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Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology

Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most important global health issues among international travelers, especially those traveling to developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing TD. Although TD is self-limiting, it is also severely incapacitating. Ciprofloxacin is one of the standard quinolone antibiotics used in patients with TD. However, the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the urgent need to identify new drugs...
October 18, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Tao Huan, Jia Wen Xian, Wing Nang Leung, Liang Li, Chun Wai Chan
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an important biofluid for diagnosis of and research on neurological diseases. However, in-depth metabolomic profiling of CSF remains an analytical challenge due to the small volume of samples, particularly in small animal models. In this work, we report the application of a high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) workflow for CSF metabolomics in Gastrodia elata and Uncaria rhynchophylla water extract (GUW)-treated experimental cerebral ischemia model of rat...
October 12, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Collet Dandara, Vural Özdemir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
İbrahim Ömer Barlas, Orhan Sezgin, Collet Dandara, Gözde Türköz, Emre Yengel, Zinhle Cindi, Handan Ankaralı, Semra Şardaş
Pharmacogenomics harnesses the utility of a patient's genome (n = 1) in decisions on which therapeutic drugs and in what amounts should be administered. Often, patients with shared ancestry present with comparable genetic profiles that predict drug response. However, populations are not static, thus, often, population mobility through migration, especially enmasse as is seen for refugees, changes the pharmacogenetic profiles of resultant populations and therefore observed responses to commonly used therapeutic drugs...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Amy Geard, Gift D Pule, David Chelo, Valentina Josiane Ngo Bitoungui, Ambroise Wonkam
Sickle cell disease (SCD) vastly impacts the African continent and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Stroke, kidney disease, and pulmonary hypertension are considered as proxies of severity in SCD with several genomic loci implicated in their heritability. The present expert review examined the current data on epidemiology and genetic risk factors of stroke, pulmonary hypertension, and kidney disease associated with SCD, as indexed in PubMed(®) and Google Scholar(®). Studies collectively show that stroke and kidney disease each affect ∼10% of SCD patients, with pulmonary hypertension displaying a higher prevalence of 30% among adults with SCD...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Marco Alessandrini, Mamoonah Chaudhry, Tyren M Dodgen, Michael S Pepper
In a move indicative of the enthusiastic support of precision medicine, the U.S. President Barack Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in January 2015. The global precision medicine ecosystem is, thus, receiving generous support from the United States ($215 million), and numerous other governments have followed suit. In the context of precision medicine, drug treatment and prediction of its outcomes have been important for nearly six decades in the field of pharmacogenomics. The field offers an elegant solution for minimizing the effects and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Khuthala Mnika, Gift D Pule, Collet Dandara, Ambroise Wonkam
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a blood disease caused by a single nucleotide substitution (T > A) in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11. The single point mutation (Glu6Val) promotes polymerization of hemoglobin S (HbS) and causes sickling of erythrocytes. Vaso-occlusive painful crises are associated with recurrent and long-term use of analgesics/opioids and hydroxyurea (HU) by people living with SCD. The present analysis offers a state-of-the-art expert review of the effectiveness of pharmacogenomics/genetics of pain management in SCD, with specific focus on HU and opioids...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Shareefa Dalvie, Nastassja Koen, Nathaniel McGregor, Kevin O'Connell, Louise Warnich, Raj Ramesar, Caroline M Nievergelt, Dan J Stein
Mental disorders represent a major public health burden worldwide. This is likely to rise in the next decade, with the highest increases predicted to occur in low- and middle-income countries. Current psychotropic medication treatment guidelines focus on uniform approaches to the treatment of heterogeneous disorders and achieve only partial therapeutic success. Developing a global precision medicine approach in psychiatry appears attractive, given the value of this approach in other fields of medicine, such as oncology and infectious diseases...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Collen Masimirembwa, Collet Dandara, Peter Derek Christian Leutscher
The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) led to huge reductions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related deaths, turning HIV-infection into a chronic condition. Attention is now turning to quality of life for patients on lifelong ART treatment, reflecting on the safety of antiretroviral drugs. In sub-Saharan Africa, efavirenz (EFV) forms the preferred first-line ART but adverse drug events have also been reported. We express our concern on EFV-based regimens being part of mass rollout programs without full attention to toxicities...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Nisreen Hoosain, Brendon Pearce, Clifford Jacobs, Mongi Benjeddou
The U.S. President Barack Obama has announced, in his State of the Union address on January 20, 2015, the Precision Medicine Initiative, a US$215-million program. For global precision medicine to become a reality, however, biological and environmental "variome" in previously understudied populations ought to be mapped and catalogued. Chief among the molecular targets that warrant global mapping is the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), encoded by solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1), a hepatic uptake transporter predominantly expressed in the basolateral side of hepatocytes...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Eleni Aklillu, Abiy Habtewold, Eliford Ngaimisi, Getnet Yimer, Sabina Mugusi, Wondwossen Amogne, Tasmin Reuter, Andreas Meid, Michael Marcus Hoffmann, Johanna Weiss
The solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encodes for a membrane-bound organic anion transporter protein involved in active cellular influx of many endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. SLCO1B1 genetic variation is associated, for example, with highly variable rifampicin exposure, thus influencing the cornerstone antituberculosis therapy, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where it is a key therapeutic modality. Yet, there is no SLCO1B1-guided pharmacogenetic dosing recommendation for rifampicin to reduce the risk of adverse events or therapy failure...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Nicholas E Thomford, Buyisile Mkhize, Kevin Dzobo, Keleabetswe Mpye, Arielle Rowe, M Iqbal Parker, Ambroise Wonkam, Michelle Skelton, Alison V September, Collet Dandara
Medicinal plants are part of the healthcare systems worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. African lettuce (Launaea taraxacifolia) is cultivated extensively in Africa, from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia and Tanzania in the east, and in Southern Africa. Potential anticancer effects of L. taraxacifolia have been suggested, but little is known about putative molecular mechanisms or potential for herb-drug interactions through inhibition or induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. We investigated the effects of crude aqueous extracts of L...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Masouda Rahim, Louis Y El Khoury, Stuart M Raleigh, William J Ribbans, Michael Posthumus, Malcolm Collins, Alison V September
Sport and Exercise Medicine is one of the important subspecialties of 21st century healthcare contributing to improving the physical function, health, and vitality of populations while reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases. Moreover, sport and exercise are associated with injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy, which is a common tendon injury. The angiogenesis-associated signaling pathway plays a key role in extracellular matrix remodeling, with increased levels of angiogenic cytokines reported after cyclic stretching of tendon fibroblasts...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Krishna R Murthy, Manjunath Dammalli, Sneha M Pinto, Kalpana Babu Murthy, Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Anil K Madugundu, Gourav Dey, Yashwanth Subbannayya, Uttam Kumar Mishra, Bipin Nair, Harsha Gowda, T S Keshava Prasad
The annual economic burden of visual disorders in the United States was estimated at $139 billion. Ophthalmology is therefore one of the salient application fields of postgenomics biotechnologies such as proteomics in the pursuit of global precision medicine. Interestingly, the protein composition of the human iris tissue still remains largely unexplored. In this context, the uveal tract constitutes the vascular middle coat of the eye and is formed by the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. The iris forms the anterior most part of the uvea...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Nyarai D Soko, Collen Masimirembwa, Collet Dandara
The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in African populations residing in the African continent is on the rise fueled by both a steady increase in CVD risk factors and comorbidities such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and parasitic diseases such as bilharzia. Statins are recommended together with lifestyle changes in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and overall reduction of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin in particular is an attractive candidate in the management of CVDs in African populations often plagued with multimorbidities owing to both its potency and low drug-to-drug interaction potential...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Collet Dandara, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz, Eleni Aklillu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Collet Dandara, Laszlo Endrenyi, Eugene Kolker, Nezih Hekim, Lotte M G Steuten, Kıvanç Güngör, Eleni Aklillu, Vural Özdemir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Azam Yazdani, Akram Yazdani, Eric Boerwinkle
Fatty acids are important sources of energy and possible predictors and etiologic factors in many common complex pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancers. While fatty acids are thought to covary with each other, their underlying causal networks have not been fully elucidated. This study reports the identification and analysis of a statistical causal network among 15 mostly long-chain fatty acids. In an African-American population sample and using the Genome granularity-Directed Acyclic Graph (GDAG) algorithm, we determined directions or causal relationships in the fatty acid metabolome...
August 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Deep Pokharel, Philip Wijesinghe, Vici Oenarto, Jamie F Lu, David D Sampson, Brendan F Kennedy, Vincent P Wallace, Mary Bebawy
Deciphering the role of cell-to-cell communication in acquisition of cancer traits such as metastasis is one of the key challenges of integrative biology and clinical oncology. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important vectors in cell-to-cell communication and serve as conduits in the transfer of cellular constituents required for cell function and for the establishment of cellular phenotypes. In the case of malignancy, they have been shown to support the acquisition of common traits defined as constituting the hallmarks of cancer...
August 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Aynur Avcı Özge, Mehmet Ali Sungur
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. However, biomarkers that require testing in the brain tissue pose a formidable practical barrier to AD diagnostic innovation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for control of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are essential for the function of neuronal networks and neuronal survival. miRNA expression can impact the regulation of APP (amyloid beta A4 precursor protein), PSEN1 (presenilin 1), PSEN2 (presenilin 2), and BACE1 (beta-secretase 1) genes in the brain that were previously implicated in AD pathophysiology...
August 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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