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Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092989/therapeutic-complement-inhibition-a-promising-approach-for-treatment-of-neuroimmunological-diseases
#1
Kjara S Pilch, Peter Spaeth, Yuki Nobuhiro, Benjamin R Wakerley
Autoimmunity is an important cause of disease both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Aetiologies and clinical manifestations are complex and heterogeneous. Inappropriate control of complement activation at inappropriate sites has been recognized as a major determinant in several neurological conditions, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuromyelitis optica. In each case pathogenesis is thought to be associated with generation of autoantibodies which upon binding guide activation of the complement system to self-tissue...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092469/investigational-drugs-in-recent-clinical-trials-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#2
Ricardo P Garay, Carlos A Zarate, Thomas Charpeaud, Leslie Citrome, Christoph U Correll, Ahcène Hameg, Pierre-Michel Llorca
The authors describe the medications for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in phase II/III of clinical development in the EU and US and provide an opinion on how current treatment can be improved in the near future. Areas covered: Sixty-two trials were identified in US and EU clinical trial registries that included six investigational compounds in recent phase III development and 12 others in recent phase II clinical trials. Glutamatergic agents have been the focus of many studies. A single intravenous dose of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine produces a robust and rapid antidepressant effect in persons with TRD; this effect continues to remain significant for 1 week...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081625/an-unsound-aan-practice-advisory-on-poststroke-etanercept
#3
Ian A Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983884/extra-motor-abnormalities-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-another-layer-of-heterogeneity
#4
P A McCombe, N R Wray, R D Henderson
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease defined by the presence of muscle weakness. The motor features of disease are heterogeneous in site of onset and progression. There are also extra-motor features in some patients. The genetic basis for extra-motor features is uncertain. The heterogeneity of ALS is an issue for clinical trials. Areas covered: This paper reviews the range and prevalence of extra-motor features associated with ALS, and highlights the current information about genetic associations with extra-motor features...
January 3, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005435/is-there-a-weight-neutral-second-generation-antipsychotic-for-bipolar-disorder
#5
Fang Fang, Zuowei Wang, Renrong Wu, Joseph R Calabrese, Keming Gao
Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (WG) and metabolic abnormalities are major concerns. This review was untaken to answer if there is a weight-neutral second-generation antipsychotic for bipolar disorder (BPD). Areas covered: English-language literature in MEDLINE was searched with the keywords of antipsychotic/second-generation antipsychotic or generic/brand name of second-generation antipsychotic, and BPD/mania/depression or bipolar maintenance, and safety/tolerability or WG/weight increase, and randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
January 2, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001435/how-should-physical-exercise-be-used-in-schizophrenia-treatment
#6
Alison R Yung, Joseph Firth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927055/improving-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-neural-progenitor-cell-transplantation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Michael A Lane, Angelo C Lepore, Itzhak Fischer
There have been a wide range of preclinical studies testing cellular therapies to repair the injured spinal cord, yet they remain a challenge to translate because of inconsistencies in efficacy, limited number of patients with acute/subacute SCI and the high costs of clinical trials. Area covered: This paper focusses on the therapeutic potential of neural precursor cells (NPCs) because they can provide the cellular components capable of promoting repair and enhancing functional improvement following spinal cord injury (SCI)...
December 21, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978768/movement-disorders-and-cerebrovascular-diseases-from-pathophysiology-to-treatment
#8
Stefano Caproni, Carlo Colosimo
Cerebrovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of secondary movement disorders. Hypokinetic or hyperkinetic movement disorders may occur after an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, either immediately or thereafter. Such disorders are also known to be caused by diffuse leukoaraiosis, vascular malformations and dural fistulas in the basal ganglia or other brain regions. Area covered: The aim of this review was to describe movement disorders secondary to cerebrovascular diseases, and highlight their pivotal pathophysiological aspects, clinical features, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic options...
December 16, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911120/new-frontiers-in-anticoagulation-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-in-stroke-prevention
#9
Valentina Arnao, Marianna Riolo, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto, Brigida Fierro, Paolo Aridon
Non vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are direct and specific inhibitors of the coagulation factors IIa (dabigatran) and Xa (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban) which share many pharmacokinetic properties. However, indications are lacking regarding the use of NOACs during thrombolysis, surgery and bleeding events. Areas covered: In this paper, the authors retrospectively analyzed the relevant literature on the NOACs using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Expert commentary: Although warfarin is effective in cardioembolic stroke prevention, easier handling and more favorable risk-benefit profile often render NOACs a more preferable therapy choice for neurologists...
December 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917685/phosphodiesterase-10-inhibitors-in-clinical-development-for-cns-disorders
#10
Hugo Geerts, Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts
Phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors (PDE10-I), are conceptually attractive drugs with a potential great therapeutic window as their enriched striatal localization may likely stimulate D1R and reduce D2R downstream effects. However, so far selective PDE10-I with efficacy in animal models have not shown benefit in clinical trials and unexpectedly revealed a substantial dyskinesia motor side-effect. Areas covered: This paper reviews the underlying biological rationale of PDE10 as a target in schizophrenia, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease based on peer-reviewed published articles, the status of the different PDE10-I in clinical development for various CNS indications and explores possible reasons for the clinical trial failures and translational disconnect...
