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Stapp Car Crash Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394446/optimal-specifications-for-the-advanced-pedestrian-legform-impactor
#1
Takahiro Isshiki, Jacobo Antona-Makoshi, Atsuhiro Konosu, Yukou Takahashi
This study addresses the virtual optimization of the technical specifications for a recently developed Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI). The aPLI incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury predictability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. It also incorporates an attached Simplified Upper Body Part (SUBP) that enables the impactor's applicability to evaluate pedestrian's lower limb injury risk also with high-bumper cars. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize both the aPLI's lower limb and SUBP specifications, while imposing a total mass upper limit of 25 kg that complies with international standards for maximum weight lifting allowed for a single operator in the laboratory setting...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394445/association-of-impact-velocity-with-serious-injury-and-fatality-risks-to-cyclists-in-commercial-truck-cyclist-accidents
#2
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-cyclist collision impact velocity and the serious-injury and fatality risks to cyclists, and to investigate the effects of road type and driving scenario on the frequency of cyclist fatalities due to collisions with vehicles. We used micro and macro truck-cyclist collision data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394444/new-reference-pmhs-tests-to-assess-whole-body-pedestrian-impact-using-a-simplified-generic-vehicle-front-end
#3
Eric Song, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Jerome Uriot, Pascal Potier, Denis Dubois, Richard Douard
This study aims to provide a set of reference post-mortem human subject tests which can be used, with easily reproducible test conditions, for developing and/or validating pedestrian dummies and computational human body models against a road vehicle. An adjustable generic buck was first developed to represent vehicle front-ends. It was composed of four components: two steel cylindrical tubes screwed on rigid supports in V-form represent the bumper and spoiler respectively, a quarter of a steel cylindrical tube represents the bonnet leading edge, and a steel plate represents the bonnet...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394443/application-of-extreme-value-theory-to-crash-data-analysis
#4
Lan Xu, Guy Nusholtz
A parametric model obtained by fitting a set of data to a function generally uses a procedure such as maximum likelihood or least squares. In general this will generate the best estimate for the distribution of the data overall but will not necessarily generate a reasonable estimation for the tail of the distribution unless the function fitted resembles the underlying distribution function. A distribution function can represent an estimate that is significantly different from the actual tail data, while the bulk of the data is reasonably represented by the central part of the fitted distribution...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394442/analysis-of-repeatability-and-reproducibility-standards-of-atd-response-for-the-correlation-method
#5
Lan Xu, Guy Nusholtz
Statistical methods, using the entire time-history, can be used to assess the impact response of an ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device) in terms of its repeatability and reproducibility. In general, the methods generate a correlation relationship described as shape, magnitude and phase-difference between two time-histories' in a given set of similar tests: for repeatability the relationship it is for the same ATD, for reproducibility it is for different ATDs of the same design and for biofidelity it is a relationship between ATDs and biomechanical response data from a series of human surrogate impact tests...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394441/biofidelity-evaluation-of-the-thor-and-hybrid-iii-50-th-percentile-male-frontal-impact-anthropomorphic-test-devices
#6
Daniel Parent, Matthew Craig, Kevin Moorhouse
The objective of this study is to present a quantitative comparison of the biofidelity of the THOR and Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATDs. Quantitative biofidelity was assessed using NHTSA's Biofidelity Ranking System in a total of 21 test conditions, including impacts to the head, face, neck, upper thorax, lower oblique thorax, upper abdomen, lower abdomen, femur, knee, lower leg, and whole-body sled tests to evaluate upper body kinematics and thoracic response under frontal and frontal oblique restraint loading...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394440/neck-injury-response-in-high-vertical-accelerations-and-its-algorithmical-formalization-to-mitigate-neck-injuries
#7
Julie Klima, Jian Kang, AnnMarie Meldrum, Steven Pankiewicz
Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) conducted a comprehensive analysis of data collected during the evaluation of head and neck impact during injurious and non-injurious loading. This evaluation included impact velocity, helmet to roof clearance, and neck angle using a fully instrumented Hybrid III head and neck assembly. The results of this effort were compared against post mortem human subject (PMHS) data from similar testing conducted in conjunction with the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) program...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394439/development-of-the-caveman-human-body-model-validation-of-lower-extremity-sub-injurious-response-to-vertical-accelerative-loading
#8
Kent Butz, Chad Spurlock, Rajarshi Roy, Cameron Bell, Paul Barrett, Aaron Ward, Xudong Xiao, Allen Shirley, Colin Welch, Kevin Lister
Improving injury prediction accuracy and fidelity for mounted Warfighters has become an area of focus for the U.S. military in response to improvised explosive device (IED) use in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although the Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has historically been used for crew injury analysis, it is only capable of predicting a few select skeletal injuries. The Computational Anthropomorphic Virtual Experiment Man (CAVEMAN) human body model is being developed to expand the injury analysis capability to both skeletal and soft tissues...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394438/human-foot-ankle-injuries-and-associated-risk-curves-from-under-body-blast-loading-conditions
#9
Sajal Chirvi, Frank Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan, Anjishnu Banerjee, Mike Schlick, William Curry, Liming Voo
Under body blast (UBB) loading to military transport vehicles is known to cause foot-ankle fractures to occupants due to energy transfer from the vehicle floor to the feet of the soldier. The soldier posture, the proximity of the event with respect to the soldier, the personal protective equipment (PPE) and age/sex of the soldier are some variables that can influence injury severity and injury patterns. Recently conducted experiments to simulate the loading environment to the human foot/ankle in UBB events (~5ms rise time) with variables such as posture, age and PPE were used for the current study...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394437/occupant-kinematics-in-simulated-autonomous-driving-vehicle-collisions-influence-of-seating-position-direction-and-angle
