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Stapp Car Crash Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871108/biomechanical-and-scaling-basis-for-frontal-and-side-impact-injury-assessment-reference-values
#1
Harold J Mertz, Annette L Irwin, Priya Prasad
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871107/the-large-omnidirectional-child-lodc-atd-biofidelity-comparison-with-the-hybrid-iii-10-year-old
#2
Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Michael Carlson, Yun-Seok Kang
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA's in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871106/thoracic-injury-risk-curves-for-rib-deflections-of-the-sid-iis-build-level-d
#3
Annette L Irwin, Greg Crawford, David Gorman, Sikui Wang, Harold J Mertz
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871105/development-and-full-body-validation-of-a-5th-percentile-female-finite-element-model
#4
Matthew L Davis, Bharath Koya, Jeremy M Schap, F Scott Gayzik
To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871104/development-evaluation-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-parametric-finite-element-whole-body-human-models-in-side-impacts
#5
Eunjoo Hwang, Jingwen Hu, Cong Chen, Katelyn F Klein, Carl S Miller, Matthew P Reed, Jonathan D Rupp, Jason J Hallman
Occupant stature and body shape may have significant effects on injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the current finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) only represent occupants with a few sizes and shapes. Our recent studies have demonstrated that, by using a mesh morphing method, parametric FE HBMs can be rapidly developed for representing a diverse population. However, the biofidelity of those models across a wide range of human attributes has not been established. Therefore, the objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the accuracy of HBMs considering subject-specific geometry information, and 2) to apply the parametric HBMs in a sensitivity analysis for identifying the specific parameters affecting body responses in side impact conditions...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871103/development-of-an-unbiased-validation-protocol-to-assess-the-biofidelity-of-finite-element-head-models-used-in-prediction-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Chiara Giordano, Svein Kleiven
This study describes a method to identify laboratory test procedures and impact response requirements suitable for assessing the biofidelity of finite element head models used in prediction of traumatic brain injury. The selection of the experimental data and the response requirements were result of a critical evaluation based on the accuracy, reproducibility and relevance of the available experimental data. A weighted averaging procedure was chosen in order to consider different contributions from the various test conditions and target measurements based on experimental error...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871102/new-risk-curves-for-nhtsa-s-brain-injury-criterion-bric-derivations-and-assessments
#7
Tony R Laituri, Scott Henry, Kevin Pline, Guosong Li, Michael Frankstein, Para Weerappuli
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently published a Request for Comments regarding a potential upgrade to the US New Car Assessment Program (US NCAP) - a star-rating program pertaining to vehicle crashworthiness. Therein, NHTSA (a) cited two metrics for assessing head risk: Head Injury Criterion (HIC15) and Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC), and (b) proposed to conduct risk assessment via its risk curves for those metrics, but did not prescribe a specific method for applying them. Recent studies, however, have indicated that the NHTSA risk curves for BrIC significantly overstate field-based head injury rates...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871101/morphomics-of-the-talus
#8
David Gorman, Ebram Handy, Sikui Wang, Annette L Irwin, Stewart Wang
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871100/biomechanical-response-of-military-booted-and-unbooted-foot-ankle-tibia-from-vertical-loading
#9
Frank A Pintar, Michael B Schlick, Narayan Yoganandan, Liming Voo, Andrew C Merkle, Michael Kleinberger
A new anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is being developed by the US Army to be responsive to vertical loading during a vehicle underbody blast event. To obtain design parameters for the new ATD, a series of non-injurious tests were conducted to derive biofidelity response corridors for the foot-ankle complex under vertical loading. Isolated post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) lower leg specimens were tested with and without military boot and in different initial foot-ankle positions. Instrumentation included a six-axis load cell at the proximal end, three-axis accelerometers at proximal and distal tibia, and calcaneus, and strain gages...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871099/evaluation-of-wiaman-technology-demonstrator-biofidelity-relative-to-sub-injurious-pmhs-response-in-simulated-under-body-blast-events
#10
