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Vascular Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927755/protein-kinase-ck2-inhibition-suppresses-neointima-formation-via-a-proline-rich-homeodomain-dependent-mechanism
#1
K S Wadey, B A Brown, G B Sala-Newby, P-S Jayaraman, K Gaston, S J George
Neointimal hyperplasia is a product of VSMC replication and consequent accumulation within the blood vessel wall. In this study, we determined whether inhibition of protein kinase CK2 and the resultant stabilisation of proline-rich homeodomain (PRH) could suppress VSMC proliferation. Both silencing and pharmacological inhibition of CK2 with K66 antagonised replication of isolated VSMCs. SiRNA-induced knockdown as well as ectopic overexpression of proline-rich homeodomain indicated that PRH disrupts cell cycle progression...
September 16, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919014/regulation-and-function-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-in-vascular-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Irina Sieve, Anja Münster-Kühnel, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
In the vascular system, the endothelial surface layer (ESL) as the inner surface of blood vessels affects mechanotransduction, vascular permeability, rheology, thrombogenesis, and leukocyte adhesion. It creates barriers between endothelial cells and blood and neighbouring cells. The glycocalyx, composed of glycoconjugates and proteoglycans, is an integral component of the ESL and a key element in inter- and intracellular communication and tissue homeostasis. In pathophysiological conditions (atherosclerosis, infection, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, trauma and acute lung injury) glycocalyx-degrading factors, i...
September 12, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912106/vascular-activation-of-k-channels-and-na-k-atpase-activity-of-estrogen-deficient-female-rats
#3
Rogério Faustino Ribeiro, Jonaina Fiorim, Vinicius Bermond Marques, Karoline de Sousa Ronconi, Tatiani Botelho, Marcella D Grando, Lusiane M Bendhack, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Ivanita Stefanon
The goal of the present study was to evaluate vascular potassium channels and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in estrogen deficient female rats. Female rats that underwent ovariectomy were assigned to receive daily treatment with placebo (OVX) or estrogen replacement (OVX+E2, 1mg/kg, once a week, i.m.). Aortic rings were used to examine the involvement of K(+) channels and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vascular reactivity. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was analyzed in the presence of L-NAME (100μM) and K(+) channels blockers: tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30nM), apamin (0...
September 11, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888918/effects-of-psychopharmacological-treatment-with-antipsychotic-drugs-on-the-vascular-system
#4
REVIEW
Kai G Kahl, Mechthild Westhoff-Bleck, Tillmann H C Krüger
Psychopharmacological treatment with antipsychotic drugs is an essential part of guideline-based treatment strategies in psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and delusional disorders. Other mental disorders frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs are bipolar disorders, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, antipsychotic drugs are often given in emergency and surgical units for the treatment of metabolic or postoperative delirium. Antipsychotic drugs can exert direct and indirect effects on the vascular system, potentially leading to severe complications such as thromboembolism...
September 6, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694128/microrna-221-3p-promotes-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-proliferation-by-targeting-axin2-during-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Xiaowei Nie, Yuan Chen, Jianxin Tan, Youai Dai, Wenjun Mao, Guowei Qin, Shugao Ye, Jie Sun, Zhenkun Yang, Jingyu Chen
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pathological condition characterized by excessive cell proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). PAH pathogenesis shares similarities with cancers such as excessive cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance. A previous study by our group revealed that decreased expression of a tumor suppressor-AXIN2 (Axis inhibition protein 2) was responsible for enhanced PASMC proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that regulate the downregulation of AXIN2 in PAH remain elusive...
July 7, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687339/inflammation-and-myointimal-hyperplasia-correlation-with-hemodynamic-forces
#6
Antonio V Sterpetti, Alessandra Cucina, Valeria Borrelli, Marco Ventura
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to correlate flow dynamics and the release of inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1, 2, 6, TNF (Tumour Necrosis Factor) alfa, both in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endothelial cells were exposed to laminar flow (6dyne/cm(2)) in an in vitro circulatory system and the release of Interleukin 1, 2, 6 and TNF alfa was quantified by ELISA. Interleukin 1, 2, 6 and TNF alfa release was also assessed in vein grafts implanted in the arterial circulation of Lewis rats...
