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Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760121/the-marine-system-of-the-west-antarctic-peninsula-status-and-strategy-for-progress
#1
Katharine R Hendry, Michael P Meredith, Hugh W Ducklow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760120/benthic-meltwater-fjord-habitats-formed-by-rapid-glacier-recession-on-king-george-island-antarctica
#2
Kerstin Jerosch, Hendrik Pehlke, Patrick Monien, Frauke Scharf, Lukas Weber, Gerhard Kuhn, Matthias H Braun, Doris Abele
The coasts of the West Antarctic Peninsula are strongly influenced by glacier meltwater discharge. The spatial structure and biogeochemical composition of inshore habitats are shaped by large quantities of terrigenous particulate material deposited in the vicinity of the coast, which impacts the pelagic and benthic ecosystems. We used a multitude of geochemical and environmental variables to identify the radius extension of the meltwater impact from the Fourcade Glacier into the fjord system of Potter Cove, King George Island...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760119/spring-summer-net-community-production-new-production-particle-export-and-related-water-column-biogeochemical-processes-in-the-marginal-sea-ice-zone-of-the-western-antarctic-peninsula-2012-2014
#3
Hugh W Ducklow, Michael R Stukel, Rachel Eveleth, Scott C Doney, Tim Jickells, Oscar Schofield, Alex R Baker, John Brindle, Rosie Chance, Nicolas Cassar
New production (New P, the rate of net primary production (NPP) supported by exogenously supplied limiting nutrients) and net community production (NCP, gross primary production not consumed by community respiration) are closely related but mechanistically distinct processes. They set the carbon balance in the upper ocean and define an upper limit for export from the system. The relationships, relative magnitudes and variability of New P (from 15 NO3 - uptake), O2  : argon-based NCP and sinking particle export (based on the 238 U : 234 Th disequilibrium) are increasingly well documented but still not clearly understood...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760118/icebergs-sea-ice-blue-carbon-and-antarctic-climate-feedbacks
#4
David K A Barnes, Andrew Fleming, Chester J Sands, Maria Liliana Quartino, Dolores Deregibus
Sea ice, including icebergs, has a complex relationship with the carbon held within animals (blue carbon) in the polar regions. Sea-ice losses around West Antarctica's continental shelf generate longer phytoplankton blooms but also make it a hotspot for coastal iceberg disturbance. This matters because in polar regions ice scour limits blue carbon storage ecosystem services, which work as a powerful negative feedback on climate change (less sea ice increases phytoplankton blooms, benthic growth, seabed carbon and sequestration)...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760117/inter-decadal-variability-of-phytoplankton-biomass-along-the-coastal-west-antarctic-peninsula
#5
Hyewon Kim, Hugh W Ducklow, Doris Abele, Eduardo M Ruiz Barlett, Anita G J Buma, Michael P Meredith, Patrick D Rozema, Oscar M Schofield, Hugh J Venables, Irene R Schloss
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a climatically sensitive region where periods of strong warming have caused significant changes in the marine ecosystem and food-web processes. Tight coupling between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels implies that the coastal WAP is a bottom-up controlled system, where changes in phytoplankton dynamics may largely impact other food-web components. Here, we analysed the inter-decadal time series of year-round chlorophyll- a (Chl) collected from three stations along the coastal WAP: Carlini Station at Potter Cove (PC) on King George Island, Palmer Station on Anvers Island and Rothera Station on Adelaide Island...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760116/changes-in-the-upper-ocean-mixed-layer-and-phytoplankton-productivity-along-the-west-antarctic-peninsula
#6
Oscar Schofield, Michael Brown, Josh Kohut, Schuyler Nardelli, Grace Saba, Nicole Waite, Hugh Ducklow
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced significant change over the last 50 years. Using a 24 year spatial time series collected by the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research programme, we assessed long-term patterns in the sea ice, upper mixed layer depth (MLD) and phytoplankton productivity. The number of sea ice days steadily declined from the 1980s until a recent reversal that began in 2008. Results show regional differences between the northern and southern regions sampled during regional ship surveys conducted each austral summer...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760115/evidences-of-strong-sources-of-dfe-and-dmn-in-ryder-bay-western-antarctic-peninsula
#7
Johann Bown, Hans van Haren, Michael P Meredith, Hugh J Venables, Patrick Laan, J Alexander Brearley, Hein J W de Baar
The spatial distribution, biogeochemical cycling and external sources of dissolved iron and dissolved manganese (DFe and DMn) were investigated in Ryder Bay, a small coastal embayment of the West Antarctic Peninsula, during Austral summer (2013 and 2014). Dissolved concentrations were measured throughout the water column at 11 stations within Ryder Bay. The concentration ranges of DFe and DMn were large, between 0.58 and 32.7 nM, and between 0.18 and 26.2 nM, respectively, exhibiting strong gradients from the surface to the bottom...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760114/a-shallow-bathtub-ring-of-local-sedimentary-iron-input-maintains-the-palmer-deep-biological-hotspot-on-the-west-antarctic-peninsula-shelf
