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Vascular Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339138/hyperglycaemia-disrupts-conducted-vasodilation-in-the-resistance-vasculature-of-db-db-mice
#1
Hamish A L Lemmey, Xi Ye, Hong Ding, Chris R Triggle, Christopher J Garland, Kim A Dora
Vascular dysfunction in small resistance arteries is observed during chronic elevations in blood glucose. Hyperglycaemia-associated effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation have been well characterized, but effects on conducted vasodilation in the resistance vasculature are not known. Small mesenteric arteries were isolated from healthy and diabetic db/db mice, which were used as a model of chronic hyperglycaemia. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation via the Gq/11-coupled proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) was stimulated with the selective agonist SLIGRL...
January 12, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337033/gliclazide-a-katp-channel-blocker-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-through-the-camkk%C3%AE-ampk-pathway
#2
Kyung Young Lee, Jae-Ryong Kim, Hyoung Chul Choi
Gliclazide, a sulfonylurea that is widely used to treat type II-diabetes, specifically blocks KATP channels and recombinant smooth muscle (SUR2B/Kir6.1) KATP channels with high potency. Furthermore, it exerts antioxidant properties and inhibits tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of gliclazide on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and tried to identify the underlying signaling pathway. We first investigated the effect of gliclazide-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on the proliferation of VSMCs...
January 11, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305337/serum-adiponectin-levels-predict-acute-coronary-syndrome-acs-in-patients-with-severe-carotid-stenosis
#3
Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Maria Bertolotto, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchié, François Mach, Fabienne Burger, Aldo Pende, Giovanni Spinella, Bianca Pane, Domenico Palombo, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco
As endocrine organ, adipose tissue may modulate inflammatory response by releasing a wide range of mediators, known as adipocytokines. Due to the complex balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activity their pathophysiological and prognostic role in cardiovascular (CV) diseases still remains debated. Here, we consider the potential associations of circulating adipocytokines adiponectin, leptin and their ratio (LAR), with metabolic and inflammatory profiles in 217 patients with severe carotid stenosis. A prospective analysis investigating their predictive role toward acute coronary syndromes (ACS) was also drawn over a 12-month follow-up period...
January 2, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274772/evidence-for-the-use-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-in-the-treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-and-post-angioplasty-restenosis
#4
REVIEW
Jochen Dutzmann, Johann Bauersachs, Daniel G Sedding
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), such as spironolactone, eplerenone and finerenone, have an established role in the treatment of heart failure. However, many experimental and clinical studies have shown that aldosterone also plays a pivotal role in a variety of other pathophysiological conditions within the cardiovascular system. Aldosterone has been suggested to promote inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia during the development of atherosclerosis, thereby promoting the development of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
December 21, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277292/resveratrol-attenuates-hyperproliferation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-from-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-role-of-ros-and-ros-mediated-cell-signaling
#5
Sara Almajdoob, Ekhtear Hossain, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound has been reported to attenuate angiotensin II -induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy; however, whether resveratrol could also inhibit hyperproliferation of VSMC from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is unexplored. The present study investigates the effect of resveratrol on hyperproliferation of VSMC from SHR and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for this response. For these studies, aortic VSMC from SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used...
December 19, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253618/udp-sugars-activate-p2y14-receptors-to-mediate-vasoconstriction-of-the-porcine-coronary-artery
#6
Zainab S B Abbas, M Liaque Latif, Natalia Dovlatova, Sue C Fox, Stan Heptinstall, William R Dunn, Vera Ralevic
AIMS: UDP-sugars can act as extracellular signalling molecules, but relatively little is known about their cardiovascular actions. The P2Y14 receptor is a Gi/o-coupled receptor which is activated by UDP-glucose and related sugar nucleotides. In this study we sought to investigate whether P2Y14 receptors are functionally expressed in the porcine coronary artery using a selective P2Y14 receptor agonist, MRS2690, and a novel selective P2Y14 receptor antagonist, PPTN (4,7-disubstituted naphthoic acid derivative)...