Hollie A Pietsch, Kelly E Bosch, David R Weyland, E Meade Spratley, Kyvory A Henderson, Robert S Salzar, Terrance A Smith, Brandon M Sagara, Constantine K Demetropoulos, Christopher J Dooley, Andrew C Merkle
Three laboratory simulated sub-injurious under-body blast (UBB) test conditions were conducted with whole-body Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) and the Warrior Assessment Injury Manikin (WIAMan) Technology Demonstrator (TD) to establish and assess UBB biofidelity of the WIAMan TD. Test conditions included a rigid floor and rigid seat with independently varied pulses. On the floor, peak velocities of 4 m/s and 6 m/s were applied with a 5 ms time to peak (TTP). The seat peak velocity was 4 m/s with varied TTP of 5 and 10 ms...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871098/traffic-accidents-involving-cyclists-identifying-causal-factors-using-questionnaire-survey-traffic-accident-data-and-real-world-observation
#11
Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose, Shigeru Aomura, Yasuhiro Matsui
The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871097/association-of-impact-velocity-with-risks-of-serious-injuries-and-fatalities-to-pedestrians-in-commercial-truck-pedestrian-accidents
#12
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871096/responses-and-injuries-to-pmhs-in-side-facing-and-oblique-seats-in-horizontal-longitudinal-sled-tests-per-faa-emergency-landing-conditions
#13
John R Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar, Richard L DeWeese, David M Moorcroft, Amanda M Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871095/investigation-of-pelvic-injuries-on-eighteen-post-mortem-human-subjects-submitted-to-oblique-lateral-impacts
#14
Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Takumi Fujii, Richard Douard
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50(th) dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871094/biomechanical-responses-of-pmhs-subjected-to-abdominal-seatbelt-loading
#15
Rakshit Ramachandra, Yun-Seok Kang, John H Bolte, Alena Hagedorn, Rodney Herriott, Jason A Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a freeback configuration...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871093/effect-of-abdominal-loading-location-on-liver-motion-experimental-assessment-using-ultrafast-ultrasound-imaging-and-simulation-with-a-human-body-model
#16
Anicet Le Ruyet, Fabien Berthet, Frédéric Rongiéras, Philippe Beillas
A protocol based on ultrafast ultrasound imaging was applied to study the in situ motion of the liver while the abdomen was subjected to compressive loading at 3 m/s by a hemispherical impactor or a seatbelt. The loading was applied to various locations between the lower abdomen and the mid thorax while feature points inside the liver were followed on the ultrasound movie (2000 frames per second). Based on tests performed on five post mortem human surrogates (including four tested in the current study), trends were found between the loading location and feature point trajectory parameters such as the initial angle of motion or the peak displacement in the direction of impact...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871092/the-effect-of-rib-shape-on-stiffness
#17
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
This study investigates the isolated effect of rib shape on the mechanical characteristics of ribs subjected to multiple forms of loading. It aims to measure the variation in stiffness due to shape that is seen throughout the population and, in particular, provide a tool for researchers to better understand the influence of shape on resulting stiffness. A previously published six-parameter shape model of the central axis of human ribs was used. It has been shown to accurately model the overall rib path using intrinsic geometric properties such as size, aspect ratio, and skewness, through shapes based on logarithmic spirals with high curvature continuity...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871091/age-specific-injury-risk-curves-for-distributed-anterior-thoracic-loading-of-various-sizes-of-adults-based-on-sternal-deflections
#18
Harold J Mertz, Priya Prasad, Dainius J Dalmotas, Annette L Irwin
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180383/remembering-john-d-states-m-d
#19
Albert I King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26660755/testing-and-modeling-the-responses-of-hybrid-iii-crash-dummy-lower-extremity-under-high-speed-vertical-loading
#20
Feng Zhu, Liqiang Dong, Xin Jin, Binhui Jiang, Anil Kalra, Ming Shen, King H Yang
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs), such as the Hybrid III crash-test dummy, have been used to simulate lowerextremity responses to military personnel subjected to loading conditions from anti-vehicular (AV) landmine blasts. Numerical simulations [e.g., finite element (FE) analysis] of such high-speed vertical loading on ATD parts require accurate material parameters that are dependent on strain rate. This study presents a combined experimental and computational study to calibrate the rate-dependent properties of three materials on the lower extremities of the Hybrid III dummy...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
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