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Neuro-Signals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804114/ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid-inhibits-vibrio-vulnificus-induced-dendritic-cell-apoptosis-by-lowering-ca2-i
#1
Ping Qian, Bo Hu, Yuzhang Zhu, Dongliang Shao, Huaifeng Zhang, Huafei Huang, Lizhong Wang, Ruilin Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) is a Gram-negative marine bacterium that can cause life-threatening primary septicemia, especially in the innate immune system. But how V. vulnificus affects and acts on dendritic cells (DC) is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to investigate [Ca2+]i change and the expression of the mTor-STAT3-Bcl-2 signaling pathway in V. vulnificus B2-induced DC apoptosis, and explore the protective effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) against DC apoptosis in a V...
May 22, 2018: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554653/endomorphin-2-inhibits-the-activity-of-the-spinoparabrachial-projection-neuron-through-presynaptic-mechanisms-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn-in-rats
#2
Jun-Bin Yin, Ya-Cheng Lu, Ban Feng, Zhen-Yu Wu, Ying-Biao Chen, Ting Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Kou, Ming-Ming Zhang, Han Zhang, Jin-Lian Li, Hui Li, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spinal dorsal horn (SDH) is one of the most important regions for analgesia produced by endomorphin-2 (EM2), which has a higher affinity and specificity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) than morphine. Many studies have focused on substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) neurons to elucidate the cellular basis for its antinociceptive effects. However, the complicated types and local circuits of interneurons in the SG make it difficult to understand the real effects of EM2...
March 15, 2018: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490303/brain-beta-catenin-signalling-during-stress-and-depression
#3
Chuin Hau Teo, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar
Beta-catenin is a protein with dual functions in the cell, playing a role in both adhesion between cells as well as gene transcription via the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In the canonical Wnt signalling pathway, beta-catenin again plays multiple roles. In the embryonic stage, the regulation of beta-catenin levels activates genes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation. In an adult organism, beta-catenin continues to regulate the cell cycle - as a result over-expression of beta-catenin may lead to cancer...
February 22, 2018: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421781/the-myth-of-blunted-gamers-no-evidence-for-desensitization-in-empathy-for-pain-after-a-violent-video-game-intervention-in-a-longitudinal-fmri-study-on-non-gamers
#4
Simone Kühn, Dimitrij Kugler, Katharina Schmalen, Markus Weichenberger, Charlotte Witt, Jürgen Gallinat
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is a common concern in the research field and the community that habitual violent video gaming reduces empathy for pain in its players. However, previous fMRI studies have only compared habitual game players against control participants cross-sectionally. However the observed pattern of results may be due to a priori differences in people who become gamers and who not. In order to derive the causal conclusion that violent video game play causes desensitisation, longitudinal studies are needed...
January 31, 2018: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402857/association-between-comt-polymorphism-val158met-and-opioid-consumption-in-patients-with-postoperative-pain-a-meta-analysis
#5
Bo Hu, Xiaomin Zhang, Guangtao Xu, Qinmei Zhang, Ping Qian, Shengbing Liu, Jia Zhu, Ruilin Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several factors influencing postoperative pain and the effect of opioid analgesics have been investigated on an individual level. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met on opioid consumption in postoperative patients. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature up to September 30, 2017, were performed by using PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database...
January 25, 2018: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402815/introducing-a-virtual-lesion-model-of-dysphagia-resulting-from-pharyngeal-sensory-impairment
#6
Paul Muhle, Inga Claus, Thomas Marian, Jens B Schröder, Andreas Wollbrink, Christo Pantev, Tobias Warnecke, Rainer Dziewas, Sonja Suntrup-Krueger
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Performing neurophysiological and functional imaging studies in severely affected patients to investigate novel neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia is difficult. Therefore, basic research needs to be conducted in healthy subjects. Swallowing is a motor function highly dependent on sensory afferent input. Here we propose a virtual peripheral sensory lesion model to mimic pharyngeal sensory impairment, which is known as a major contributor to dysphagia in neurological disease...