December 15, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247786/periadventitial-local-drug-delivery-to-target-restenosis
#7
REVIEW
Belay Tesfamariam
The adventitia functions as a dynamic compartment for cell trafficking into and out of the artery wall, and communicates with medial and intimal cells. The resident cells in the tunica adventitia play an integral role in the regulation of vessel wall structure, repair, tone, and remodeling. Following injury to the vascular wall, adventitial fibroblasts are activated, which proliferate and differentiate into migratory myofibroblasts, and initiate inflammation through the secretion of soluble factors such as chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules...
December 13, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203287/effects-of-endurance-training-on-serum-lipids
#8
REVIEW
Kati Fikenzer, Sven Fikenzer, Ulrich Laufs, Christian Werner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, however, the literature reports heterogeneous quantitative effects of exercise on serum lipids. We therefore reviewed the effects of aerobic exercise on serum lipids with special focus on the training effectiveness. METHODS: Data regarding effects of endurance training (ET) on total Cholesterol (TC), LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were evaluated in a selective literature search...
December 1, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174923/inorganic-nitrite-and-nitrate-in-cardiovascular-therapy-a-better-alternative-to-organic-nitrates-as-nitric-oxide-donors
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
In 1867 the organic nitrite, amyl nitrite, was introduced as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris and was later substituted by the organic nitrate nitroglycerin (NTG). Despite having a highly potent vasodilator capacity in veins>coronary arteries>arterioles, the vasodilator effects NTG are rapidly attenuated by the development of nitrate tolerance. We and others established that NTG treatment stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and peroxynitrite with subsequent marked attenuation of the NTG vasodilator potency...
November 22, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174014/nanotechnology-and-primary-hemostasis-differential-effects-of-nanoparticles-on-platelet-responses
#10
REVIEW
María Francisca Matus, Cristian Vilos, Bruno A Cisterna, Eduardo Fuentes, Iván Palomo
Despite the numerous advantages offered by diverse platforms based on nanomedicine, several nanomaterials have shown significant cell toxicity that could induce chronic adverse effects on human health. Blood compatibility is one of the leading factors to consider for the design and development of nanosystems as therapeutics. Aforementioned is because systemic circulation is the gateway for most nano-drug therapeutic systems and its interactions with the blood components such as platelets could influence the maintenance of hemostasis and thrombus formation...
November 21, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174013/the-minor-histocompatibility-antigen-1-hmha1-arhgap45-is-a-racgap-and-a-novel-regulator-of-endothelial-integrity
#11
J Amado-Azevedo, N R Reinhard, J van Bezu, G P van Nieuw Amerongen, V W M van Hinsbergh, P L Hordijk
Endothelial cells line the vasculature and act as gatekeepers that control the passage of plasma, macromolecules and cells from the circulation to the interstitial space. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier can lead to uncontrolled leak or edema. Vascular leakage is a hallmark of a range of diseases and despite its large impact no specialized therapies are available to prevent or reduce it. RhoGTPases are known key regulators of cellular behavior that are directly involved in the regulation of the endothelial barrier...
November 21, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169950/lactadherin-an-unappreciated-haemostasis-regulator-and-potential-therapeutic-agent
#12
REVIEW
Agnieszka Kamińska, Francisco J Enguita, Ewa Ł Stępień
Lactadherin is a small (53-66kDa) multifunctional glycoprotein belonging to the secreted extracellular matrix protein family. It has a multi-domain structure and is involved in many biological and physiological processes, including phagocytosis, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, tissue remodeling, and haemostasis regulation. Lactadherin binds phosphatidylserine (PS)-enriched cell surfaces in a receptor-independent manner. Interaction between lactadherin and PS is crucial for regulation of blood coagulation processes...
November 20, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146180/chlorogenic-acid-attenuates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-reducing-vegf-expression-and-inhibiting-vegf-mediated-retinal-neoangiogenesis
#13
Xiyu Mei, Lingyu Zhou, Tianyu Zhang, Bin Lu, Yuchen Sheng, Lili Ji
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common and serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aims to investigate the amelioration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on proliferative DR (PDR) via focusing on inhibiting retinal neoangiogenesis. CGA reduced the increased cell proliferation, migration and tube formation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human retinal endothelial cells (HREC) and choroid-retinal endothelial RF/6A cells. CGA abrogated VEGF-induced the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream mitogen-activated extracellular regulated kinase (MEK1/2), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 kinase...
