sunee Chansakaow, Supat Jiranusornkul
Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)'s function may conduct significant changes in the prescription drugs' pharmacokinetic profiles and escalate potential risks in taking place of drug/herb-drug interactions. Computational modelling was advanced to scrutinise some bioflavonoids which play roles in herb-drug interactions as P-gp inhibitors utilising molecular docking and pharmacophore analyses. Twenty-five flavonoids were utilised as ligands for the modelling. The mouse P-gp (code: 4Q9H) was acquired from the PDB...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678591/cypermethrin-inhibits-interleukin-6-induced-androgen-receptor-transactivation-through-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3
#18
Ji-Long Zhou, Zhen Ding, Xing Ge, Qiao-Mei Shi, Heng-Xue Wang, Gang Chen, Meng-Xue Li, Hui Wang, Qiang Ju, Qi Wang, Jin-Peng Zhang, Mei-Rong Zhang, Li-Chun Xu
The insecticide cypermethrin has been considered as an endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with anti-androgenic activity by interfering with interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced ligand-independent AR signaling. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was involved in the antagonism effect of cypermethrin. In this study, the Western blot was to test the level of STAT3 phosphorylation and the mammalian two-hybrid assay was developed to assess the AR-STAT3 interaction...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675979/evaluation-of-consistency-for-multiple-experiments-of-a-single-combination-in-the-time-dependence-mixture-toxicity-assay
#19
D A Dawson, G Pöch
Test-to-test consistency was evaluated for a single binary combination of organic chemicals using an assay that examined toxicity over multiple exposure times. Six experiments were conducted. The toxicity of 3-chloro-2-butanone (3C2B), methyl crotonate (MC) and the mixture (MX) was evaluated in each experiment at 15, 30 and 45-min of exposure using the Microtox(®) system. Concentration-response (x/y) curves were generated via the five-parameter logistic minus one-parameter (5PL-1P) curve-fitting function and used to develop predicted x/y curves for the dose-addition (DA) and independence (I) models of combined effect...
July 4, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675318/immunomodulatory-and-antioxidant-protective-effect-of-sarcocornia-perennis-l-swampfire-in-lead-intoxicated-rat
#20
Manel Gargouri, Houda Hamed, Amel Akrouti, Christian Magné, Riadh Ksouri, Abdelfattah El Feki
Lead (Pb) is a very toxic metal present in the environment, causing disturbances of several functions. Preventive or curative effects of halophytic plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate in vivo immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of Sarcocornia perennis extract (Sp) against lead toxicity in rats. Groups of six animals each were treated with plant extract (via food), 6 g/L lead acetate (via drinking water) or a combination of both...
July 4, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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