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Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

Verinder Sharma, Sapna Sharma
Many women with bipolar disorder experience significant morbidity during pregnancy and the postpartum period. The use of evidence-based and up-to-date guidelines has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal care. We review the latest clinical practice guidelines to gather recommendations for the peripartum management of bipolar disorder. Areas covered: Three electronic databases, MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse were searched using various combinations of the following terms: bipolar disorder, pregnancy, postpartum, peripartum, puerperal, antenatal, postnatal, and guidelines...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Catalina Coclitu, Cris S Constantinescu, Radu Tanasescu
There are not many conditions in which the last few decades have brought such a major change in the landscape of treatments as is the case of multiple sclerosis (MS). A number of disease modifying treatments (DMTs) are presently available for the treatment of the inflammatory phase of this disabling disease; however, the need for treating neurodegeneration and halting the progression of disability is still unmet. Areas covered: In this paper we review the available information on existing and emerging DMTs and we discuss their place within the context of different treatment strategies in MS, Expert commentary: The future of MS treatments should include the development of new treatment strategies tackling disease progression, together with a better understanding of the side-effects and the best sequential strategy of implementation of available and emerging drugs...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Fiorella Casamenti, Massimo Stefani
Clinical trials and population studies indicate the healthy virtues of the Mediterranean diet and its main lipid component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Olive leaves and EVOO contain many phenolics effective against several aging and lifestyle-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, both in animal models and in humans. Recent research has shown that such protection stems from several effects, including (i.) the interference with the aggregation of peptides/proteins found in amyloid diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases; (ii...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Charbel Moussa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
J Fluss, M Dinomais, M Kossotoroff, C Vuillerot, S Darteyre, S Chabrier
Over the last decade considerable advances have been made in the identification, understanding and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. Such increasing knowledge has also brought new perspectives and interrogations in the current acute and rehabilitative care of these patients. Areas covered: In developed countries, focal cerebral arteriopathy is one of the most common causes of arterial ischemic stroke in childhood and imaging features are well characterized. However, there are ongoing debates regarding its underlying mechanisms, natural evolution and proper management...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Mariarosa Rottoli, Sara La Gioia, Barbara Frigeni, Valeria Barcella
Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis, affecting almost 80% of patients with 55% of them reporting it as one of the worst symptoms experienced, often independently of the level of disability. Areas covered: We review the main pathophysiological hypothesis, fatigue assessment scales, and its management. Expert commentary: Fatigue pathophysiology is complex and is often influenced by other secondary but relevant factors (e.g. psychological disturbances, musculoskeletal problems, sleep disorders and medication side effects) which may vary over time...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Filippo Sean Giorgi, Melania Guida, Andrea Vergallo, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Gaetano Zaccara
Epilepsy is significantly more frequent in AD patients than in age-matched controls, even though the true extent of the phenomenon is not clear yet. Areas covered: In this review, we describe in detail the available data on the pharmacological treatment of epilepsy in patients with AD. We also briefly describe general principles of AEDs use in elderly, as well as the potential cognitive profile of AEDs and safety of concomitant psychotropic drugs in patients with epilepsy and AD. Expert commentary: As some preclinical data suggest a role of epileptiform discharges in cognitive decline in AD, a prompt diagnosis and treatment of seizures in these patients should be pursued...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Irene Del Pilar Moreno Torres, Antonio García-Merino
INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic utility of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is currently being evaluated in multiple sclerosis (MS) in line with the better understanding of the role of B lymphocytes in MS pathogenesis. AREA COVERED: We conducted a literature search using Medline/Pub Med database of basic research and available controlled trials about anti-CD20 mAbs in MS. Additionally, ongoing studies were identified in the database. B cells exert multiple inflammatory and regulatory functions playing an important role in MS pathogenesis as is demonstrated by the production of autoantibodies, infiltration of B cells in MS lesions and the formation of ectopic B cell follicle-like structures in meninges, among others...
