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Neuro-Signals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041008/increase-of-substance-p-concentration-in-saliva-after-pharyngeal-electrical-stimulation-in-severely-dysphagic-stroke-patients-an-indicator-of-decannulation-success
#1
Paul Muhle, Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Stefan Bittner, Tobias Ruck, Inga Claus, Thomas Marian, Jens B Schröder, Jens Minnerup, Tobias Warnecke, Sven G Meuth, Rainer Dziewas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide, likely acting as a neurotransmitter in the pharyngeal mucosa enhancing the swallow and cough reflex. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation (PES) induces a temporary increase of salivary SP levels in healthy adults. Previous evidence suggests that post-stroke dysphagia is related to reduced SP levels. Here, we investigated the effects of PES on SP levels in severely dysphagic stroke patients and a possible link between increase of SP and treatment success...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#2
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977803/stimulation-of-anxiety-like-behavior-via-erk-pathway-by-competitive-serotonin-receptors-2a-and-1a-in-post-traumatic-stress-disordered-mice
#3
Mingjun Xiang, Yuting Jiang, Zhiying Hu, Yang Yang, Benson O A Botchway, Marong Fang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serotonin 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors (5HT2AR, 5HT1AR) have the closest connection to anxiety-like behavior in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the connection between 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors and anxiety-like behavior. METHODS: In the PTSD animal model, mice were exposed to conditioned fear stress coupled with single-prolonged stress (CF+SPS). Post stress infliction and behavioral tests, of which include open field, freezing behavior and elevated plus maze tests were carried out to examine establishment of the proposed model...
October 6, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869943/targeting-the-potassium-channel-kv1-3-kills-glioblastoma-cells
#4
Elisa Venturini, Luigi Leanza, Michele Azzolini, Stephanie Kadow, Andrea Mattarei, Michael Weller, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Michael J Edwards, Mario Zoratti, Cristina Paradisi, Ildikò Szabò, Erich Gulbins, Katrin Anne Becker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers, counting for a high number of the newly diagnosed patients with central nervous system (CNS) cancers in the United States and Europe. Major features of GBM include aggressive and invasive growth as well as a high resistance to treatment. Kv1.3, a potassium channel of the shaker family, is expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of many cancer cells. Inhibition of mitochondrial Kv1.3 was shown to induce apoptosis in several tumor cells at doses that were not lethal for normal cells...
September 1, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#5
Zohreh Hosseinazdeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359049/improved-neural-regeneration-with-olfactory-ensheathing-cell-inoculated-plga-scaffolds-in-spinal-cord-injury-adult-rats
#6
Changxing Wang, Chenglong Sun, Zhiying Hu, Xue Huo, Yang Yang, Xuehong Liu, Benson O A Botchway, Henry Davies, Marong Fang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Every year, around the world, between 250000 and 500000 people suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the potential for poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) complex inoculated with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) to treat spinal cord injury in a rat model. METHODS: OECs were identified by immunofluorescence based on the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) p75. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score, together with an inclined plane (IP) test were used to detect functional recovery...
March 30, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898416/sgk3-sensitivity-of-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channel
#7
Musaab Ahmed, Myriam Fezai, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channels or BK channels) are rapidly activated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. The channels participate in the regulation of diverse functions including neuronal excitation and cell volume. The BK channels may be modified by kinases. Channel regulating kinases include the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase 3 (SGK3). The present study explored whether SGK3 modifies the activity of BK channels. METHODS: cRNA encoding the Ca2+ insensitive BK channel mutant BKM513I+Δ899-903 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SGK3, constitutively active S419DSGK3, or catalytically inactive K191NSGK3...
November 30, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771723/cortical-responses-and-shape-complexity-of-stereoscopic-image-a-simultaneous-eeg-meg-study
#8
Hohyun Cho, Min-Koo Kang, Sangtae Ahn, Moonyoung Kwon, Kuk-Jin Yoon, Kiwoong Kim, Sung Chan Jun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In exploring human factors, stereoscopic 3D images have been used to investigate the neural responses associated with excessive depth, texture complexity, and other factors. However, the cortical oscillation associated with the complexity of stereoscopic images has been studied rarely. Here, we demonstrated that the oscillatory responses to three differently shaped 3D images (circle, star, and bat) increase as the complexity of the image increases. METHODS: We recorded simultaneous EEG/MEG for three different stimuli...
