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Changxing Wang, Chenglong Sun, Zhiying Hu, Xue Huo, Yang Yang, Xuehong Liu, Benson O A Botchway, Henry Davies, Marong Fang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Every year, around the world, between 250000 and 500000 people suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the potential for poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) complex inoculated with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) to treat spinal cord injury in a rat model. METHODS: OECs were identified by immunofluorescence based on the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) p75. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score, together with an inclined plane (IP) test were used to detect functional recovery...
March 30, 2017: Neuro-Signals
Musaab Ahmed, Myriam Fezai, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channels or BK channels) are rapidly activated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. The channels participate in the regulation of diverse functions including neuronal excitation and cell volume. The BK channels may be modified by kinases. Channel regulating kinases include the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase 3 (SGK3). The present study explored whether SGK3 modifies the activity of BK channels. METHODS: cRNA encoding the Ca2+ insensitive BK channel mutant BKM513I+Δ899-903 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SGK3, constitutively active S419DSGK3, or catalytically inactive K191NSGK3...
November 30, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Hohyun Cho, Min-Koo Kang, Sangtae Ahn, Moonyoung Kwon, Kuk-Jin Yoon, Kiwoong Kim, Sung Chan Jun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In exploring human factors, stereoscopic 3D images have been used to investigate the neural responses associated with excessive depth, texture complexity, and other factors. However, the cortical oscillation associated with the complexity of stereoscopic images has been studied rarely. Here, we demonstrated that the oscillatory responses to three differently shaped 3D images (circle, star, and bat) increase as the complexity of the image increases. METHODS: We recorded simultaneous EEG/MEG for three different stimuli...
October 24, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Zijuan Zhang, Meixia Guo, Juan Zhang, Caixia Du, Ying Xing
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin, an adipocytokine produced endogenously in the brain, is decreased in Alzheimer's disease(AD) and has also been shown to reduce Aβ levels in vitro and in vivo. Sets of evidence show that leptin reduces Aβ production and tau phosphorylation in neuronal cells and transgenic mice models of AD. Herein, we investigated the signaling pathway activated by leptin, to better understand its mechanism of action. METHODS: Western blotting was performed to assess the levels of phosphor-tau and Bax, RT-PCR to check the mRNA level of Bax...
October 24, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Meixia Guo, Dongliang Li, Huijun Shen, Baijie Jin, Yankai Ren, Manli Li, Ying Xing
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two major hallmarks: the deposition and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau in intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Sets of evidence show that leptin reduces Aβ production and tau phosphorylation. Herein, we investigated the signaling pathways activated by leptin, to extensively understand its mechanism. METHODS: Western blotting was employed to assess the protein abundance of p-tau and BAX, MTT assay to decipher the cells viability...
September 8, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Rania M Khalil, Naglaa F Khedr
BACKGROUND: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer used in food industries. MSG is well documented to induce neurotoxicity. Curcumin (CUR) reportedly possesses beneficial effects against various neurotoxic insults. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin on MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wister rats were divided into four groups (n=8): Control group, MSG group, CUR group and MSG + CUR group...
August 17, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Anne Gulbins, Heike Grassmé, Richard Hoehn, Marcus Kohnen, Michael J Edwards, Johannes Kornhuber, Erich Gulbins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Major depressive disorder is a severe, common and often chronic disease with a significant mortality due to suicide. The pathogenesis of major depression is still unknown. It is assumed that a reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder. However, the mechanisms that control proliferation of neuronal stem cells in the hippocampus require definition. Here, we investigated the role of Janus-Kinase 3 (Jak-3) for stress-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and the induction of major depression symptoms in mice...
August 3, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Claudia Suenderhauf, Lukas Bereiter, Davide Zanchi, Christoph Beglinger, Stefan Borgwardt, Bettina K Wölnerhanssen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible. METHODS: In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities "bitter" (quinine), "sweet" (glucose), "sour" (citric acid), "salty" (NaCl) and "umami" (monosodium glutamate, MSG) on working memory processing using functional MRI and their effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels...
July 27, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Richard Hoehn, Marlene Monse, Ella Pohl, Sina Wranik, Barbara Wilker, Simone Keitsch, Matthias Soddemann, Johannes Kornhuber, Marcus Kohnen, Michael J Edwards, Heike Grassmé, Erich Gulbins
BACKGROUND: Melatonin has been shown to have antidepressive effects. We tested whether melatonin inhibits the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system and mediates its antidepressive effects via inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase and a reduction of ceramide in the hippocampus. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline and fluoxetine were previously shown to inhibit the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, which mediates neurogenesis and behavioral changes induced by these drugs. METHODS: The effect of melatonin on the activity of the acid sphingomyelinase prior to and after treatment with melatonin was determined in cultured neurons and in vivo in the hippocampus of mice by measuring the consumption of [14C] sphingomyelin...
July 11, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Yaping Zheng, Jin Wang, Deheng Li, Meixia Guo, Minghui Zhen, Quanzhong Chang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), However, the mechanism of how Aβ affects neuronal cell death remains elusive. The balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (e.g., Bcl-2 and Bax) has been known to play a pivotal role in neuronal cell death. Of note, expression levels of these proteins are changed in the neurons in AD. To date no study has elusidated the relationship between Aβ and Bax. METHODS: The present study explored the role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the neurotoxic effect of Aβ25-35...