July 5, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867591/heteromeric-trpv4-trpc1-channels-mediate-calcium-sensing-receptor-induced-nitric-oxide-production-and-vasorelaxation-in-rabbit-mesenteric-arteries
#7
Harry Z E Greenberg, Simonette R E Carlton-Carew, Dhanak M Khan, Alexander K Zargaran, Kazi S Jahan, W-S Vanessa Ho, Anthony P Albert
Stimulation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) by increasing the external calcium concentration (Ca(2+)]o) induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation through nitric oxide (NO) production and activation of intermediate Ca(2+)-activated K(+) currents (IKCa) channels in rabbit mesenteric arteries. The present study investigates the potential role of heteromeric TRPV4-TRPC1 channels in mediating these CaSR-induced vascular responses. Immunocytochemical and proximity ligation assays showed that TRPV4 and TRPC1 proteins were expressed and co-localised at the plasma membrane of freshly isolated endothelial cells (ECs)...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830735/targeting-vasa-vasorum-dysfunction-to-prevent-atherosclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Erin C Boyle, Daniel G Sedding, Axel Haverich
Vasa vasorum are blood microvessels which penetrate the adventitia and outer layers of the media of large blood vessels, supplying them with nutrients and oxygen. A growing body of evidence suggests that vasa vasorum play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will make a case for the role of microvascular dysfunction in the initiation of disease. When seen through this lens, new therapeutic opportunities for prevention can be envisioned. In particular, we discuss how targeting the cellular metabolism and epigenetic machinery of vasa vasorum neovessels could be harnessed to render vasa vasorum endothelial cells less sensitive to atherogenic stimuli...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827087/cerebrovascular-recovery-after-stroke-with-individual-and-combined-losartan-and-captopril-treatment-of-shrsp
#9
John S Smeda, Noriko Daneshtalab
We assessed whether the superior restoration of cerebrovascular function after hemorrhagic stroke by losartan versus captopril treatment was due to better BP, uremia, uricaemia, or aldosterone control in Kyoto Wistar stroke-prone-hypertensive rats and evaluated whether elevated angiotensin II (A2) levels enhanced the effectiveness of losartan treatment. Constriction was studied in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) using a pressure myograph. Post-stroke survival increased from 21 to 310 and 189days respectively with losartan and captopril treatment...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797762/ceramide-enhances-cox-2-expression-and-vsmc-contractile-hyperreactivity-via-er-stress-signal-activation
#10
Huina Zhang, Juanfen Li, Linghai Li, Pingsheng Liu, Yongxiang Wei, Zongjie Qian
Ceramide accumulation in blood vessels has been attributed to vascular dysfunction in progressive vascular complications in metabolic diseases. The present study showed that ceramide pretreatment promoted PE-induced vasoconstriction in rat endothelium-denuded vascular rings in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitors, 4-PBA and TUDCA, COX-2 inhibitors, Celecoxib and NS398, as well as PGE2 receptor antagonist AH-6809 attenuated ceramide-promoted vascular hyperreactivity...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797761/tail-vein-injection-of-mmldl-upregulates-mouse-mesenteric-artery-etb-receptors-via-activation-of-the-erk1-2-pathway
#11
Yang Liu, Xiao-Lan Chen, Cang-Bao Xu, Lei Cao, Jie Lin, Gen Chen, Jie Li
Minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mmLDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of mmLDL on mouse mesenteric artery endothelin type B (ETB) receptors and its molecular mechanism. Mice were injected with normal saline (NS group), mmLDL in the tail vein (mmLDL group), or with both mmLDL and an intraperitoneal injection of the ERK1/2 pathway-specific inhibitor U0126 (mmLDL+U0126 group). The dose-response curve of mesenteric artery contraction induced by sarafotoxin 6c (S6c), the ETB receptor agonist, was measured using a sensitive myograph system...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754273/effects-of-psychopharmacological-treatment-with-antidepressants-on-the-vascular-system
#12
REVIEW
Kai G Kahl, Mechthild Westhoff-Bleck, Tillmann H C Krüger
Psychopharmacological treatment with antidepressants is an essential part of guideline-based treatment strategies in affective disorders, such as major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, antidepressants are frequently prescribed in patients with physical disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, and comorbid depression. The type of association between physical diseases, particularly chronic diseases, and depression is bidirectional, meaning that affective disorders enhance the risk for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, and that cardiovascular/metabolic disorders enhance the risk for the development of depressive disorders...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697993/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors-as-novel-regulators-of-vascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) has been revealed as an adipokine with potential relevance in cardiovascular disease (CVD), while clinically used DPP-IV inhibitors have demonstrated beneficial cardiovascular effects in several experimental studies. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose tissue depot in close anatomical proximity and bidirectional functional interaction with the vascular wall, which is a source of DPP-IV and its biology may be influenced by DPP-IV inhibition. Recently, DPP-IV inhibition has been associated with decreased local inflammation and oxidative stress both in the vascular wall and the PVAT, potentially regulating atherogenesis progression in vivo...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347868/teneligliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-attenuated-pro-inflammatory-phenotype-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-inhibited-atherogenesis-in-normoglycemic-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#14
Hotimah Masdan Salim, Daiju Fukuda, Yasutomi Higashikuni, Kimie Tanaka, Yoichiro Hirata, Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have various cellular effects that are associated with vascular protection. Here, we examined whether teneligliptin alters the pro-inflammatory phenotype of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and inhibits atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Teneligliptin (60mg/kg/day) was administered orally to apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice for 20weeks. Teneligliptin significantly inhibited the development of atherosclerosis in the aortic arch compared with vehicle (P<0...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705733/platelet-oxidative-stress-as-a-novel-target-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-frail-older-people
#15
REVIEW
Francisco Fuentes, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
The average lifespan of humans and the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group are growing rapidly. Within this age group, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) increase steeply and are the most common cause of death. During aging, experimental and clinical studies support the pivotal role played by reactive oxidant species in the mechanism of platelet activation. Frailty has been implicated as a causative and prognostic factor in patients with CVD. Oxidative stress is increased in frail older people, and may lead to accelerated aging and higher incidence of oxidative diseases such as CVD...
