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Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069776/orbital-angular-momentum-a-personal-memoir
#1
REVIEW
L Allen
A definitive statement of the model used to describe orbital angular momentum is essentially now available. Its early history, and the interaction of those who played key roles in its development over 20 years ago in its development, is outlined in this Memoir.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069775/optical-orbital-angular-momentum
#2
Stephen M Barnett, Mohamed Babiker, Miles J Padgett
We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069774/analogies-between-optical-and-quantum-mechanical-angular-momentum
#3
Gerard Nienhuis
The insight that a beam of light can carry orbital angular momentum (AM) in its propagation direction came up in 1992 as a surprise. Nevertheless, the existence of momentum and AM of an electromagnetic field has been well known since the days of Maxwell. We compare the expressions for densities of AM in general three-dimensional modes and in paraxial modes. Despite their classical nature, these expressions have a suggestive quantum mechanical appearance, in terms of linear operators acting on mode functions...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069773/orbital-angular-momentum-of-photons-and-the-entanglement-of-laguerre-gaussian-modes
#4
REVIEW
Mario Krenn, Mehul Malik, Manuel Erhard, Anton Zeilinger
The identification of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a fundamental property of a beam of light nearly 25 years ago has led to an extensive body of research around this topic. The possibility that single photons can carry OAM has made this degree of freedom an ideal candidate for the investigation of complex quantum phenomena and their applications. Research in this direction has ranged from experiments on complex forms of quantum entanglement to the interaction between light and quantum states of matter...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069772/swings-and-roundabouts-optical-poincar%C3%A3-spheres-for-polarization-and-gaussian-beams
#5
M R Dennis, M A Alonso
The connection between Poincaré spheres for polarization and Gaussian beams is explored, focusing on the interpretation of elliptic polarization in terms of the isotropic two-dimensional harmonic oscillator in Hamiltonian mechanics, its canonical quantization and semiclassical interpretation. This leads to the interpretation of structured Gaussian modes, the Hermite-Gaussian, Laguerre-Gaussian and generalized Hermite-Laguerre-Gaussian modes as eigenfunctions of operators corresponding to the classical constants of motion of the two-dimensional oscillator, which acquire an extra significance as families of classical ellipses upon semiclassical quantization...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069771/helically-twisted-photonic-crystal-fibres
#6
REVIEW
P St J Russell, R Beravat, G K L Wong
Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM)...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069770/recent-advances-in-high-capacity-free-space-optical-and-radio-frequency-communications-using-orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexing
#7
REVIEW
Alan E Willner, Yongxiong Ren, Guodong Xie, Yan Yan, Long Li, Zhe Zhao, Jian Wang, Moshe Tur, Andreas F Molisch, Solyman Ashrafi
There is a continuing growth in the demand for data bandwidth, and the multiplexing of multiple independent data streams has the potential to provide the needed data capacity. One technique uses the spatial domain of an electromagnetic (EM) wave, and space division multiplexing (SDM) has become increasingly important for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of a communication system. A subset of SDM is mode division multiplexing (MDM), in which multiple orthogonal beams each on a different mode can be multiplexed...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069769/normal-modes-and-mode-transformation-of-pure-electron-vortex-beams
#8
G Thirunavukkarasu, M Mousley, M Babiker, J Yuan
Electron vortex beams constitute the first class of matter vortex beams which are currently routinely produced in the laboratory. Here, we briefly review the progress of this nascent field and put forward a natural quantum basis set which we show is suitable for the description of electron vortex beams. The normal modes are truncated Bessel beams (TBBs) defined in the aperture plane or the Fourier transform of the transverse structure of the TBBs (FT-TBBs) in the focal plane of a lens with the said aperture...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069768/orbital-angular-momentum-light-in-microscopy
#9
Monika Ritsch-Marte
Light with a helical phase has had an impact on optical imaging, pushing the limits of resolution or sensitivity. Here, special emphasis will be given to classical light microscopy of phase samples and to Fourier filtering techniques with a helical phase profile, such as the spiral phase contrast technique in its many variants and areas of application.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069767/controlling-light-s-helicity-at-the-source-orbital-angular-momentum-states-from-lasers
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Forbes
