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Genes, Brain, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341465/p2y12-deficiency-in-mouse-impairs-noradrenergic-system-in-brain-and-alters-anxiety-like-neurobehavior-and-memory
#1
Fang Zheng, Qiang Zhou, Yin Cao, Hailian Shi, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Fei Huang, Xiaojun Wu
Purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2Y12 ), a G protein-coupled (GPCR) purinergic receptor, is widely distributed in nervous system and involved in the progression of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain. The central noradrenergic system actively participates in a number of neurophysiological processes. Nevertheless, whether there is any direct relevance between P2Y12 and noradrenergic signal transduction remains unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lack of P2Y12 impaired noradrenergic signal transduction in mouse brain...
January 17, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316205/autophosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-camkii-affects-social-interactions-in-mice
#2
Zofia Harda, Jakub Mateusz Dzik, Maria Nalberczak-Skóra, Ksenia Meyza, Kacper Łukasiewicz, Szymon Łęski, Kasia Radwanska
The α-Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII), a key regulator of the glutamatergic synapse, has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders characterized by social impairments. Here we tested whether autophosphorylation of αCaMKII at threonine 286, which prolongs the activity of the enzyme, affects social behaviors in mice. We observed that autophosphorylation-deficient (αCaMKII-T286A) mutant female mice showed abnormal social behaviors characterized by decreased social preference and interest in conspecifics of the same sex, as compared to their wild-type littermates...
January 9, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314583/novel-mutations-and-phenotypes-of-epilepsy-associated-genes-in-epileptic-encephalopathies
#3
Peng Zhou, Na He, Jing-Wen Zhang, Zhi-Jian Lin, Jie Wang, Li-Min Yan, Heng Meng, Bin Tang, Bing-Mei Li, Xiao-Rong Liu, Yi-Wu Shi, Qiong-Xiang Zhai, Yong-Hong Yi, Wei-Ping Liao
Epileptic encephalopathies are severe epilepsy disorders with strong genetic bases. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing in 70 patients with epileptic encephalopathies. The likely pathogenicity of variants in candidate genes was evaluated by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) scoring taken together with the accepted clinical presentation. Thirty-three candidate variants were detected after population filtration and computational prediction. According to ACMG, 21 candidate variants, including 18 de novo variants, were assessed to be pathogenic/likely pathogenic with clinical concordance...
January 4, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283498/neuronal-rna-binding-protein-hud-regulates-addiction-related-gene-expression-and-behavior
#4
Robert J Oliver, Jonathan L Brigman, Federico Bolognani, Andrea M Allan, Janet L Neisewander, Nora I Perrone-Bizzozero
The neuronal RNA-binding protein HuD is involved in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory mechanisms. These effects are thought to be due to HuD-mediated stabilization and translation of target mRNAs associated with plasticity. To investigate the potential role of HuD in drug addiction, we first used bioinformatics prediction algorithms together with microarray analyses to search for specific genes and functional networks upregulated within the forebrain of HuD overexpressing mice (HuDOE ). When this set was further limited to genes in the Knowledgebase of Addiction Related Genes database (KARG) that contains predicted HuD-binding sites in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTR), we found that HuD regulates networks that have been associated with addiction-like behavior...
December 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266714/touchscreen-learning-deficits-in-ube3a-ts65dn-and-mecp2-mouse-models-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-intellectual-disabilities
#5
Prescott T Leach, Jacqueline N Crawley
Mutant mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders with intellectual disabilities provide useful translational research tools, especially in cases where robust cognitive deficits are reproducibly detected. However, motor, sensory, and/or health issues consequent to the mutation may introduce artifacts that preclude testing in some standard cognitive assays. Touchscreen learning and memory tasks in small operant chambers have the potential to circumvent these confounds. Here we employ touchscreen visual discrimination learning to evaluate performance in the maternally derived Ube3a mouse model of Angelman syndrome, the Ts65Dn trisomy mouse model of Down syndrome, and the Mecp2Bird mouse model of Rett syndrome...
