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Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344909/tackling-shell-shock-in-great-war-oxford-thomas-saxty-good-william-mcdougall-and-james-arthur-hadfield
#1
John Stewart
Shell shock was an important object of diagnostic and therapeutic concern in Oxford during the Great War. The efforts of three Oxford physicians--Thomas Saxty Good, William McDougall, and James Arthur Hadfield--are of particular significance to our story. All worked on the problem at various sites throughout the city. They often collaborated. All were committed to employing innovative techniques such as psychotherapy and hypnosis. Each rose, to differing extents, to prominence in the field of psychological medicine during the succeeding decades...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344908/healthcare-before-welfare-states-hospitals-in-early-twentieth-century-england-and-france
#2
Barry M Doyle
Following the. Second World War, many west European nations developed welfare states to enhance the health and security of their populations, but the systems that were created differed significantly in form and function. This article will provide a comparative overview of the development of hospital services in urban England and France in the first forty years of the 20th century using evidence from two case study cities to enhance our understanding of how these welfare systems developed. It will consider the structure of the two hospital systems; governance and accountability; institutional finance; patients; and the role of the central and local state to argue that the maintenance of two separate providers and the exclusion of hospitals from state health insurance in England prompted a different set of responses to the delivery of hospital care compared to what was found in the unified and increasingly state-funded French system...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344907/-not-available
#3
Emanuel Delille
The category of an "Early Psychosis" refers to a common medical classification. It is an essential part of the knowledge constituting mental health even as it represents a normative category subsuming a set of peculiarities in human behaviour, speech, emotional expression, and mental states that together can be described as a mental disorder. Numerous publications since the 1990s have rendered the "Early Psychosis" into a focus of standardised research, prevention and therapy procedures, while earlier medical practices remained unknown...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344906/-not-available
#4
Denyse Baillargeon, Susanne Commend
This article focuses on the thalidomide tragedy that occurred in Canada in 1962. Through the study of various primary sources, including letters sent by citizens to the federal Minister of Health and newspaper coverage of the tragedy, we provide an analysis of the public debates provoked by babies born with phocomelia in order to better assess the conception Quebec and Canadian societies had of disabled persons at the beginning of the 1960s. Inspired by the French philosopher Marie-Claire Cagnolo's classification scheme of the "logics" that characterized the treatment of disabled persons through history, the study concludes that a "separatist logic of elimination" clearly arose, while a "paternalistic logic of reparation" also began to appear...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344905/from-west-end-to-eastside-the-vancouver-hiv-aids-epidemic-1983-2013
#5
Taylor Perry
Traditional histories of AIDS have used a few major American urban centres as proxies for the North American epidemic more broadly and have tended to frame the epidemic as a quintessentially gay and American experience. A careful examination of how the epidemic unfolded in Vancouver, British Columbia, however, reveals considerable differences, including the relative absence of local gay activist traditions prior to HIV/AIDS and the relative prominence of interventions such as Insite, North America's first sanctioned needle exchange program and safe injection site...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344904/blood-transfusion-and-the-body-in-early-modern-france
#6
Benjamin H Chin-Yee, Ian H Chin-Yee
This article examines medical discourse surrounding the first animal-to-human blood transfusion performed in 1667 by the French physician Jean-Baptiste Denis. During this period, new physiologies interacted with Galenic medicine in various social milieus that shaped discourse over the body. Although the practice of transfusion was based in contemporary theories of circulation, the therapeutic rationale for transfusion largely appealed to Galenic humouralism. This case reveals how social and intellectual contexts engendered an eclectic corporality, which integrated contemporary natural philosophy within a framework of medical Galenism...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344903/an-evil-hitherto-unchecked-eugenics-and-the-1917-ontario-royal-commission-on-the-care-and-control-of-the-mentally-defective-and-feeble-minded
#7
C Elizabeth Koester
In 1917, the Ontario government appointed the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded, headed by Justice Frank Hodgins. Its final report made wide-ranging recommendations regarding the segregation of feeble-minded individuals, restrictions on marriage, the improvement of psychiatric facilities, and the reform of the court system, all matters of great concern to the eugenics movement. At the same time, however, it refrained from using explicitly eugenic vocabulary and ignored the question of sterilization...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344902/-not-available
#8
Johanne Collin, David Hughes
In The Mind of Modernism, Mark Micale demonstrates the ubiquity of the concept of hysteria in the French imagination at the turn of the century. Taking this approach as our starting point, our study attempts to determine if the notion of degeneration played a similar role in the interactions of psychiatry, culture and politics in Quebec. Our analysis of a variety of historical sources demonstrates that the concept of degeneration did indeed penetrate aspects of psychiatric nosology, medical literature, news media, fiction, and political discourse in Quebec...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344901/physicians-healers-and-their-remedies-in-colonial-suriname
#9
Natalie Zemon Davis
Medical pluralism flourished in the 18th century in the Dutch colony of Suriname. White physicians and surgeons, trained in European medicine, existed along with Indigenous priest/healers and herbalists, slave priest/diviners, and healers of African origin, their diverse practices played out on the plantation itself. While decrying the "superstition" of slave healers, physicians began to take note of their plant remedies, such as the local bark used to reduce fever discovered by the celebrated diviner Quassie...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909025/dr-william-feindel
