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Eukaryotic Cell

Shen-Huan Liang, Jen-Hua Cheng, Fu-Sheng Deng, Pei-An Tsai, Ching-Hsuan Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Alba A Chavez-Dozal, Stella M Bernardo, Hallie S Rane, Samuel A Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Alba A Chavez-Dozal, Stella M Bernardo, Hallie S Rane, Gloria Herrera, Vibhati Kulkarny, Jeanette Wagener, Iain Cunningham, Alexandra C Brand, Neil A R Gow, Samuel A Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Aaron P Mitchell
The journal Eukaryotic Cell has served the eukaryotic microbiology community since 2002. It will continue to do so as it merges into the new broad-scope open-access journal mSphere in 2016.
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Petr Rada, Abhijith Radhakrishna Makki, Verena Zimorski, Sriram Garg, Vladimír Hampl, Ivan Hrdý, Sven B Gould, Jan Tachezy
Mitochondrial evolution entailed the origin of protein import machinery that allows nuclear-encoded proteins to be targeted to the organelle, as well as the origin of cleavable N-terminal targeting sequences (NTS) that allow efficient sorting and import of matrix proteins. In hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, reduced forms of mitochondria with reduced proteomes, NTS-independent targeting of matrix proteins is known. Here, we studied the cellular localization of two glycolytic enzymes in the anaerobic pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis: PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (TvPPi-PFK), which is the main glycolytic PFK activity of the protist, and ATP-dependent PFK (TvATP-PFK), the function of which is less clear...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Alba A Chavez-Dozal, Stella M Bernardo, Hallie S Rane, Samuel A Lee
In prior studies of exocyst-mediated late secretion in Candida albicans, we have determined that Sec6 contributes to cell wall integrity, secretion, and filamentation. A conditional mutant lacking SEC6 expression exhibits markedly reduced lateral hyphal branching. In addition, lack of the related t-SNAREs Sso2 and Sec9 also leads to defects in secretion and filamentation. To further understand the role of the exocyst in the fundamental processes of polarized secretion and filamentation in C. albicans, we studied the exocyst subunit Sec15...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Qianyi Yang, Amjad M Nasir, Robert S Coyne, James D Forney
Ubc9p is the sole E2-conjugating enzyme for SUMOylation, and its proper function is required for regulating key nuclear events such as transcription, DNA repair, and mitosis. In Tetrahymena thermophila, the genome is separated into a diploid germ line micronucleus (MIC) that divides by mitosis and a polyploid somatic macronucleus (MAC) that divides amitotically. This unusual nuclear organization provides novel opportunities for the study of SUMOylation and Ubc9p function. We identified the UBC9 gene and demonstrated that its complete deletion from both MIC and MAC genomes is lethal...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Barry J Bowman, Marija Draskovic, Robert R Schnittker, Tarik El-Mellouki, Michael D Plamann, Eddy Sánchez-León, Meritxell Riquelme, Emma Jean Bowman
Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Fausto Almeida, Julie M Wolf, Arturo Casadevall
Enzymes play key roles in fungal pathogenesis. Manipulation of enzyme expression or activity can significantly alter the infection process, and enzyme expression profiles can be a hallmark of disease. Hence, enzymes are worthy targets for better understanding pathogenesis and identifying new options for combatting fungal infections. Advances in genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and mass spectrometry have enabled the identification and characterization of new fungal enzymes. This review focuses on recent developments in the virulence-associated enzymes from Cryptococcus neoformans...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Frans M Klis, Stanley Brul
The wall proteome and the secretome of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans help it to thrive in multiple niches of the human body. Mass spectrometry has allowed researchers to study the dynamics of both subproteomes. Here, we discuss some major responses of the secretome to host-related environmental conditions. Three β-1,3-glucan-modifying enzymes, Mp65, Sun41, and Tos1, are consistently found in large amounts in culture supernatants, suggesting that they are needed for construction and expansion of the cell wall β-1,3-glucan layer and thus correlate with growth and might serve as diagnostic biomarkers...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Museer A Lone, Aaron E Atkinson, Christine A Hodge, Stéphanie Cottier, Fernando Martínez-Montañés, Shelley Maithel, Laurent Mène-Saffrané, Charles N Cole, Roger Schneiter
Proper functioning of intracellular membranes is critical for many cellular processes. A key feature of membranes is their ability to adapt to changes in environmental conditions by adjusting their composition so as to maintain constant biophysical properties, including fluidity and flexibility. Similar changes in the biophysical properties of membranes likely occur when intracellular processes, such as vesicle formation and fusion, require dramatic changes in membrane curvature. Similar modifications must also be made when nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are constructed within the existing nuclear membrane, as occurs during interphase in all eukaryotes...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Natalia S Voynova, Carole Roubaty, Hector M Vazquez, Shamroop K Mallela, Christer S Ejsing, Andreas Conzelmann
Inositolphosphorylceramide (IPC) and its mannosylated derivatives are the only complex sphingolipids of yeast. Their synthesis can be reduced by aureobasidin A (AbA), which specifically inhibits the IPC synthase Aur1. AbA reportedly, by diminishing IPC levels, causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, an increase in cytosolic calcium, reactive oxygen production, and mitochondrial damage leading to apoptosis. We found that when Aur1 is gradually depleted by transcriptional downregulation, the accumulation of ceramides becomes a major hindrance to cell survival...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Claude Pujol, Karla J Daniels, David R Soll
Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans, it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis, given that one-third of natural strains are MTL homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Rajendra Prasad, Atanu Banerjee, Nitesh Kumar Khandelwal, Sanjiveeni Dhamgaye
In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins...