#10
Yuichi Kitagawa, Shigeki Hayashi, Katsunori Yamada, Mitsuaki Gotoh
This two-part study analyzed occupant kinematics in simulated collisions of future automated driving vehicles in terms of seating configuration. In part one, a frontal collision was simulated with four occupants with the front seats reversed. The left front seat occupant was unbelted while the others were belted. In part two of the study, occupant restraint was examined in various seating configurations using a single seat model with a three-point seatbelt. The seat direction with respect to impact was considered as forward, rearward, and lateral facing in 45 degree increments...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394436/optimizing-seat-belt-and-airbag-designs-for-rear-seat-occupant-protection-in-frontal-crashes
#11
Jingwen Hu, Matthew P Reed, Jonathan D Rupp, Kurt Fischer, Paul Lange, Angelo Adler
Recent field data have shown that the occupant protection in vehicle rear seats failed to keep pace with advances in the front seats likely due to the lack of advanced safety technologies. The objective of this study was to optimize advanced restraint systems for protecting rear seat occupants with a range of body sizes under different frontal crash pulses. Three series of sled tests (baseline tests, advanced restraint trial tests, and final tests), MADYMO model validations against a subset of the sled tests, and design optimizations using the validated models were conducted to investigate rear seat occupant protection with 4 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) and 2 crash pulses...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394435/strain-rate-dependency-of-axonal-tolerance-for-uniaxial-stretching
#12
Hiromichi Nakadate, Evrim Kurtoglu, Hidenori Furukawa, Shoko Oikawa, Shigeru Aomura, Akira Kakuta, Yasuhiro Matsui
This study aims to clarify the relation between axonal deformation and the onset of axonal injury. Firstly, to examine the influence of strain rate on the threshold for axonal injury, cultured neurons were subjected to 12 types of stretching (strains were 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 and strain rates were 10, 30, 50, and 70 s-1 ). The formation of axonal swellings and bulbs increased significantly at strain rates of 50 and 30 s-1 with strains of 0.15 and 0.20, respectively, even though those formations did not depend on strain rates in cultures exposed to a strain of 0...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394434/human-shoulder-response-to-high-velocity-lateral-impact
#13
Matthieu Lebarbé, Philippe Vezin, Frédéric Rongiéras, Denis Lafont
The armies of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization need a shoulder injury criterion for the EuroSID-2re dummy that must be reliable over a large range of loading conditions, from high velocity, short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) to low velocity long, duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms). In the literature, the human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum as previously mentioned. For the low velocities, the injuries were mainly clavicle fractures and the maximum compression between the acromion and the sternum (Cmax) was proposed as an injury criterion...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394433/biomechanics-of-lumbar-motion-segments-in-dynamic-compression
#14
Mike W J Arun, Prasannaah Hadagali, Klaus Driesslein, William Curry, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar
Recent epidemiology studies have reported increase in lumbar spine injuries in frontal crashes. Whole human body finite element models (FEHBM) are frequently used to delineate mechanisms of such injuries. However, the accuracy of these models in mimicking the response of human spine relies on the characterization data of the spine model. The current study set out to generate characterization data that can be input to FEHBM lumbar spine, to obtain biofidelic responses from the models. Twenty-five lumbar functional spinal units were tested under compressive loading...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871108/biomechanical-and-scaling-basis-for-frontal-and-side-impact-injury-assessment-reference-values
#15
Harold J Mertz, Annette L Irwin, Priya Prasad
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871107/the-large-omnidirectional-child-lodc-atd-biofidelity-comparison-with-the-hybrid-iii-10-year-old
#16
Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Michael Carlson, Yun-Seok Kang
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA's in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871106/thoracic-injury-risk-curves-for-rib-deflections-of-the-sid-iis-build-level-d
#17
Annette L Irwin, Greg Crawford, David Gorman, Sikui Wang, Harold J Mertz
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871105/development-and-full-body-validation-of-a-5th-percentile-female-finite-element-model
#18
Matthew L Davis, Bharath Koya, Jeremy M Schap, F Scott Gayzik
To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871104/development-evaluation-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-parametric-finite-element-whole-body-human-models-in-side-impacts
#19
Eunjoo Hwang, Jingwen Hu, Cong Chen, Katelyn F Klein, Carl S Miller, Matthew P Reed, Jonathan D Rupp, Jason J Hallman
Occupant stature and body shape may have significant effects on injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the current finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) only represent occupants with a few sizes and shapes. Our recent studies have demonstrated that, by using a mesh morphing method, parametric FE HBMs can be rapidly developed for representing a diverse population. However, the biofidelity of those models across a wide range of human attributes has not been established. Therefore, the objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the accuracy of HBMs considering subject-specific geometry information, and 2) to apply the parametric HBMs in a sensitivity analysis for identifying the specific parameters affecting body responses in side impact conditions...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871103/development-of-an-unbiased-validation-protocol-to-assess-the-biofidelity-of-finite-element-head-models-used-in-prediction-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Chiara Giordano, Svein Kleiven
This study describes a method to identify laboratory test procedures and impact response requirements suitable for assessing the biofidelity of finite element head models used in prediction of traumatic brain injury. The selection of the experimental data and the response requirements were result of a critical evaluation based on the accuracy, reproducibility and relevance of the available experimental data. A weighted averaging procedure was chosen in order to consider different contributions from the various test conditions and target measurements based on experimental error...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
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