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Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429363/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-chronic-migraine-in-children
#1
Marco Antônio Arruda, Camila Flaksberg Chevis, Marcelo Eduardo Bigal
Migraine is a chronic-recurrent disorder that progresses in some adults and also in many children. Chronic migraine (CM) is the clinical result of this process. Since migraine does not progress in most children, identifying the risk factors for progression is an important public health priority that should be matched by evidence-based treatment. Areas covered: Herein we conduct a systematic review on the comorbidities and treatment of CM in children and adolescents in the last ten years, summarizing evidence-based recommendations for disease management...
February 10, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425076/identifying-and-mitigating-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-risk-factors
#2
Lance Watkins, Rohit Shankar, Josemir W Sander
Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant cause of death for people with chronic epilepsy. Good practice guidance in the UK and the USA expect SUDEP to be discussed with the individual. The event rarity, methodological variance and lack of robust research into the pathological mechanisms, associated risk factors, and management strategies have created a challenge on how and what to discuss. There are some significant associations which allows for risk assessment and mitigation. Areas covered: The current understanding of static and modifiable risk factors for SUDEP and how to manage these more effectively are reviewed...
February 9, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411688/preservation-of-neuronal-function-as-measured-by-clinical-and-mri-endpoints-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-how-effective-are-current-treatment-strategies
#3
Christiane Graetz, Sergiu Groppa, Frauke Zipp, Nelly Siller
Approved medications for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis have shown to be effective in terms of their anti-inflammatory potential. However, it is also crucial to evaluate what long-term effects a patient can expect from current MS drugs in terms of preventing neurodegeneration. Here we aim to provide an overview of the current treatment strategies in MS with a specific focus on potential neuroprotective effects. Areas covered: Randomized, double-blind and placebo or referral-drug controlled phase 2a/b and phase 3 trials were examined; non-blinded phase 4 studies (extension studies) were included to provide long-term data, if not otherwise available...
February 7, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338461/mtor-dysregulation-and-tuberous-sclerosis-related-epilepsy
#4
Paolo Curatolo, Romina Moavero, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Eleonora Aronica
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has emerged as a key player for proper neural network development, and it is involved in epileptogenesis triggered by both genetic or acquired factors. Areas covered. The robust mTOR signaling deregulation observed in a large spectrum of epileptogenic developmental pathologies, such as focal cortical dysplasias and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), has been linked to germline and somatic mutations in mTOR pathway regulatory genes, increasing the spectrum of 'mTORopathies'...
January 27, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369733/clinical-applications-of-ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Matilde Inglese, Lazar Fleysher, Niels Oesingmann, Maria Petracca
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of paramount importance for the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and MRI findings are part of the MS diagnostic criteria. There is a growing interest in the use of ultra-high-field strength -7 Tesla- (7T) MRI to investigate, in vivo, the pathological substrate of the disease. Areas covered: An overview of 7T MRI applications in MS focusing on increased sensitivity for lesion detection, specificity of the central vein sign and better understanding of MS pathophysiology and discuss the implications for disease diagnosis, monitoring and treatment planning...
January 25, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338455/current-treatment-options-for-meningioma
#6
Caroline Apra, Matthieu Peyre, Michel Kalamarides
With an annual incidence of 5/100,000, meningioma is the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. Risk factors are radiotherapy and hormone intake. Most meningiomas are grade I benign tumors, but up to 15% are atypical and 2% anaplastic according to the WHO 2016 histological criteria. Areas covered: This review details the current standard therapy based on international guidelines and recent literature, and describes new approaches developed to treat refractory cases. First-line treatments are observation and surgery, but adjuvant radiotherapy/radiosurgery is discussed for atypical and indicated for anaplastic meningiomas...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322843/immunotherapy-for-brain-tumors-understanding-early-successes-and-limitations
#7
Nicole A P Lieberman, Nicholas A Vitanza, Courtney A Crane
Adverse effects and toxicities related to standard treatments for brain tumors significantly reduce patients' quality of life. Although most immunotherapy approaches for solid tumors have not been successful, several early-phase clinical trials are beginning to reveal a potential role for immunotherapy in the treatment of brain tumors. In particular, methods that activate the innate immune system and induce a polyclonal anti-cancer response have demonstrated that brain tumors are susceptible to immune-mediated tumor destruction...
