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Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416731/the-origin-history-and-role-of-water-in-the-evolution-of-the-inner-solar-system
#1
Sara S Russell, Chris J Ballentine, Monica M Grady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416730/early-accretion-of-water-and-volatile-elements-to-the-inner-solar-system-evidence-from-angrites
#2
Adam R Sarafian, Erik H Hauri, Francis M McCubbin, Thomas J Lapen, Eve L Berger, Sune G Nielsen, Horst R Marschall, Glenn A Gaetani, Kevin Righter, Emily Sarafian
Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the (207)Pb-(206)Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416729/the-fate-of-water-within-earth-and-super-earths-and-implications-for-plate-tectonics
#3
Sonia M Tikoo, Linda T Elkins-Tanton
The Earth is likely to have acquired most of its water during accretion. Internal heat of planetesimals by short-lived radioisotopes would have caused some water loss, but impacts into planetesimals were insufficiently energetic to produce further drying. Water is thought to be critical for the development of plate tectonics, because it lowers viscosities in the asthenosphere, enabling subduction. The following issue persists: if water is necessary for plate tectonics, but subduction itself hydrates the upper mantle, how is the upper mantle initially hydrated? The giant impacts of late accretion created magma lakes and oceans, which degassed during solidification to produce a heavy atmosphere...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416728/global-water-cycle-and-the-coevolution-of-the-earth-s-interior-and-surface-environment
#4
Jun Korenaga, Noah J Planavsky, David A D Evans
The bulk Earth composition contains probably less than 0.3% of water, but this trace amount of water can affect the long-term evolution of the Earth in a number of different ways. The foremost issue is the occurrence of plate tectonics, which governs almost all aspects of the Earth system, and the presence of water could either promote or hinder the operation of plate tectonics, depending on where water resides. The global water cycle, which circulates surface water into the deep mantle and back to the surface again, could thus have played a critical role in the Earth's history...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416727/remotely-distinguishing-and-mapping-endogenic-water-on-the-moon
#5
Rachel L Klima, Noah E Petro
Water and/or hydroxyl detected remotely on the lunar surface originates from several sources: (i) comets and other exogenous debris; (ii) solar-wind implantation; (iii) the lunar interior. While each of these sources is interesting in its own right, distinguishing among them is critical for testing hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Moon and our Solar System. Existing spacecraft observations are not of high enough spectral resolution to uniquely characterize the bonding energies of the hydroxyl molecules that have been detected...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416726/d-h-ratios-of-the-inner-solar-system
#6
REVIEW
L J Hallis
The original hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of different planetary bodies may indicate where each body formed in the Solar System. However, geological and atmospheric processes can alter these ratios through time. Over the past few decades, D/H ratios in meteorites from Vesta and Mars, as well as from S- and C-type asteroids, have been measured. The aim of this article is to bring together all previously published data from these bodies, as well as the Earth, in order to determine the original D/H ratio for each of these inner Solar System planetary bodies...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416725/the-search-for-and-analysis-of-direct-samples-of-early-solar-system-aqueous-fluids
#7
REVIEW
Michael E Zolensky, Robert J Bodnar, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Shoichi Itoh, Marc Fries, Andrew Steele, Queenie H-S Chan, Akira Tsuchiyama, Yoko Kebukawa, Motoo Ito
We describe the current state of the search for direct, surviving samples of early, inner Solar System fluids-fluid inclusions in meteorites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are not rare, but they are very tiny and their characterization is at the state of the art for most analytical techniques. Meteoritic fluid inclusions offer us a unique opportunity to study early Solar System brines in the laboratory. Inclusion-by-inclusion analyses of the trapped fluids in carefully selected samples will, in the immediate future, provide us detailed information on the evolution of fluids as they interacted with anhydrous solid materials...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416724/on-the-attempts-to-measure-water-and-other-volatiles-directly-at-the-surface-of-a-comet
#8
REVIEW
I P Wright, S Sheridan, G H Morgan, S J Barber, A D Morse
The Ptolemy instrument on the Philae lander (of the Rosetta space mission) was able to make measurements of the major volatiles, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, directly at the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We give some background to the mission and highlight those instruments that have already given insights into the notion of water in comets, and which will continue to do so as more results are either acquired or more fully interpreted. On the basis of our results, we show how comets may in fact be heterogeneous over their surface, and how surface measurements can be used in a quest to comprehend the daily cycles of processes that affect the evolution of comets...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416723/the-origin-of-inner-solar-system-water
#9
REVIEW
Conel M O'D Alexander
Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model)...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373390/correction-to-kinetics-and-thermodynamics-of-living-copolymerization-processes
#10
Pierre Gaspard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373389/patterning-through-instabilities-in-complex-media-theory-and-applications
#11
Pasquale Ciarletta, Dominic Vella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373388/rayleigh-taylor-instability-in-soft-elastic-layers
#12
D Riccobelli, P Ciarletta