#10
Frank W Stahnisch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909024/contraception-or-eugenics-sterilization-and-mental-retardation-in-the-1970s-and-1980s
#11
Molly Ladd-Taylor
Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909023/sterilization-and-birth-control-in-the-shadow-of-eugenics-married-middle-class-women-in-alberta-1930-1960s
#12
Erika Dyck
The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909022/eugenics-in-the-community-gendered-professions-and-eugenic-sterilization-in-alberta-1928-1972
#13
Amy Samson
Scholarship on Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act (1928-1972) has focused on the high-level politics behind the legislation, its main administrative body, the Eugenics Board, and its legal legacy, overlooking the largely female-dominated professions that were responsible for operating the program outside of the provincial mental health institutions. This paper investigates the relationship between eugenics and the professions of teaching, public health nursing, and social work. It argues that the Canadian mental hygiene and eugenics movements, which were fundamentally connected, provided these professions with an opportunity to maintain and extend their professional authority...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909021/-our-power-to-remodel-civilization-the-development-of-eugenic-feminism-in-alberta-1909-1921
#14
Sheila Gibbons
In addition to being a prominent political figure in equal rights legislation, Emily Murphy was a vital contributor to programs which sought to improve the human race through forced sterilization. These negative aspects of this period in feminist history tend to be described as outside of the women's sphere, representing instead the patriarchal realm of men. However, both eugenics and the first-wave feminist ambitions for equal political rights were connected through an agrarian construction of "mothers of the race...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909020/-a-visitation-of-providence-public-health-and-eugenic-reform-in-the-wake-of-the-halifax-disaster
#15
Leslie Baker
The Halifax Explosion provided the opportunity for an "experiment in public health" that was meant not only to restore but also to improve the city and its population in the process. The restructuring that occurred during the restoration was influenced by pre-existing ideals and prejudices which were reflected in the goals of the newly formed committees in charge of the reconstruction. The primary emphasis on improvement as well as control was the result of existing regional concerns regarding the emigration of the province's most "desirable" stock, in the form of healthy, educated young men and women, to central Canada and the eastern United States...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909019/eugenics-and-migration-a-case-study-of-salvation-army-literature-about-canada-and-britain-c-1890-1921
#16
Graham J Baker
The eugenics movement attracted a wide range of supporters. This article explores this theme with relation to literature about the charitable work of the Salvation Army in Britain and Canada c.1890-1921, with a focus upon the emigration scheme outlined in William Booth's book In Darkest England and the Way Out. These writings indicate the widespread dispersal of eugenic ideology, and demonstrate the flexibility with which these theories were interpreted in this period. It will be shown that the Salvation Army adopted elements of both hereditarian and environmentalist views regarding racial health...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909018/eugenics-and-racial-biology-in-sweden-and-the-ussr-contacts-across-the-baltic-sea
#17
Per Anders Rudling
The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909017/the-early-eugenics-movement-and-emerging-professional-psychiatry-conceptual-transfers-and-personal-relationships-between-germany-and-north-america-1880s-to-1930s
#18
Frank W Stahnisch
French-Austrian psychiatrist Bénédict Augustin Morel's (1809-1873) Traits des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espèce humaine (1857) was fully dedicated to the social problem of "degeneration" and it became very attractive to German-speaking psychiatrists during the latter half of the 19th century. Auguste Forel (1848-1931) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930) in Zurich integrated Morel's approach and searched for the somatic and morphological alterations in the human brain; a perspective of research that Ernst Ruedin (1874-1952) at Munich further prolonged into a thorough analysis of hereditary influences on mental health...
2014: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22849255/-he-is-still-unwanted-women-s-assertions-of-authority-over-abortion-in-letters-to-the-royal-commission-on-the-status-of-women-in-canada
#19
Shannon Stettner
Throughout the 1960s, the public abortion debate was dominated by men. While women's voices were not absent, they are harder to locate. This article highlights one forum in which women eloquently expressed their feelings about abortion. In submissions to the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada, women demonstrated their "right" to speak on the issue in many ways, including by sharing their experiences as mothers or with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies; referencing their professional lives, especially in care giving fields; and drawing moral authority from or opposing religious beliefs...
2012: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22849254/the-social-integration-of-the-mentally-ill-in-quebec-prior-to-the-b%C3%A3-dard-report-of-1962
#20
Marie-Claude Thifault, Isabelle Perreault
This article on the first initiatives of social integration of the mentally ill, using the example of Saint-Jean-de-Dieu Hospital, explores the implementation of dehopsitalization (the transition between hospital and community care) in the early decades of the 20th century. Our study is part of the recent historiographical stream that offers a reinterpretation of the period just prior to the Quiet Revolution in Quebec. We aim to contribute to this research by showing that the policies, strategies, and practices of the Sisters of Providence and the psychiatrists of Saint-Jean-de-Dieu already comprised a deinstitutionalization system that was reintegrating patients into their families as early as the 1910s--half a century before the first wave of deinstitutionalization of the 1960s was orchestrated by the authors of the Bédard Report...
2012: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
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