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Vascular Pharmacology

Mei-Rong Du, Li Yan, Nian-Sheng Li, Yu-Jie Wang, Ting Zhou, Jun-Lin Jiang
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss with retinal neovascularization. This study aims to investigate whether Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) impacts the pathogenesis of DR via focusing on promoting retinal neovascularization and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Diabetic rats were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) for 20 weeks. ADMA levels in aqueous and the influence of hypoxia on ADMA and angiogenesis in RF/6A cells were examined. The effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of ADMA on neovascularization of RF/6A cells were further evaluated by administration of ADMA, DDAH siRNA or ephrinB2 siRNA...
May 16, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Weifeng Li, Wenbing Zhi, Jinmeng Zhao, Qing Yao, Fang Liu, Xiaofeng Niu
Cinnamaldehyde (Cin), as a traditional flavor constituent isolated from the bark of Cinnamonum cassia Presl, has been commonly used for - digestive, cardiovascular and immune system diseases. The pathology of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) accelerated the progression of atherosclerosis. In our study, we found that cinnamaldehyde significantly suppressed ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammatory cytokine overproduction, as well as foam cell formation in VSMCs and macrophages. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and p65 NF-κB and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity...
May 16, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Pablo Llévenes, Gloria Balfagón, Javier Blanco-Rivero
We aimed to determine the influence of nitrergic innervation function on the decreased mesenteric arterial tone induced by high levels of triiodothyronine (T3), as a model of acute thyroiditis, as well as the mechanism/s implicated. We analysed in mesenteric segments from male Wistar rats the effect of 10 nmol/L T3 (2 h) on the vasomotor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the presence/absence of specific neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor L-NPA, or superoxide anion scavenger tempol. Nitric oxide (NO) release was measured in the presence/absence of tempol or PI3K inhibitor LY294002...
May 8, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Kirsti Ytrehus, Jean-Sébastien Hulot, Cinzia Perrino, Gabriele Giacomo Schiattarella, Rosalinda Madonna
Perivascular fibrosis, the deposition of connective tissue around the vessels, has been demonstrated crucially involved in the development of cardiac dysfunction. Although cardiac fibrosis has been shown to be reversible under certain experimental conditions, effective anti-fibrotic therapies remain largely elusive. Therefore, perivascular fibrosis currently represents a major therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. The main topic of this review will be to address the mechanisms underlying perivascular fibrosis of the vasculature within the myocardium, with a special focus on perivascular fibrosis of small vessels, microvascular dysfunction and disease...
April 27, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Kapka Miteva, Rosalinda Madonna, Raffaele De Caterina, Sophie Van Linthout
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the large and medium-size arteries characterized by the subendothelial accumulation of cholesterol, immune cells, and extracellular matrix. At the early onset of atherogenesis, endothelial dysfunction takes place. Atherogenesis is further triggered by the accumulation of cholesterol-carrying low-density lipoproteins, which acquire properties of damage-associated molecular patterns and thereby trigger an inflammatory response. Following activation of the innate immune response, mainly governed by monocytes and macrophages, the adaptive immune response is started which further promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation...
April 20, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Sivasankar Shanmuganathan, Narayanasamy Angayarkanni
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) a pleiotropic cytokine induces pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic changes in conditions such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and neovascular age related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). Hence, inhibition of TNFα mediated changes can benefit the management of DR and NV-AMD. Triphala, an ayurvedic herbal preparation is known to have immunomodulatry functions. In this study we evaluated the alcoholic extract of triphala (AlE) and its compounds Chebulagic acid (CA), Chebulinic acid (CI) and Gallic acid (GA) for their anti-TNFα activity...
April 17, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Riccardo Gorla, Raimund Erbel, Kim A Eagle, Eduardo Bossone
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), initially reported after cardiovascular surgery, has been described after various interventional cardiology procedures, including endovascular/thoracic aortic repair (EVAR/TEVAR), implantation of heart rhythm devices, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), electrophysiology procedures (EP), and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In these settings, a comprehensive understanding of the triggers, pathogenesis as well as a common diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm is lacking and will be discussed in this review...
April 12, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
A T Cohen, G Y Lip, R De Caterina, H Heidbuchel, J L Zamorano, G Agnelli, F Verheugt, A J Camm
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are cardiovascular conditions significant in contemporary practice. In both, the use of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) has been traditionally used to prevent adverse events. However, VKA therapy is associated with challenges relating to dose maintenance, the need to monitor anticoagulation, and bleeding risks. The non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are becoming accepted as a clear alternative to VKA therapy for both AF and VTE management...
April 12, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Jyoti Patel, Surawee Chuaiphichai, Gillian Douglas, Caroline M Gorvin, Keith M Channon
G-Protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate intracellular signalling pathways by coupling to heterotrimeric G-proteins that control many physiological processes including blood pressure homeostasis. The Regulator of G-Protein Signalling-1 (RGS1) controls the magnitude and duration of downstream GPCR signalling by acting as a GTPase-activating protein for specific Gα-proteins. RGS1 has contrasting roles in haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells. Rgs1-/- ApoE-/- mice are protected from Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced aortic aneurysm rupture...
