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Genes, Brain, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221471/systems-genetics-of-sensation-seeking
#1
Price E Dickson, Tyler A Roy, Kathryn A McNaughton, Troy D Wilcox, Padam Kumar, Elissa J Chesler
Sensation seeking is a multifaceted, heritable trait which predicts the development of substance use and abuse in humans; similar phenomena have been observed in rodents. Genetic correlations among sensation seeking and substance use indicate shared biological mechanisms, but the genes and networks underlying these relationships remain elusive. Here, we used a systems genetics approach in the BXD RI mouse panel to identify shared genetic mechanisms underlying substance use and preference for sensory stimuli, an intermediate phenotype of sensation seeking...
September 17, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221467/role-of-social-cognition-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer Strafford Stevens, Tanja Jovanovic
Social functioning is a key component of recovery after a potentially traumatic experience, and the buffering role of the social support in trauma resilience and recovery has been very well documented. Factors contributing to resilience and recovery are notable because although most people will experience a traumatic event during their lifetimes, only 6-10% are diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The relationship between an individual and their social environment is determined both by the quality of the social environment itself, and by the individual's perception and understanding of information conveyed by the other people around them...
September 16, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221458/brain-vasopressin-signaling-modulates-aspects-of-maternal-behavior-in-lactating-rats
#3
REVIEW
Doris S Bayerl, Oliver J Bosch
The brain vasopressin system mediates various social behaviors as has been studied mostly in males. Only recently, advances in social neuroscience revealed that central vasopressin signaling via its V1a and V1b receptors also facilitates female social behavior, including maternal behavior. In this review, we demonstrate how maternal care, maternal motivation and maternal aggression of lactating rat mothers are modulated in a V1 receptor subtype- and brain region-specific manner. Measuring local release pattern of vasopressin via intracerebral microdialysis in the behaving rat mother as well as using pharmacological approaches to activate or block vasopressin receptors with subsequent behavioral observation provide detailed insight into the functional role of the vasopressin system in maternal behavior...
September 16, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133126/neph2-kirrel3-regulates-sensory-input-motor-coordination-and-home-cage-activity-in-rodents
#4
Linus A Völker, Barbara A Maar, Barbara A Pulido Guevara, Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Andreas Zimmer, Hella Brönneke, Claudia Dafinger, Sabine Bertsch, Jan-Robin Wagener, Heiko Schweizer, Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Benzing, Martin Hoehne
Adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) are essential for neuronal synapse development across evolution and control various aspects of synapse formation and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an IgSF adhesion molecule implicated in synapse formation, synaptic transmission and ultrastructure. In humans, defects in the NEPH2 gene have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as Jacobsen syndrome, intellectual disability, and autism-spectrum disorders. However, the precise role in development and function of the nervous system is still unclear...
August 22, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129253/genetic-correlations-between-nicotine-reinforcement-related-behaviors-and-propensity-toward-high-or-low-alcohol-preference-in-two-replicate-mouse-lines
#5
Marcus M Weera, Zeynep S Agim, Jason R Cannon, Julia A Chester
Common genetic factors may contribute to the high comorbidity between tobacco smoking and alcohol use disorder. Here, we assessed behavioral and biological effects of nicotine in replicate mouse lines selectively bred for high (HAP2/3) or low alcohol preference (LAP2/3). In Experiment 1, free-choice (FC) oral nicotine and quinine intake were assessed in HAP2/3 and LAP2/3 mice. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blockade by mecamylamine on nicotine intake in HAP2 mice were also examined. In Experiment 2, HAP2/3 and LAP2/3 mice were tested for differences in sensitivity to nicotine-induced taste conditioning...
August 21, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125473/modulation-of-social-behavior-and-dominance-status-by-chronic-pain-in-mice
#6
Shannon N Tansley, Alexander H Tuttle, Neil Wu, Sarasa Tohyama, Kimberly Dossett, Lindsay Gerstein, Boram Ham, Jean-Sebastien Austin, Susana G Sotocinal, Jeffrey S Mogil
The potential influence of pain on social behavior in laboratory animals has rarely been evaluated. Using a new assay of social behavior, the tube co-occupancy test (TCOT), we assess propinquity-the tendency to maintain close physical proximity-in mice exposed to pain using subcutaneous zymosan or spared nerve injury as noxious stimuli. Our previous experience with the TCOT showed that outbred mouse sibling dyads show higher levels of tube co-occupancy than stranger dyads. We find here that long-lasting pain from spared nerve injury given to both mice in the dyad abolishes this effect of familiarity, such that strangers also display high levels of propinquity...
