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Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233067/normobaric-hyperoxia-after-stroke-a-word-of-caution
#1
Fabio Silvio Taccone, Ilaria Alice Crippa, Jean-Louis Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219631/tourette-syndrome-and-other-chronic-tic-disorders-an-update-on-clinical-management
#2
Davide Martino, Tamara M Pringsheim
The management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other chronic tic disorders occurs in multiple stages and begins with comprehensive assessment and complex psychoeducation. Behavioral and pharmacological interventions (second stage) are needed when tics cause physical or psychosocial impairment. Deep brain stimulation surgery or experimental therapies represent the third stage. Areas covered: Discussed are recent advances in assessment and therapy of chronic tic disorders, encompassing the three stages of intervention, with the addition of experimental, non-invasive brain stimulation strategies...
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199490/the-role-of-electroencephalogram-in-neonatal-seizure-detection
#3
Francesco Pisani, Elena Pavlidis
The role of EEG in neonatal seizure detection is well-established, being the multichannel video-EEG the gold standard. However, in the clinical practice often amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) is used, in order to overcome the difficulties related to EEG use. Areas covered: An overview regarding neonatal seizures, current tools used to detect these (multichannel EEG versus aEEG) with respective strenghts and limitations, and some tools that can implement the use of multichannel EEG in the NICU. Expert commentary: Multichannel video-EEG is still a gold standard for seizure detection...
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212396/dysautonomia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-migraine
#4
Parisa Gazerani, Brian Edwin Cairns
Migraine is a common complex neurological disorder involving multiple brain areas that regulate autonomic, affective, cognitive, and sensory functions. This review explores autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in migraine headache sufferers. Areas covered: Reference material for this review was obtained through PubMed searches. Migraine attacks can present with up to 4 phases (premonitory, aura, headache, postdrome) each with distinguishable signs and symptoms. Altered ANS tone can be found from the premonitory through the postdrome phases...
December 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206482/brain-circuits-and-neurochemical-systems-in-essential-tremor-insights-into-current-and-future-pharmacotherapeutic-approaches
#5
Sara M Schaefer, Ana Vives Rodriguez, Elan D Louis
There are few medications that are available for the treatment of essential tremor (ET) and they are only moderately effective. Areas covered: Data were obtained from a PubMed search. Original articles, review articles, and clinical guidelines were included. Two disease models for ET have been proposed: 1) the olivary model, which attributes ET to a pathological pacemaker in the inferior olivary nucleus, and 2) the cerebellar degeneration model, which postulates that ET originates in the cerebellum and could be related to deficient or abnormal Purkinje cell (PC) output...
December 5, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179585/immune-based-strategies-for-mood-disorders-facts-and-challenges
#6
Gabriela D Colpo, Marion Leboyer, Robert Dantzer, Mahdukar H Trivedi, Antonio L Teixeira
Inflammation seems to play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the last years several studies have shown increased levels of inflammatory and/or immune markers in patients with mood disorders. Accordingly, the immune system has become a target of interest for the development of biomarkers and therapeutics for mood disorders. Areas covered: Here, we review the evidence showing low-grade inflammation in mood disorders and the studies evaluating immune-based strategies for the treatment of these conditions...
November 27, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120264/treatment-options-for-chorea
#7
H Bashir, J Jankovic
Chorea is defined as jerk-like movements that move randomly from one body part to another. It is due to a variety of disorders and although current symptomatic therapy is quite effective there are few etiology- or pathogenesis-targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to summarize our own experience and published evidence in the treatment of chorea. Areas covered: After evaluating current guidelines and clinical practices for chorea of all etiologies, PubMed was searched for the most recent clinical trials and reviews using the term 'chorea' cross referenced with specific drug names...
November 15, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124985/pharmacotherapy-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#8
Luciano Viale, Natalia Paola Catoira, Guillermo Di Girolamo, Claudio Daniel González
Stroke is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. There are various mechanisms that enhance motor recovery after a stroke. In clinical practice, we have the opportunity to enhance plasticity by designing specific rehabilitation programs. Areas covered: There are a variety of drugs commonly administered to people after the acute phase of a stroke. These drugs may modify motor performance. Herein reviewed is the evidence concerning motor enhancement or decline in stroke patients, produced by drugs commonly used in rehabilitation settings...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103335/nummular-headache-an-update-and-future-prospects
#9
María Luz Cuadrado, Pedro López-Ruiz, Ángel L Guerrero
Nummular headache (NH) is characterized by continuous or intermittent head pain, which remains confined to a round or oval shaped area of the scalp, generally 1 to 6 cm in diameter. Usually mild or moderate in intensity, some patients suffer severe acute exacerbations or continuous disabling pain. Areas covered: This article reviews epidemiological and clinical features of NH, the most recently proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, and state-of-the-art management according to the literature. Expert commentary: Information regarding true incidence and prevalence is lacking, but NH is a fairly common disorder in patients attending a headache clinic...
