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Genes, Brain, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125223/perinatal-nutrition-interacts-with-genetic-background-to-alter-behavior-in-a-parent-of-origin-dependent-manner-in-adult-collaborative-cross-mice
#1
S A Schoenrock, D Oreper, J Farrington, R C McMullan, R Ervin, D R Miller, F Pardo-Manuel de Villena, W Valdar, L M Tarantino
Previous studies in animal models and humans have shown that exposure to nutritional deficiencies in the perinatal period increases the risk of psychiatric disease. Less well understood is how such effects are modulated by the combination of genetic background and parent-of-origin. To explore this, we exposed female mice from 20 Collaborative Cross (CC) strains to either protein deficient, vitamin D deficient, methyl donor enriched or standard diet during the perinatal period. These CC females were then crossed to a male from a different CC strain to produce reciprocal F1 hybrid females comprising 10 distinct genetic backgrounds...
November 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124896/beyond-the-response-high-throughput-behavioral-analyses-to-link-genome-to-phenome-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
REVIEW
Troy A McDiarmid, Alex J Yu, Catharine H Rankin
The development and application of methods for automated behavioral analysis have revolutionized behavioral genetics across model organisms. In this review we summarize the history of automated behavioral analysis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We highlight recent studies of learning and memory to exemplify just how complex the genetic and neural circuit mechanisms underlying a seemingly simple single behavioral response can be. We finish by looking forward at the exciting prospects of combing genomic technologies with connectomic and phenomic level measurements...
November 9, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105298/prenatal-cocaine-exposure-disrupts-the-dopaminergic-system-and-its-postnatal-responses-to-cocaine
#3
Elizabeth Riley, Valerie Maymi, Stephanie Pawlyszyn, Yu Lili, Irina V Zhdanova
Impaired attention is the hallmark consequence of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), affecting brain development, learning, memory and social adaptation starting at an early age. To date, little is known about the brain structures and neurochemical processes involved in this effect. Through focusing on the visual system and employing zebrafish as a model, we show that PCE reduces expression of dopamine receptor Drd1, with levels reduced in the optic tectum and other brain regions, except the telencephalon. Organism-wide, PCE results in a 1...
November 3, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057568/atp1a3-deficient-heterozygous-mice-show-lower-rank-in-the-hierarchy-and-altered-social-behavior
#4
Hiroki Sugimoto, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami
Atp1a3 is the Na-pump alpha3 subunit gene expressed mainly in neurons of the brain. Atp1a3 deficient heterozygous mice (Atp1a3(+/-) ) show altered neurotransmission and deficits of motor function after stress loading. To understand the function of Atp1a3 in a social hierarchy, we evaluated social behaviors (social interaction, aggression, social approach, and social dominance) of Atp1a3(+/-) and compared the rank and hierarchy structure between Atp1a3(+/-) and wild-type mice within a housing cage using the round-robin tube test and barbering observations...
October 23, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053217/behavioral-control-by-striatal-a2a-dopamine-d2-receptor-heteromers
#5
Jaume Taura, Marta Valle-León, Kristoffer Sahlholm, Masahiko Watanabe, Katheleen Van Craenenbroeck, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Sergi Ferré, Francisco Ciruela
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (i.e. GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2 R) predominantly form A2A R-D2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A2A R and D2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population...
October 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052939/qtl-mapping-and-analysis-of-heritable-variation-in-affiliative-social-behavior-and-related-traits
#6
Allison T Knoll, Kevin Jiang, Pat Levitt
Humans exhibit broad heterogeneity in affiliative social behavior. Twin and family studies demonstrate that individual differences in core dimensions of social behavior are heritable, yet there are knowledge gaps in understanding the underlying genetic and neurobiological mechanisms. Animal genetic reference panels (GRPs) provide a tractable strategy for examining the behavioral and genetic architecture of complex traits. Here, using males from 50 mouse strains from the BXD GRP, four domains of affiliative social behavior-social approach, social recognition, direct social interaction (partner sniffing), and vocal communication-were examined in two widely used behavioral tasks-the 3-chamber and direct social interaction tasks...
