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Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research

Axel Leporowski, Brian Godman, Amanj Kurdi, Sean MacBride-Stewart, Margaret Ryan, Simon Hurding, Renata Crm do Nascimento, Marion Bennie, Alec Morton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Prescribing of lipid lowering agents (LLAs) has increased worldwide including in Scotland with increasing prevalence of coronary heart disease, and higher dose statins have been advocated in recent years. There have also been initiatives to encourage prescribing of generic versus patented statins to save costs without compromising care. There is a need to document these initiatives and outcomes to provide future direction. METHOD: Assessment of utilization (items dispensed) and expenditure of key LLAs (mainly statins) and expenditure between 2001 and 2015 in Scotland alongside initiatives...
July 17, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Slobodan M Janković, Danka Tešić, Marina Kostić
Evolocumab is fully human monoclonal antibody which binds to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and prevents its blocking effect on recycling of liver low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Areas covered: The aim of this review was to assess efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of evolocumab in adult patients with high cardiovascular risk. Major research databases MEDLINE, EBSCO and CENTRAL were systematically searched for relevant study reports. Expert commentary: Even when given in full doses, statins augmented with ezetimibe and cholesterol-binding resins could not reduce cholesterol baseline level for more than 66%, while evolocumab reduces cholesterol level for 75% or even more...
July 17, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Bjoern Schwander, Mark Nuijten, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Silvia M A A Evers
This study aims to determine methodological variations in the event simulation approaches of published health economic decision models, in the field of obesity, and to investigate whether their predictiveness and validity were investigated via external event validation techniques, which investigate how well the model reproduces reality. Areas covered: A systematic review identified a total of 87 relevant papers, of which 72 that simulated obesity-associated events were included. Most frequently simulated events were coronary heart disease (≈83%), type 2 diabetes (≈74%), and stroke (≈66%)...
July 16, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Frank G Sandmann, Sarah Mostardt, Stefan K Lhachimi, Andreas Gerber-Grote
The efficiency-frontier approach (EFA) to health economic evaluation aims to benchmark the relative efficiency of new drugs with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of non-dominated comparators. By explicitly considering any differences in health outcomes and costs, it enhances the internal reference pricing (IRP) policy that was officially endorsed by Germany as the first country worldwide in 1989. However, the EFA has been repeatedly criticized since its official endorsement in 2009. Areas covered: This perspective aims to stimulate the debate by discussing whether the main objections to the EFA are technically valid, irrespective of national contextual factors in Germany with the reservations towards using a cost-per-quality-adjusted life year (QALY) threshold...
July 6, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Juntana Pattanaphesaj, Montarat Thavorncharoensap, Juan Manuel Ramos-Goñi, Sirinart Tongsiri, Lily Ingsrisawang, Yot Teerawattananon
Background At present, health technology assessment (HTA) guidelines of many countries including Thailand have recommended EQ-5D as the preferred method for assessing utility. This study aims to generate an EQ-5D-5L value set based on societal preferences of Thai population. Methods A 1,207 representative sample was recruited using a stratified multi-stage quota sampling technique. Face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews using the EuroQol Valuation Technology (EQ-VT) software were employed. To elicit preference score, each respondent was asked to value health states using composite time trade-off (cTTO), and discrete choice experiment (DCE)...
June 29, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Mei-Hua Wang, Tzu-Hsuan Lu, Wei-Ni Huang, Yu-Ting Yeh
Asbtract Introduction: The elderly are high risk for chronic diseases and multiple drug use-two problems that make geriatric medication use more complex; as a result, the possibility of duplicate prescriptions and drug interactions increase, affecting patient safety. The objective of this study was to develop an Intelligent Prescription System Combined with a National PharmaCloud for Geriatrics Care (IPSPcG) that can reduce the occurrence of duplicate prescriptions. METHODS: The system was implemented in a teaching hospital in Taiwan...
June 25, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Ana V Pejcic, Georgi Iskrov, Rumen Stefanov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Xinke Zhang, Xue Song, Lorena Lopez-Gonzalez, Krutika Jariwala-Parikh, Ze Cong
BACKGROUND: Infections, cytopenia, and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity are adverse events of special interest (AESI) affecting most relapsed Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients. This study quantified real-world rates and economic burden of these events among relapsed Ph- B-cell ALL patients in the US. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with relapsed Ph- B-cell ALL during 4/1/2009 - 10/31/2016 were selected from MarketScan® healthcare claims databases...
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Jaya S Khushalani, Jin Qin, John Cyrus, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford, Sun Hee Rim, Xuesong Han, K Robin Yabroff, Donatus U Ekwueme
This systematic review examines healthcare costs associated with mental health conditions among cancer survivors in the United States. Areas covered: Ten published studies were identified. Studies varied substantially in terms of population, mental health conditions examined, data collection methods, and type of cost reported. Cancer survivors with mental health conditions incurred significantly higher total medical costs and costs of most service types compared to cancer survivors without a mental health condition...
