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Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

Matthew S Markert, Robert S Fisher
Neuromodulation devices can be safe and effective for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. A body of scientific work supports peripheral, subcortical and cortical targets, each with different fundamental methods of action. Areas covered: High-quality evidence is available for vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and responsive neurostimulation (RNS). Mechanistic research in animals and human studies are reviewed, along with key data from VNS, DBS, and RNS clinical trials. Specifically, the authors review some of the science behind the most frequently used medical devices for neuromodulation, the evidence that lead to their adoption, a delineation of the populations that often benefit from these devices, and perspectives on clinical practice to optimize benefit in treatment of seizures...
December 11, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Kai Zhang, Kenji Hashimoto
Depression is one of the most disabling diseases worldwide. Approximately one-third of depressed patients are treatment-resistant to the currently available antidepressants and there is a significant therapeutic time lag of weeks to months. There is a clear unmet need for rapid-acting and more efficacious treatments. (R,S)-ketamine, an old anesthetic drug, appears now to be going through a renaissance. Areas covered: This paper reviews recent literature describing the antidepressant effects of ketamine and its enantiomer (S)-ketamine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD)...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Ashutosh Mangalam, Joseph Murray
The gut microbiome helps to maintain a person's healthy state while perturbations in its function often leading to the development of inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Consequently, gut-commensals which restore homeostasis have the potential to become novel therapeutic options for treating MS. MS patients have presented gut microbial dysbiosis with a reduction in bacteria belonging to the Prevotella genus. Notably, increased levels of Prevotella are observed when disease-modifying therapies are used...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Isabella Berardelli, Massimo Pasquini, Antonella Conte, Matteo Bologna, Alfredo Berardelli, Giovanni Fabbrini
This paper reviews studies that have assessed the treatment of psychiatric disturbances in dystonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's disease and essential tremor. Areas covered: We searched for papers in English in Pubmed using the following keywords: blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, arm dystonia, laryngeal dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's chorea, essential tremor, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, psychosis, apathy...
December 1, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Maria A Rocca, Paolo Preziosa, Massimo Filippi
Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and analyses are improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Due to their ability to grade the presence of irreversible tissue loss, microstructural tissue abnormalities, metabolic changes and functional plasticity, the application of these techniques is also expanding our knowledge on the efficacy and mechanisms of action of different pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments. Areas covered. This review discusses recent findings derived from the application of advanced MRI techniques to evaluate the structural and functional substrates underlying the effects of pharmacologic and rehabilitative treatments in patients with MS...
November 30, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Antonio L Teixeira, Gabriela D Colpo, Gabriel R Fries, Isabelle E Bauer, Sudhakar Selvaraj
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder marked by clinical and pathophysiological heterogeneity. There is a high expectation that personalized approaches can improve the management of patients with BD. For that, identification and validation of potential biomarkers are fundamental. Areas covered: This manuscript will critically review the current status of different biomarkers for BD, including peripheral, genetic, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological candidates, discussing the challenges to move the field forward...
November 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Fabio Di Domenico, Chiara Lanzillotta, Antonella Tramutola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Rafael Arroyo González
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with a heterogeneous and unpredictable clinical course. Mobility impairment after progressive paralyses and muscle tone spasticity is common. Areas covered: The prevalence, assessment, and pharmacological management of gait impairment and spasticity in MS and their effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are discussed. The roles of oral and intrathecal baclofen and of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray in treating MS spasticity-related gait impairment are reviewed...
September 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Steffen Moritz, Paul H Lysaker, Stefan G Hofmann, Martin Hautzinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Inga Zerr, Peter Hermann
Rapidly progressive dementia is a syndrome caused by numerous disease entities. Accurate diagnosis is crucial as substantial proportion of these diseases is highly treatable. Others might implicate specific hygienic problems. Still, differential diagnosis remains challenging because of a huge overlap of clinical presentations. Areas covered: The paper reviews PubMed-listed research articles with a focus on diagnosis and treatment of diseases showing rapid cognitive decline such as inflammatory diseases, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases, toxic-metabolic encephalopathies and prion diseases...
