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Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177569/correction-to-inter-decadal-variability-of-phytoplankton-biomass-along-the-coastal-west-antarctic-peninsula
#1
Hyewon Kim, Hugh W Ducklow, Doris Abele, Eduardo M Ruiz Barlett, Anita G J Buma, Michael P Meredith, Patrick D Rozema, Oscar M Schofield, Hugh J Venables, Irene R Schloss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177568/strategies-in-times-of-crisis-insights-into-the-benthic-foraminiferal-record-of-the-palaeocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#2
Daniela N Schmidt, Ellen Thomas, Elisabeth Authier, David Saunders, Andy Ridgwell
Climate change is predicted to alter temperature, carbonate chemistry and oxygen availability in the oceans, which will affect individuals, populations and ecosystems. We use the fossil record of benthic foraminifers to assess developmental impacts in response to environmental changes during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Using an unprecedented number of µ-computed tomography scans, we determine the size of the proloculus (first chamber), the number of chambers and the final size of two benthic foraminiferal species which survived the extinction at sites 690 (Atlantic sector, Southern Ocean, palaeodepth 1900 m), 1210 (central equatorial Pacific, palaeodepth 2100 m) and 1135 (Indian Ocean sector, Southern Ocean, palaeodepth 600-1000 m)...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177567/placing-our-current-hyperthermal-in-the-context-of-rapid-climate-change-in-our-geological-past
#3
Gavin L Foster, Pincelli Hull, Daniel J Lunt, James C Zachos
'…there are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don't know we don't know.' Donald Rumsfeld 12th February 2002.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Hyperthermals: rapid and extreme global warming in our geological past'.
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177566/greenhouse-and-orbital-forced-climate-extremes-during-the-early-eocene
#4
Jeffrey T Kiehl, Christine A Shields, Mark A Snyder, James C Zachos, Mathew Rothstein
The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a significant global warming event in Earth's deep past (56 Mya). The warming across the PETM boundary was driven by a rapid rise in greenhouse gases. The event also coincided with a time of maximum insolation in Northern Hemisphere summer. There is increased evidence that the mean warming was accompanied by enhanced seasonality and/or extremes in precipitation (and flooding) and drought. A high horizontal resolution (50 km) global climate model is used to explore changes in the seasonal cycle of surface temperature, precipitation, evaporation minus precipitation and river run-off for regions where proxy data are available...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177565/constraints-on-the-onset-duration-of-the-paleocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#5
REVIEW
Sandra Kirtland Turner
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, approx. 56 Ma) provides a test case for investigating how the Earth system responds to rapid greenhouse gas-driven warming. However, current rates of carbon emissions are approximately 10 Pg C yr-1 , whereas those proposed for the PETM span orders of magnitude-from ≪1 Pg C yr-1 to greater than the anthropogenic rate. Emissions rate estimates for the PETM are hampered by uncertainty over the total mass of PETM carbon released as well as the PETM onset duration...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177564/the-extraterrestrial-impact-evidence-at-the-palaeocene-eocene-boundary-and-sequence-of-environmental-change-on-the-continental-shelf
#6
REVIEW
Morgan F Schaller, Megan K Fung
We have identified clear evidence of an extraterrestrial impact within the onset of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that defines the Palaeocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary hyperthermal event (approx. 56 Ma) from several sites on the eastern Atlantic Coastal Plain and offshore. We review and update the state of the evidence for an impact at the P-E boundary, including a K-Ar cooling age of the ejecta that is indistinguishable from the depositional age at the P-E, which establishes the ejecta horizon as an isochronous stratigraphic indicator at the P-E...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177563/sills-and-gas-generation-in-the-siberian-traps
#7
Henrik H Svensen, Sergei Frolov, Grigorii G Akhmanov, Alexander G Polozov, Dougal A Jerram, Olga V Shiganova, Nikolay V Melnikov, Karthik Iyer, Sverre Planke
On its way to the surface, the Siberian Traps magma created a complex sub-volcanic plumbing system. This resulted in a large-scale sill emplacement within the Tunguska Basin and subsequent release of sediment-derived volatiles during contact metamorphism. The distribution of sills and the released sediment-stored gas volume is, however, poorly constrained. In this paper, results from a study of nearly 300 deep boreholes intersecting sills are presented. The results show that sills with thicknesses above 100 m are abundant throughout the upper part of the sedimentary succession...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177562/prolonged-late-permian-early-triassic-hyperthermal-failure-of-climate-regulation