October 24, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771721/leptin-regulates-tau-phosphorylation-through-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-pc12-cells
#9
Zijuan Zhang, Meixia Guo, Juan Zhang, Caixia Du, Ying Xing
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin, an adipocytokine produced endogenously in the brain, is decreased in Alzheimer's disease(AD) and has also been shown to reduce Aβ levels in vitro and in vivo. Sets of evidence show that leptin reduces Aβ production and tau phosphorylation in neuronal cells and transgenic mice models of AD. Herein, we investigated the signaling pathway activated by leptin, to better understand its mechanism of action. METHODS: Western blotting was performed to assess the levels of phosphor-tau and Bax, RT-PCR to check the mRNA level of Bax...
October 24, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603322/leptin-sensitive-jak2-activation-in-the-regulation-of-tau-phosphorylation-in-pc12-cells
#10
Meixia Guo, Dongliang Li, Huijun Shen, Baijie Jin, Yankai Ren, Manli Li, Ying Xing
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two major hallmarks: the deposition and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau in intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Sets of evidence show that leptin reduces Aβ production and tau phosphorylation. Herein, we investigated the signaling pathways activated by leptin, to extensively understand its mechanism. METHODS: Western blotting was employed to assess the protein abundance of p-tau and BAX, MTT assay to decipher the cells viability...
September 8, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529496/curcumin-protects-against-monosodium-glutamate-neurotoxicity-and-decreasing-nmda2b-and-mglur5-expression-in-rat-hippocampus
#11
Rania M Khalil, Naglaa F Khedr
BACKGROUND: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer used in food industries. MSG is well documented to induce neurotoxicity. Curcumin (CUR) reportedly possesses beneficial effects against various neurotoxic insults. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin on MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wister rats were divided into four groups (n=8): Control group, MSG group, CUR group and MSG + CUR group...
August 17, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487096/role-of-janus-kinases-in-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Anne Gulbins, Heike Grassmé, Richard Hoehn, Marcus Kohnen, Michael J Edwards, Johannes Kornhuber, Erich Gulbins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Major depressive disorder is a severe, common and often chronic disease with a significant mortality due to suicide. The pathogenesis of major depression is still unknown. It is assumed that a reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder. However, the mechanisms that control proliferation of neuronal stem cells in the hippocampus require definition. Here, we investigated the role of Janus-Kinase 3 (Jak-3) for stress-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and the induction of major depression symptoms in mice...
August 3, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459713/gut-taste-stimulants-alter-brain-activity-in-areas-related-to-working-memory-a-pilot-study
#13
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Claudia Suenderhauf, Lukas Bereiter, Davide Zanchi, Christoph Beglinger, Stefan Borgwardt, Bettina K Wölnerhanssen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible. METHODS: In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities "bitter" (quinine), "sweet" (glucose), "sour" (citric acid), "salty" (NaCl) and "umami" (monosodium glutamate, MSG) on working memory processing using functional MRI and their effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels...
July 27, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398923/melatonin-acts-as-an-antidepressant-by-inhibition-of-the-acid-sphingomyelinase-ceramide-system
#14
Richard Hoehn, Marlene Monse, Ella Pohl, Sina Wranik, Barbara Wilker, Simone Keitsch, Matthias Soddemann, Johannes Kornhuber, Marcus Kohnen, Michael J Edwards, Heike Grassmé, Erich Gulbins
BACKGROUND: Melatonin has been shown to have antidepressive effects. We tested whether melatonin inhibits the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system and mediates its antidepressive effects via inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase and a reduction of ceramide in the hippocampus. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline and fluoxetine were previously shown to inhibit the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, which mediates neurogenesis and behavioral changes induced by these drugs. METHODS: The effect of melatonin on the activity of the acid sphingomyelinase prior to and after treatment with melatonin was determined in cultured neurons and in vivo in the hippocampus of mice by measuring the consumption of [14C] sphingomyelin...
