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Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

Ruopeng Sun, Ryan McGinnis, Jacob J Sosnoff
Mobility and balance impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are major factors for decreased quality of life. Novel sensing technologies have great potential to efficiently capture subtle changes in mobility and balance performance, and thus improve current practices by providing an easy-to-implement, objective, and continuous functional tracking in MS population. Areas covered: This review details the collective findings of novel technology utilization in mobility and balance tracking in patients with MS...
October 10, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Kok Pin Ng, Hui Jin Chiew, Levinia Lim, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Nagaendran Kandiah, Serge Gauthier
Cognitive assessment tools measure cognitive impairment and complement biomarkers to link cognitive symptoms with pathophysiological processes underlying dementia. However, language and cultural differences in multilingual populations can influence the interpretation of cognitive assessment tools when applied in cross-cultural and multinational studies. Areas covered: This paper examines the influence of culture and language on the interpretation of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, which are more commonly used worldwide...
October 4, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Francesco Panza, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Rodolfo Sardone, Carla Piccininni, Vittorio Dibello, Roberta Stallone, Gianluigi Giannelli, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Davide Seripa, Giancarlo Logroscino, Bruno P Imbimbo
The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affirms that brain accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers and soluble aggregates represents the major pathological event of the disease. Several anti-Aβ small organic molecules, monoclonal antibodies and antigens were developed to interfere with Aβ production and clearance, including β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE) inhibitors, blocking the first enzymatic step of Aβ formation. All these approaches, including BACE inhibitors, have failed in large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in mild-to-moderate AD, but further studies are now being carried out in patients at early AD stages and in asymptomatic subjects at risk of developing AD...
October 2, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Nick Alderman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Arens Taga, Nicholas J Maragakis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder which results in progressive muscle weakness as a prominent feature. However, clinical and pathogenic heterogeneity with regard to anatomical sites of disease onset and progression over time are important features of the disease which have frustrated attempts to inform patients about their prognosis as well as limited the potential successes of therapeutic studies. Areas covered: This paper discusses: clinical biomarkers which can be measured by history, physical examination, and clinical scales of disability; genetic markers of ALS that may help to distinguish various ALS subtypes; fluid-based biomarkers are actively being pursued for their utility in understanding disease progression and prognosis; electrophysiological studies that are now widely used in ALS clinical trials; neuroimaging biomarkers whose development has been accelerated with evolving techniques...
October 1, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Aristide Merola, Andrea Sturchio, Stephanie Hacker, Santiago Serna, Joaquin A Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Alfonso Fasano, Alberto J Espay
The increasing development and availability of portable and wearable technologies is rapidly expanding the field of technology-based objective measures (TOMs) in neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Substantial challenges remain in the recognition of disease phenomena relevant to patients and clinicians, as well as in the identification of the most appropriate devices to carry out these measurements. Areas Covered: The authors systematically reviewed PubMed for studies employing technology as outcome measures in the assessment of PD-associated motor and non-motor abnormalities...
September 29, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Agnieszka Bogusz, Hermann L Müller
Childhood-onset craniopharyngiomas are rare embryonic tumors of low-grade histological malignancy. Severe obesity, physical fatigue, and psychosocial deficits due to hypothalamic tumor involvement have negative impact on quality of life. Initial pretreatment involvement of hypothalamic structures and/or treatment-related lesions result in sequelae clinically associated with impaired social and physical functionality and severe neuroendocrine deficiencies. Overall and progression-free survival rates are not associated with the degree of surgical resection...
September 26, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Rafael Arroyo González
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with a heterogeneous and unpredictable clinical course. Mobility impairment after progressive paralyses and muscle tone spasticity is common. Areas covered: The prevalence, assessment, and pharmacological management of gait impairment and spasticity in MS and their effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are discussed. The roles of oral and intrathecal baclofen and of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray in treating MS spasticity-related gait impairment are reviewed...
September 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Steffen Moritz, Paul H Lysaker, Stefan G Hofmann, Martin Hautzinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Inga Zerr, Peter Hermann
Rapidly progressive dementia is a syndrome caused by numerous disease entities. Accurate diagnosis is crucial as substantial proportion of these diseases is highly treatable. Others might implicate specific hygienic problems. Still, differential diagnosis remains challenging because of a huge overlap of clinical presentations. Areas covered: The paper reviews PubMed-listed research articles with a focus on diagnosis and treatment of diseases showing rapid cognitive decline such as inflammatory diseases, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases, toxic-metabolic encephalopathies and prion diseases...