June 20, 2016: Neuro-Signals
You-Ming Fan, Qing-Yuan Huang, Yin-Ai Wu, Alan R Harvey, Qi Cui, Yu-Qi Gao
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of injured axons in adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is not spontaneous. Nogo is a major inhibitory molecule contributing to axon regeneration failure. The molecular mechanisms of Nogo inhibition of axon regeneration are not completely understood. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we studied the effects of Nogo-p4, a 25-amino acid core inhibitory fragment of Nogo, on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced TrkA signaling. METHODS: NGF-differentiated PC12 cells were used as cell models...
June 13, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Eiji Masaki, Kentaro Mizuta, Norimasa Ohtani, Kanta Kido
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from spinal microglia is crucial for aberrant nociceptive signaling in several pathological pain conditions, including postoperative pain. We assess the contribution of spinal microglial activation and associated BDNF overexpression to the early post-incisional nociceptive threshold. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an intrathecal catheter. A postoperative pain model was established by plantar incision...
March 4, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Sarah Nase, Stephan Köhler, Jacqueline Jennebach, Anne Eckert, Nina Schweinfurth, Jürgen Gallinat, Undine E Lang, Simone Kühn
BACKGROUND: The predictive therapeutic value of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its changes associated with the use of specific antidepressants are still unclear. In this study, we examined BDNF as a peripheral and NAA as a central biomarker over the time course of antidepressant treatment to specify both of their roles in the response to the medication and clinical outcome. METHODS: We examined serum BDNF (ELISA kit) in a sample of 76 (47 female and 29 male) depressed patients in a naturalistic setting...
February 1, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Jamshed Warsi, Abeer Abousaab, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Klotho, a transmembrane protein expressed in chorioid plexus of the brain, kidney, and several other tissues, is required for inhibition of 1,25(OH)2D3 formation by FGF23. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could be cleaved off, thus being released into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. At least in part by exerting β-glucuronidase activity, soluble klotho regulates several ion channels and carriers. Klotho protein deficiency accelerates the appearance of age related disorders including neurodegeneration and muscle wasting and eventually leads to premature death...
2015: Neuro-Signals
Peter L Jernigan, Richard S Hoehn, Heike Grassmé, Michael J Edwards, Christian P Müller, Johannes Kornhuber, Erich Gulbins
Major depression is one of the most common and severe diseases affecting the world's population. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains inadequately defined. Previously, a lack of monoaminergic neurotransmitters was the focus of pathophysiological concepts; however, recent concepts focus on a alteration of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This concept suggests that neurogenesis is decreased in major depression with a rarefication of neuronal networks and a lack of new, immature neurons in the hippocampus, events that may result in the clinical symptoms of major depression...
2015: Neuro-Signals
Heike Grassmé, Peter L Jernigan, Richard S Hoehn, Barbara Wilker, Matthias Soddemann, Michael J Edwards, Christian P Müller, Johannes Kornhuber, Erich Gulbins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Major depressive disorder is a common disease with serious morbidity, including increased risk of death from suicide. Major depressive disorder is treated with antidepressants. However, the molecular targets of antidepressants remained ill-defined and require further elucidation. METHODS: Mice were treated with corticosterone to induce stress, amitriptyline and the p38-kinase (p38K) inhibitor SB239063 or a combination of these drugs. Phosphorylation of p38K in hippocampal neurons was determined by immunostaining with a phospho-specific antibody, neuronal proliferation using BrdU-labelling and behaviour employing a set of behavioural tests...
2015: Neuro-Signals
André Schmidt, Claudia Lenz, Renata Smieskova, Fabienne Harrisberger, Anna Walter, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Andor Simon, Undine E Lang, Philip McGuire, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Stefan J Borgwardt
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown microstructural changes in the brain white matter of at-risk mental state (ARMS) subjects for psychosis and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, only a few studies have been conducted in clinical high-risk samples and findings in both groups are inconsistent, in particular along the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). METHODS: This DTI study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ARMS subjects, untreated and antipsychotic-treated FEP patients and healthy controls (HC) across the whole brain and the SLF...
2015: Neuro-Signals
Bingbing Zhang, Jing Yan, Sebastian Schmidt, Madhuri S Salker, Dorothea Alexander, Michael Föller, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lithium, a widely used drug for the treatment of mood disorders, has previously been shown to stimulate the release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3 formation and mineral metabolism. The cellular mechanisms involved have remained elusive. Lithium has been shown to modify Ca2+ signaling. In a wide variety of cells, Ca2+ entry is accomplished by the pore-forming Ca2+ channel subunit Orai1 and its regulator STIM, which stimulates Orai following Ca2+ depletion of intracellular stores...
2015: Neuro-Signals
Myriam Fezai, Musaab Ahmed, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Bernat Elvira, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Kir2.1 (KCNJ2) channels are expressed in neurons, skeletal muscle and cardiac tissue and maintain the resting membrane potential. The activity of those channels is regulated by diverse signalling molecules. The present study explored whether Kir2.1 channels are sensitive to the transporter and channels regulating kinases SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1), which are in turn regulated by WNK (with-no-K[Lys]) kinases...
2015: Neuro-Signals
Myriam Fezai, Jamshed Warsi, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: The creatine transporter CreaT (SLC6A8), a Na+,Cl- coupled transporter is expressed in diverse tissues including the brain. Genetic defects of SLC6A8 result in mental retardation with seizures. The present study explored the regulation of CreaT by Janus kinase JAK3, which is expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain and participates in the regulation of cell survival and differentiation of neuronal precursor cells. METHODS: CreaT was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with or without wild-type JAK3, constitutively active A568V JAK3 and inactive K851A JAK3...
2015: Neuro-Signals
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