December 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251832/a-role-for-activity-dependent-epigenetics-in-the-development-and-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Corina Nagy, Kathryn Vaillancourt, Gustavo Turecki
Chronic stressors, during developmental critical periods and beyond, contribute to the risk of developing psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications, at key stress response and neurotrophin genes, are increasingly implicated in mediating this risk. Although the exact mechanisms through which stressful environmental stimuli alter the epigenome are still unclear, research from the learning and memory fields indicates that epigenomic marks can be altered, at least in part, through calcium-dependent signalling cascades in direct response to neuronal activity...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251829/decreased-cerebral-irp-1b-limits-impact-of-social-isolation-in-wildtype-and-alzheimer-s-disease-modelled-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Christina Ruland, Johannes Berlandi, Kristin Eikmeier, Till Weinert, Fang Ju Lin, Oliver Ambree, Jochen Seggewiss, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann
Environmental factors, such as housing conditions and cognitively stimulating activities, have been shown to affect behavioral phenotypes and to modulate neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting cognitive functions. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies using rodent models have indicated that social interaction reduces development and progression of disease. Drosophila models of Aβ42-associated AD lead to AD-like phenotypes, such as long-term memory impairment, locomotor and survival deficits, while effects of environmental conditions on AD associated phenotypes have not been assessed in the fly...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244246/role-of-rna-modifications-in-brain-and-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Kornel E Schuebel, Yonwoo Jung, David Goldman
Much progress in our understanding of RNA metabolism has been made since the first RNA modification was identified in 1957. To date, more than 100 distinct chemical modifications have been identified, and more await discovery. Many of these modifications are found in non-coding RNAs but recent studies suggest an important role for RNA modification in coding RNAs as well. Here we summarize current knowledge of cellular consequences of RNA modifications, with a special emphasis on neuropsychiatric disorders. We present evidence for the existence of an "RNA code", similar to the histone code, that fine-tunes gene expression in the nervous system by using combinations of different RNA modifications...
December 15, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232042/evaluation-of-visual-motion-perception-ability-in-mice-with-knockout-of-the-dyslexia-candidate-susceptibility-gene-dcdc2
#9
Amanda R Rendall, Peter A Perrino, Joseph J LoTurco, R Holly Fitch
Developmental dyslexia is a heritable disability characterized by difficulties in learning to read and write that cannot be explained by comorbid factors such as intellectual impairment, lack of educational opportunity, or other neurological disorders (e.g. epilepsy or primary sensory impairments (blindness, deafness)). Dyslexia is considered a common neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting 5%-12% of the population (Lyon, Shaywitz & Shaywitz, 2003; Peterson & Pennington, 2012). It is also a highly heterogeneous disorder, with varied intermediate phenotypes, that include visual and cross-modal integration deficits...
December 12, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227584/npas4-deficiency-and-prenatal-stress-interact-to-affect-social-recognition-in-mice
#10
Kelsey Heslin, Laurence Coutellier
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between two factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227583/single-point-mutation-on-the-gene-encoding-dysbindin-results-in-recognition-deficits
#11
Eric H Chang, Kayla Fernando, Lok Wan E Yeung, Kristina Barbari, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Anil K Malhotra
The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and has been associated with cognitive ability in both patient populations and healthy controls. DTNBP1 encodes dysbindin protein, which is localized to synaptic sites and is reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia, indicating a potential role in schizophrenia etiology. Most studies of dysbindin function have focused on the sandy (sdy) mice that lack dysbindin protein and have a wide range of abnormalities...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227573/post-gwas-in-psychiatric-genetics-a-developmental-perspective-on-the-other-next-steps
#12
REVIEW
Danielle M Dick, Peter B Barr, Seung Bin Cho, Megan E Cooke, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Tenesha J Lewis, Zoe Neale, Jessica E Salvatore, Jeanne Savage, Jinni Su
As psychiatric genetics enters an era where gene identification is finally yielding robust, replicable genetic associations and polygenic risk scores, it is important to consider next steps and delineate how that knowledge will be applied to ultimately ameliorate suffering associated with substance use and psychiatric disorders. Much of the post-GWAS discussion has focused on the potential of genetic information to elucidate the underlying biology and use this information for the development of more effective pharmaceutical treatments...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194954/comt-val158-met-moderates-the-link-between-rank-and-aggression-in-a-non-human-primate
#13
Daria Raffaella Gutleb, Christian Roos, Angela Noll, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke
The COMT Val158 Met polymorphism is one of the most widely studied genetic polymorphisms in humans implicated in aggression and the moderation of stressful life event effects. We screened a wild primate population for polymorphisms at the COMT Val158 Met site and phenotyped them for aggression to test whether the human polymorphism exists and is associated with variation in aggressive behavior. Subjects were all adults from four study groups (37 males, 40 females) of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in their natural habitat (Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand)...