January 11, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319362/do-anti-epileptic-drugs-increase-suicide-in-epilepsy-10-years-after-the-fda-alert
#8
Marco Mula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285954/clinical-implications-of-myelin-regeneration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Christopher E McMurran, Srikirti Kodali, Adam Young, Robin Jm Franklin
Amongst strategies to repair the brain, myelin repair offers genuine cause for optimism. Myelin, which sheaths most axons in the central nervous system (CNS), is vital for normal neurological function, as demonstrated by the functional deficits that accrue when it is absent in a range of debilitating myelin diseases. Following demyelination, post-mortem and imaging studies have shown that extensive regeneration of myelin is possible in the human brain. Over recent decades preclinical research has given us a strong understanding of the biology of myelin regeneration, opening up several exciting therapeutic opportunities that are on the cusp of clinical translation...
December 29, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219631/tourette-syndrome-and-other-chronic-tic-disorders-an-update-on-clinical-management
#10
Davide Martino, Tamara M Pringsheim
The management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other chronic tic disorders occurs in multiple stages and begins with comprehensive assessment and complex psychoeducation. Behavioral and pharmacological interventions (second stage) are needed when tics cause physical or psychosocial impairment. Deep brain stimulation surgery or experimental therapies represent the third stage. Areas covered: Discussed are recent advances in assessment and therapy of chronic tic disorders, encompassing the three stages of intervention, with the addition of experimental, non-invasive brain stimulation strategies...
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206482/brain-circuits-and-neurochemical-systems-in-essential-tremor-insights-into-current-and-future-pharmacotherapeutic-approaches
#11
Sara M Schaefer, Ana Vives Rodriguez, Elan D Louis
There are few medications that are available for the treatment of essential tremor (ET) and they are only moderately effective. Areas covered: Data were obtained from a PubMed search. Original articles, review articles, and clinical guidelines were included. Two disease models for ET have been proposed: 1) the olivary model, which attributes ET to a pathological pacemaker in the inferior olivary nucleus, and 2) the cerebellar degeneration model, which postulates that ET originates in the cerebellum and could be related to deficient or abnormal Purkinje cell (PC) output...
December 5, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179585/immune-based-strategies-for-mood-disorders-facts-and-challenges
#12
Gabriela D Colpo, Marion Leboyer, Robert Dantzer, Mahdukar H Trivedi, Antonio L Teixeira
Inflammation seems to play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the last years several studies have shown increased levels of inflammatory and/or immune markers in patients with mood disorders. Accordingly, the immune system has become a target of interest for the development of biomarkers and therapeutics for mood disorders. Areas covered: Here, we review the evidence showing low-grade inflammation in mood disorders and the studies evaluating immune-based strategies for the treatment of these conditions...
November 27, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319369/the-ilae-classification-of-seizures-and-epilepsies-implications-for-the-clinic
#13
Ettore Beghi, Josemir W Sander
The classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies has recently been revised by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and a new classification scheme issued. Areas covered: The new classification scheme has been critically appraised in the light of the previous classifications and subsequent revisions. The purposes of the classification and its potential use have been extensively discussed. Expert commentary: This ILAE classification scheme, the latest of a series of proposals published in the last 30 years, has made progress as it has a multi-level structure (seizure types, epilepsy types, epilepsy syndromes) allowing for differing uses and combines the previously separate seizure types and epilepsies schemes into a single instrument...