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Melissa H Roberts, Mikiko Y Takeda, Shannon Kindilien, Yazan K Barqawi, Matthew E Borrego
Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments seek to control seizures with minimal or no adverse effects, effects which can substantially impact costs and outcomes for patients, caregivers, and third party payers. The First and Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine recommend inclusion of a societal reference case, even in studies conducted from a healthcare sector perspective, for comparability of findings across studies. Cost and outcome evaluation components include direct medical, non-direct medical-related (e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Marta Egea, Rafael Fernández-Samos, José Antonio Lechón, Luis Reparaz, María Álvarez, Marc Cairols
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic, progressive disease that often requires surgical repair. This study aimed to assess the healthcare costs and clinical outcomes of open AAA repair in Spain. METHOD: Observational, retrospective, multicenter study with a one-year follow-up. Healthcare resource use and costs related to the surgical procedure, hospital stay, and follow-up period were assessed. RESULTS: Ninety patients with asymptomatic AAA who underwent open repair were recruited between 2003 and 2009 at three Spanish hospitals...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Alain Vergnenègre, Christos Chouaïd
During the past few years, medical-economic evaluation of lung cancers (LCs) has become unavoidable. Total management costs have been rising constantly, with values almost doubling every 10 years. The financial impact will be even greater with the new molecules now marketed. The methodology for these studies conforms with international recommendations but must be adapted to the new stakes of LC management. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the available literature concerning the economics of treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Jéssica de Castro Alves, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro, Bjorn Wettermark, Tatiana Chama Borges Luz
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressants are recommended for treatment of autoimmune diseases, and in transplant therapy. The high cost of these drugs has been causing an important impact on global pharmaceutical spending. OBJECTIVE: Analyzing immunosuppressant expenditure in Brazil, using data from the Federal Procurement System database (SIASG), between 2010 and 2015. METHODS: The pharmaceutical products were classified in accordance with the Anatomical, Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classification system recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and aggregated by volume and by expenditure...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Z Lachhab, S Serragui, M Hassar, Y Cherrah, A Errougani, S Ahid
AIM: To give an overview of the pharmaceutical policy in the largest medical center in Morocco, a developing country in socio-economic transition. METHODS: This is an analytical descriptive study of the drug formulary and the purchasing process carried out at the Ibn Sina University Medical Center. RESULTS: Our formulary included 830 drugs belonging to 14 classes according to the Anatomical, Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) Classification System...
May 31, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Islam Eljilany, Faris El-Dahiyat, Louise Elizabeth Curley, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
BACKGROUND: The importance of pharmacoeconomics and health economics has been augmented. It has the potential to provide evidence to aid in optimal decision-making in the funding of cost-effective medicines and services in Gulf Cooperation Council countries (G.C.C). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality and quantity of health economic researches published until the end of 2017 in G.C.C. and to identify the factors that affect the quality of studies. METHOD: Studies were included according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
May 30, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Evie Merinopoulou, Shibani Pokras, Jeanne M Pimenta, Valerio Blini, Chiara Veronesi, Stefano Buda, Luca Degli Esposti, Dimitra Lambrelli
BACKGROUND: Preterm labor (PTL)/preterm birth (PTB) impose significant burden on health-care systems. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies at risk of PTL/PTB have not been widely investigated, and published evidence on the costs of these women and their infants in Italy is absent. We aimed to describe women with uncomplicated pregnancies and associated costs for these women and their infants. METHODS: Data on women aged 12-44 years with uncomplicated pregnancies who delivered between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2014 with PTL diagnosis alone or PTL and PTB were included from four Italian databases...
May 28, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Simrun Grewal, Scott Ramsey, Sanjeev Balu, Josh J Carlson
BACKGROUND: Biosimilars can directly reduce the cost of treating patients for whom a reference biologic is indicated by offering a highly similar, lower priced alternative. We examine factors related to biosimilar regulatory approval, uptake, pricing, and financing and the potential impact on drug expenditures in the U.S. METHODS: We developed a framework to illustrate how key factors including regulatory policies, provider and patient perception, pricing, and payer policies impact biosimilar cost-savings...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Sinaa Al-Aqeel
The Saudi government, similar to any other government, is committed to making public spending more efficient, using resources more effectively, and limiting waste. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool that informs policy and decision makers regarding the formulation of safe and effective policies that are patient-focused and help to achieve efficiency when allocating limited health-care resources. Areas covered: After a brief description of HTA in the international context, this review provides a brief introduction to Saudi Arabia's health-care system, followed by a delineation of the decision maker(s) and influencers and the decision-making process for pricing and reimbursement...
May 16, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Zhaohua Meng, Qinqin Zhang, Kun Hong, Weixin Han, Zeyan Zhao, Yajuan Liu, Junying He, Hui Bu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) treated by intrathecal chemotherapy (IC) and analyzes the prognostic factors. METHODS: The clinical and follow-up data of 33 MC patients was collected and retrospectively analyzed. Potential prognostic factors such as age, gender, primary cancer, transfer time, presence of brain metastasis, intracranial pressure, protein, glucose, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG) performance status (PS), systemic treatment and IC were discussed...
May 10, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Syed Shahzad Hasan, Chia Siang Kow, Louise E Curley, Darrin L Baines, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Anticoagulants refer to a variety of agents that inhibit one or more steps in the coagulation cascade. Generally, clinical conditions that require the prescribing of an oral anticoagulant increase in frequency with age. However, a major challenge of anticoagulation use among older patients is that this group of patients also experience the highest bleeding risk. To date, economic evaluation of prescribing of anticoagulants that includes the novel or newer oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in older adults has not been conducted and is warranted...
May 9, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
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