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Vascular Pharmacology

J Kaur, H S Mattu, H S Randeva
Adipose tissue, initially known only for storing excess fat, produces a number of active cytokine-like hormones, collectively known as adipokines or adipocytokines. These molecules are further known to elicit auto-, para- and endocrine functions in the body. In healthy bodies, the cardiovascular endothelium maintains vascular health by critically controlling the interplay between various factors. However, in diseased states such as obesity, owing to numerous metabolic malfunctions, this vascular homeostasis is disrupted...
July 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Youhai Li, Natalia Lapina, Nina Weinzierl, Lisbeth Bonde, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Rudolf Schubert, Han Moshage, Paulus Wohlfart, Lothar Schilling
Alterations in the retinal microvessel (RMV) compartment occurring in systemic disease states such as diabetes may eventually contribute to blindness. To specifically address the pathophysiological role of the microvasculature we developed a new method for RMV bulk isolation from individual rats. The extraction procedure performed in the cold throughout takes less than one hour. Slight modifications enable isolation of brain microvessels (BMVs) for comparison. Microscopically, RMVs and BMVs consisted mainly of capillaries of good structural integrity...
July 9, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Paul Lederer, Tingting Zhou, Weiguo Chen, Yulia Epshtein, Huashan Wang, Biji Mathew, Jeffrey R Jacobson
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by endothelial barrier disruption resulting in increased vascular permeability. As focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, is involved in endothelial cell (EC) barrier regulation, we hypothesized that FAK inhibition could attenuate agonist-induced EC barrier disruption relevant to ALI. Human lung EC were pretreated with one of three pharmacologic FAK inhibitors, PF-573,228 (PF-228, 10 μM), PF-562,271 (PF-271, 5 μM) or NVP-TAE226 (TAE226, 5 μM) for 30 min prior to treatment with thrombin (1 U/ml, 30 min)...
June 30, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Brenda Lilly, Kristen Dammeyer, Sam Marosis, Patricia E McCallinhart, Aaron J Trask, Megan Lowe, Dwitiya Sawant
Cytoglobin is a widely expressed heme protein that binds oxygen, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Recent examination of cytoglobin in the vasculature indicates that it contributes to nitric oxide availability, which is central to normal blood vessel function through regulation of smooth muscle cell tone and physiological response. Given the potential implications of cytoglobin in vascular function, we examined how cytoglobin might be uniquely regulated in vascular smooth muscle cells. Our data demonstrate that endothelial cells can increase the expression of cytoglobin in vascular smooth muscle cells, and the induction of cytoglobin is cell contact-dependent...
June 30, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Wenpei Yu, Bin Wang, Bin Zhan, Qiang Li, Yingsha Li, Zhiming Zhu, Zhencheng Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether statin intervention will improve the long-term prognosis of patients undergoing major non-cardiac vascular surgeries. METHODS: Major database searches for clinical trials enrolling patients undergoing major non-cardiac vascular surgeries, including lower limb revascularization, carotid artery surgeries, arteriovenous fistula, and aortic surgeries, were performed. Subgroup analyses, stratified by surgical types or study types, were employed to obtain statistical results regarding survival, patency rates, amputation, and cardiovascular and stroke events...
June 25, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Paola Perrotta, Besa Emini Veseli, Bieke Van der Veken, Lynn Roth, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disease that affects large and medium-sized arteries. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications remain a leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world. There is a considerable difference in safety profile between a stable and a vulnerable, rupture-prone lesion. The need for plaque-stabilizing therapies is high, and for a long time the lack of a suitable animal model mimicking advanced human atherosclerotic plaques made it very difficult to make progress in this area...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Kim Marienhagen, Frank Lehner, Jürgen Klempnauer, Hartmut Hecker, Jürgen Borlak
Post-transplant hypertension (PTH) is a common complication in cyclosporine immunosuppressed patients; however choosing the right antihypertensive medication is challenging. In a long-term observational study (≤13y) we examined different antihypertensive medications on graft/patient survival of kidney recipients with pre-existing and PTH. Altogether thirty-three co-variables were analyzed including dose and type of immunosuppressive and antihypertensive medication, co-medications, serum biochemistries and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Xinbo Zhang, Nathan L Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world, begins with lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, which is the initial step in atherogenesis. Alterations in lipid metabolism result in increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders, and treatment of lipid disorders remains the most common strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of CVD. Work done over the past decade has identified numerous classes of non-coding RNA molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as critical regulators of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and CVD, mostly acting at post-transcriptional level...
June 18, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Gloria Garoffolo, Rosalinda Madonna, Raffaele de Caterina, Maurizio Pesce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Joshua M Spin, Daniel Y Li, Lars Maegdefessel, Philip S Tsao
Aortic aneurysms represent a major public health burden, and currently have no medical treatment options. The pathophysiology behind these aneurysms is complex and variable, depending on location and underlying cause, and generally involves progressive dysfunction of all elements of the aortic wall. Changes in smooth muscle behavior, endothelial signaling, extracellular matrix remodeling, and to a variable extent inflammatory signaling and cells, all contribute to the dilation of the aorta, ultimately resulting in high mortality and morbidity events including dissection and rupture...
