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Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420553/correction-to-causality-re-established
#1
Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420552/dissipative-structures-in-matter-out-of-equilibrium-from-chemistry-photonics-and-biology-the-legacy-of-ilya-prigogine-part-2
#2
M Tlidi, M G Clerc, K Panajotov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420551/from-the-lugiato-lefever-equation-to-microresonator-based-soliton-kerr-frequency-combs
#3
REVIEW
L A Lugiato, F Prati, M L Gorodetsky, T J Kippenberg
The model, that is usually called the Lugiato-Lefever equation (LLE), was introduced in 1987 with the aim of providing a paradigm for dissipative structure and pattern formation in nonlinear optics. This model, describing a driven, detuned and damped nonlinear Schroedinger equation, gives rise to dissipative spatial and temporal solitons. Recently, the rather idealized conditions, assumed in the LLE, have materialized in the form of continuous wave driven optical microresonators, with the discovery of temporal dissipative Kerr solitons (DKS)...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420550/stabilizing-a-homoclinic-stripe
#4
Theodore Kolokolnikov, Michael Ward, Justin Tzou, Juncheng Wei
For a large class of reaction-diffusion systems with large diffusivity ratio, it is well known that a two-dimensional stripe (whose cross-section is a one-dimensional homoclinic spike) is unstable and breaks up into spots. Here, we study two effects that can stabilize such a homoclinic stripe. First, we consider the addition of anisotropy to the model. For the Schnakenberg model, we show that (an infinite) stripe can be stabilized if the fast-diffusing variable (substrate) is sufficiently anisotropic. Two types of instability thresholds are derived: zigzag (or bending) and break-up instabilities...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420549/numerical-path-integral-calculation-of-the-probability-function-and-exit-time-an-application-to-non-gradient-drift-forces
#5
Fernando Mora, Pierre Coullet, Sergio Rica, Enrique Tirapegui
We provide numerical solutions based on the path integral representation of stochastic processes for non-gradient drift Langevin forces in the presence of noise, to follow the temporal evolution of the probability density function and to compute exit times even for arbitrary noise. We compare the results with theoretical calculations, obtaining excellent agreement in the weak noise limit.This article is part of the theme issue 'Dissipative structures in matter out of equilibrium: from chemistry, photonics and biology (part 2)'...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420548/observation-and-modelling-of-vegetation-spirals-and-arcs-in-isotropic-environmental-conditions-dissipative-structures-in-arid-landscapes
#6
M Tlidi, M G Clerc, D Escaff, P Couteron, M Messaoudi, M Khaffou, A Makhoute
We report for the first time on the formation of spirals like vegetation patterns in isotropic and uniform environmental conditions. The vegetation spirals are not waves and they do not rotate. They belong to the class of dissipative structures found out of equilibrium. Isolated or interacting spirals and arcs observed in South America (Bolivia) and North Africa (Morocco) are interpreted as a result of curvature instability that affects the circular shape of localized patches. The biomass exhibits a dynamical behaviour with arcs that transform into spirals...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420547/stationary-localized-structures-and-the-effect-of-the-delayed-feedback-in-the-brusselator-model
#7
B Kostet, M Tlidi, F Tabbert, T Frohoff-Hülsmann, S V Gurevich, E Averlant, R Rojas, G Sonnino, K Panajotov
The Brusselator reaction-diffusion model is a paradigm for the understanding of dissipative structures in systems out of equilibrium. In the first part of this paper, we investigate the formation of stationary localized structures in the Brusselator model. By using numerical continuation methods in two spatial dimensions, we establish a bifurcation diagram showing the emergence of localized spots. We characterize the transition from a single spot to an extended pattern in the form of squares. In the second part, we incorporate delayed feedback control and show that delayed feedback can induce a spontaneous motion of both localized and periodic dissipative structures...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420546/fluctuations-out-of-equilibrium
#8
V V Belyi
A generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem involving slowly varying parameters is presented. Application of the Langevin method, the method of moments and of a multiscale technique reveal that not only dissipation but also dispersive contributions determine the spectral functions of fluctuations in arbitrary statistical systems. The non-Joule dispersive contribution is characterized by a novel non-local effect due to the additional phase shift between the force and the response of the system. This phase shift occurs as a result of parametric control to the system...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420545/dissipative-structures-induced-by-photoisomerization-in-a-dye-doped-nematic-liquid-crystal-layer
