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Genes, Brain, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926184/experience-dependent-neural-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-the-era-of%C3%A2-epitranscriptomics
#1
REVIEW
Laura J Leighton, Ke Ke, Esmi L Zajaczkowski, Jordan Edmunds, Robert C Spitale, Timothy W Bredy
In this short review, we highlight recent findings in the emerging field of epitranscriptomic mechanisms and discuss their potential role in neural plasticity, learning and memory. These include the influence of RNA modifications on activity-induced RNA structure states, RNA editing and RNA localization, and how qualitative state changes in RNA increase the functional diversity and information-carrying capacity of RNA molecules. We predict that RNA modifications may be just as important for synaptic plasticity and memory as quantitative changes in transcript and protein abundance, but with the added advantage of not being required to signal back to the nucleus, and therefore better suited to be coordinated with the temporal dynamics of learning...
September 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#2
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873276/micrornas-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-underlying-drug-addiction
#3
REVIEW
A C W Smith, P J Kenny
Chronic use of drugs of abuse results in neurochemical, morphological and behavioral plasticity that underlies the emergence of compulsive drug seeking and vulnerability to relapse during periods of attempted abstinence. Identifying and reversing addiction-relevant plasticity is seen as a potential point of pharmacotherapeutic intervention in drug-addicted individuals. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the actions of drugs of abuse in the brain this information has thus far yielded few novel treatment options addicted individuals...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873274/epigenetics-at-the-crossroads-between-genes-environment-and-resilience-in-anxiety-disorders
#4
REVIEW
M A Schiele, K Domschke
The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is multifactorial, involving complex interactions between biological factors, environmental influences, and psychological mechanisms. Recent advances have highlighted the role of epigenetics in bridging the gap between multiple contributing risk factors towards an increased understanding of the pathomechanisms underlying anxiety. In this review, we present an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding putative risk mechanisms in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, placing a particular focus on the role of protective factors serving to buffer a risk factor constellation and the role epigenetic processes functioning as a potent turnstile changing passage direction towards disorder risk or resilience...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857504/persistent-histone-modifications-at-the-bdnf-and-cdk-5-promoters-following-extinction-of-nicotine-seeking-in-rats
#5
Matthew R Castino, Danay Baker-Andresen, Vikram S Ratnu, Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris, Timothy W Bredy, Neil A Youngson, Kelly J Clemens
Drugs of addiction lead to a wide range of epigenetic changes at the promoter regions of genes directly implicated in learning and memory processes. We have previously shown that the histone deactylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), accelerates the extinction of nicotine-seeking and provides resistance to relapse. Here we explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Rats received intravenous nicotine or saline self-administration, followed by six days of extinction training, with each extinction session followed immediately by treatment with NaB or vehicle...
August 31, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857482/dopaminergic-and-behavioral-changes-in-a-loss-of-imprinting-model-of-cdkn1c
#6
Gráinne I McNamara, Brittany A Davis, Molly Browne, Trevor Humby, Jeffrey W Dalley, Jing Xia, Rosalind M John, Anthony R Isles
The imprinted gene Cdkn1c is expressed exclusively from the maternally inherited allele as a consequences of epigenetic regulation. Cdkn1c exemplifies many of the functional characteristics of imprinted genes, playing a role in fetal growth and placental development. However, Cdkn1c also plays an important role in the brain, being key to the appropriate proliferation and differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Using a transgenic model (Cdkn1c(BACx1) ) with a two-fold elevation in Cdkn1c expression that mimics loss-of-imprinting, we show that increased expression of Cdkn1c in the brain gives rise to neurobiological and behavioural changes indicative of a functionally altered dopaminergic system...
August 31, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846187/increased-fear-learning-spatial-learning-as-well-as-neophobia-in-rgs2-mice
#7
A Raab, S Popp, K-P Lesch, M J Lohse, M Fischer, J Deckert, L Hommers
Anxiety disorders result from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors such as stress. On the level of cellular signaling, regulator of G protein signaling 2 (Rgs2) has been implicated in human and rodent anxiety. However, there is limited knowledge about the role of Rgs2 in fear learning and reactivity to stress. In the present study, Rgs2(-/-) mice showed increased fear learning, male mice displayed increased contextual and cued fear learning, while females showed selectively enhanced cued fear learning...
