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Vascular Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797762/ceramide-enhances-cox-2-expression-and-vsmc-contractile-hyperreactivity-via-er-stress-signal-activation
#1
Huina Zhang, Juanfen Li, Linghai Li, Pingsheng Liu, Yongxiang Wei, Zongjie Qian
Ceramide accumulation in blood vessels has been attributed to vascular dysfunction in progressive vascular complications in metabolic diseases. The present study showed that ceramide pretreatment promoted PE-induced vasoconstriction in rat endothelium-denuded vascular rings in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitors, 4-PBA and TUDCA, COX-2 inhibitors, Celecoxib and NS398, as well as PGE2 receptor antagonist AH-6809 attenuated ceramide-promoted vascular hyperreactivity...
August 7, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797761/tail-vein-injection-of-mmldl-upregulates-mouse-mesenteric-artery-etb-receptors-via-activation-of-the-erk1-2-pathway
#2
Yang Liu, Xiao-Lan Chen, Cang-Bao Xu, Lei Cao, Jie Lin, Gen Chen, Jie Li
Minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mmLDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of mmLDL on mouse mesenteric artery endothelin type B (ETB) receptors and its molecular mechanism. Mice were injected with normal saline (NS group), mmLDL in the tail vein (mmLDL group), or with both mmLDL and an intraperitoneal injection of the ERK1/2 pathway-specific inhibitor U0126 (mmLDL+U0126 group). The dose-response curve of mesenteric artery contraction induced by sarafotoxin 6c (S6c), the ETB receptor agonist, was measured using a sensitive myograph system...
August 7, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754273/effects-of-psychopharmacological-treatment-with-antidepressants-on-the-vascular-system
#3
REVIEW
Kai G Kahl, Mechthild Westhoff-Bleck, Tillmann H C Krüger
Psychopharmacological treatment with antidepressants is an essential part of guideline-based treatment strategies in affective disorders, such as major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, antidepressants are frequently prescribed in patients with physical disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, and comorbid depression. The type of association between physical diseases, particularly chronic diseases, and depression is bidirectional, meaning that affective disorders enhance the risk for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, and that cardiovascular/metabolic disorders enhance the risk for the development of depressive disorders...
July 25, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705733/platelet-oxidative-stress-as-a-novel-target-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-frail-older-people
#4
REVIEW
Francisco Fuentes, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
The average lifespan of humans and the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group are growing rapidly. Within this age group, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) increase steeply and are the most common cause of death. During aging, experimental and clinical studies support the pivotal role played by reactive oxidant species in the mechanism of platelet activation. Frailty has been implicated as a causative and prognostic factor in patients with CVD. Oxidative stress is increased in frail older people, and may lead to accelerated aging and higher incidence of oxidative diseases such as CVD...
July 11, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697993/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors-as-novel-regulators-of-vascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) has been revealed as an adipokine with potential relevance in cardiovascular disease (CVD), while clinically used DPP-IV inhibitors have demonstrated beneficial cardiovascular effects in several experimental studies. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose tissue depot in close anatomical proximity and bidirectional functional interaction with the vascular wall, which is a source of DPP-IV and its biology may be influenced by DPP-IV inhibition. Recently, DPP-IV inhibition has been associated with decreased local inflammation and oxidative stress both in the vascular wall and the PVAT, potentially regulating atherogenesis progression in vivo...
July 8, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694128/microrna-221-3p-promotes-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-proliferation-by-targeting-axin2-during-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#6
Xiaowei Nie, Yuan Chen, Jianxin Tan, Youai Dai, Wenjun Mao, Guowei Qin, Shugao Ye, Jie Sun, Zhenkun Yang, Jingyu Chen
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pathological condition characterized by excessive cell proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). PAH pathogenesis shares similarities with cancers such as excessive cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance. A previous study by our group revealed that decreased expression of a tumor suppressor-AXIN2 (Axis inhibition protein 2) was responsible for enhanced PASMC proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that regulate the downregulation of AXIN2 in PAH remain elusive...