August 20, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120813/impaired-social-contacts-with-familiar-anesthetized-conspecific-in-ca3-restricted-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-knockout-mice
#7
Wataru Ito, Howard Huang, Vanessa Brayman, Alexei Morozov
Familiarity is conveyed by social cues and determines behaviors toward conspecifics. Here, we characterize a novel assay for social behaviors in mice-contacts with anesthetized conspecific-which eliminates reciprocal interactions, including intermale aggression and shows behaviors that are independent of the demonstrator's activity. During the initial 10 minutes (phase-1), the wild-type (WT) subjects contacted the anesthetized conspecifics vigorously regardless of familiarity. During the subsequent 80 minutes (phase-2), however, they contacted more with familiar than unfamiliar conspecifics...
August 17, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101538/the-other-side-of-the-coin-hypersociability
#8
REVIEW
Miklos Toth
Affiliative social motivation and behavior, i.e. sociability that includes attachment, prosocial behavior (sharing, caring, and helping), and empathy (the ability to understand and share the feelings of others), has high variability in the human population, with a portion of people outside of the normal range. While psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders are typically associated with a deficit in social behavior, the opposite trait of hypersociability and indiscriminate friendliness are exhibited by individual with specific neurodevelopmental disorders and following early adverse care...
August 13, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094933/honey-bee-neurogenomic-responses-to-affiliative-and-agonistic-social-interactions
#9
Hagai Y Shpigler, Michael C Saul, Emma E Murdoch, Frida Corona, Amy C Cash-Ahmed, Christopher H Seward, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Lisa J Stubbs, Gene E Robinson
Social interactions can be divided into two categories, affiliative and agonistic. How neurogenomic responses reflect these opposing valences is a central question in the biological embedding of experience. To address this question, we exposed honey bees to a queen larva, which evokes nursing, an affiliative alloparenting interaction, and measured the transcriptomic response of the mushroom body brain region at different times after exposure. Hundreds of genes were differentially expressed at distinct time points, revealing a dynamic temporal patterning of the response...
August 10, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084543/decoding-the-transcriptional-programs-activated-by-psychotropic-drugs-in-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Magdalena Zygmunt, Marcin Piechota, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna, Michal Korostynski
Analysis of drug-induced gene expression in the brain has long held the promise of revealing the molecular mechanisms of drug actions as well as predicting their long-term clinical efficacy. However, despite some successes, this promise has yet to be fulfilled. Here, we present an overview of the current state of understanding of drug-induced gene expression in the brain and consider the obstacles to achieving a robust prediction of the properties of psychoactive compounds based on gene expression profiles...
August 7, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079586/the-effect-of-psychosis-associated-cacna1c-and-its-epistasis-with-znf804a-on-brain-function
#11
Diogo Tecelão, Ana Mendes, Daniel Martins, Cynthia Fu, Christopher A Chaddock, Marco M Picchioni, Colm McDonald, Sridevi Kalidindi, Robin Murray, Diana P Prata
CACNA1C-rs1006737 and ZNF804A-rs1344706 polymorphisms are among the most robustly associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), and recently with brain phenotypes. As these patients show abnormal verbal fluency (VF) and related brain activation, we asked whether the latter was affected by these polymorphisms (alone and in interaction)-to better understand how they might induce risk. We recently reported effects on functional VF-related (for ZNF804A-rs1344706) and structural (for both) connectivity...
August 5, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062689/social-neuroscience-of-disgust
#12
REVIEW
Martin Kavaliers, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp, Elena Choleris
Disgust can be thought of as an affective system that has evolved to detect signs of pathogens, parasite and toxins as well as to stimulate behaviors that reduce the risk of their acquisition. Disgust incorporates social cognitive mechanisms to regulate exposure to and, or anticipate and avoid exposure to pathogens and toxins. Social cognition entails the acquisition of social information about others (ie, social recognition) and from others (ie, social learning). This involves recognizing and assessing other individuals and the pathogen/parasite/contamination/toxin threat they pose and deciding about when and how to interact with and, or avoid them...
July 31, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051606/impaired-gad1-expression-in-schizophrenia-related-wisket-rat-model-with-sex-dependent-aggressive-behavior-and-motivational-deficit
#13
A Büki, G Horvath, G Benedek, E Ducza, G Kekesi
After peri-adolescence isolation rearing (IS) and subchronic ketamine (KET) treatment, adult, selectively bred Wistar rats (named WISKET) mimic abnormal behaviors reminiscent of human schizophrenia, including reduced prepulse-inhibition of startle reflex, disturbances in cognition, locomotor activity and thermoregulation, decreased pain sensitivity and electrophysiological alterations. To further validate our WISKET rat line, regarding its translational utility in schizophrenia research, we examined their social behavior and introduced a short and simple holeboard (HB)-like test to investigate their motivational deficit that predicts the cognitive disturbance...