July 11, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318974/wnt-%C3%A3-catenin-signaling-pathway-against-a%C3%AE-toxicity-in-pc12-cells
#15
Yaping Zheng, Jin Wang, Deheng Li, Meixia Guo, Minghui Zhen, Quanzhong Chang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), However, the mechanism of how Aβ affects neuronal cell death remains elusive. The balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (e.g., Bcl-2 and Bax) has been known to play a pivotal role in neuronal cell death. Of note, expression levels of these proteins are changed in the neurons in AD. To date no study has elusidated the relationship between Aβ and Bax. METHODS: The present study explored the role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the neurotoxic effect of Aβ25-35...
June 20, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300021/nogo-p4-suppresses-trka-signaling-induced-by-low-concentrations-of-nerve-growth-factor-through-ngr1-in-differentiated-pc12-cells
#16
You-Ming Fan, Qing-Yuan Huang, Yin-Ai Wu, Alan R Harvey, Qi Cui, Yu-Qi Gao
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of injured axons in adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is not spontaneous. Nogo is a major inhibitory molecule contributing to axon regeneration failure. The molecular mechanisms of Nogo inhibition of axon regeneration are not completely understood. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we studied the effects of Nogo-p4, a 25-amino acid core inhibitory fragment of Nogo, on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced TrkA signaling. METHODS: NGF-differentiated PC12 cells were used as cell models...
June 13, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939116/early-postoperative-nociceptive-threshold-and-production-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induced-by-plantar-incision-are-not-influenced-with-minocycline-in-a-rat-role-of-spinal-microglia
#17
Eiji Masaki, Kentaro Mizuta, Norimasa Ohtani, Kanta Kido
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from spinal microglia is crucial for aberrant nociceptive signaling in several pathological pain conditions, including postoperative pain. We assess the contribution of spinal microglial activation and associated BDNF overexpression to the early post-incisional nociceptive threshold. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an intrathecal catheter. A postoperative pain model was established by plantar incision...
March 4, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859851/role-of-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-central-n-acetylaspartate-for-clinical-response-under-antidepressive-pharmacotherapy
#18
Sarah Nase, Stephan Köhler, Jacqueline Jennebach, Anne Eckert, Nina Schweinfurth, Jürgen Gallinat, Undine E Lang, Simone Kühn
BACKGROUND: The predictive therapeutic value of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its changes associated with the use of specific antidepressants are still unclear. In this study, we examined BDNF as a peripheral and NAA as a central biomarker over the time course of antidepressant treatment to specify both of their roles in the response to the medication and clinical outcome. METHODS: We examined serum BDNF (ELISA kit) in a sample of 76 (47 female and 29 male) depressed patients in a naturalistic setting...
February 1, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684854/up-regulation-of-excitatory-amino-acid-transporters-eaat1-and-eaat2-by-%C3%A3-klotho
#19
Jamshed Warsi, Abeer Abousaab, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Klotho, a transmembrane protein expressed in chorioid plexus of the brain, kidney, and several other tissues, is required for inhibition of 1,25(OH)2D3 formation by FGF23. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could be cleaved off, thus being released into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. At least in part by exerting β-glucuronidase activity, soluble klotho regulates several ion channels and carriers. Klotho protein deficiency accelerates the appearance of age related disorders including neurodegeneration and muscle wasting and eventually leads to premature death...
2015: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684792/sphingolipids-in-major-depression
#20
REVIEW
Peter L Jernigan, Richard S Hoehn, Heike Grassmé, Michael J Edwards, Christian P Müller, Johannes Kornhuber, Erich Gulbins
Major depression is one of the most common and severe diseases affecting the world's population. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains inadequately defined. Previously, a lack of monoaminergic neurotransmitters was the focus of pathophysiological concepts; however, recent concepts focus on a alteration of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This concept suggests that neurogenesis is decreased in major depression with a rarefication of neuronal networks and a lack of new, immature neurons in the hippocampus, events that may result in the clinical symptoms of major depression...
2015: Neuro-Signals
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