July 7, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687339/inflammation-and-myointimal-hyperplasia-correlation-with-hemodynamic-forces
#7
Antonio V Sterpetti, Alessandra Cucina, Valeria Borrelli, Marco Ventura
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to correlate flow dynamics and the release of inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1, 2, 6, TNF (Tumour Necrosis Factor) alfa, both in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endothelial cells were exposed to laminar flow (6dyne/cm(2)) in an in vitro circulatory system and the release of Interleukin 1, 2, 6 and TNF alfa was quantified by ELISA. Interleukin 1, 2, 6 and TNF alfa release was also assessed in vein grafts implanted in the arterial circulation of Lewis rats...
July 5, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684282/platelets-redox-balance-assessment-current-evidence-and-methodological-considerations
#8
REVIEW
Anna Komosa, Piotr Rzymski, Bartłomiej Perek, Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak, Maciej Lesiak, Jolanta M Siller-Matula, Barbara Poniedziałek
Altered function of platelets can lead to cardiovascular complications in numerous disorders. Various studies aimed to investigate mechanisms triggering platelets activation cascade show a significant role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this matter. Moreover, ROS are known causal factor of oxidative stress that can result in DNA, lipid and protein damage. This review aims to comprehensively present the variety of methods that are potentially useful in assessment of platelets redox balance, such as intracellular concentration of particular ROS, activity of antioxidant enzymes, reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio, level of lipid peroxidation, Cu/Zn ratio, and molecular oxygen consumption...
July 3, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579545/oxidative-stress-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-endothelial-dysfunction-associated-with-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Maria Angela Incalza, Rossella D'Oria, Annalisa Natalicchio, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive intermediates of molecular oxygen that act as important second messengers within the cells; however, an imbalance between generation of reactive ROS and antioxidant defense systems represents the primary cause of endothelial dysfunction, leading to vascular damage in both metabolic and atherosclerotic diseases. Endothelial activation is the first alteration observed, and is characterized by an abnormal pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic phenotype of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels...
June 1, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552746/chronic-administration-of-sodium-nitrite-prevents-hypertension-and-protects-arterial-endothelial-function-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-in-angiotensin-ii-infused-mice
#10
Wei Chih Ling, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Paul M Vanhoutte, Dharmani Devi Murugan
AIM: Endothelial dysfunction accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress is a key event leading to hypertension. As dietary nitrite has been reported to exert antihypertensive effect, the present study investigated whether chronic oral administration of sodium nitrite improves vascular function in conduit and resistance arteries of hypertensive animals with elevated oxidative stress. METHODS: Sodium nitrite (50mg/L) was given to angiotensin II-infused hypertensive C57BL/6J (eight to ten weeks old) mice for two weeks in the drinking water...
May 26, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552745/a-critical-role-for-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-hydrogen-sulfide-mediated-hypoxic-relaxation-of-the-coronary-artery
#11
J Donovan, P S Wong, R E Roberts, M J Garle, S P H Alexander, W R Dunn, V Ralevic
Hypoxia-induced coronary artery vasodilatation protects the heart by increasing blood flow under ischemic conditions, however its mechanism is not fully elucidated. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is reported to be an oxygen sensor/transducer in the vasculature. The present study aimed to identify and characterise the role of H2S in the hypoxic response of the coronary artery, and to define the H2S synthetic enzymes involved. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry showed expression of all three H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), in porcine coronary artery...
May 25, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526517/regulation-of-rhoa-rock-and-sustained-arterial-contraction-by-low-cytosolic-ca-2-levels-during-prolonged-depolarization-of-arterial-smooth-muscle
#12
Cristina Porras-González, Antonio Ordóñez, Antonio Castellano, Juan Ureña
The role of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) on depolarization-induced sustained arterial contraction lasting several minutes is already known. However, in vivo, vascular smooth muscle cells can be depolarized for longer periods, inducing substantial inactivation of LTCCs and markedly reducing Ca(2+) influx into the myocytes. We have examined, in femoral arterial rings, the role of LTCCs and RhoA/ROCK during long-lasting depolarization. Our results reveal a new vasoreactive response after 20-30min of depolarization in 2...
May 16, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479313/abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-women-receiving-direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-the-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism
#13
REVIEW
Richard Godin, Violaine Marcoux, Vicky Tagalakis
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complication of anticoagulant therapy in premenopausal women affected with acute venous thromboembolism. AUB impacts quality of life, and can lead to premature cessation of anticoagulation. There is increasing data to suggest that the direct oral anticoagulants when used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism differ in their menstrual bleeding profile. This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations...
