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Current Sports Medicine Reports

Jonathan A Drezner, Francis G O'Connor, Kimberly G Harmon, Karl B Fields, Chad A Asplund, Irfan M Asif, David E Price, Robert J Dimeff, David T Bernhardt, William O Roberts
Cardiovascular screening in young athletes is widely recommended and routinely performed prior to participation in competitive sports. While there is general agreement that early detection of cardiac conditions at risk for sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) is an important objective, the optimal strategy for cardiovascular screening in athletes remains an issue of considerable debate. At the center of the controversy is the addition of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to the standard preparticipation evaluation using history and physical examination...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Steven F DeFroda, Charles A Thigpen, Peter K Kriz
Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is the gold standard for analyzing the biomechanics of the baseball pitching motion. Historically, 3D analysis has been available primarily to elite athletes, requiring advanced cameras, and sophisticated facilities with expensive software. The advent of newer technology, and increased affordability of video recording devices, and smartphone/tablet-based applications has led to increased access to this technology for youth/amateur athletes and sports medicine professionals...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Guo-Xin Ni
Studies investigating the effect of running on risk for developing osteoarthritis at weight-bearing joints have reported with conflicting results. Generally, moderate-level running is not likely detrimental to joint health. However, many factors may be associated with the increased risk of developing osteoarthritis in runners. Factors often implicated in the development of osteoarthritis comprise those that increase joint vulnerability and those which increase joint loading. It is therefore suggested that running has different effects on different people...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Aaron Lear, Niraj Patel
The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Martin D Hoffman
This work outlines the etiological factors for exercise-related foot blisters and the pertinent prevention strategies related to these causes. Blisters result from shear forces within the epidermis causing cell necrosis. The extent of skin shear is influenced by friction at the skin and other interfaces, various skin characteristics, bony movement, and the shear modulus of the foot ware. The number of shear cycles is another factor in the development of blisters. Key preventative strategies include limiting the number of shear cycles, avoiding moisture and particulate accumulation next to the skin, frequent use of skin lubricants, elimination of pressure points through proper fitting and broken in shoes and callous removal, use of low shear modulus insoles, and induction of skin adaptations through proper training...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Benjamin L Oshlag, Tracy R Ray
Baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes place their elbows under tremendous stresses, making them vulnerable to a number of unique injuries. Skeletally immature throwers in particular are at a greater risk for growth plate and other bony injuries, due to the relative strengths of these tissues and the kinematics involved in throwing. Care should be taken to fully evaluate these injuries based on the particular history and presentation to properly direct treatment and rehabilitation. Patients, as well as other athletes, coaches, and families, also should be made aware of the significant risk factors for these injuries, especially those regarding pitch limits, proper mechanics, and sufficient rest...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Karl B Fields, Michael D Rigby
Calf pain is a common complaint among runners of all ages but is most frequent in masters athletes. This article focuses on injuries to the triceps surae or true 'calf muscles.' The most common calf injury is a tear of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (Tennis Leg) but other structures including the lateral gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus also may be the cause of muscular pain. This article looks at the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of these injuries. We also highlight some examples of musculoskeletal ultrasound which is a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of the cause and extent of injury...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Dustin C Nabhan, William J Moreau, Shannen C McNamara, Karen K Briggs, Marc J Philippon
Anterior hip pain can be difficult to diagnose due to the many pathologies and overlapping pain patterns that exist in the hip region. Clinical findings of pain at the anterior inferior iliac spine with passive hip flexion, proximal quadriceps pain and weakness, and painful impingement tests of the hip may be indicative of subspine hip impingement. This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of anterior hip pain, including subspine impingement and femoroacetabular impingement in an elite weightlifter...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Christopher A McGrew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
JoAnna M McClelland, Kevin R Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Miranda Naylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Carrie A Jaworski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
E Randy Eichner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Babak Shadgan, Amir Pakravan, Hamid Zaeimkohan, Farhad Moradi Shahpar, Morteza Khodaee
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that is mainly transmitted via a bite from a female mosquito of the Aedes species. However, ZIKV can be transmitted sexually or via blood. Due to the recent ZIKV outbreak in South and Central America, many national and international organizations are concerned about the safety of athletes, coaches, staff, and spectators during the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Infected individuals are generally asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. However, ZIKV infection can potentially cause serious complications such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and congenital defects...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Andrea S Mendoza-Vasconez, Sarah Linke, Mario Muñoz, Dori Pekmezi, Cole Ainsworth, Mayra Cano, Victoria Williams, Bess H Marcus, Britta A Larsen
Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Jonathan N Myers, Holly Fonda
In recent years, a growing body of research has demonstrated that an individual's fitness level is a strong and independent marker of risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In addition, modest improvements in fitness through exercise intervention have been associated with considerable health outcome benefits. These studies have generally assessed fitness as a baseline marker in traditional epidemiological cohorts. However, there has been a recent recognition that fitness powerfully predicts outcomes associated with a wide range of surgical interventions...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Michelle L Segar, Eva Guérin, Edward Phillips, Michelle Fortier
Exercise is Medicine (EIM) and physical activity as a vital sign are based on health-focused research and reflect ideal frames and messages for clinicians. However, they are nonoptimal for patients because they do not address what drives patients' decision-making and motivation. With the growing national emphasis on patient-centered and value-based care, it is the perfect time for EIM to evolve and advance a second-level consumer-oriented exercise prescription and communication strategy. Through research on decision-making, motivation, consumer behavior, and meaningful goal pursuit, this article features six evidence-based issues to help clinicians make physical activity more relevant and compelling for patients to sustain in ways that concurrently support patient-centered care...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Kristen Parker
When a person's kidneys fail, hemodialysis (HD) is the most common treatment modality. With a growing number of patients requiring this life-sustaining treatment, and with evidence illustrating the significant physical dysfunction of this population, encouraging exercise is essential. The use of intradialytic exercise, as a novel and efficient use of time during HD, is well established in Australia and some European nations; however, it is slower to start in North America. While a large number of small studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and safe delivery of intradialytic exercise training for patients with end-stage kidney disease, intradialytic exercise is rarely delivered as standard of care...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Dana M Lis, James W Fell, Kiran D K Ahuja, Cecilia M Kitic, Trent Stellingwerff
Recent explosion in the prevalence of gluten-free athletes, exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims, has led to some professional athletes touting gluten-free diet as the secret to their success. Forty-one percent of athletes report adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is four-fold higher than the population-based clinical requirements. Many nonceliac athletes believe that gluten avoidance improves gastrointestinal well-being, reduces inflammation, and provides an ergogenic edge, despite the fact that limited data yet exist to support any of these benefits...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
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