#9
I Andrade-Silva, U Bortolozzo, C Castillo-Pinto, M G Clerc, G González-Cortés, S Residori, M Wilson
Order-disorder phase transitions driven by temperature or light in soft matter materials exhibit complex dissipative structures. Here, we investigate the spatio-temporal phenomena induced by light in a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal layer. Experimentally, for planar anchoring of the nematic layer and high enough input power, photoisomerization processes induce a nematic-isotropic phase transition mediated by interface propagation between the two phases. In the case of a twisted nematic layer and for intermediate input power, the light induces a spatially modulated phase, which exhibits stripe patterns...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420544/spiral-wave-initiation-in-excitable-media
#10
REVIEW
V S Zykov
Spiral waves represent an important example of dissipative structures observed in many distributed systems in chemistry, biology and physics. By definition, excitable media occupy a stationary resting state in the absence of external perturbations. However, a perturbation exceeding a threshold results in the initiation of an excitation wave propagating through the medium. These waves, in contrast to acoustic and optical ones, disappear at the medium's boundary or after a mutual collision, and the medium returns to the resting state...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420543/spatially-localized-structures-in-the-gray-scott-model
#11
Punit Gandhi, Yuval R Zelnik, Edgar Knobloch
Spatially localized structures in the one-dimensional Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion model are studied using a combination of numerical continuation techniques and weakly nonlinear theory, focusing on the regime in which the activator and substrate diffusivities are different but comparable. Localized states arise in three different ways: in a subcritical Turing instability present in this regime, and from folds in the branch of spatially periodic Turing states. They also arise from the fold of spatially uniform states...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420542/on-the-possibility-of-spontaneous-chemomechanical-oscillations-in-adsorptive-porous-media
#12
D Bullara, Y De Decker, I R Epstein
We derive general conditions for the emergence of sustained chemomechanical oscillations from a non-oscillatory adsorption/desorption reaction in a gas/solid porous medium. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear response of the solid matrix to the loading of the adsorbed species. More particularly, we prove that, in order for oscillations to occur, adsorption of the gas must in general cause a swelling of the solid matrix. We also investigate the prototypical case of Langmuir kinetics both numerically and analytically...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420541/inverse-bayesian-inference-in-swarming-behaviour-of-soldier-crabs
#13
Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Hisashi Murakami, Takenori Tomaru, Vasileios Basios
Animals making a group sometimes approach and sometimes avoid a dense area of group mates, and that reveals the ambiguity of density preference. Although the ambiguity is not expressed by a simple deterministic local rule, it seems to be implemented by probabilistic inference that is based on Bayesian and inverse Bayesian inference. In particular, the inverse Bayesian process refers to perpetual changing of hypotheses. We here analyse a time series of swarming soldier crabs and show that they are employed to Bayesian and inverse Bayesian inference...
November 12, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373949/oliver-heaviside-s-electromagnetic-theory
#14
Christopher Donaghy-Spargo, Alex Yakovlev
The year 2018 marks the 125th anniversary of the first of three published volumes on electromagnetic theory by the eminent Victorian electrical engineer, physicist and mathematician, Oliver Heaviside FRS. This commemorative issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A celebrates the publication of this work by collecting papers on a broad spectrum across the field of electromagnetic theory, including innovative research papers interspersed between historical perspectives and relevant reviews. Heaviside was a remarkable man, an original thinker with brilliant mathematical powers and physical insight who made many significant contributions in his fields of interest, though he is remembered primarily for his 'step function', commonly used today in many branches of physics, mathematics and engineering...