#8
Lee R Kump
The extreme warmth associated with the mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary was likely produced by a rapid build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the eruption and emplacement of the Siberian Traps. In comparison to another hyperthermal event, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, the Permian-Triassic event, while leaving a similar carbon isotope record, likely had larger amounts of CO2 emitted and did not follow the expected time scale of climate recovery. The quantities and rates of CO2 emission likely exhausted the capacity of the long-term climate regulator associated with silicate weathering...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177561/hyperthermal-driven-mass-extinctions-killing-models-during-the-permian-triassic-mass-extinction
#9
REVIEW
Michael J Benton
Many mass extinctions of life in the sea and on land have been attributed to geologically rapid heating, and in the case of the Permian-Triassic and others, driven by large igneous province volcanism. The Siberian Traps eruptions raised ambient temperatures to 35-40°C. A key question is how massive eruptions during these events, and others, could have killed life in the sea and on land; proposed killers are reviewed here. In the oceans, benthos and plankton were killed by anoxia-euxinia and lethal heating, respectively, and the habitable depth zone was massively reduced...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177560/warm-plankton-soup-and-red-herrings-calcareous-nannoplankton-cellular-communities-and-the-palaeocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#10
Samantha J Gibbs, Rosie M Sheward, Paul R Bown, Alex J Poulton, Sarah A Alvarez
Past global warming events such as the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM-56 Ma) are attributed to the release of vast amounts of carbon into the ocean, atmosphere and biosphere with recovery ascribed to a combination of silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. The phytoplanktonic nannoplankton are major contributors of organic and inorganic carbon but their role in this recovery process remains poorly understood and complicated by their contribution to marine calcification. Biocalcification is implicated not only in long-term carbon burial but also both short-term positive and negative climatic feedbacks associated with seawater buffering and responses to ocean acidification...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177559/transient-cooling-episodes-during-cretaceous-oceanic-anoxic-events-with-special-reference-to-oae-1a-early-aptian
#11
REVIEW
Hugh C Jenkyns
The two major oceanic anoxic events of the Cretaceous, those of the Early Aptian (OAE 1a) and the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (OAE 2), registered some of the highest temperatures reconstructed for the Cretaceous Period, and are thought to be related to the input of volcanically derived carbon dioxide from one or more Large Igneous Provinces. Widely distributed deposition of marine organic matter, the hallmark of OAEs, and intensified silicate weathering in response to a globally accelerated hydrological cycle and/or reaction of seawater with freshly extruded basalt, are both potential mechanisms whereby the content of atmospheric carbon dioxide could have been drawn down to promote cooling, on the assumption that this potential effect was not offset by increased addition of this volcanically derived greenhouse gas...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177558/capturing-the-global-signature-of-surface-ocean-acidification-during-the-palaeocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#12
Tali L Babila, Donald E Penman, Bärbel Hönisch, D Clay Kelly, Timothy J Bralower, Yair Rosenthal, James C Zachos
Geologically abrupt carbon perturbations such as the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, approx. 56 Ma) are the closest geological points of comparison to current anthropogenic carbon emissions. Associated with the rapid carbon release during this event are profound environmental changes in the oceans including warming, deoxygenation and acidification. To evaluate the global extent of surface ocean acidification during the PETM, we present a compilation of new and published surface ocean carbonate chemistry and pH reconstructions from various palaeoceanographic settings...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126921/modelling-of-sea-ice-phenomena
#13
Frank Smith, Alexander Korobkin, Emilian Parau, Daniel Feltham, Vernon Squire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126920/stress-and-deformation-characteristics-of-sea-ice-in-a-high-resolution-anisotropic-sea-ice-model
#14
H D B S Heorton, D L Feltham, M Tsamados
The drift and deformation of sea ice floating on the polar oceans is caused by the applied wind and ocean currents. Over ocean basin length scales the internal stresses and boundary conditions of the sea ice pack result in observable deformation patterns. Cracks and leads can be observed in satellite images and within the velocity fields generated from floe tracking. In a climate sea ice model the deformation of sea ice over ocean basin length scales is modelled using a rheology that represents the relationship between stresses and deformation within the sea ice cover...
