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Genes, Brain, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627812/genetics-of-alcohol-consumption-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Sophia Fochler, Tatiana V Morozova, Morgan R Davis, Alexander W Gearhart, Wen Huang, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Individual variation in alcohol consumption in human populations is determined by genetic, environmental, social and cultural factors. In contrast to humans, genetic contributions to complex behavioral phenotypes can be readily dissected in Drosophila, where both the genetic background and environment can be controlled and behaviors quantified through simple high-throughput assays. Here, we measured voluntary consumption of ethanol in ~3,000 individuals of each sex from an advanced intercross population derived from 37 lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel...
June 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594147/casein-kinase-1-epsilon-deletion-increases-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-behaviors-and-binge-eating
#2
Lisa R Goldberg, Stacey L Kirkpatrick, Neema Yazdani, Kimberly P Luttik, Olga A Lacki, R Keith Babbs, David F Jenkins, W Evan Johnson, Camron D Bryant
Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that casein kinase-1 epsilon (Csnk1e) contributes to psychostimulant, opioid, and ethanol motivated behaviors. We previously used pharmacological inhibition to demonstrate that Csnk1e negatively regulates the locomotor stimulant properties of opioids and psychostimulants. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Csnk1e negatively regulates opioid and psychostimulant reward using genetic inhibition and the conditioned place preference assay in Csnk1e knockout mice. Similar to pharmacological inhibition, Csnk1e knockout mice showed enhanced opioid-induced locomotor activity with the mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0...
June 8, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589689/genetic-variation-in-the-developmental-regulation-of-cortical-avpr1a-among-prairie-voles
#3
M Okhovat, I C Chen, Z Dehghani, D J Zheng, J E Ikpatt, H Momoh, S M Phelps
Early experiences can have enduring impacts on brain and behavior, but the strength of these effects can be influenced by genetic variation. In principle, polymorphic CpGs (polyCpGs) may contribute to gene-by-environment interactions (GxE) by altering DNA methylation. In this study, we investigate the influence of polyCpGs on the development of vasopressin receptor 1a abundance in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC-V1aR) of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Two alternative alleles (HI/LO) predict RSC avpr1a expression, V1aR abundance and sexual fidelity in adulthood; these alleles differ in the frequency of CpG sites and in methylation at a putative intron enhancer...
June 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557378/lasting-effects-of-early-life-stress-in-mice-interaction-of-maternal-environment-and-infant-genes
#4
Ariel J Feifel, Harry N Shair, Claudia Schmauss
In the mouse, a powerful paradigm of early life stress, infant maternal separation (IMS), can trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in adulthood similar to those found in humans with a history of childhood adversity. The magnitude of IMS effects differs among diverse inbred strains suggesting an interaction between the genetic background of pups and the maternal care they received. Here we investigated this interaction with studies on reciprocal F1 hybrid mice of the stress-susceptible Balb/c and the resilient C57Bl/6 strains that were either raised by Balb/c mothers (low maternal care) or by C57Bl/6 mothers (higher maternal care) with or without IMS exposure...
May 30, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556463/a-single-bout-of-exercise-increases-hippocampal-bdnf-influence-of-chronic-exercise-and-noradrenalin
#5
Andrew C Venezia, Elizabeth Quinlan, Stephen M Roth
Research in human subjects suggests that acute exercise can improve memory performance, but the qualities of the exercise necessary to promote improved memory, and the signaling pathways that mediate these effects are unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), noradrenergic signaling, and post-translational modifications to AMPA receptors have all been implicated in the enhancement of memory following emotional or physical arousal; however, it is not known if a single bout of exercise is sufficient to engage these pathways...
May 26, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544613/qtl-and-systems-genetics-analysis-of-mouse-grooming-and-behavioral-responses-to-novelty-in-an-open-field
#6
Anna Delprato, Marie-Paule Algéo, Brice Bonheur, Jason A Bubier, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Elissa J Chesler, Wim E Crusio
The open field is a classic test used to assess exploratory behavior, anxiety, and locomotor activity in rodents. Here we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors displayed in an open field, using a panel of 53 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains with deep replication (10 per strain and sex). The use of these strains permits the integration and comparison of data obtained in different laboratories, and also offers the possibility to study trait covariance by exploiting powerful bioinformatics tools and resources...
May 24, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523735/variability-in-prescription-opioid-intake-and-reinforcement-amongst-129-substrains
#7
Susan M Jimenez, Aiden F Healy, Michal A Coelho, Chelsea N Brown, Tod E Kippin, Karen K Szumlinski
Opioid abuse in the United States has reached epidemic proportions, with treatment admissions and deaths associated with prescription opioid abuse quadrupling over the past 10 years. Although genetics are theorized to contribute substantially to inter-individual variability in the development, severity, and treatment outcomes of opioid abuse/addiction, little direct preclinical study has focused on the behavioral genetics of prescription opioid reinforcement and drug-taking. Herein, we employed different 129 substrains of mice currently available from The Jackson Laboratory (129S1/SvlmJ, 129X1/SvJ, 129S4/SvJaeJ and 129P3/J) as a model system of genetic variation and assayed mice for oral opioid intake and reinforcement, as well as behavioral and somatic signs of dependence...