December 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Fumika Mi-ichi, Akira Nozawa, Hiroki Yoshida, Yuzuru Tozawa, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic protozoan parasite, possesses mitosomes. Mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles that have largely lost typical mitochondrial functions, such as those involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The biological roles of Entamoeba mitosomes have been a long-standing enigma. We previously demonstrated that sulfate activation, which is not generally compartmentalized to mitochondria, is a major function of E. histolytica mitosomes. Sulfate activation cooperates with cytosolic enzymes, i...
November 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Kiem Vu, Jennifer M Bautos, Angie Gelli
Pathogenic fungi have developed mechanisms to cope with stresses imposed by hosts. For Cryptococcus spp., this implies active defense mechanisms that attenuate and ultimately overcome the onslaught of oxidative stresses in macrophages. Among cellular pathways within Cryptococcus neoformans' arsenal is the plasma membrane high-affinity Cch1-Mid1 calcium (Ca(2+)) channel (CMC). Here we show that CMC has an unexpectedly complex and disparate role in mitigating oxidative stress. Upon inhibiting the Ccp1-mediated oxidative response pathway with antimycin, strains of C...
November 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Yuan Sun, Chengjun Cao, Wei Jia, Li Tao, Guobo Guan, Guanghua Huang
As a successful commensal and pathogen of humans, Candida albicans encounters a wide range of environmental conditions. Among them, ambient pH, which changes frequently and affects many biological processes in this species, is an important factor, and the ability to adapt to pH changes is tightly linked with pathogenesis and morphogenesis. In this study, we report that pH has a profound effect on white-opaque switching and sexual mating in C. albicans. Acidic pH promotes white-to-opaque switching under certain culture conditions but represses sexual mating...
November 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Shelley Lane, Pietro Di Lena, Kati Tormanen, Pierre Baldi, Haoping Liu
Candida albicans is associated with humans as both a harmless commensal organism and a pathogen. Cph2 is a transcription factor whose DNA binding domain is similar to that of mammalian sterol response element binding proteins (SREBPs). SREBPs are master regulators of cellular cholesterol levels and are highly conserved from fungi to mammals. However, ergosterol biosynthesis is regulated by the zinc finger transcription factor Upc2 in C. albicans and several other yeasts. Cph2 is not necessary for ergosterol biosynthesis but is important for colonization in the murine gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
November 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Wonyong Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, David R Gang, Tobin L Peever, Weidong Chen
Secondary metabolite genes are often clustered together and situated in particular genomic regions, like the subtelomere, that can facilitate niche adaptation in fungi. Solanapyrones are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi occupying different ecological niches. Full-genome sequencing of the ascomycete Ascochyta rabiei revealed a solanapyrone biosynthesis gene cluster embedded in an AT-rich region proximal to a telomere end and surrounded by Tc1/Mariner-type transposable elements. The highly AT-rich environment of the solanapyrone cluster is likely the product of repeat-induced point mutations...
November 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Calvin Tiengwe, Abigail E N A Brown, James D Bangs
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress mechanism to cope with misfolded proteins in the early secretory pathway, the hallmark being transcriptional upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones such as BiP and protein disulfide isomerase. Despite the lack of transcriptional regulation and the absence of the classical UPR machinery, African trypanosomes apparently respond to persistent ER stress by a UPR-like response, including upregulation of BiP, and a related spliced leader silencing (SLS) response whereby SL RNA transcription is shut down...
November 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
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