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126919/shear-flow-over-flexible-three-dimensional-patches-in-a-surface
#15
F T Smith
Slowly varying shear flow is considered over one or more flexible three-dimensional patches in a surface inside a boundary layer. At certain shear values, resonances emerge in which the effects on flow and patch shape are enlarged by an order of magnitude. Fast evolution then occurs: this leads to fully nonlinear unsteady interaction, after some delay, combining with finite-time break-ups to form a distinct path into transition.This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling of sea-ice phenomena'.
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126918/interaction-of-flexural-gravity-waves-in-ice-cover-with-vertical-walls
#16
A A Korobkin, S Malenica, T Khabakhpasheva
Diffraction of flexural-gravity waves in an ice cover by a bottom mounted structure with vertical walls is studied. The problem is solved by using the so-called vertical modes corresponding to the roots of the dispersion relation for flexural-gravity waves. These modes reduce the original three-dimensional problem to a set of two-dimensional diffraction problems with non-homogeneous boundary conditions on the rigid walls. Two unknown functions presenting in the boundary conditions for each mode are determined using the conditions at the contact line between the ice cover and the vertical walls...
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126917/tensile-fracture-of-a-single-crack-in-first-year-sea-ice
#17
J P Dempsey, D M Cole, S Wang
The break-up of sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic has been studied during three field trips in the spring of 1993 at Resolute, NWT, and the fall of 2001 and 2004 on McMurdo Sound via in situ cyclic loading and fracture experiments. In this paper, the back-calculated fracture information necessary to the specification of an accurate viscoelastic fictitious (cohesive) crack model is presented. In particular, the changing shape of the stress separation curve with varying conditions and loading scenarios is revealed...
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126916/solitary-flexural-gravity-waves-in-three-dimensions
#18
Olga Trichtchenko, Emilian I Părău, Jean-Marc Vanden-Broeck, Paul Milewski
The focus of this work is on three-dimensional nonlinear flexural-gravity waves, propagating at the interface between a fluid and an ice sheet. The ice sheet is modelled using the special Cosserat theory of hyperelastic shells satisfying Kirchhoff's hypothesis, presented in (Plotnikov & Toland. 2011 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369 , 2942-2956 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0104)). The fluid is assumed inviscid and incompressible, and the flow irrotational. A numerical method based on boundary integral equation techniques is used to compute solitary waves and forced waves to Euler's equations...
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126915/quality-control-for-community-based-sea-ice-model-development
#19
Andrew F Roberts, Elizabeth C Hunke, Richard Allard, David A Bailey, Anthony P Craig, Jean-François Lemieux, Matthew D Turner
A new collaborative organization for sea-ice model development, the CICE Consortium, has devised quality control procedures to maintain the integrity of its numerical codes' physical representations, enabling broad participation from the scientific community in the Consortium's open software development environment. Using output from five coupled and uncoupled configurations of the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, CICE, we formulate quality control methods that exploit common statistical properties of sea-ice thickness, and test for significant changes in model results in a computationally efficient manner...
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126914/variational-problems-in-the-theory-of-hydroelastic-waves
#20
P I Plotnikov, J F Toland
This paper outlines a mathematical approach to steady periodic waves which propagate with constant velocity and without change of form on the surface of a three-dimensional expanse of fluid which is at rest at infinite depth and moving irrotationally under gravity, bounded above by a frictionless elastic sheet. The elastic sheet is supposed to have gravitational potential energy, bending energy proportional to the square integral of its mean curvature (its Willmore functional), and stretching energy determined by the position of its particles relative to a reference configuration...
September 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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