December 10, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892736/therapeutics-of-postpartum-depression
#11
Michael Thomson, Verinder Sharma
Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder affecting many women of reproductive age. Despite increasing public awareness, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated leading to significant maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. When identified, postpartum depression is usually treated as major depressive disorder. Many studies have identified the postpartum as a period of high risk for first presentations and relapses of bipolar disorder. Areas covered: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder, bipolar depression and major depressive disorder with mixed features...
December 9, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852103/immunological-aspects-of-botulinum-toxin-therapy
#12
Dirk Dressler, Hans Bigalke
Botulinum toxin (BT) is used in many medical specialties to treat muscle hyperactivity, exocrine gland hyperactivity and pain disorders. BT drugs consist of botulinum neurotoxin (BNT), complexing proteins (CP) and excipients. Antibodies can be formed against BNT and CP. When they are formed against BNT (BTAB) they can block BT's therapeutic efficacy thus producing antibody induced therapy failure (ABTF). Areas covered: BT applied and BTAB are in a functional balance within the body. ABTF is rare, but influences the treatment algorithms of BT therapy considerably...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830959/neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-an-update-on-disease-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#13
Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, Barış Ekici, Burak Tatlı
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most important reason for morbidity and mortality in term-born infants. Understanding pathophysiology of the brain damage is essential for the early detection of patients with high risk for HIE and development of strategies for their treatments. Areas covered: This review discusses pathophysiology of the neonatal HIE and its treatment options, including hypothermia, melatonin, allopurinol, topiramate, erythropoietin, N-acetylcyctein, magnesium sulphate and xenon...
November 23, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866428/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-sleep-apnea-comorbidity
#14
Feng Liu, Xuefeng Wang
The comorbidity of epilepsy and sleep apnea is not uncommon. The diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apneas will improve the prognosis and the quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Areas covered: In this paper, the authors review the pathological link between sleep apnea and epilepsy and systematically analyze the current literature on the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy. This review includes studies retrieved from the PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841033/ketogenic-diet-and-childhood-neurological-disorders-other-than-epilepsy-an-overview
#15
Alberto Verrotti, Giulia Iapadre, Simone Pisano, Giangennaro Coppola
In the last years, ketogenic diet (KD) has been experimentally utilized in various childhood neurologic disorders such as mitochondriopathies, alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), brain tumors, migraine, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this review is to analyze how KD can target these different medical conditions, highlighting possible mechanisms involved. Areas covered: We have conducted an analysis on literature concerning KD use in mitochondriopathies, AHC, brain tumors, migraine, and ASD...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830953/radiologically-isolated-syndrome-watchful-waiting-vs-active-treatment
#16
Foziah Alshamrani, Hind Alnajashi, M Freedman
Neurologists are frequently consulted for patients who have white matter lesions discovered incidentally on their brain MRI, performed for reasons other than suspecting a demyelinating disease. The referring physician will question if the person has multiple sclerosis (MS). If the MRI is typical for MS but there are no clinical symptoms or signs suggestive of a demyelinating disorder, patients are diagnosed as having a Radiologically Isolated Syndrome (RIS). Areas covered: This is a timely review on RIS with a focus on treatment considerations...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813431/what-role-does-inflammation-play-in-schizophrenia
#17
Norbert Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781560/precision-medicine-in-genetic-epilepsies-break-of-dawn
#18
Philipp Sebastian Reif, Meng-Han Tsai, Ingo Helbig, Felix Rosenow, Karl Martin Klein
Therapy with current antiepileptic drugs aims at reducing the likelihood of seizure occurrence rather than influencing the underlying disease process. Therefore, antiepileptic drugs have an anticonvulsant rather than antiepileptic property. Areas covered: The increasing identification of genetic causes for epilepsy over the recent years improves the understanding of the underlying epileptogenic process and allows for the possibility of directed therapeutic approaches. An ideal antiepileptic therapy consists of a drug which is able to influence the functional changes caused by a specific pathogenic variant...
November 10, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786568/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-perioperative-stroke-and-beyond
#19
Maxim Mokin, Robert Zivadinov, Michael G Dwyer, Ronald M Lazar, L Nelson Hopkins, Adnan H Siddiqui
The definition of stroke has changed over time, from a clinical only-based diagnosis to a more complex classification, including both clinical and imaging-based criteria, in part due to widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The increasing number of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures in patients with severe aortic valvular stenosis who are considered high-risk surgical candidates has influenced our view on the diagnosis, interpretation, and significance of perioperative stroke during these procedures...
October 27, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813441/primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-current-therapeutic-strategies-and-future-perspectives
#20
Alberto Gajofatto, Marco Turatti, Maria Donata Benedetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the central nervous system with heterogeneous features. Primary progressive (PP) MS is a rare disease subtype characterized by continuous disability worsening from onset. No disease-modifying therapy is currently approved for PP MS due to the negative or inconsistent results of clinical trials conducted on a wide range of interventions, which are reviewed in the present paper. Areas covered: The features and results of randomized trials of disease-modifying treatments for PP MS are discussed, including immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, and putative neuroprotective agents...
November 4, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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