November 13, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122658/endothelium-derived-contraction-in-a-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-mediated-via-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptors
#14
Kayleigh Hamilton, Lynette Dunning, William R Ferrell, John C Lockhart, Andrew MacKenzie
A role for endothelium-derived constricting factors (EDCF), and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway, in the vascular impairment found in the rat Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was examined. FCA arthritis was induced in rats±losartan. Vehicle-treated rats served as controls. Knee-joint swelling and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation were measured as indicators of inflammation and endothelium reactivity assessed by response to acetylcholine (ACh) on aortic rings...
November 6, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100963/reversal-effects-of-low-dose-imatinib-compared-with-sunitinib-on-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-and-right-ventricular-remodeling-in-rats
#15
Zi Ping Leong, Ayumi Okida, Masahi Higuchi, Yoshiaki Yamano, Yoshiaki Hikasa
High-dose imatinib reverses cardiopulmonary remodeling but adverse effects limit its clinical use. Efficacy of the multi-kinase inhibitor sunitinib remains questionable. We compared anti-remodeling effects of imatinib with sunitinib on monocrotaline-induced right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial remodeling in rats, focusing on a lower dose. Fourteen days after monocrotaline injection, oral gavage of imatinib (5, 15, or 50mg/kg), sunitinib (0.3, 1, 3, or 10mg/kg), or water for 14days was started...
October 31, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079346/axitinib-attenuates-intraplaque-angiogenesis-haemorrhages-and-plaque-destabilization-in-mice
#16
Bieke Van der Veken, Guido R Y De Meyer, Wim Martinet
AIM: An increased density of intraplaque (IP) microvessels in ruptured versus nonruptured human plaques suggests that IP neovascularization has a major causative effect on plaque development and instability. Possibly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or other angiogenic factors mediate IP microvessel growth and plaque destabilization. Because apolipoprotein deficient mice with a heterozygous mutation (C1039G+/-) in the fibrillin-1 gene (ApoE-/-Fbn1C1039G+/-) manifest substantial IP neovascularization, they represent a unique tool to further investigate angiogenesis and its role in atherosclerosis...
October 31, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097327/gallic-acid-attenuates-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-transverse-aortic-contraction-induced-heart-failure
#17
Li Jin, Zhe Hao Piao, Simei Sun, Bin Liu, Yuhee Ryu, Sin Young Choi, Gwi Ran Kim, Hyung-Seok Kim, Hae Jin Kee, Myung Ho Jeong
Gallic acid, a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in tea and other plants, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and hypertension in animal models. However, the role of gallic acid in heart failure remains unknown. In this study, we show that gallic acid administration prevents heart failure-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Heart failure induced in mice, 8weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery, was confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment for 2weeks with gallic acid but not furosemide prevented cardiac dysfunction in mice...
October 30, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074468/functional-diversity-of-macrophages-in-vascular-biology-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Inhye Park, Christina Kassiteridi, Claudia Monaco
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease and is largely responsible for cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of global mortality. The hallmark of atherogenesis is immune activation following lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. In particular, macrophages play a non-redundant role in both the progression and regression of inflammation in the atherosclerotic lesion. Macrophages are remarkably heterogeneous phagocytes that perform versatile functions in health and disease. Their functional diversity in vascular biology is only partially mapped...
October 23, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056472/contribution-of-lectin-like-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-1-and-lox-1-modulating-compounds-to-vascular-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Anja Hofmann, Coy Brunssen, Henning Morawietz
The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for binding and uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in endothelial cells. LOX-1 is also expressed in macrophages, smooth muscle cells and platelets. Following internalization of oxLDL, LOX-1 initiates a vicious cycle from activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, thus promoting an increased reactive oxygen species formation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. LOX-1 plays a pivotal role in the development of endothelial dysfunction, foam cell and advanced lesions formation as well as in myocardial ischemia...
October 19, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051088/update-on-the-role-of-pentraxin-3-in-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Matteo Casula, Fabrizio Montecucco, Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Franco Dallegri, Federico Carbone
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that was recently demonstrated to play pleiotropic activities in cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukins up-regulates PTX3 transcription in different cell types (i.e. endothelial cells, phagocytes, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and glial cells) involved in atherogenesis. By interacting with numerous ligands, PTX3 acts as a modulatory molecule of complement system, inflammatory response, angiogenesis, and vascular/tissue remodeling...
October 16, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
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