#8
Robert M Sherrell, Amber L Annett, Jessica N Fitzsimmons, Vincent J Roccanova, Michael P Meredith
Palmer Deep (PD) is one of several regional hotspots of biological productivity along the inner shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula. The proximity of hotspots to shelf-crossing deep troughs has led to the 'canyon hypothesis', which proposes that circumpolar deep water flowing shoreward along the canyons is upwelled on the inner shelf, carrying nutrients including iron (Fe) to surface waters, maintaining phytoplankton blooms. We present here full-depth profiles of dissolved and particulate Fe and manganese (Mn) from eight stations around PD, sampled in January and early February of 2015 and 2016, allowing the first detailed evaluation of Fe sources to the area's euphotic zone...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760113/impact-of-sea-ice-melt-on-dimethyl-sulfide-sulfoniopropionate-inventories-in-surface-waters-of-marguerite-bay-west-antarctic-peninsula
#9
Jacqueline Stefels, Maria A van Leeuwe, Elizabeth M Jones, Michael P Meredith, Hugh J Venables, Alison L Webb, Sian F Henley
The Southern Ocean is a hotspot of the climate-relevant organic sulfur compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Spatial and temporal variability in DMS concentration is higher than in any other oceanic region, especially in the marginal ice zone. During a one-week expedition across the continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), from the shelf break into Marguerite Bay, in January 2015, spatial heterogeneity of DMS and its precursor dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was studied and linked with environmental conditions, including sea-ice melt events...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760112/macronutrient-and-carbon-supply-uptake-and-cycling-across-the-antarctic-peninsula-shelf-during-summer
#10
Sian F Henley, Elizabeth M Jones, Hugh J Venables, Michael P Meredith, Yvonne L Firing, Ribanna Dittrich, Sabrina Heiser, Jacqueline Stefels, Julie Dougans
The West Antarctic Peninsula shelf is a region of high seasonal primary production which supports a large and productive food web, where macronutrients and inorganic carbon are sourced primarily from intrusions of warm saline Circumpolar Deep Water. We examined the cross-shelf modification of this water mass during mid-summer 2015 to understand the supply of nutrients and carbon to the productive surface ocean, and their subsequent uptake and cycling. We show that nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid and inorganic carbon are progressively enriched in subsurface waters across the shelf, contrary to cross-shelf reductions in heat, salinity and density...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760111/a-simplified-method-to-estimate-the-run-off-in-periglacial-creeks-a-case-study-of-king-george-islands-antarctic-peninsula
#11
Ulrike Falk, Adrián Silva-Busso, Pablo Pölcher
Although the relationship between surface air temperature and glacial discharge has been studied in the Northern Hemisphere for at least a century, similar studies for Antarctica remain scarce and only for the past four decades. This data scarcity is due to the extreme meteorological conditions and terrain inaccessibility. As a result, the contribution of glacial discharge in Antarctica to global sea-level rise is still attached with great uncertainties, especially from partly glaciated hydrological basins as can be found in the Antarctic Peninsula...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760110/variability-in-summer-surface-residence-time-within-a-west-antarctic-peninsula-biological-hotspot
#12
Josh T Kohut, Peter Winsor, Hank Statscewich, Matthew J Oliver, Erick Fredj, Nicole Couto, Kim Bernard, William Fraser
Palmer Deep canyon along the central West Antarctic Peninsula is known to have higher phytoplankton biomass than the surrounding non-canyon regions, but the circulation mechanisms that transport and locally concentrate phytoplankton and Antarctic krill, potentially increasing prey availability to upper-trophic-level predators such as penguins and cetaceans, are currently unknown. We deployed a three-site high-frequency radar network that provided hourly surface circulation maps over the Palmer Deep hotspot...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760109/shelf-ocean-exchange-and-hydrography-west-of-the-antarctic-peninsula-a-review
#13
REVIEW
C Moffat, M Meredith
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a highly productive marine ecosystem where extended periods of change have been observed in the form of glacier retreat, reduction of sea-ice cover and shifts in marine populations, among others. The physical environment on the shelf is known to be strongly influenced by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current flowing along the shelf slope and carrying warm, nutrient-rich water, by cold waters flooding into the northern Bransfield Strait from the Weddell Sea, by an extensive network of glaciers and ice shelves, and by strong seasonal to inter-annual variability in sea-ice formation and air-sea interactions, with significant modulation by climate modes like El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760108/anatomy-of-a-glacial-meltwater-discharge-event-in-an-antarctic-cove
#14
Michael P Meredith, Ulrike Falk, Anna Valeria Bers, Andreas Mackensen, Irene R Schloss, Eduardo Ruiz Barlett, Kerstin Jerosch, Adrián Silva Busso, Doris Abele