June 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Mahmoud El-Daly, Vivek Krishna Pulakazhi Venu, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Koichiro Mihara, Sean Kang, Paul W M Fedak, Laurie A Alston, Simon A Hirota, Hong Ding, Chris R Triggle, Morley D Hollenberg
Hyperglycaemia is a major contributor to diabetic cardiovascular disease with hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction recognized as the initiating cause. Coagulation pathway-regulated proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) that can regulate vascular tone in vivo cause eNOS-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation; but, the impact of hyperglycaemia on this vasodilatory action of PAR stimulation and the signalling pathways involved are unknown. We hypothesized that vascular sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 activity and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress involving Src-kinase, EGF receptor-kinase, Rho-kinase and protein-kinase-C biochemical signalling pathways would compromise PAR2-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation...
June 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Tao Shen, Hai-Zhen Li, Ai-Ling Li, Yan-Ru Li, Xiao-Ning Wang, Dong-Mei Ren
Excess intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a significant causative factor of many diseases, exemplified by vascular diseases. Mitochondria are a major source of endogenous ROS, which simultaneously induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) represents an important intracellular defense system that protects cells against oxidative insults caused by ROS. Therefore, molecules with the capacities of inducing Nrf2, and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction can inhibit cell apoptosis, and thus are potential drug candidates for the therapy of ROS-mediated vascular diseases...
June 11, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Pierre-Alain Thiebaut, Eugénie Delile, David Coquerel, Jean-Michel Brunel, Sylvanie Renet, Fabienne Tamion, Vincent Richard
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) impairs nitric oxide (NO) production and induces endothelial dysfunction in various diseases, including diabetes, septic shock and heart failure. In non-cardiovascular tissues, PTP1B modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) however this role has never been assessed in endothelial cells. We evaluated the link between PTP1B, ERS and endothelial dysfunction in mice. Induction of ERS (Tunicamycin) in vivo in mice or ex vivo in mouse arteries led to severe arterial endothelial dysfunction (i...
June 9, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Zihe Huo, Ying Kong, Mei Meng, Zhifei Cao, Quansheng Zhou
Vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) is essential for endothelial cells (ECs) adherens junction and vascular homeostasis; however, the regulatory mechanism of VE-PTP transcription is unknown, and a drug able to promote VE-PTP expression in ECs has not yet been reported in the literature. In this study, we used human ECs as a model to explore small molecule compounds able to promote VE-PTP expression, and found that atorvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor widely used in the clinic to treat hypercholesterolemia-related cardiovascular diseases, strongly promoted VE-PTP transcription in ECs through activating the VE-PTP promoter and upregulating the expression of the transcription factor, specificity protein 1 (SP1)...
June 9, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Muhammad Irfan, Dahye Jeong, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Jung-Hae Shin, Sang-Joon Park, Dongmi Kwak, Tae-Hwan Kim, Dong-Ha Lee, Hwa-Jin Park, Man Hee Rhee
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) contains saponin fractions called ginsenosides, which are thought to be the main components responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Ginsenosides have cardioprotective and antiplatelet effects. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of ginsenoside Rp3 (G-Rp3) on platelet function. METHODS: The in vitro effects of G-Rp3 were evaluated on agonist-induced human and rat platelet aggregation, while [Ca2+ ]i mobilization, granule secretion, integrin αIIb β3 activation, and clot retraction were assessed in rat platelets...
June 8, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Armando Tripodi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Mohammed M Dawoud
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Anticoagulation therapy is the main line of treatment for acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in the absence of cirrhosis. However, the use of this therapy in cirrhotic PVT is still with doubtful evidence. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared to warfarin for the management of acute non-neoplastic PVT in Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: Out of 578 patients with chronic HCV infection, 80 patients with acute PVT who had undergone splenectomy due to hypersplenism and 4 patients with acute PVT due to portal pyemia were selected...
June 7, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Weijia Xie, Xiaoxiao Song, Zhenjie Liu
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor is a novel group of medicine employed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM),which improves meal stimulated insulin secretion by protecting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) from enzymatic degradation. Cardiovascular diseases are serious complications and leading causes of mortality among individuals with diabetes mellitus. Glycemic control per se seems to fail in preventing the progression of diabetic cardiovascular complications...
June 4, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Aleksandar Jurisic, Zaklina Jurisic, Eleftheria Lefkou, Joaquim Pombo, Guillermina Girardi
The increase in fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with twin pregnancies correlates with an increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Although the pathogenesis of IUGR is unclear and thus management remains a major challenge, feto-placental blood vessels are compromised, and altered umbilical blood flow is observed. In this pilot observational study we investigated the effects of pravastatin plus l-arginine on umbilical artery (umb art) blood flow...
June 4, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Jingjing Liu, Chunyu Jiang, Xu Ma, Jianbo Wang
Endothelial injury from high glucose (HG) plays a dominant role in atherosclerosis, diabetes-induced vasculopathy, and vascular remodeling. Notoginsenoside Fc (Fc), a novel saponin isolated from P. notoginseng, has been shown to exhibit properties that counteract platelet aggregation. However, the potential roles and molecular mechanisms of Fc in preventing cardiovascular injury have yet to be explored. In this study, we present novel data that show the ability of Fc to prevent early atherosclerosis of diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in vivo and to attenuate endothelial cell injury in vitro...
May 29, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
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