This work investigates the morphological stability of a soft body composed of two heavy elastic layers attached to a rigid surface and subjected only to the bulk gravity force. Using theoretical and computational tools, we characterize the selection of different patterns as well as their nonlinear evolution, unveiling the interplay between elastic and geometric effects for their formation. Unlike similar gravity-induced shape transitions in fluids, such as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we prove that the nonlinear elastic effects saturate the dynamic instability of the bifurcated solutions, displaying a rich morphological diagram where both digitations and stable wrinkling can emerge...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373387/regimes-of-wrinkling-in-pressurized-elastic-shells
#13
Matteo Taffetani, Dominic Vella
We consider the point indentation of a pressurized elastic shell. It has previously been shown that such a shell is subject to a wrinkling instability as the indentation depth is quasi-statically increased. Here we present detailed analysis of this wrinkling instability using a combination of analytical techniques and finite-element simulations. In particular, we study how the number of wrinkles observed at the onset of instability grows with increasing pressurization. We also study how, for fixed pressurization, the number of wrinkles changes both spatially and with increasing indentation depth beyond onset...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373386/on-the-buckling-of-elastic-rings-by-external-confinement
#14
Andrew L Hazel, Tom Mullin
We report the results of an experimental and numerical investigation into the buckling of thin elastic rings confined within containers of circular or regular polygonal cross section. The rings float on the surface of water held in the container and controlled removal of the fluid increases the confinement of the ring. The increased compressive forces can cause the ring to buckle into a variety of shapes. For the circular container, finite perturbations are required to induce buckling, whereas in polygonal containers the buckling occurs through a linear instability that is closely related to the canonical Euler column buckling...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373385/wrinkling-instabilities-in-soft-bilayered-systems
#15
Silvia Budday, Sebastian Andres, Bastian Walter, Paul Steinmann, Ellen Kuhl
Wrinkling phenomena control the surface morphology of many technical and biological systems. While primary wrinkling has been extensively studied, experimentally, analytically and computationally, higher-order instabilities remain insufficiently understood, especially in systems with stiffness contrasts well below 100. Here, we use the model system of an elastomeric bilayer to experimentally characterize primary and secondary wrinkling at moderate stiffness contrasts. We systematically vary the film thickness and substrate prestretch to explore which parameters modulate the emergence of secondary instabilities, including period-doubling, period-tripling and wrinkle-to-fold transitions...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373384/drying-paint-from-micro-scale-dynamics-to-mechanical-instabilities
#16
Lucas Goehring, Joaquim Li, Pree-Cha Kiatkirakajorn
Charged colloidal dispersions make up the basis of a broad range of industrial and commercial products, from paints to coatings and additives in cosmetics. During drying, an initially liquid dispersion of such particles is slowly concentrated into a solid, displaying a range of mechanical instabilities in response to highly variable internal pressures. Here we summarize the current appreciation of this process by pairing an advection-diffusion model of particle motion with a Poisson-Boltzmann cell model of inter-particle interactions, to predict the concentration gradients in a drying colloidal film...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373383/segmentation-in-cohesive-systems-constrained-by-elastic-environments
#17
I Novak, L Truskinovsky
The complexity of fracture-induced segmentation in elastically constrained cohesive (fragile) systems originates from the presence of competing interactions. The role of discreteness in such phenomena is of interest in a variety of fields, from hierarchical self-assembly to developmental morphogenesis. In this paper, we study the analytically solvable example of segmentation in a breakable mass-spring chain elastically linked to a deformable lattice structure. We explicitly construct the complete set of local minima of the energy in this prototypical problem and identify among them the states corresponding to the global energy minima...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373382/the-dynamics-of-folding-instability-in-a-constrained-cosserat-medium
#18
Panos A Gourgiotis, Davide Bigoni
Different from Cauchy elastic materials, generalized continua, and in particular constrained Cosserat materials, can be designed to possess extreme (near a failure of ellipticity) orthotropy properties and in this way to model folding in a three-dimensional solid. Following this approach, folding, which is a narrow zone of highly localized bending, spontaneously emerges as a deformation pattern occurring in a strongly anisotropic solid. How this peculiar pattern interacts with wave propagation in the time-harmonic domain is revealed through the derivation of an antiplane, infinite-body Green's function, which opens the way to integral techniques for anisotropic constrained Cosserat continua...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373381/oblique-wrinkles
#19
M Carfagna, M Destrade, A L Gower, A Grillo
We prove theoretically that when a soft solid is subjected to an extreme deformation, wrinkles can form on its surface at an angle that is oblique to a principal direction of stretch. These oblique wrinkles occur for a strain that is smaller than the one required to obtain wrinkles normal to the direction of greatest compression. We go on to explain why they will probably never be observed in real-world experiments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373380/wrinkling-of-a-thin-circular-sheet-bonded-to-a-spherical-substrate
#20
Peter Bella, Robert V Kohn
We consider a disc-shaped thin elastic sheet bonded to a compliant sphere. (Our sheet can slip along the sphere; the bonding controls only its normal displacement.) If the bonding is stiff (but not too stiff), the geometry of the sphere makes the sheet wrinkle to avoid azimuthal compression. The total energy of this system is the elastic energy of the sheet plus a (Winkler-type) substrate energy. Treating the thickness of the sheet h as a small parameter, we determine the leading-order behaviour of the energy as h tends to zero, and we give (almost matching) upper and lower bounds for the next-order correction...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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