Glacial meltwater discharge from Antarctica is a key influence on the marine environment, impacting ocean circulation, sea level and productivity of the pelagic and benthic ecosystems. The responses elicited depend strongly on the characteristics of the meltwater releases, including timing, spatial structure and geochemical composition. Here we use isotopic tracers to reveal the time-varying pattern of meltwater during a discharge event from the Fourcade Glacier into Potter Cove, northern Antarctic Peninsula...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712800/advances-in-risk-assessment-for-climate-change-adaptation-policy
#15
W Neil Adger, Iain Brown, Swenja Surminski
Climate change risk assessment involves formal analysis of the consequences, likelihoods and responses to the impacts of climate change and the options for addressing these under societal constraints. Conventional approaches to risk assessment are challenged by the significant temporal and spatial dynamics of climate change; by the amplification of risks through societal preferences and values; and through the interaction of multiple risk factors. This paper introduces the theme issue by reviewing the current practice and frontiers of climate change risk assessment, with specific emphasis on the development of adaptation policy that aims to manage those risks...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712799/coastal-and-river-flood-risk-analyses-for-guiding-economically-optimal-flood-adaptation-policies-a-country-scale-study-for-mexico
#16
Toon Haer, W J Wouter Botzen, Vincent van Roomen, Harry Connor, Jorge Zavala-Hidalgo, Dirk M Eilander, Philip J Ward
Many countries around the world face increasing impacts from flooding due to socio-economic development in flood-prone areas, which may be enhanced in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. With increasing flood risk, it is becoming more important to be able to assess the costs and benefits of adaptation strategies. To guide the design of such strategies, policy makers need tools to prioritize where adaptation is needed and how much adaptation funds are required. In this country-scale study, we show how flood risk analyses can be used in cost-benefit analyses to prioritize investments in flood adaptation strategies in Mexico under future climate scenarios...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712798/assessing-climate-risks-across-different-business-sectors-and-industries-an-investigation-of-methodological-challenges-at-national-scale-for-the-uk
#17
Swenja Surminski, Manuela Di Mauro, J Alastair R Baglee, Richenda K Connell, Joel Hankinson, Anna R Haworth, Bingunath Ingirige, David Proverbs
Climate change poses severe risks for businesses, which companies as well as governments need to understand in order to take appropriate steps to manage those. This, however, represents a significant challenge as climate change risk assessment is itself a complex, dynamic and geographically diverse process. A wide range of factors including the nature of production processes and value chains, the location of business sites as well as relationships and interdependencies with customers and suppliers play a role in determining if and how companies are impacted by climate risks...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712797/climate-risk-index-for-italy
#18
Jaroslav Mysiak, Silvia Torresan, Francesco Bosello, Malcolm Mistry, Mattia Amadio, Sepehr Marzi, Elisa Furlan, Anna Sperotto
We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712796/turning-risk-assessment-and-adaptation-policy-priorities-into-meaningful-interventions-and-governance-processes
#19
REVIEW
Kathryn Brown, Manuela DiMauro, Daniel Johns, Gemma Holmes, David Thompson, Andrew Russell, David Style
The UK is one of the first countries in the world to have set up a statutory system of national climate risk assessments followed by a national adaptation programme. Having this legal framework has been essential for enabling adaptation at the government level in a challenging political environment. However, using this framework to create an improvement in resilience to climate change across the country requires more than publishing a set of documents; it requires careful thought about what interventions work, how they can be enabled and what level of risk acceptability individuals, organizations and the country should be aiming for...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712795/transmission-of-climate-risks-across-sectors-and-borders
#20
REVIEW
Andy J Challinor, W Neil Adger, Tim G Benton, Declan Conway, Manoj Joshi, Dave Frame
Systemic climate risks, which result from the potential for cascading impacts through inter-related systems, pose particular challenges to risk assessment, especially when risks are transmitted across sectors and international boundaries. Most impacts of climate variability and change affect regions and jurisdictions in complex ways, and techniques for assessing this transmission of risk are still somewhat limited. Here, we begin to define new approaches to risk assessment that can account for transboundary and trans-sector risk transmission, by presenting: (i) a typology of risk transmission that distinguishes clearly the role of climate versus the role of the social and economic systems that distribute resources; (ii) a review of existing modelling, qualitative and systems-based methods of assessing risk and risk transmission; and (iii) case studies that examine risk transmission in human displacement, food, water and energy security...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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