October 10, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Emanuele D'Amico, Aurora Zanghì, Francesco Patti, Mario Zappia
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. It could be associated with severe disability and losses of physical, psychological and social role functioning over time. People with MS share experiences in common with people affected by diseases with a shorter and clearer terminal phase. Therefore, it is appropriate to offer a palliative care approach to people with severe MS and their caregivers. Areas covered: Benefits for severe MS patients and their caregivers were shown when palliative care was included in their care...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Camille Larson-Dupuis, Louis De Beaumont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Antonella Tramutola, Andrea Arena, Chiara Cini, D Allan Butterfield, Eugenio Barone
Clinical studies suggest a link between peripheral insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction. Post-mortem analyses of Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects revealed insulin resistance in the brain, suggesting a role of this condition in cognitive deficits observed in AD. In this review, we focus on the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, whose role in the brain is collecting increasing attention because of its association with insulin signaling activation. Areas covered: The role of GLP-1-mediated effects in the brain and how they are affected along the progression of AD pathology is discussed...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
John-Ih Lee, Sebastian Jander
Myasthenia gravis is the most frequent acquired disorder of neuromuscular transmission. In the majority of cases, pathogenic antibodies against components of the postsynaptic muscle endplate membrane can be detected. In recent years there have been significant advances in the pathophysiological understanding and therapy of the disease. Areas covered: PubMed searches were conducted for the term "myasthenia gravis" cross-referenced with the terms "immunology", "subgroups", "antibody", "ocular", "thymoma", "treatment" and "thymectomy"...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas Covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Umer Akbar, Arlet G Kurkchubasche, Joseph H Friedman
Guidelines for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in the perioperative setting are lacking. Areas covered: Here we review potential problems that may arise when PD patients are undergoing an operation. We also review the literature, where available, and provide our expert opinion and recommendations based on experience. Expert commentary: Elderly patients with PD are especially prone to complications in the perioperative setting. Extreme caution must be used to ensure appropriate medication administration, transition to non-oral agents, if indicated, and early mobilization to achieve rapid recovery after surgery...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Natália S Kapczinski, Benson Mwangi, Ryan M Cassidy, Diego Librenza-Garcia, Mariane Bagatin Bermudez, Márcia Kauer-Sant'anna, Flávio Kapczinski, Ives Cavalcante Passos
The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder is highly variable, and a subset of patients seems to present a progressive course associated with brain changes and functional impairment. Areas covered: We discuss the theory of neuroprogression in bipolar disorder. This concept considers the systemic stress response that occurs within mood episodes and late-stage deficits in functioning and cognition as well as neuroanatomic changes. We also discuss treatment refractoriness that may take place in some cases of bipolar disorder...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Antonella Tramutola, Chiara Lanzillotta, Fabio Di Domenico
The mTOR pathway is involved in the regulation of a wide repertoire of cellular functions in the brain and its dysregulation is emerging as a leitmotif in a large number of neurological disorders. In AD, altered mTOR signaling contributes to the inhibition of autophagy deposition of Aβ and tau aggregates and to the alteration of several neuronal metabolic pathways. Areas Covered: In this review, we report all the current findings on the use of mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin, rapalogues) in the treatment of AD...
October 2, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Stéphane Mathis, Philippe Couratier, Adrien Julian, Jean-Michel Vallat, Philippe Corcia, Gwendal Le Masson
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. Despite much research and effort, no clear insights into a unifying hypothesis for the pathogenesis has so far emerged for this disease. AREAS COVERED: We review the main pathophysiological hypotheses and the potential therapeutic targets in ALS, as well as the management of these patients (in order to improve their survival and quality of life)...
September 20, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Douglas A Wajda, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Jacob J Sosnoff
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with neurodegenerative disease (NDD) commonly have elevated cognitive-motor interference, change in either cognitive or motor performance (or both) when tasks are performed simultaneously, compared to healthy controls. Given that cognitive-motor interference is related to reduced community ambulation and elevated fall risk, it is a target of rehabilitation interventions. AREAS COVERED: This review details the collective findings of previous dual task interventions in individuals with NDD...
September 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
E Unti, S Mazzucchi, G Palermo, U Bonuccelli, R Ceravolo
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this review is to overview the pharmacological features of neuroleptics experienced in the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms. Despite a large number of case reports, randomized controlled trials (RCT) and drug comparison studies are lacking. AREAS COVERED: After evaluating current guidelines and clinical unmet needs we searched PubMed for the term 'Huntington's disease' cross referenced with the terms 'Antipsychotic drugs' 'Neuroleptic drugs' and single drug specific names...
August 23, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Carlo Lovati, Luca Giani, Domenico D'Amico, Claudio Mariani
INTRODUCTION: The amount of cerebral functions is particularly elevated. This intense activity requires a great expenditure of energy: the restoration of energy is the fundamental function of sleep whilst the slowdown in energy consumption may be considered the physiological effect of primary headaches. The continuous interaction of sleep and primary headaches is possible as they share many anatomical and functional cerebral systems. AREAS COVERED: This review describes how sleep and headaches are reciprocally involved in preservation and restoration of brain energy...
August 22, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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