August 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834604/deficiency-of-aminopeptidase-p1-causes-behavioral-hyperactivity-cognitive-deficits-and-hippocampal-neurodegeneration
#8
Y-S Bae, S H Yoon, J Y Han, J Woo, Y S Cho, S-K Kwon, Y C Bae, D Kim, E Kim, M-H Kim
Metabolic diseases affect various organs including the brain. Accumulation or depletion of substrates frequently leads to brain injury and dysfunction. Deficiency of aminopeptidase P1, a cytosolic proline-specific peptidase encoded by the Xpnpep1 gene, causes an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) characterized by peptiduria in humans. We previously reported that knockout of aminopeptidase P1 in mice causes neurodevelopmental disorders and peptiduria. However, little is known about the pathophysiological role of aminopeptidase P1 in the brain...
August 23, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834208/heterogeneous-stock-rats-a-model-to-study-the-genetics-of-despair-like-behavior-in-adolescence
#9
Katie Holl, Hong He, Michael Wedemeyer, Larissa Clopton, Stephanie Wert, Jeanie K Meckes, Riyan Cheng, Abigail Kastner, Abraham A Palmer, Eva E Redei, Leah C Solberg Woods
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex illness caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Antidepressant resistance also has a genetic component. To date, however, very few genes have been identified for major depression or antidepressant resistance. In the current study, we investigated whether outbred heterogeneous stock (HS) rats would be a suitable model to uncover the genetics of depression and its connection to antidepressant resistance. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, one of the eight founders of the HS, is a recognized animal model of juvenile depression and is resistant to fluoxetine antidepressant treatment...
August 22, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834383/visual-motion-and-rapid-auditory-processing-are-solid-endophenotypes-of-developmental-dyslexia
#10
Sara Mascheretti, Simone Gori, Vittoria Trezzi, Milena Ruffino, Andrea Facoetti, Cecilia Marino
Although a genetic component is known to have an important role in the etiology of developmental dyslexia, we are far from understanding the molecular etiopathogenetic pathways. Reduced measures of neurobiological functioning related to reading (dis)ability, i.e., endophenotypes, are promising targets for gene finding and the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. In a sample of 100 nuclear families with developmental dyslexia (229 offspring) and 83 unrelated typical readers, we tested whether a set of well-established, cognitive phenotypes related to developmental dyslexia (i...
August 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792672/constitutive-loss-and-acute-pharmacological-manipulation-of-erbb4-signaling-do-not-affect-attention-and-inhibitory-control-in-mice
#11
Elena Marchisella, Ruud Wijnands, Bastijn Koopmans, Sabine Spijker, Maarten Loos
The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 and its ligand trophic factors of the neuregulin (NRG) family have been associated with schizophrenia and other mental disorders in human genetic studies. In vivo studies in mice have shown how abnormal Nrg-ErbB4 signaling leads to deviant behaviors relevant to distinct aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, sensory gating deficits, working and spatial memory deficits and impaired social behavior. However, so far little is known on the role of ErbB4 in attention and inhibitory control, two aspects of executive functions that are impaired in schizophrenia...
August 9, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782255/pou3f2-participates-in-cognitive-function-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-mammalian-characteristic-amino-acid-repeats
#12
Koichi Hashizume, Masashi Yamanaka, Shintaroh Ueda
POU3F2/BRN-2 is a transcription factor that is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and plays an important role in brain development. The transactivation domain of POU3F2 includes multiple mammalian-characteristic tandem amino acid repeats (homopolymeric amino acid repeats). We previously generated knock-in mice (Pou3f2(Δ)(/Δ) mice) in which all three homopolymeric amino acid repeats were deleted from the Pou3f2 transactivation domain and identified phenotypic impairments in maternal behavior and pup recognition...
August 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782190/epigenetic-germline-inheritance-in-mammals-looking-to-the-past-to-understand-the-future
#13
REVIEW
K Gapp, J Bohacek
Life experiences can induce epigenetic changes in mammalian germ cells, which can influence the developmental trajectory of the offspring and impact health and disease across generations. While this concept of epigenetic germline inheritance has long been met with skepticism, evidence in support of this route of information transfer is now overwhelming, and some key mechanisms underlying germline transmission of acquired information are emerging. This review focuses specifically on sperm RNAs as causal vectors of inheritance...
August 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755387/bdnf-genotype-is-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
J P Hayes, A Reagan, M W Logue, S M Hayes, N Sadeh, D R Miller, M Verfaellie, E J Wolf, R E McGlinchey, W P Milberg, A Stone, S A Schichman, M W Miller
The negative long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been a growing concern in recent years, with accumulating evidence suggesting that mTBI combined with additional vulnerability factors may induce neurodegenerative-type changes in the brain. However, the factors instantiating risk for neurodegenerative disease following mTBI are unknown. This study examined the link between mTBI and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype, which has previously been shown to regulate processes involved in neurodegeneration including synaptic plasticity and facilitation of neural survival through its expression...