April 11, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Carolina M Higashi, Simone M Sartoretto, Cinthya Echem, Bruno F C Lucchetti, Maria Helena C de Carvalho, Gislaine P Gomes, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Daniela C C Gerardin, Estefânia G Moreira, Eliana H Akamine, Graziela S Ceravolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Binod Aryal, Yajaira Suárez
The endothelial lining can be viewed as the first line of defense against risk factors of vascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as an initial event for atherogenesis since defects in vascular integrity and homeostasis are responsible for lipid infiltration and recruitment of monocytes into the vessel wall. Monocytes-turned-macrophages, which possess astounding inflammatory plasticity, perpetuate chronic inflammation and growth of atherosclerotic plaques and, are therefore central for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
March 15, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Kaitlyn R Scacalossi, Coen van Solingen, Kathryn J Moore
Non-coding RNAs, once considered "genomic junk", are now known to play central roles in the dynamic control of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an expansive class of transcripts broadly described as greater than 200 nucleotides in length. While most lncRNAs are species-specific, their lack of conservation does not imbue a lack of function. LncRNAs have been found to regulate numerous diverse biological functions, including those central to macrophage differentiation and activation...
March 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Gabriele G Schiattarella, Rosalinda Madonna, Sophie Van Linthout, Thomas Thum, Rainer Schulz, Peter Ferdinandy, Cinzia Perrino
Vascular adaptations to either physiological or pathophysiological conditions commonly require gene expression modifications in the most represented cellular elements of the vessel wall, i.e. endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In addition to transcription factors, a number of mechanisms contribute to the regulation of gene expression in these cells including noncoding RNAs, histone and DNA modifications, collectively indicated as epigenetic modifications. Here, we summarize the state of art regarding the role of epigenetic changes in major vascular diseases, and discuss the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of epigenetic modulation in this context...
March 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Rogerio Nogueira Soares, Augusto Schneider, Sandra Costa Valle, Paulo Cavalheiro Schenkel
This study aimed to investigate whether the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure (BP) response to caffeine ingestion was affected by physical activity status and habitual caffeine consumption. Thirty-seven participants (19-50 years old) took place in the study and were categorized according to i) genotype: CYP1A2 (AA) "fast metabolizer", and CYP1A2 (AC) "slow metabolizer"; ii) physical activity level: sedentary (S) and physically active (A); and iii) caffeine consumption level: non-habitual caffeine consumer (NC) and habitual heavy caffeine consumer (C)...
March 6, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Rolf Schreckenberg, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
Initially identified in the parathyroidea, the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is now recognized as an ubiquitously expressed receptor that exerts specific functions in multiple organs including the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the role that CaSR plays in vascular and cardiac tissues. In the vasculature, CaSR is expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. CaSR of endothelial cells participates in part to the regulation of local perfusion by linkage of CaSR activation to endothelial hyperpolarization and nitric oxide release...
March 4, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Jakša Vukojević, Marko Siroglavić, Katarina Kašnik, Tamara Kralj, Duje Stanćić, Antonio Kokot, Darko Kolarić, Domagoj Drmić, Anita Zenko Sever, Ivan Barišić, Jelena Šuran, Davor Bojić, Masa Hrelec Patrlj, Ivica Sjekavica, Katarina Horvat Pavlov, Tinka Vidović, Josipa Vlainić, Mirjana Stupnišek, Sven Seiwerth, Predrag Sikirić
Rat inferior caval vein (ICV) ligation (up to the right ovarian vein (ROV)) commonly represents a recapitulation of Virchow: with ligation leading to vessel injury, stasis, thrombosis and hemodynamic changes. We revealed that BPC 157's therapy collectively attenuated or counteracted all these events and the full syndrome. METHODS: We applied BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng/kg) as an early regimen or as a delayed therapy. Assessment includes gross assessment by microcamera; microscopy, venography, bleeding, blood pressure, ECG, thermography, MDA and NO-level in plasma and ICV, and gene expression...
March 3, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Ankita Garg, Shashi Kumar Gupta, Thomas Thum
With the advent of empowering sequencing techniques over the past two decades, the scientific community has uncovered many underlying secrets of our genome. Non-coding transcripts covering a staggering 98% of our genome strongly suggest their involvement in diverse cellular pathways. A special class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) namely long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has garnered tremendous attention considering its implications in multiple developmental and pathophysiological processes. Accumulating evidence has established lncRNAs as robust regulators of pathways ranging from embryonic cell development to ultimate diseased phenotype...
February 24, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Meng-Hsun Yu, Ming-Cheng Lin, Chien-Ning Huang, Kuei-Chuan Chan, Chau-Jong Wang
Atherosclerosis involves the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The migration of VSMCs from the media into the intima and their subsequent proliferation are important processes in neointima formation in atherosclerosis and restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, has been demonstrated to not affect serum levels of glucose and decrease the progression of intima-media thickening in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD)...
April 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Jingwei Bian, Suli Zhang, Ming Yi, Mingming Yue, Huirong Liu
The internalization of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. Decreased receptor internalization is closely related to cardiovascular diseases induced by the abnormal activation of AT1 R, such as hypertension. However, the mechanism behind reduced AT1 R internalization is not fully understood. This review focuses on four parts of the receptor internalization process (the combination of agonists and receptors, receptor phosphorylation, endocytosis, and recycling) and summarizes the possible mechanisms by which AT1 R internalization is reduced based on these four parts of the process...
April 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Irina Sieve, Melanie Ricke-Hoch, Martina Kasten, Karin Battmer, Britta Stapel, Christine S Falk, Matthias S Leisegang, Axel Haverich, Michaela Scherr, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis, a notion supported by the beneficial effects of the IL-1β inhibitor canakinumab in the CANTOS trial. Sialic acids (Sias), components of the surface glycocalyx, regulate intercellular and intermolecular interactions. We investigated the expression of the Sia cleaving enzyme neuraminidase-1 (NEU1) in atherosclerotic plaques and its potential role in inflammatory processes. In isolated mononuclear blood cells from patients with myocardial infarction, NEU1 expression was increased compared to healthy controls...
April 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
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