July 27, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027581/autism-related-behaviors-in-the-cyclooxygenase-2-deficient-mouse-model
#14
Christine T Wong, Isabel Bestard-Lorigados, Dorota A Crawford
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an endogenous lipid molecule involved in normal brain development. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is the main regulator of PGE2 synthesis. Emerging clinical and molecular research provides compelling evidence that abnormal COX2/PGE2 signaling is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously found that COX2 knockout mice had dysregulated expression of many ASD genes belonging to important biological pathways for neurodevelopment. The present study is the first to show the connection between irregular COX2/PGE2 signaling and autism-related behaviors in male and female COX2-deficient knockin, (COX)-2- , mice at young (4-6 weeks) or adult (8-11 weeks) ages...
July 20, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987918/inter-%C3%AE-inhibitor-deficiency-in-the-mouse-is-associated-with-alterations-in-anxiety-like-behavior-exploration-and-social-approach
#15
David R Goulding, Viktoriya D Nikolova, Lopa Mishra, Lisheng Zhuo, Koji Kimata, Sandra J McBride, Sheryl S Moy, G J Harry, Stavros Garantziotis
In recent years, several genome-wide association studies have identified candidate regions for genetic susceptibility in major mood disorders. Most notable are regions in a locus in chromosome 3p21, encompassing the genes NEK4-ITIH1-ITIH3-ITIH4. Three of these genes represent heavy chains of the composite protein inter-α-inhibitor (IαI). In order to further establish associations of these genes with mood disorders, we evaluated behavioral phenotypes in mice deficient in either Ambp/bikunin, which is necessary for functional ITIH1 and ITIH3 complexes, or in Itih4, the gene encoding the heavy chain Itih4...
July 10, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974660/relationships-between-substance-abuse-dependence-and-psychiatric-disorders-based-on-polygenic-scores
#16
Xaquín Gurriarán, Julio Rodríguez-López, Gerardo Flórez, César Pereiro, José M Fernández, Emilio Fariñas, Valentín Estévez, Manuel Arrojo, Javier Costas
Genetic susceptibility to substance use disorders (SUDs) is partially shared between substances. Heritability of any substance dependence, estimated as 54%, is partly explained by additive effects of common variants. Comorbidity between SUDs and other psychiatric disorders is frequent. The present study aims to analyze the additive role of common variants in this comorbidity using polygenic scores (PGSs) based on genome-wide association study discovery samples of schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, available from large consortia...
July 4, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968347/cross-species-systems-analysis-of-evolutionary-toolkits-of-neurogenomic-response-to-social-challenge
#17
Michael C Saul, Charles Blatti, Wei Yang, Syed A Bukhari, Hagai Y Shpigler, Joseph M Troy, Christopher H Seward, Laura Sloofman, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Alison M Bell, Lisa Stubbs, Gene E Robinson, Sihai D Zhao, Saurabh Sinha
Social challenges like territorial intrusions evoke behavioral responses in widely diverging species. Recent work has showed that evolutionary "toolkits"-genes and modules with lineage-specific variations but deep conservation of function-participate in the behavioral response to social challenge. Here, we develop a multispecies computational-experimental approach to characterize such a toolkit at a systems level. Brain transcriptomic responses to social challenge was probed via RNA-seq profiling in three diverged species-honey bees, mice and three-spined stickleback fish-following a common methodology, allowing fair comparisons across species...
July 2, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604188/maternal-care-exerts-disease-modifying-effects-on-genetic-absence-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression
#18
K Y Sarkisova, A V Gabova
WAG/Rij rats, a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression, exhibit behavioral depression-like symptoms and spontaneous generalized spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG at the age of 6 to 8 months. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that maternal care is an environmental factor which, along with genetic predisposition, may contribute to the expression of absence seizures and depression-like comorbidity later in life. To achieve this, a cross-fostering procedure was used...
September 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575474/epigenetic-variation-in-oprm1-gene-in-opioid-exposed-mother-infant-dyads
#19
E M Wachman, M J Hayes, H Shrestha, F N U Nikita, A Nolin, L Hoyo, K Daigle, H E Jones, D A Nielsen
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to in-utero opioid exposure has significant variability of severity. Preliminary studies have suggested that epigenetic variation within the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene impacts NAS. We aimed to determine if DNA methylation in OPRM1 within opioid-exposed mother-infant dyads is associated with differences in NAS severity in an independent cohort. Full-term opioid-exposed newborns and their mothers (N = 68 pairs) were studied. A DNA sample was obtained and then assessed for level of DNA methylation at 20 CpG sites within the OPRM1 promoter region by next-generation sequencing...
September 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573323/the-interaction-of-the-chrna5-d398n-variant-with-developmental-nicotine-exposure
#20
H C O'Neill, C R Wageman, S E Sherman, S R Grady, M J Marks, J A Stitzel
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CHRNA5 (rs16969968, change from an aspartic acid [D] to asparagine [N] at position 398 of the human α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit) has been associated with increased risk for nicotine dependence. Consequently, carriers of the risk variant may be at elevated risk for in utero nicotine exposure. To assess whether this gene-environment interaction might impact nicotine intake in developmental nicotine-exposed offspring, we utilized a mouse expressing this human SNP...
September 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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