August 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684282/platelets-redox-balance-assessment-current-evidence-and-methodological-considerations
#16
REVIEW
Anna Komosa, Piotr Rzymski, Bartłomiej Perek, Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak, Maciej Lesiak, Jolanta M Siller-Matula, Barbara Poniedziałek
Altered function of platelets can lead to cardiovascular complications in numerous disorders. Various studies aimed to investigate mechanisms triggering platelets activation cascade show a significant role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this matter. Moreover, ROS are known causal factor of oxidative stress that can result in DNA, lipid and protein damage. This review aims to comprehensively present the variety of methods that are potentially useful in assessment of platelets redox balance, such as intracellular concentration of particular ROS, activity of antioxidant enzymes, reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio, level of lipid peroxidation, Cu/Zn ratio, and molecular oxygen consumption...
August 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552745/a-critical-role-for-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-hydrogen-sulfide-mediated-hypoxic-relaxation-of-the-coronary-artery
#17
J Donovan, P S Wong, R E Roberts, M J Garle, S P H Alexander, W R Dunn, V Ralevic
Hypoxia-induced coronary artery vasodilatation protects the heart by increasing blood flow under ischemic conditions, however its mechanism is not fully elucidated. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is reported to be an oxygen sensor/transducer in the vasculature. The present study aimed to identify and characterise the role of H2S in the hypoxic response of the coronary artery, and to define the H2S synthetic enzymes involved. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry showed expression of all three H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), in porcine coronary artery...
August 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526517/regulation-of-rhoa-rock-and-sustained-arterial-contraction-by-low-cytosolic-ca-2-levels-during-prolonged-depolarization-of-arterial-smooth-muscle
#18
Cristina Porras-González, Antonio Ordóñez, Antonio Castellano, Juan Ureña
The role of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) on depolarization-induced sustained arterial contraction lasting several minutes is already known. However, in vivo, vascular smooth muscle cells can be depolarized for longer periods, inducing substantial inactivation of LTCCs and markedly reducing Ca(2+) influx into the myocytes. We have examined, in femoral arterial rings, the role of LTCCs and RhoA/ROCK during long-lasting depolarization. Our results reveal a new vasoreactive response after 20-30min of depolarization in 2...
August 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479313/abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-women-receiving-direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-the-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism
#19
REVIEW
Richard Godin, Violaine Marcoux, Vicky Tagalakis
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complication of anticoagulant therapy in premenopausal women affected with acute venous thromboembolism. AUB impacts quality of life, and can lead to premature cessation of anticoagulation. There is increasing data to suggest that the direct oral anticoagulants when used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism differ in their menstrual bleeding profile. This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations...
August 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433569/vitamin-d-binding-protein-rs7041-polymorphism-and-high-residual-platelet-reactivity-in-patients-receiving-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-with-clopidogrel-or-ticagrelor
#20
Monica Verdoia, Veronica Daffara, Patrizia Pergolini, Roberta Rolla, Paolo Marino, Giorgio Bellomo, Alessandro Carriero, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency represents a major health problem in general population, especially for its association with cardiovascular disorders and thrombotic risk, even in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Vitamin D Binding Protein (VDBP) is the main transporter of vitamin D in the bloodstream and genetic polymorphisms of this protein have been shown to account for a significant variability of vitamin D levels and its systemic effects. Contrasting data have linked the rs7041 T→G substitution with cardiovascular disease...
August 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
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