October 29, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373948/a-catalogue-of-hidden-momenta
#15
David J Griffiths
Electromagnetic fields carry momentum: [Formula: see text] But if the centre of energy of a (localized) system is at rest, its total momentum must be zero. The compensating term has come to be called 'hidden' momentum: P h  =  -  P em It is (typically) ordinary mechanical momentum, relativistic in nature, and is 'hidden' only in the sense that it is not associated with motion of the system as a whole-only with that of its constituent parts. This article develops a catalogue of field momenta and hidden momenta for ideal electric and magnetic dipoles-both the 'standard' variety made from electric charges and currents and the 'anomalous' variety made from hypothetical magnetic monopoles and their currents-in the presence of electric and magnetic fields (which themselves may be produced by 'standard' or 'anomalous' sources)...
October 29, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373947/oliver-heaviside-and-the-heaviside-layer
#16
REVIEW
Hugh Griffiths
In an entry in the Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1902, Oliver Heaviside had suggested the existence of a reflecting layer in the upper atmosphere to account for long range beyond line-of-sight radio propagation of the type demonstrated by Guglielmo Marconi in 1901, in the first transatlantic radio transmission. In about 1910, William Eccles proposed the name 'Heaviside Layer' for this phenomenon, and the name has subsequently been adopted and used quite widely. This paper describes the basis of Marconi's experiments and various interpretations of the results in the context of Heaviside's wider work...
October 29, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373946/on-heaviside-s-contributions-to-transmission-line-theory-waves-diffusion-and-energy-flux
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Donaghy-Spargo
This paper surveys some selected contributions of Oliver Heaviside FRS (1850-1925) to classical electromagnetic theory and electrical engineering science. In particular, the paper focuses on his contributions to the development of electrical transmission line theory and his deep insights into the 'physical' nature of the phenomena relating to nineteenth century telegraphic problems. Following a brief historical introduction to the life of Heaviside to put his achievements in context, we explore his contributions to the reformulation of Maxwell's equations and the understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation along the external region of transmission lines...
October 29, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373945/measuring-the-shielding-properties-of-flexible-or-rigid-enclosures-for-portable-electronics
#18
A P Duffy, E Arihilam, Hugh Sasse, Sarah Parker, R Armstrong, N Wainwright, S Steggles, T Thomas
Heaviside, in volume 1 of Electromagnetic theory , considered shielding of conducting materials in the form of attenuation. This treatment is still significant in the understanding of shielding effectiveness. He also considered propagation of electromagnetic waves in free-space. What Heaviside (1850-1925) could never have imagined is that 125 years later, there would be devices we know as mobile phones (or cell phones, handies, etc.) with capabilities beyond the dreams of the great science fiction writers of the day like H...
October 29, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373944/stochastic-electromagnetic-field-propagation-measurement-and-modelling
#19
Gabriele Gradoni, Johannes Russer, Mohd Hafiz Baharuddin, Michael Haider, Peter Russer, Christopher Smartt, Stephen C Creagh, Gregor Tanner, David W P Thomas
This paper reviews recent progress in the measurement and modelling of stochastic electromagnetic fields, focusing on propagation approaches based on Wigner functions and the method of moments technique. The respective propagation methods are exemplified by application to measurements of electromagnetic emissions from a stirred, cavity-backed aperture. We discuss early elements of statistical electromagnetics in Heaviside's papers, driven mainly by an analogy of electromagnetic wave propagation with heat transfer...
October 29, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373943/from-theory-to-engineering-practice-shared-telecommunications-knowledge-between-oliver-heaviside-and-his-brother-and-gpo-engineer-arthur-west-heaviside
#20
Elizabeth Bruton
In May 1900, renowned General Post Office (GPO) engineer Arthur West Heaviside gave the Inaugural Address of the Institution of Electrical Engineers Newcastle local section. With a career spanning the pre-Telegraph Act private telegraph networks as well as the subsequent GPO management and licensing of British inland telecommunications, Arthur Heaviside outlined his innovative and experimental work with all three forms of telecommunication in his various GPO engineering roles based in Newcastle. Omitted from the address was the contribution made by Arthur's younger brother, Oliver Heaviside...
October 29, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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