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Stapp Car Crash Journal

Albert I King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Feng Zhu, Liqiang Dong, Xin Jin, Binhui Jiang, Anil Kalra, Ming Shen, King H Yang
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs), such as the Hybrid III crash-test dummy, have been used to simulate lowerextremity responses to military personnel subjected to loading conditions from anti-vehicular (AV) landmine blasts. Numerical simulations [e.g., finite element (FE) analysis] of such high-speed vertical loading on ATD parts require accurate material parameters that are dependent on strain rate. This study presents a combined experimental and computational study to calibrate the rate-dependent properties of three materials on the lower extremities of the Hybrid III dummy...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Kerry A Danelson, Andrew R Kemper, Matthew J Mason, Michael Tegtmeyer, Sean A Swiatkowski, John H Bolte, Warren N Hardy
A blast buck (Accelerative Loading Fixture, or ALF) was developed for studying underbody blast events in a laboratory-like setting. It was designed to provide a high-magnitude, high-rate, vertical loading environment for cadaver and dummy testing. It consists of a platform with a reinforcing cage that supports adjustable-height rigid seats for two crew positions. The platform has a heavy frame with a deformable floor insert. Fourteen tests were conducted using fourteen PMHS (post mortem human surrogates) and the Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device)...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Jason L Forman, Hamad Joodaki, Ali Forghani, Patrick O Riley, Varun Bollapragada, David J Lessley, Brian Overby, Sara Heltzel, Jason R Kerrigan, Jeff R Crandall, Seth Yarboro, David B Weiss
To serve as tools for assessing injury risk, the biofidelity of whole-body pedestrian impact dummies should be validated against reference data from full-scale pedestrian impact tests. To facilitate such evaluations, a simplified generic vehicle-buck has been recently developed that is designed to have characteristics representative of a generic small sedan. Three 40 km/h pedestrian-impact tests have been performed, wherein Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) were struck laterally in a mid-gait stance by the buck...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
The main purpose of this study is to define the relationship between the car impact velocity and serious injury risk or fatality risk of cyclists. The authors investigated the risks of serious injuries and fatalities of cyclists using vehicle-cyclist accident data from the database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. The vehicle types considered are sedans, mini vans, box vans, light passenger cars and light cargo vans. The results revealed that a 10-km/h decrease in the impact velocity could reduce the severe injury risk and fatality risk for impact velocities of 40 km/h or higher...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Samantha L Schoell, Ashley A Weaver, Jillian E Urban, Derek A Jones, Joel D Stitzel, Eunjoo Hwang, Matthew P Reed, Jonathan D Rupp, Jingwen Hu
The aging population is a growing concern as the increased fragility and frailty of the elderly results in an elevated incidence of injury as well as an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. To assess elderly injury risk, age-specific computational models can be developed to directly calculate biomechanical metrics for injury. The first objective was to develop an older occupant Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) representative of a 65 year old (YO) and to perform regional validation tests to investigate predicted fractures and injury severity with age...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Erwan Jolivet, Yoann Lafon, Philippe Petit, Philippe Beillas
Finite Element Human Body Models (HBM) have become powerful tools to study the response to impact. However, they are typically only developed for a limited number of sizes and ages. Various approaches driven by control points have been reported in the literature for the non-linear scaling of these HBM into models with different geometrical characteristics. The purpose of this study is to compare the performances of commonly used control points based interpolation methods in different usage scenarios. Performance metrics include the respect of target, the mesh quality and the runability...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Suzanne Tylko, Katarina Bohman, Alain Bussières
Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Yibing Shi, Guy S Nusholtz
The objective of this study is to analytically model the fatality risk in frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes of the current vehicle fleet, and its sensitivity to vehicle mass change. A model is built upon an empirical risk ratio-mass ratio relationship from field data and a theoretical mass ratio-velocity change ratio relationship dictated by conservation of momentum. The fatality risk of each vehicle is averaged over the closing velocity distribution to arrive at the mean fatality risks. The risks of the two vehicles are summed and averaged over all possible crash partners to find the societal mean fatality risk associated with a subject vehicle of a given mass from a fleet specified by a mass distribution function...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Jingwen Hu, Carol A Flannagan, Shan Bao, Robert W McCoy, Kevin M Siasoco, Saeed Barbat
The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Meghan K Howes, Warren N Hardy, Amanda M Agnew, Jason J Hallman
High-speed biplane x-ray was used to research the kinematics of the small intestine in response to seatbelt loading. Six driver-side 3-point seatbelt simulations were conducted with the lap belt routed superior to the pelvis of six unembalmed human cadavers. Testing was conducted with each cadaver perfused, ventilated, and positioned in a fixed-back configuration with the spine angled 30° from the vertical axis. Four tests were conducted with the cadavers in an inverted position, and two tests were conducted with the cadavers upright...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit, Xavier Trosseille, Philippe Petit, Olivier Richard, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Richard Douard
Sled tests focused on pelvis behavior and submarining can be found in the literature. However, they were performed either with rigid seats or with commercial seats. The objective of this study was to get reference tests to assess the submarining ability of dummies in more realistic conditions than on rigid seat, but still in a repeatable and reproducible setup. For this purpose, a semi-rigid seat was developed, which mimics the behavior of real seats, although it is made of rigid plates and springs that are easy to reproduce and simulate with an FE model...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Pascal Baudrit, Xavier Trosseille
Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. Several methods are available in the literature to refine the biofidelity corridors or to extrapolate them to other populations (eg: children, small females, large males). Because of the lack of concrete cases, the relevance of the assumptions is rarely investigated. In 2014, Baudrit et al. published data on thorax dynamic responses of small female and midsize male Post Mortem Human Subjects in side and forward oblique impact tests...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Tony R Laituri, Scott Henry, Raed El-Jawahri, Nirmal Muralidharan, Guosong Li, Marvin Nutt
A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, "risk curve") was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Anil Kalra, Tal Saif, Ming Shen, Xin Jin, Feng Zhu, Paul Begeman, King H Yang, Scott Millis
In the elderly population, rib fracture is one of the most common injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes. The current study was conducted to predict the biomechanical fracture responses of ribs with respect to age, gender, height, weight and percentage of ash content. Three-point bending experiments were conducted on 278 isolated rib samples extracted from 82 cadaver specimens (53 males and 29 females between the ages of 21 and 87 years) for 6th and 7th levels of ribs. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify differences based on age and gender...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Priya Prasad, Dainius Dalmotas, Aline Chouinard
Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Masami Iwamoto, Yuko Nakahira
Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Mathieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Akira Yamaoka, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Richard Douard
UNLABELLED: The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy/Mx peak values were 4500 N/50 Nm, 2400 N/130 Nm, and 5300 N/150 Nm, respectively...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Narayan Yoganandan, John R Humm, Frank A Pintar, Mike W J Arun, Heather Rhule, Rodney Rudd, Matthew Craig
While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Lauren K Wood, Carl S Miller, Nathaniel H Madura, Matthew P Reed, Lawrence W Schneider, Kathleen D Klinich, Jonathan D Rupp
Eight whole fresh-frozen cadavers (6 female, 2 male) that were elderly and/or female were laterally impacted using UMTRI's dual-sled side-impact test facility. Cadavers were not excluded on the basis of old age or bone diseases that affect tolerance. A thinly padded, multi-segment impactor was used that independently measured force histories applied to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, greater trochanter, iliac wing, and femur of each PMHS. Impactor plates were adjusted vertically and laterally toward the subject so that contact with body regions occurred simultaneously and so that each segment contacted the same region on every subject...
November 2014: Stapp Car Crash Journal
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