December 1, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193847/genetic-loss-of-diazepam-binding-inhibitor-in-mice-impairs-social-interest
#14
A L Ujjainwala, C D Courtney, S G Rhoads, J S Rhodes, C A Christian
Neuropsychiatric disorders in which reduced social interest is a common symptom, such as autism, depression, and anxiety, are frequently associated with genetic mutations affecting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission. Benzodiazepine treatment, acting via GABA type-A receptors, improves social interaction in male mouse models with autism-like features. The protein diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) can act as an endogenous benzodiazepine, but a role for DBI in social behavior has not been described. Here, we investigated the role of DBI in the social interest and recognition behavior of mice...
November 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193773/post-genomic-behavioral-genetics-from-revolution-to-routine
#15
REVIEW
David G Ashbrook, Megan K Mulligan, Robert W Williams
What was once expensive and revolutionary-full genome sequence-is now affordable and routine. Costs will continue to drop, opening up new frontiers in behavioral genetics. This shift in costs from the genome to the phenome is most notable in large clinical studies of behavior and associated diseases in cohorts that exceed hundreds of thousands of subjects. Examples include the Women's Health Initiative (www.whi.org), the Million Veterans Program (www. RESEARCH: va.gov/MVP), the 100,000 Genomes Project (genomicsengland...
November 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152902/the-genetics-of-human-personality
#16
REVIEW
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Joshua C Gray, James K MacKillop, Chi-Hua Chen, Abraham A Palmer
Personality traits are the relatively enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that reflect the tendency to respond in certain ways under certain circumstances. Twin and family studies have demonstrated that personality traits are moderately heritable, and can predict various lifetime outcomes, including psychopathology. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) characterizes psychiatric diseases as extremes of normal tendencies, including specific personality traits. This implies that heritable variation in personality traits, such as neuroticism, would share a common genetic basis with psychiatric diseases, such as major depressive disorder (MDD)...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152855/kinase-interest-you-in-treating-incubated-cocaine-craving-a-hypothetical-model-for-treatment-intervention-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-cocaine
#17
REVIEW
Karen K Szumlinski, Christina B Shin
A diagnostic criterion for drug addiction, persistent drug-craving continues to be the most treatment-resistant aspect of addiction that maintains the chronic, relapsing, nature of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of psychomotor stimulant addiction, there currently exists no FDA-approved medication for craving reduction. In good part, this reflects our lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug-craving. In humans, cue-elicited drug-craving is associated with the hyper-excitability of prefrontal cortical regions...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125223/perinatal-nutrition-interacts-with-genetic-background-to-alter-behavior-in-a-parent-of-origin-dependent-manner-in-adult-collaborative-cross-mice
#18
S A Schoenrock, D Oreper, J Farrington, R C McMullan, R Ervin, D R Miller, F Pardo-Manuel de Villena, W Valdar, L M Tarantino
Previous studies in animal models and humans have shown that exposure to nutritional deficiencies in the perinatal period increases the risk of psychiatric disease. Less well understood is how such effects are modulated by the combination of genetic background and parent-of-origin. To explore this, we exposed female mice from 20 Collaborative Cross (CC) strains to either protein deficient, vitamin D deficient, methyl donor enriched or standard diet during the perinatal period. These CC females were then crossed to a male from a different CC strain to produce reciprocal F1 hybrid females comprising 10 distinct genetic backgrounds...
November 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124896/beyond-the-response-high-throughput-behavioral-analyses-to-link-genome-to-phenome-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
REVIEW
Troy A McDiarmid, Alex J Yu, Catharine H Rankin
The development and application of methods for automated behavioral analysis have revolutionized behavioral genetics across model organisms. In this review we summarize the history of automated behavioral analysis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We highlight recent studies of learning and memory to exemplify just how complex the genetic and neural circuit mechanisms underlying a seemingly simple single behavioral response can be. We finish by looking forward at the exciting prospects of combing genomic technologies with connectomic and phenomic level measurements...
November 9, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105298/prenatal-cocaine-exposure-disrupts-the-dopaminergic-system-and-its-postnatal-responses-to-cocaine
#20
Elizabeth Riley, Valerie Maymi, Stephanie Pawlyszyn, Yu Lili, Irina V Zhdanova
Impaired attention is the hallmark consequence of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), affecting brain development, learning, memory and social adaptation starting at an early age. To date, little is known about the brain structures and neurochemical processes involved in this effect. Through focusing on the visual system and employing zebrafish as a model, we show that PCE reduces expression of dopamine receptor Drd1, with levels reduced in the optic tectum and other brain regions, except the telencephalon. Organism-wide, PCE results in a 1...
November 3, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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