January 25, 2018: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268260/decreased-fronto-parietal-and-increased-default-mode-network-activation-is-associated-with-subtle-cognitive-deficits-in-elderly-controls
#7
Davide Zanchi, Marie-Louise Montandon, Indrit Sinanaj, Cristelle Rodriguez, Antoinette Depoorter, Francois R Herrmann, Stefan Borgwardt, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
BACKGROUND: Cognitive functions progressively deteriorate during aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aims at investigating differences in working memory performance as well as functional brain changes during the earliest stages of cognitive decline in health elderly individuals. METHODS: 62 elderly individuals (41 females), including 41 controls (35 females) and 21 middle cognitive impairment subjects (6 females), underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and an fMRI examination in a N-back paradigm contrasting 2-back vs...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179176/neurons-erythrocytes-and-beyond-the-diverse-functions-of-chorein
#8
Florian Lang, Lisann Pelzl, Ludger Schöls, Andreas Hermann, Michael Föller, Tilman E Schäffer, Christos Stournaras
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), a neurodegenerative disease, results from loss-of-function-mutations of the chorein-encoding gene VPS13A. Affected patients suffer from a progressive movement disorder including chorea, parkinsonism, dystonia, tongue protrusion, dysarthria, dysphagia, tongue and lip biting, gait impairment, progressive distal muscle wasting, weakness, epileptic seizures, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Those pathologies may be paralleled by erythrocyte acanthocytosis. Chorein supports activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-p85-subunit with subsequent up-regulation of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) activity, p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) phosphorylation, and activation of several tyrosine kinases...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132133/endomorphins-promising-endogenous-opioid-peptides-for-the-development-of-novel-analgesics
#9
Zheng-Hui Gu, Bo Wang, Zhen-Zhen Kou, Yang Bai, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Hui Li, Yun-Qing Li
Endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are two endogenous ligands that belong to the opioid peptide family and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). The neuroanatomical distribution, ultrastructural features and neural circuitry of EM-containing neuronal structures have been morphologically demonstrated. In addition, the modulation effects of the EMs in different areas reflect their potential endogenous roles in many major physiological processes, including their remarkable roles in the transmission and modulation of noxious information...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131010/blockade-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis-by-inhibition-of-the-acid-sphingomyelinase-ceramide-system
#10
Katrin Anne Becker, Ramona Halmer, Laura Davies, Brian D Henry, Regan Ziobro-Henry, Yann Decker, Yang Liu, Erich Gulbins, Klaus Fassbender, Silke Walter
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe and common autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. Despite the availability of several novel treatment options, the disease is still poorly controlled, since the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS: We tested the role of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system in a model of MS, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice were immunized with myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and the development of the disease was analyzed by histology, immunological tests and clinical assessment in wildtype and acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)-deficient mice...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041008/increase-of-substance-p-concentration-in-saliva-after-pharyngeal-electrical-stimulation-in-severely-dysphagic-stroke-patients-an-indicator-of-decannulation-success
#11
Paul Muhle, Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Stefan Bittner, Tobias Ruck, Inga Claus, Thomas Marian, Jens B Schröder, Jens Minnerup, Tobias Warnecke, Sven G Meuth, Rainer Dziewas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide, likely acting as a neurotransmitter in the pharyngeal mucosa enhancing the swallow and cough reflex. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation (PES) induces a temporary increase of salivary SP levels in healthy adults. Previous evidence suggests that post-stroke dysphagia is related to reduced SP levels. Here, we investigated the effects of PES on SP levels in severely dysphagic stroke patients and a possible link between increase of SP and treatment success...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#12
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977803/stimulation-of-anxiety-like-behavior-via-erk-pathway-by-competitive-serotonin-receptors-2a-and-1a-in-post-traumatic-stress-disordered-mice
#13
Mingjun Xiang, Yuting Jiang, Zhiying Hu, Yang Yang, Benson O A Botchway, Marong Fang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serotonin 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors (5HT2AR, 5HT1AR) have the closest connection to anxiety-like behavior in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the connection between 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors and anxiety-like behavior. METHODS: In the PTSD animal model, mice were exposed to conditioned fear stress coupled with single-prolonged stress (CF+SPS). Post stress infliction and behavioral tests, of which include open field, freezing behavior and elevated plus maze tests were carried out to examine establishment of the proposed model...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869943/targeting-the-potassium-channel-kv1-3-kills-glioblastoma-cells