May 4, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433569/vitamin-d-binding-protein-rs7041-polymorphism-and-high-residual-platelet-reactivity-in-patients-receiving-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-with-clopidogrel-or-ticagrelor
#14
Monica Verdoia, Veronica Daffara, Patrizia Pergolini, Roberta Rolla, Paolo Marino, Giorgio Bellomo, Alessandro Carriero, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency represents a major health problem in general population, especially for its association with cardiovascular disorders and thrombotic risk, even in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Vitamin D Binding Protein (VDBP) is the main transporter of vitamin D in the bloodstream and genetic polymorphisms of this protein have been shown to account for a significant variability of vitamin D levels and its systemic effects. Contrasting data have linked the rs7041 T→G substitution with cardiovascular disease...
April 19, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366840/role-of-altered-coagulation-fibrinolytic-system-in-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Anita Kotwani
The implications of altered coagulation-fibrinolytic system in the pathophysiology of several vascular disorders, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, have been well researched upon and established. However, its role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy has not been explored much. Since a decade, it is known that hyperglycemia is associated with a hypercoagulated state and the various impairments it causes are well acknowledged as independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases...
March 31, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351775/nox2-nox4-and-mitochondrial-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-contribute-to-angiopoietin-1-signaling-and-angiogenic-responses-in-endothelial-cells
#16
Sharon Harel, Dominique Mayaki, Veronica Sanchez, Sabah N A Hussain
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a ligand of Tie-2 receptors that promotes survival, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells. Several studies have linked reactive oxygen species (ROS) to Ang-1 signaling and distinct angiogenic responses, but the molecular sources of these ROS have never been clearly identified. In this study, we have identified source-specific contributions of ROS to Ang-1/Tie 2 signaling and angiogenic responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), specifically the differential contributions of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) and ROS from two isoforms of NADPH oxidase (NOX2, NOX4)...
March 27, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347868/teneligliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-attenuated-pro-inflammatory-phenotype-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-inhibited-atherogenesis-in-normoglycemic-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#17
Hotimah Masdan Salim, Daiju Fukuda, Yasutomi Higashikuni, Kimie Tanaka, Yoichiro Hirata, Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have various cellular effects that are associated with vascular protection. Here, we examined whether teneligliptin alters the pro-inflammatory phenotype of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and inhibits atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Teneligliptin (60mg/kg/day) was administered orally to apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice for 20weeks. Teneligliptin significantly inhibited the development of atherosclerosis in the aortic arch compared with vehicle (P<0...
March 24, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342822/antiplatelet-activity-of-drugs-used-in-hypertension-dyslipidemia-and-diabetes-additional-benefit-in-cardiovascular-diseases-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Cesar Sepúlveda, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
Beyond its function in hemostasis, platelets activation has an important role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. There are different clinical conditions that can mediate abnormal platelet activation and favors pathological thrombosis and CVD. These include Hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, all risks factors from CVD development. Different drugs employed in the handled of these conditions have showed decreases platelet activation and related markers. This effect is in part by improved the base condition; however someone of these drugs can modulate platelet targets...
March 22, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302516/impact-of-type-2-diabetes-on-vascular-reactivity-to-cgmp-generators-in-human-internal-thoracic-arteries
#19
Masashi Tawa, Takeshi Kinoshita, Tohru Asai, Tomoaki Suzuki, Takeshi Imamura, Tomio Okamura
OBJECTIVE: The balance between nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive and -insensitive forms of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) has been demonstrated to be disrupted in certain lifestyle-related diseases. However, it remains unclear whether type 2 diabetes results in a shift of sGC to the NO-insensitive form. This study addressed this issue in the human blood vessel. METHODS: Internal thoracic arteries were obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting...
March 14, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263852/potential-benefits-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-atherosclerotic-plaques
#20
REVIEW
J R Nelson, O Wani, H T May, M Budoff
Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in some patients despite optimized statin therapy and may necessitate add-on therapy to reduce this risk. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, lowers plasma triglyceride levels without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and has potential beneficial effects on atherosclerotic plaques. Animal studies have shown that EPA reduces levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In clinical trials utilizing a wide spectrum of plaque imaging modalities, EPA has shown beneficial effects on plaque characteristics...
March 2, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
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