September 17, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Josef Finsterer
Metabolic myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inherited defects of enzymatic pathways involved in muscle fiber energetics. Diagnosing metabolic myopathies requires a thoroughly taken individual and family history, a meticulous neurologic exam, exercise tests, blood and urine tests, needle-electromyography, nerve-conduction studies, muscle biopsy, targeted genetic tests, or next-generation sequencing. There is limited evidence from the literature to guide treatment of metabolic myopathies...
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Verinder Sharma
Despite the common occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) after childbirth, the role of pharmacotherapy in its management is unclear. Areas covered: This systematic review aims to determine the role of drugs in the acute and preventative treatment of postpartum OCD. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, four electronic databases including Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar were searched. A total of 10 articles - 1 randomized controlled trial, 2 open-label trials, 1 case series, and 6 case reports - were selected for review...
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Angelina Mellentin, Elsebeth Nylev Stenager, Egon Stenager
Suicidal behavior is a relatively rare occurrence among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Nonetheless, it is important to identify and be aware of the constituting risk factors to prevent suicidal behavior among vulnerable patients. Areas covered: This scoped review will shortly outline well-known biological and psychosocial risk factors for suicidal behavior among MS patients and suggest preventive initiatives. The preventive strategies should include a close monitoring of MS pharmacotherapy to prevent progression, and awareness and early identification of psychosocial risk factors across a variety of heathcare and social instances the patient may encounter during their life with the disease...
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Shunya Nakane, Akihiro Mukaino, Osamu Higuchi, Mari Watari, Yasuhiro Maeda, Makoto Yamakawa, Keiichi Nakahara, Koutaro Takamatsu, Hidenori Matsuo, Yukio Ando
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder that leads to autonomic failure. The disorder is associated with autoantibodies to the ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR). We subsequently reported that AAG is associated with an overrepresentation of psychiatric symptoms, sensory disturbance, autoimmune diseases, and endocrine disorders. Area covered: The aim of this review was to describe AAG and highlight its pivotal pathophysiological aspects, clinical features, laboratory examinations, and therapeutic options...
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Alesha Heath, J L Taylor, M Windy McNerney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Aparna Wagle Shukla, Wissam Deeb, Bhavana Patel, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Nathan Van den Bergh, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H W Koster
Despite several available evidence-based interventions for major depression relapse, rates remain high and relapse prevention programs are still scarce. To increase effectiveness, novel techniques that target underlying vulnerability factors may be a promising avenue. Depression is associated with impairments in executive functioning, which is in turn associated with poor psychosocial outcomes and more Repetitive Negative Thinking (RNT), a key vulnerability factor for relapse. This paper examines deficits in cognitive control as a potentially modifiable causal mechanism for depression...
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Chih-Wen Yang, Jong-Ling Fuh
Thunderclap headache (TCH) is an excruciating headache that reaches maximal intensity within a minute. It has numerous potential etiologies, the most concerning of which is subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to high morbidity and mortality. Thus, patients with TCH must be evaluated urgently to identify the underlying cause and initiate prompt therapy. Areas covered: This paper reviews PubMed-listed research articles and presents an update of the clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, and possible causes of TCH...
December 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Junaid Siddiqui, Zakiyah Aldaajani, Raja Mehanna, Barbara Kelly Changizi, Danish Bhatti, Ziyad Ghazi Al-Johani, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Hubert H Fernandez, Jawad A Bajwa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing in prevalence due to a growing elderly population. Although there is no cure, there are exercise therapies and medications for mild to moderate disease. For more advanced disease, infusion or surgical interventions including deep brain stimulation surgery, levodopa carbidopa intestinal gel, and subcutaneous apomorphine infusion are considered. As these interventions become increasingly available, it is imperative for a neurologist involved in the care of advanced PD to be aware of the indications and timing for these interventions...
November 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Ruopeng Sun, Ryan McGinnis, Jacob J Sosnoff
Mobility and balance impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are major factors for decreased quality of life. Novel sensing technologies have great potential to efficiently capture subtle changes in mobility and balance performance, and thus improve current practices by providing an easy-to-implement, objective, and continuous functional tracking in MS population. Areas covered: This review details the collective findings of novel technology utilization in mobility and balance tracking in patients with MS...
November 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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