March 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280408/optimizing-the-long-term-management-of-chronic-migraine-with-onabotulinumtoxina-in-real-life
#14
Cristina Tassorelli, Gioacchino Tedeschi, P Sarchielli, Luigi Alberto Pini, Licia Grazzi, Pierangelo Geppetti, Marina De Tommaso, Marco Aguggia, P Cortelli, Paolo Martelletti
Management of chronic migraine is challenging. OnabotulinumtoxinA (OBT-A) is the only medication licensed for prevention of chronic migraine, and has been widely adopted in clinical practice. Limited data is available on its long-term use. Areas covered: Data from controlled trials are combined with available data on the long-term use of OBT-A in real-life studies, with information obtained in a recent survey among Italian headache centers, and the clinical experience of the authors. Six areas were identified as relevant to patients with chronic migraine: 1) definition of responders to OBT-A; 2) management of responders to OBT-A; 3) optimal timing of prophylaxis with OBT-A; 4) position of OBT-A in prevention of chronic migraine; 5) management of medication overuse, and 6) patient education...
February 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233067/normobaric-hyperoxia-after-stroke-a-word-of-caution
#15
Fabio Silvio Taccone, Ilaria Alice Crippa, Jean-Louis Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212396/dysautonomia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-migraine
#16
Parisa Gazerani, Brian Edwin Cairns
Migraine is a common complex neurological disorder involving multiple brain areas that regulate autonomic, affective, cognitive, and sensory functions. This review explores autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in migraine headache sufferers. Areas covered: Reference material for this review was obtained through PubMed searches. Migraine attacks can present with up to 4 phases (premonitory, aura, headache, postdrome) each with distinguishable signs and symptoms. Altered ANS tone can be found from the premonitory through the postdrome phases...
February 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199490/the-role-of-electroencephalogram-in-neonatal-seizure-detection
#17
Francesco Pisani, Elena Pavlidis
The role of EEG in neonatal seizure detection is well-established, being the multichannel video-EEG the gold standard. However, in the clinical practice often amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) is used, in order to overcome the difficulties related to EEG use. Areas covered: An overview regarding neonatal seizures, current tools used to detect these (multichannel EEG versus aEEG) with respective strenghts and limitations, and some tools that can implement the use of multichannel EEG in the NICU. Expert commentary: Multichannel video-EEG is still a gold standard for seizure detection...
February 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124985/pharmacotherapy-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#18
Luciano Viale, Natalia Paola Catoira, Guillermo Di Girolamo, Claudio Daniel González
Stroke is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. There are various mechanisms that enhance motor recovery after a stroke. In clinical practice, we have the opportunity to enhance plasticity by designing specific rehabilitation programs. Areas covered: There are a variety of drugs commonly administered to people after the acute phase of a stroke. These drugs may modify motor performance. Herein reviewed is the evidence concerning motor enhancement or decline in stroke patients, produced by drugs commonly used in rehabilitation settings...
January 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120264/treatment-options-for-chorea
#19
H Bashir, J Jankovic
Chorea is defined as jerk-like movements that move randomly from one body part to another. It is due to a variety of disorders and although current symptomatic therapy is quite effective there are few etiology- or pathogenesis-targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to summarize our own experience and published evidence in the treatment of chorea. Areas covered: After evaluating current guidelines and clinical practices for chorea of all etiologies, PubMed was searched for the most recent clinical trials and reviews using the term 'chorea' cross referenced with specific drug names...
January 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088993/an-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#20
Jane Halliday, Scott A Rutherford, Martin G McCabe, Dafydd G Evans
Vestibular schwannomas (VS) account for approximately 85% of tumors in the cerebello-pontine angle, with a lifetime incidence of approximately 1 in 1000. Most are sporadic, with approximately 5% related to the tumor predisposition syndrome Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2). The mainstays of management strategies are: observation, surgery, radiosurgery/radiotherapy and, for patients with NF2 and rapidly growing tumors or deteriorating neurologic function the targeted therapy bevacizumab. While morbidity and mortality rates related to treatment of VS have improved dramatically over the last decades, there are still significant improvements that could be made, in particular with regards to long-term facial nerve and hearing outcomes...
January 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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