May 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488329/phosphodiesterase-1b-deletion-confers-depression-like-behavioral-resistance-separate-from-stress-related-effects-in-mice
#8
J R Hufgard, M T Williams, C V Vorhees
Phosphodiesterase-1b (Pde1b) is highly expressed in striatum, dentate gyrus, CA3 and substantia nigra. In a new Floxed Pde1b × Cre(CMV) global knockout (KO) mouse model, we show an immobility-resistance phenotype that recapitulates that found in constitutive Pde1b KO mice. We use this new mouse model to show that the resistance to acute stress-induced depression-like phenotype is not the product of changes in locomotor activity or reactivity to other stressors (learned helplessness, novelty suppressed feeding or dexamethasone suppression), and is not associated with anhedonia using the sucrose preference test...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488276/cntnap2-is-a-direct-foxp2-target-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-zebra-finches-complex-regulation-by-age-and-activity
#9
Iris Adam, Ezequiel Mendoza, Ursula Kobalz, Sandra Wohlgemuth, Constance Scharff
Mutations of FOXP2 are associated with altered brain structure, including the striatal part of the basal ganglia, and cause a severe speech and language disorder. Songbirds serve as a tractable neurobiological model for speech and language research. Experimental downregulation of FoxP2 in zebra finch Area X, a nucleus of the striatal song control circuitry, affects synaptic transmission and spine densities. It also renders song learning and production inaccurate and imprecise, similar to the speech impairment of patients carrying FOXP2 mutations...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466980/social-context-affects-behavior-preoptic-area-gene-expression-and-response-to-d2-receptor-manipulation-during-territorial-defense-in-a-cichlid-fish
#10
C A Weitekamp, J Nguyen, H A Hofmann
Social context often has profound effects on behavior, yet the neural and molecular mechanisms which mediate flexible behavioral responses to different social environments are not well understood. We used the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to examine aggressive defense behavior across three social contexts representing different motivational states: a reproductive opportunity, a familiar male and a neutral context. To elucidate how differences in behavior across contexts may be mediated by neural gene expression, we examined gene expression in the preoptic area, a brain region known to control male aggressive and sexual behavior...
May 3, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425198/the-cell-adhesion-molecule-epha4-is-involved-in-circadian-clock-functions
#11
Silke Kiessling, Emma K O'Callaghan, Marlène Freyburger, Nicolas Cermakian, Valérie Mongrain
Circadian (~24 h) rhythms of cellular network plasticity in the central circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been described. The neuronal network in the SCN regulates photic resetting of the circadian clock as well as stability of the circadian system during both entrained and constant conditions. EphA4, a cell adhesion molecule regulating synaptic plasticity by controlling connections of neurons and astrocytes, is expressed in the SCN. To address whether EphA4 plays a role in circadian photoreception and influences the neuronal network of the SCN, we have analysed circadian wheel-running behavior of EphA4 knockout (EphA4(-/-) ) mice under different light conditions and upon photic resetting, as well as their light-induced protein response in the SCN...
April 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-shows-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#12
I J I Dela Peña, I Dela Peña, J B de la Peña, H J Kim, A Sohn, C Y Shin, D H Han, B-N Kim, J H Ryu, J H Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the 'normal' heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421709/gene-environment-interaction-influences-attachment-like-style-in-mice
#13
Glenda Lassi, Valter Tucci
Attachment styles are established soon after birth and form the basis for a healthy psychological life during adulthood. Here, we investigated whether genetic background (i.e., isogenic strains: C57Bl/6N and BALB/c) and parent-of-origin (i.e., reciprocal hybrids) epigenetic effects influence attachment-like styles in mice. We discovered that a specific genetic and epigenetic assortment exerts a role on the development of a secure or insecure attachment-like style. In particular, when biological mothers raise their pups, the attachment-like style is mainly secure, independently of the genetic background...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421658/transcriptional-signatures-of-connectomic-subregions-of-the-human-striatum
#14
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yücel, Alex Fornito
Functionally distinct regions of the brain are thought to possess a characteristic connectional fingerprint - a profile of incoming and outgoing connections that defines the function of that area. This observation has motivated efforts to subdivide brain areas using their connectivity patterns. However, it remains unclear whether these connectomically-defined subregions can be distinguished at the molecular level. Here, we combine high-resolution diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with transcriptomic data to show that connectomically-defined subregions of the striatum carry distinct transcriptional signatures...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398003/midkine-in-the-mouse-ventral-tegmental-area-limits-ethanol-intake-and-ccl2-gene-expression
#15
H Chen, D He, A W Lasek
Midkine (MDK) is a cytokine and neurotrophic factor that is more highly expressed in the brains of alcoholics and in mice predisposed to drink large amounts of ethanol, suggesting that MDK may regulate ethanol consumption. Here we measured ethanol consumption in male and female Mdk knockout (-/-) mice using the two-bottle choice and the drinking in the dark (DID) tests. We found that Mdk -/- mice consumed significantly more ethanol than wild-type controls in both tests. To determine if MDK acts in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to regulate ethanol consumption, we delivered lentivirus expressing a Mdk shRNA into the VTA of male C57BL/6J mice to locally knockdown Mdk and performed the DID test...