July 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753255/comprehensive-analysis-of-two-shank3-and-the-cacna1c-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Patricia Kabitzke, Daniela Brunner, Dansha He, Pamela A Fazio, Kimberly Cox, Jane Sutphen, Lucinda Thiede, Emily Sabath, Taleen Hanania, Vadim Alexandrov, Randall Rasmusson, Will Spooren, Anirvan Ghosh, Pamela Feliciano, Barbara Biemans, Marta Benedetti, Alice Luo Clayton
To expand, analyze, and extend published behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we present a study of three ASD genetic mouse models: Feng's Shank3(tm2Gfng) model, hereafter Shank3/F, Jiang's Shank3(tm1Yhj) model, hereafter Shank3/J, and the Cacna1c deletion model. The Shank3 models mimick gene mutations associated with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome and the Cacna1c model recapitulates the deletion underlying Timothy syndrome. The current study utilizes both standard and novel behavioral tests with the same methodology used in our previously published companion report on the Cntnap2 null and 16p11...
July 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749606/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-increased-rostral-middle-frontal-gyrus-cortical-thickness-a-family-based-and-discordant-sibling-investigation
#16
L J Michalski, C H Demers, D A A Baranger, D M Barch, M P Harms, G C Burgess, R Bogdan
Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n = 879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project...
July 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719030/polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Shi-Heng Wang, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ling-Ling Yeh, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yi-Ling Chien, Yi-Ting Lin, Sharon D Chandler, Stephen V Faraone, Nan Laird, Benjamin Neale, Steve A McCarroll, Stephen J Glatt, Ming T Tsuang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wei J Chen
Both neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia are highly heritable. Genetic overlap between neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia has been observed in both the general population and in clinical samples. This study aimed to examine if the polygenic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia modified neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) were first derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) on schizophrenia, and then the scores were calculated in our independent sample of 1130 schizophrenia trios, who had PsychChip data and were part of the Schizophrenia Families from Taiwan project...
July 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715127/increased-aggression-and-lack-of-maternal-behavior-in-dio3-deficient-mice-are-associated-with-abnormalities-in-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-systems
#18
J Patrizia Stohn, M Elena Martinez, Maryam Zafer, Daniela López-Espíndola, Lauren M Keyes, Arturo Hernandez
Thyroid hormones regulate many aspects of brain development and function, and alterations in the levels of thyroid hormone action lead to abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A complement of factors in the brain function independently of circulating levels of hormone to strictly controlled local thyroid hormone signaling. A critical factor is the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which is located in neurons and protects the brain from excessive thyroid hormone. Here we examined whether a local increase in brain thyroid hormone action secondary to DIO3 deficiency is of consequence for social behaviors...
July 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657172/asic1a-in-neurons-is-critical-for-fear-related-behaviors
#19
R J Taugher, Y Lu, R Fan, A Ghobbeh, C J Kreple, F M Faraci, J A Wemmie
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have been implicated in fear-, addiction- and depression-related behaviors in mice. While these effects have been attributed to ASIC1A in neurons, it has been reported that ASICs may also function in nonneuronal cells. To determine if ASIC1A in neurons is indeed required, we generated neuron-specific knockout (KO) mice with floxed Asic1a alleles disrupted by Cre recombinase driven by the neuron-specific synapsin I promoter (SynAsic1a KO mice). We confirmed that Cre expression occurred in neurons, but not all neurons, and not in nonneuronal cells including astrocytes...
June 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398003/midkine-in-the-mouse-ventral-tegmental-area-limits-ethanol-intake-and-ccl2-gene-expression
#20
H Chen, D He, A W Lasek
Midkine (MDK) is a cytokine and neurotrophic factor that is more highly expressed in the brains of alcoholics and in mice predisposed to drink large amounts of ethanol, suggesting that MDK may regulate ethanol consumption. Here we measured ethanol consumption in male and female Mdk knockout (-/-) mice using the two-bottle choice and the drinking in the dark (DID) tests. We found that Mdk -/- mice consumed significantly more ethanol than wild-type controls in both tests. To determine if MDK acts in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to regulate ethanol consumption, we delivered lentivirus expressing a Mdk shRNA into the VTA of male C57BL/6J mice to locally knockdown Mdk and performed the DID test...
September 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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