Optical modes that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) are routinely produced external to the laser cavity and have found a variety of applications, thus increasing the demand for integrated solutions for their production. Yet such modes are notoriously difficult to produce from lasers due to the strict symmetry requirements for their creation, together with the need to break the degeneracy in helicity. Here, we review the progress made since 1992 in producing such twisted light modes directly at the source, from gas to solid-state lasers, bulk to integrated on-chip solutions, through to generic devices for on-demand OAM in both scalar and vector forms...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069766/optical-angular-momentum-and-atoms
#11
REVIEW
Sonja Franke-Arnold
Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069765/origins-and-demonstrations-of-electrons-with-orbital-angular-momentum
#12
Benjamin J McMorran, Amit Agrawal, Peter A Ercius, Vincenzo Grillo, Andrew A Herzing, Tyler R Harvey, Martin Linck, Jordan S Pierce
The surprising message of Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)) was that photons could possess orbital angular momentum in free space, which subsequently launched advancements in optical manipulation, microscopy, quantum optics, communications, many more fields. It has recently been shown that this result also applies to quantum mechanical wave functions describing massive particles (matter waves). This article discusses how electron wave functions can be imprinted with quantized phase vortices in analogous ways to twisted light, demonstrating that charged particles with non-zero rest mass can possess orbital angular momentum in free space...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069764/chirality-and-the-angular-momentum-of-light
#13
Robert P Cameron, Jörg B Götte, Stephen M Barnett, Alison M Yao
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light-matter interactions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069763/photokinetic-analysis-of-the-forces-and-torques-exerted-by-optical-tweezers-carrying-angular-momentum
#14
Aaron Yevick, Daniel J Evans, David G Grier
The theory of photokinetic effects expresses the forces and torques exerted by a beam of light in terms of experimentally accessible amplitude and phase profiles. We use this formalism to develop an intuitive explanation for the performance of optical tweezers operating in the Rayleigh regime, including effects arising from the influence of light's angular momentum. First-order dipole contributions reveal how a focused beam can trap small objects, and what features limit the trap's stability. The first-order force separates naturally into a conservative intensity-gradient term that forms a trap and a non-conservative solenoidal term that drives the system out of thermodynamic equilibrium...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025304/ice-microstructures-and-microdynamics
#15
Peter Sammonds, Maurine Montagnat, Paul Bons, Martin Schneebeli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025303/microdynamics-of-ice
#16
Peter Sammonds, Maurine Montagnat, Paul Bons, Martin Schneebeli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025302/micromechanics-of-sea-ice-frictional-slip-from-test-basin-scale-experiments
#17
Peter R Sammonds, Daniel C Hatton, Daniel L Feltham
We have conducted a series of high-resolution friction experiments on large floating saline ice floes in an environmental test basin. In these experiments, a central ice floe was pushed between two other floes, sliding along two interfacial faults. The frictional motion was predominantly stick-slip. Shear stresses, normal stresses, local strains and slip displacement were measured along the sliding faults, and acoustic emissions were monitored. High-resolution measurements during a single stick-slip cycle at several positions along the fault allowed us to identify two phases of frictional slip: a nucleation phase, where a nucleation zone begins to slip before the rest of the fault, and a propagation phase when the entire fault is slipping...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025301/recrystallization-and-damage-of-ice-in-winter-sports
#18
Alexandra Seymour-Pierce, Ben Lishman, Peter Sammonds
Ice samples, after sliding against a steel runner, show evidence of recrystallization and microcracking under the runner, as well as macroscopic cracking throughout the ice. The experiments that produced these ice samples are designed to be analogous to sliding in the winter sport of skeleton. Changes in the ice fabric are shown using thick and thin sections under both diffuse and polarized light. Ice drag is estimated as 40-50% of total energy dissipation in a skeleton run. The experimental results are compared with visual inspections of skeleton tracks, and to similar behaviour in rocks during sliding on earthquake faults...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025300/linking-scales-in-sea-ice-mechanics
#19
Jérôme Weiss, Véronique Dansereau
Mechanics plays a key role in the evolution of the sea ice cover through its control on drift, on momentum and thermal energy exchanges between the polar oceans and the atmosphere along cracks and faults, and on ice thickness distribution through opening and ridging processes. At the local scale, a significant variability of the mechanical strength is associated with the microstructural heterogeneity of saline ice, however characterized by a small correlation length, below the ice thickness scale. Conversely, the sea ice mechanical fields (velocity, strain and stress) are characterized by long-ranged (more than 1000 km) and long-lasting (approx...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025299/the-influence-of-closed-brine-pockets-and-permeable-brine-channels-on-the-thermo-elastic-properties-of-saline-ice
#20
Aleksey Marchenko, Ben Lishman
A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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