April 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387990/cdh13-and-adipoq-gene-knockout-alter-instrumental-and-pavlovian-drug-conditioning
#16
C P King, L Militello, A Hart, C L St Pierre, E Leung, C L Versaggi, N Roberson, J Catlin, A A Palmer, J B Richards, P J Meyer
Genome-wide association studies in humans have suggested that variants of the cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene are associated with substance use disorder, subjective response to amphetamine, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To examine the role of the Cdh13 and its peptide ligand adiponectin (AdipoQ) in addiction-related behaviors, we assessed Cdh13 knockout (KO) rats and AdipoQ KO mice using intravenous cocaine self-administration and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. During intravenous cocaine self-administration, male Cdh13 heterozygous (+/-) and KO (-/-) rats showed increased cue-induced reinstatement compared with wild-type (WT) rats when presented with a cocaine-paired stimulus, whereas female Cdh13 rats showed no differences across genotype...
April 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383797/the-role-of-nmda-receptor-dependent-activity-of-noradrenergic-neurons-in-attention-impulsivity-and-exploratory-behaviors
#17
P E Cieślak, N Llamosas, T Kos, L Ugedo, K Jastrzębska, M Torrecilla, J Rodriguez Parkitna
Activity of the brain's noradrenergic (NA) neurons plays a major role in cognitive processes, including the ability to adapt behavior to changing environmental circumstances. Here, we used the NR1(DbhCre) transgenic mouse strain to test how NMDA receptor-dependent activity of NA neurons influenced performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, attentional shifting and a trade-off between exploration and exploitation. We found that the loss of NMDA receptors caused irregularity in activity of NA cells in the locus coeruleus and increased the number of neurons with spontaneous burst firing...
April 6, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378436/visual-perception-skills-a-comparison-between-patients-with-noonan-syndrome-and-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#18
G Piccini, D Menghini, A D'Andrea, C Caciolo, M Pontillo, M Armando, F Perrino, L Mandolesi, A Salerni, L Buzzonetti, M C Digilio, G Zampino, M Tartaglia, M Benassi, S Vicari, P Alfieri
Ventral and dorsal streams are visual pathways deputed to transmit information from the photoreceptors of the retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus and then to the primary visual cortex (V1). Several studies investigated whether one pathway is more vulnerable than the other during development, and whether these streams develop at different rates. The results are still discordant. The aim of the present study was to understand the functionality of the dorsal and the ventral streams in two populations affected by different genetic disorders, Noonan syndrome (NS) and 22q11...
April 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220999/drosophila-divalent-metal-ion-transporter-malvolio-is-required-in-dopaminergic-neurons-for-feeding-decisions
#19
E Søvik, A LaMora, G Seehra, A B Barron, J G Duncan, Y Ben-Shahar
Members of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family are evolutionarily conserved metal ion transporters that play an essential role in regulating intracellular divalent cation homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Malvolio (Mvl), the sole NRAMP family member in insects, plays a role in food choice behaviors in Drosophila and other species. However, the specific physiological and cellular processes that require the action of Mvl for appropriate feeding decisions remain elusive...
June 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188958/potassium-channel-gene-associations-with-joint-processing-speed-and-white-matter-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#20
H A Bruce, P Kochunov, S A Paciga, C L Hyde, X Chen, Z Xie, B Zhang, H S Xi, P O'Donnell, C Whelan, C R Schubert, A Bellon, S A Ament, D K Shukla, X Du, L M Rowland, H O'Neill, L E Hong
Patients with schizophrenia show decreased processing speed on neuropsychological testing and decreased white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, two traits shown to be both heritable and genetically associated indicating that there may be genes that influence both traits as well as schizophrenia disease risk. The potassium channel gene family is a reasonable candidate to harbor such a gene given the prominent role potassium channels play in the central nervous system in signal transduction, particularly in myelinated axons...
June 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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