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Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667437/transdermal-buprenorphine-for-moderate-chronic-noncancer-pain-syndromes
#1
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Flaminia Coluzzi, Robert Taylor
Chronic noncancer pain has remained a challenging clinical problem. Opioid analgesics are effective, but they are known to be associated with opioid use disorder and potentially treatment-limiting side effects. Buprenorphine is a Schedule III synthetic opioid in the USA with a chemical structure similar to that of morphine but with a longer duration of action, greater potency, and other unique pharmacological attributes. Its role in treatment of chronic noncancer pain may be broader than currently thought. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of transdermal buprenorphine in moderate chronic noncancer pain syndromes patients will be discussed...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671647/deep-brain-stimulation-for-trigeminal-autonomic-cephalalgias
#2
Giuseppe Messina, Giovanni Broggi, Vincenzo Levi, Angelo Franzini
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posterior hypothalamic region (pHyr) has been shown to be efficacious for more than a half of patients suffering from trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs); nonetheless, controversies about the mechanisms of action and the actual site of stimulation have arisen in recent years. Areas covered: Firstly, a review of the most recent literature on the subject is presented, stressing the critical points that could, in the future, make a difference for optimal management of patients afflicted by these life-threating diseases...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667443/implications-of-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Thanuja Dharmadasa, William Huynh, Jun Tsugawa, Yoshimitsu Shimatani, Yan Ma, Matthew C Kiernan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness and disability, eventually leading to death. Heterogeneity of disease has become a major barrier to understanding key clinical questions such as prognosis and disease spread, and has disadvantaged clinical trials in search of therapeutic intervention. Patterns of disease have been explored through recent advances in neuroimaging, elucidating structural, molecular and functional changes. Unique brain signatures have emerged that have lent a greater understanding of critical disease mechanisms, offering opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and establish candidate biomarkers to direct future therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658352/chronic-subdural-collection-overlying-an-intra-axial-hemorrhagic-lesion-in-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia-special-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Anne-Laure Bernat, Stefano Maria Priola, Ahmad Elsawy, Faisal Farrash, Shervin Taslimi, Fred Gentili
Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by the presence of an absolute monocytosis in the peripheral blood (>1 x 109 /L) and the presence of myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features in the bone marrow. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is uncommon in CMML. Areas covered: Herein described is a case report of a CMML patient who presents with symptomatic chronic subdural collection overlying a haemorrhagic brain lesion, along with diffuse dural infiltration, after two cycles of azacytidine...
April 16, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651881/oxidative-stress-in-epilepsy
#5
Ursula Geronzi, Federica Lotti, Salvatore Grosso
The brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress being the most aerobically active organ in the body due to its high metabolic demands. There is evidence that neuronal hyperexcitability and oxidative injury produced by an excessive production of free radicals may play a role in the initiation and progression of epilepsy. Understanding the role of oxidative stress in epileptogenesis is essential to delineate appropriate therapeutic strategies. Neuroprotectant or antioxidant compounds may exert positive effects when associated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
April 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641937/to-diagnose-or-not-to-diagnose-timing-is-the-question-balancing-early-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-with-misdiagnosis
#6
Crystal Dixon, Derrick Robertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633883/challenges-and-prospects-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#7
Giovanni Citterio, Teresa Calimeri, Andrés J M Ferreri
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) retains peculiar biological and clinical characteristics and a worse prognosis with respect to other comparable lymphomas. The need for high doses of chemotherapy to achieve valid drug concentrations in cerebral tissues and/or radiotherapy results in severe treatment-related toxicities, mainly neurologic, which are frequently as disabling as the disease itself. Areas covered: Several emerging combined therapies are addressed that focus on treating PCNSL. The prognosis has improved in the last years but several questions remain unanswered and the research of more effective therapies goes on...
April 10, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630421/neuroimaging-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-current-and-emerging-uses
#8
Federica Agosta, Edoardo Gioele Spinelli, Massimo Filippi
Several neuroimaging techniques have been used to define in vivo markers of pathological alterations underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Growing evidence supports the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of central nervous system involvement in patients with ALS. Areas covered: A comprehensive overview of structural and functional neuroimaging applications in ALS is provided, focusing on motor and extra-motor involvement in the brain and the spinal cord...
April 9, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600729/astroglial-5-ht-2b-receptor-in-mood-disorders
#9
Liang Peng, Dan Song, Baoman Li, Alexei Verkhratsky
Astroglia represent the main cellular homeostatic system of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are intimately involved in regulation and maintenance of neurotransmission by regulating neurotransmitters removal and turnover and by supplying neurons with neurotransmitters precursors. Astroglial cells are fundamental elements of monoaminergic transmission in the brain and in the spinal cord. Astrocytes receive monoaminergic inputs and control catabolism of monoamines through dedicated transporters and intracellular enzymatic pathways...