November 9, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090594/comprehensive-grading-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-motor-and-non-motor-assessments-addressing-a-key-unmet-need
#10
Pablo Martinez-Martin, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
Parkinson's disease (PD) is expressed through motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) that differ considerably in presence and severity among patients and over time. Furthermore, the progression pattern of the NMS does not necessarily parallel the course of the motor impairment. Gradation of PD according to the motor impairment and burden of NMS is an unmet need for an appropriate management of patients. Areas covered: A review of the studies on clinical gradation methods applied to PD is carried out in this article...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088993/an-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#11
Jane Halliday, Scott A Rutherford, Martin G McCabe, Dafydd G Evans
Vestibular schwannomas (VS) account for approximately 85% of tumors in the cerebello-pontine angle, with a lifetime incidence of approximately 1 in 1000. Most are sporadic, with approximately 5% related to the tumor predisposition syndrome Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2). The mainstays of management strategies are: observation, surgery, radiosurgery/radiotherapy and, for patients with NF2 and rapidly growing tumors or deteriorating neurologic function the targeted therapy bevacizumab. While morbidity and mortality rates related to treatment of VS have improved dramatically over the last decades, there are still significant improvements that could be made, in particular with regards to long-term facial nerve and hearing outcomes...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057682/improving-diagnosis-of-childhood-arterial-ischaemic-stroke
#12
Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Franz E Babl
At least half of childhood stroke survivors suffer long-term impairments. Rapid identification of stroke is essential to minimize the extent of injury by restoring perfusion to viable brain. Improving diagnosis of childhood stroke requires correct identification of stroke by prehospital and emergency physicians, rapid performance of appropriate neuroimaging to confirm infarction, and targeted investigations to determine underlying causes, which guide treatment decisions to reduce recurrence risk. Areas covered: This review will summarize the barriers to rapid stroke diagnosis in pre-hospital and emergency department settings, describe recent progress in understanding of the spectrum, presenting clinical features and differential diagnosis of childhood stroke, discuss clinical stroke recognition tools which improve diagnostic accuracy, and their application to children...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095058/protective-roles-of-intestinal-microbiota-derived-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-alzheimer-s-disease-type-beta-amyloid-neuropathological-mechanisms
#13
Lap Ho, Kenjiro Ono, Mayumi Tsuji, Paolo Mazzola, Risham Singh, Giulio M Pasinetti
BACKGROUND: Dietary fibers are metabolized by gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). We investigated the potential role of these SCFAs in β-amyloid (Aß) mediated pathological processes that play key roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Multiple complementary assays were used to investigate individual SCFAs for their dose-responsive effects in interfering with the assembly of Aß1-40 and Aß1-42 peptides into soluble neurotoxic Aß aggregates...
November 2, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094622/long-term-effects-of-internet-supported-cognitive-behaviour-therapy
#14
Gerhard Andersson, Alexander Rozental, Roz Shafran, Per Carlbring
Internet-supported and therapist-guided cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is effective for a range of problems in the short run, but less is known about the long-term effects with follow-ups of two years or longer. Areas covered: This paper reviews studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years...
November 2, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088979/key-findings-from-the-atahualpa-project-what-should-we-learn
#15
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Pablo R Castillo, Victor J Del Brutto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057688/rock-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-stroke
#16
Nikola Sladojevic, Brian Yu, James K Liao
Stroke is a major cause of disability and the fifth leading cause of death. Currently, the only approved acute medical treatment of ischemic stroke is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but its effectiveness is greatly predicated upon early administration of the drug. There is, therefore, an urgent need to find new therapeutic options for acute stroke. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the role of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK) and its potential as a therapeutic target in stroke pathophysiology...
October 30, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057699/management-of-post-stroke-mood-and-emotional-disturbances
#17
Jong S Kim
Mood and emotional disturbances are common in stroke patients. Out of diverse post-stroke emotional disturbances, depression, anxiety, emotional incontinence, anger proneness, and fatigue are frequent and important symptoms. These symptoms are distressing for both the patients and their caregivers, and negatively influence the patient's quality of life. The emotional symptoms are not apparent and are therefore often neglected by neurologists. Their phenomenology, predicting factors, and pathophysiology have been under-studied, and are under-recognized...
October 26, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023182/potential-clinical-utility-of-multiple-system-atrophy-biomarkers
#18
Kurt A Jellinger
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), an adult-onset, fatal disorder of uncertain etiology, characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic and motor dysfunctions, is an α-synucleinopathy with glioneuronal degeneration involving multiple parts of the nervous system. The clinical variants correlate with the morphological phenotypes of striatonigral degeneration (MSA-P), olivoponto-cerebellar atrophy (MSA-C), and mixed type MSA. Neuropathological hallmark is the deposition of aberrant α-synuclein in glia and neurons forming cytoplasmic inclusions that cause cell dysfunction/demise...
October 23, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027821/it-is-dopey-to-stop-giving-dopamine-to-hospitalized-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Jason Margolesky, Carlos Singer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971695/valbenazine-for-the-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#20
Thomas Müller
Chronic intake of typical neuroleptics or centrally acting dopamine receptor blocking antiemetics may cause onset of tardive syndromes. Various types exist. One of them is tardive dyskinesia, characterised by often stigmatising, purposeless, rapid, repetitive, stereotypic, involuntary movements of face, limbs or trunk. Effective symptomatic drug treatment options beyond application of tetrabenazine are rare. Tetrabenazine is usually administered three times daily due to the short half life of this agent. Areas covered: This narrative review discusses the value of valbenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia as a therapeutic alternative to tetrabenazine...
October 12, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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