#14
Elisa Venturini, Luigi Leanza, Michele Azzolini, Stephanie Kadow, Andrea Mattarei, Michael Weller, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Michael J Edwards, Mario Zoratti, Cristina Paradisi, Ildikò Szabò, Erich Gulbins, Katrin Anne Becker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers, counting for a high number of the newly diagnosed patients with central nervous system (CNS) cancers in the United States and Europe. Major features of GBM include aggressive and invasive growth as well as a high resistance to treatment. Kv1.3, a potassium channel of the shaker family, is expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of many cancer cells. Inhibition of mitochondrial Kv1.3 was shown to induce apoptosis in several tumor cells at doses that were not lethal for normal cells...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#15
Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359049/improved-neural-regeneration-with-olfactory-ensheathing-cell-inoculated-plga-scaffolds-in-spinal-cord-injury-adult-rats
#16
Changxing Wang, Chenglong Sun, Zhiying Hu, Xue Huo, Yang Yang, Xuehong Liu, Benson O A Botchway, Henry Davies, Marong Fang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Every year, around the world, between 250000 and 500000 people suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the potential for poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) complex inoculated with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) to treat spinal cord injury in a rat model. METHODS: OECs were identified by immunofluorescence based on the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) p75. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score, together with an inclined plane (IP) test were used to detect functional recovery...
2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898416/sgk3-sensitivity-of-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channel
#17
Musaab Ahmed, Myriam Fezai, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channels or BK channels) are rapidly activated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. The channels participate in the regulation of diverse functions including neuronal excitation and cell volume. The BK channels may be modified by kinases. Channel regulating kinases include the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase 3 (SGK3). The present study explored whether SGK3 modifies the activity of BK channels. METHODS: cRNA encoding the Ca2+ insensitive BK channel mutant BKM513I+Δ899-903 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SGK3, constitutively active S419DSGK3, or catalytically inactive K191NSGK3...
2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771723/cortical-responses-and-shape-complexity-of-stereoscopic-image-a-simultaneous-eeg-meg-study
#18
Hohyun Cho, Min-Koo Kang, Sangtae Ahn, Moonyoung Kwon, Kuk-Jin Yoon, Kiwoong Kim, Sung Chan Jun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In exploring human factors, stereoscopic 3D images have been used to investigate the neural responses associated with excessive depth, texture complexity, and other factors. However, the cortical oscillation associated with the complexity of stereoscopic images has been studied rarely. Here, we demonstrated that the oscillatory responses to three differently shaped 3D images (circle, star, and bat) increase as the complexity of the image increases. METHODS: We recorded simultaneous EEG/MEG for three different stimuli...
2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771721/leptin-regulates-tau-phosphorylation-through-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-pc12-cells
#19
Zijuan Zhang, Meixia Guo, Juan Zhang, Caixia Du, Ying Xing
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin, an adipocytokine produced endogenously in the brain, is decreased in Alzheimer's disease(AD) and has also been shown to reduce Aβ levels in vitro and in vivo. Sets of evidence show that leptin reduces Aβ production and tau phosphorylation in neuronal cells and transgenic mice models of AD. Herein, we investigated the signaling pathway activated by leptin, to better understand its mechanism of action. METHODS: Western blotting was performed to assess the levels of phosphor-tau and Bax, RT-PCR to check the mRNA level of Bax...
2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603322/leptin-sensitive-jak2-activation-in-the-regulation-of-tau-phosphorylation-in-pc12-cells
#20
Meixia Guo, Dongliang Li, Huijun Shen, Baijie Jin, Yankai Ren, Manli Li, Ying Xing
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two major hallmarks: the deposition and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau in intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Sets of evidence show that leptin reduces Aβ production and tau phosphorylation. Herein, we investigated the signaling pathways activated by leptin, to extensively understand its mechanism. METHODS: Western blotting was employed to assess the protein abundance of p-tau and BAX, MTT assay to decipher the cells viability...
2016: Neuro-Signals
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