September 17, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Lior M Elkaim, Phillippe De Vloo, Suneil K Kalia, Andres M Lozano, George M Ibrahim
Dystonia, one of the most common childhood movement disorders, is often medically refractory and can lead to profound impacts on the child and their caretakers' quality of life. Limited efficacy of pharmacological treatments has fueled enthusiasm for innovative neurosurgical approaches, notably deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a treatment for refractory dystonia. Areas covered: DBS is increasingly applied to successfully treat childhood dystonia. While generally safe and effective, results vary widely depending on underlying dystonia etiology...
September 15, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Barak Bar, Jose Biller
Remarkable advances have occurred in the management of acute ischemic stroke, especially in regards to reperfusion treatments. With advances in reperfusion treatments come the risk of complications associated with these treatments. Areas covered: The article focuses on three acute complications that can occur in the setting of acute ischemic stroke: cerebral edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and orolingual angioedema following administration of alteplase, a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Predictors of the development of these complications are reviewed...
September 14, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Arturo Carpio, Agnés Fleury, Elizabeth A Kelvin, Matthew L Romo, Ronaldo Abraham, Jose Tellez-Zenteno
Recent guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment for neurocysticercosis (NC) from the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene were developed to be used in the United States and Canada, where only a small fraction of NC cases occur. Areas covered: The paper discusses the strengths and weakness of the proposed guidelines. Expert commentary: Although these new guidelines bring much needed attention to a neglected parasitic disease, some of the recommendations made are based on insufficient and/or inadequate evidence...
September 6, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Mony Chenda Morisse, Stéphanie Jouannet, Margarita Dominguez-Villar, Marc Sanson, Ahmed Idbaih
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest primary malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months despite a very intensive therapeutic regimen including maximal safe surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Therefore, GBM treatment still raises major biological and therapeutic challenges. Areas covered: One of the hallmarks of the GBM is its tumor microenvironment including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). TAM, accounting for approximately 30% of the GBM bulk cell population, may explain, at least in part, the immunosuppressive features of GBMs...
September 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Marco Zucconi, Andrea Galbiati, Fabrizio Rinaldi, Francesca Casoni, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a sleep disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs, frequently associated or triggered by unpleasant sensations in the lower limbs that affects approximately 2.5% of adults. Therapy and management of RLS/WED require long-term interventions, since the typical manifestation of this disorder is chronic. Areas covered: In this review, we provide an update regarding the treatment of RLS/WED with particular attention to future challenges for its management...
September 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Laura O' Philbin, Bob Woods, Emma M Farrell, Aimee E Spector, Martin Orrell
Reminiscence therapy (RT) is a popular psychosocial intervention widely used in dementia care. It involves discussion of past events and experiences, using tangible prompts to evoke memories or stimulate conversation. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of RT for people with dementia. It includes studies from the specialized register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (ALOIS). Searches yielded 185 records of which 22 (n = 1972) were eligible for inclusion...
September 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Lisa Mosconi, Roberta Diaz Brinton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Corrado Angelini, Laura Giaretta, Roberta Marozzo
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) encompass a clinically heterogeneous group of rare, genetic progressive muscle disorders presenting with weakness and atrophy of predominant pelvic and shoulder muscles. The spectrum of disease severity ranges from severe childhood-onset muscular dystrophy to adult-onset dystrophy. Areas covered: The review presents an update of the clinical phenotypes and diagnostic options for LGMD including both dominant and recessive LGMD and consider their differential clinical and histopathological features...
September 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Alessandra Alciati, Fabiola Atzeni, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Mariateresa Cirillo, Davide Sciortino, Giampaolo Perna, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder whose symptoms of musculo-skeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment pervade the personal, occupational, and social aspects of a patient's life. Together with the antidepressants duloxetine and milnacipran, the anticonvulsant pregabalin (PGB) is one of the three drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of FM. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the data relating to the efficacy and safety of the controlled-release formulation of PGB (PGB-CR) in patients with FM...
August 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Rajesh Pahwa, Stuart H Isaacson, Diego Torres-Russotto, Fatta B Nahab, Peter M Lynch, Katya E Kotschet
Evaluation of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is often complex due to heterogeneity of symptoms and disease course, including the variability of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Routine clinical evaluations may be incomplete, may not accurately capture important symptoms, and may not reflect day-to-day variability. While significant advances have been made in wearable ambulatory continuous objective monitoring (COM) technologies, many clinicians remain uncertain of how to incorporate them in clinical practice, including the value to clinical decision-making...
August 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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