March 30, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589965/do-pre-clinical-multiple-sclerosis-models-allow-us-to-measure-neurodegeneration-and-clinical-progression
#10
Tanja Hochstrasser, Zhan Jiangshan, Sebastian Rühling, Christoph Schmitz, Markus Kipp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560754/precipitation-and-inhibition-of-seizures-in-focal-epilepsies
#11
Rūta Mameniškienė, Peter Wolf
There is growing awareness that reflex epileptic seizures offer unique insight into natural seizure generation in humans. In the last years, focus has mostly been on reflex seizures in generalized epilepsies whereas a comprehensive review of their role in focal epilepsies has been missing. Areas covered: This paper reviews reflex seizures strictly in focal epilepsies, not including focal reflex seizures in system epilepsies that also exist. They were categorized according to their triggers which can be sensory or cognitive, simple or complex...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560752/pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-the-earlier-the-better
#12
Kees Pj Braun, J Helen Cross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557243/tardive-dyskinesia-placing-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-type-2-vmat2-inhibitors-into-clinical-perspective
#13
Leslie Citrome
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an iatrogenic movement disorder caused by exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents. Two vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors for the treatment of TD were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2017: valbenazine and deutetrabenazine. Areas covered: A brief review of TD and its identification, as well as a review of older treatment interventions is provided, followed by a detailed synthesis regarding the clinical utility of valbenazine and deutetrabenazine...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521555/improving-surgical-outcome-for-gliomas-with-intraoperative-mapping
#14
François-Xavier Ferracci, Hugues Duffau
Radical glioma resection improves overall survival, both in low-grade and high-grade glial tumors. However, preservation of the quality of life is also crucial. Areas covered: Due to the diffuse feature of gliomas, which invade the central nervous system, and due to considerable variations of brain organization among patients, an individual cerebral mapping is mandatory to solve the classical dilemma between the oncological and functional issues. Because functional neuroimaging is not reliable enough, intraoperative electrical stimulation, especially in awake patients benefiting from a real-time cognitive monitoring, is the best way to increase the extent of resection while sparing eloquent neural networks...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533109/low-tt4-as-a-predictor-of-poor-outcomes-in-severe-encephalitis-a-multivariate-analysis-of-94-patients
#15
Guibo Feng, Xin Tian, Liang Wang, Libo Zhao, Xuefeng Wang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the prognostic value of acute thyroid function in patients with severe encephalitis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed information from patients with severe encephalitis from June 2012 to June 2017. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we examined predictors of poor outcomes in these patients after 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients with severe encephalitis were included in the study. Univariate analysis showed that patients with good or poor outcomes had significantly different total thyroxine (TT4) (P = 0...
March 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495903/a-novel-scoring-system-to-predict-the-outcomes-of-adult-patients-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#16
Feng Li, Guangwei Liu, Xin Tian, Fengying Quan, Bosong Li, Guibo Feng, Xuefeng Wang, Yida Hu
BACKGROUND: Adult patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) often incur large costs, but their outcomes are poor. Currently, there is lack of a comprehensive quantitative approach to predict patient prognoses. METHODS: A total of 73 adult patients with HIE participated in this prospective, observational study. Clinical assessments, laboratory tests, and electrophysiological examinations were conducted within 3 days after HIE occurred. Logistic regression model was used to identify independent factors associated with patient outcomes...
March 7, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475371/surgical-treatments-for-essential-tremor
#17
Rodger J Elble, Ludy Shih, Jeffrey W Cozzens
Essential tremor is the most common form of pathologic tremor. Surgical therapies disrupt tremorogenic oscillation in the cerebellothalamocortical pathway and are capable of abolishing severe tremor that is refractory to available pharmacotherapies. Surgical methods are rapidly improving and are the subject of this review. Areas covered: A PubMed search on January 18, 2018 using the query essential tremor AND surgery produced 839 abstracts. 379 papers were selected for review of the methods, efficacy, safety and expense of stereotactic deep brain stimulation (DBS), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), focused ultrasound (FUS) ablation, and radiofrequency ablation of the cerebellothalamocortical pathway...
February 23, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425076/identifying-and-mitigating-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-risk-factors
#18
Lance Watkins, Rohit Shankar, Josemir W Sander
Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant cause of death for people with chronic epilepsy. Good practice guidance in the UK and the USA expect SUDEP to be discussed with the individual. The event rarity, methodological variance and lack of robust research into the pathological mechanisms, associated risk factors, and management strategies have created a challenge on how and what to discuss. There are some significant associations which allows for risk assessment and mitigation. Areas covered: The current understanding of static and modifiable risk factors for SUDEP and how to manage these more effectively are reviewed...
February 9, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411688/preservation-of-neuronal-function-as-measured-by-clinical-and-mri-endpoints-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-how-effective-are-current-treatment-strategies
#19
Christiane Graetz, Sergiu Groppa, Frauke Zipp, Nelly Siller
Approved medications for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis have shown to be effective in terms of their anti-inflammatory potential. However, it is also crucial to evaluate what long-term effects a patient can expect from current MS drugs in terms of preventing neurodegeneration. Here we aim to provide an overview of the current treatment strategies in MS with a specific focus on potential neuroprotective effects. Areas covered: Randomized, double-blind and placebo or referral-drug controlled phase 2a/b and phase 3 trials were examined; non-blinded phase 4 studies (extension studies) were included to provide long-term data, if not otherwise available...
February 7, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521117/neurocysticercosis-the-good-the-bad-and-the-missing
#20
Arturo Carpio, Agnès Fleury, Matthew L Romo, Ronaldo Abraham
Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a neglected disease that contributes substantially to neurological morbidity/mortality in lower-income countries and increasingly among high-income countries due to migration. Many advances have been made in understanding NC, but unanswered questions remain Areas covered: This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and eradication of NC. Expert commentary: The global NC prevalence remains unknown and needs proper ascertainment. Further understanding of the pathophysiology of extraparenchymally located cysts is needed to improve management...
April 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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