October 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052934/the-contribution-of-alternative-splicing-to-genetic-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Emma Reble, Aidan Dineen, Cathy L Barr
A genetic contribution to psychiatric disorders has clearly been established and genome-wide association studies now provide the location of risk genes and genetic variants associated with risk. However, the mechanism by which these genes and variants contribute to psychiatric disorders is mostly undetermined. This is in part because non-synonymous protein coding changes cannot explain the majority of variants associated with complex genetic traits. Based on this, it is predicted that these variants are causing gene expression changes, including changes to alternative splicing...
October 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045054/variants-regulating-zbtb4-are-associated-with-age-at-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Elizabeth E Blue, Chang-En Yu, Timothy A Thornton, Nicola H Chapman, Eric Kernfeld, Nan Jiang, Kathryn M Shively, Kati J Buckingham, Colby T Marvin, Michael J Bamshad, Thomas D Bird, Ellen M Wijsman
The identification of novel genetic modifiers of age-at-onset of Alzheimer's disease could advance our understanding of AD and provide novel therapeutic targets. A previous genome scan for modifiers of age-at-onset among families affected by early-onset Alzheimer's disease caused by the PSEN2 N141I variant identified two loci with significant evidence for linkage: 1q23.3 and 17p13.2. Here, we describe the fine-mapping of these two linkage regions, and test for replication in six independent data sets. By fine-mapping these linkage signals in a single large family, we reduced the linkage regions to 11% their original size and nominated 54 candidate variants...
October 16, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028150/potential-of-micrornas-as-novel-targets-in-the-alleviation-of-pathological-fear
#9
REVIEW
Conor P Murphy, Nicolas Singewald
The current treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias and other anxiety disorders, remains insufficient particularly in producing long-lasting full symptom control. Dysfunctional fear processing is common in these disorders, including a deficiency in fear-inhibitory mechanisms and impairment in the ability to discriminate between safety and danger cues. Research has aimed to elucidate brain circuitries, neurotransmitters and downstream signaling pathways important in the alleviation of aberrant fear, with a specific focus on mechanisms modulating fear memory and its behavioral expression...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027751/the-emerging-role-of-mrna-methylation-in-normal-and-pathological-behavior
#10
REVIEW
Mareen Engel, Alon Chen
Covalent RNA modifications were recently rediscovered as abundant RNA chemical tags. Similarly to DNA epigenetic modifications, they have been proposed as essential regulators of gene expression. Here we focus on two of the most abundant adenosine methylations: N6-methyladenosine (m(6) A), N6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m(6) Am) and N1-methyladenosine (m(1) A). We review the potential role of these modifications on mature mRNA in regulating gene expression within the adult brain, nervous system function and normal and pathological behavior...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926184/experience-dependent-neural-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-the-era-of%C3%A2-epitranscriptomics
#11
REVIEW
Laura J Leighton, Ke Ke, Esmi L Zajaczkowski, Jordan Edmunds, Robert C Spitale, Timothy W Bredy
In this short review, we highlight recent findings in the emerging field of epitranscriptomic mechanisms and discuss their potential role in neural plasticity, learning and memory. These include the influence of RNA modifications on activity-induced RNA structure states, RNA editing and RNA localization, and how qualitative state changes in RNA increase the functional diversity and information-carrying capacity of RNA molecules. We predict that RNA modifications may be just as important for synaptic plasticity and memory as quantitative changes in transcript and protein abundance, but with the added advantage of not being required to signal back to the nucleus, and therefore better suited to be coordinated with the temporal dynamics of learning...
September 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#12
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873276/micrornas-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-underlying-drug-addiction
#13
REVIEW
A C W Smith, P J Kenny
Chronic use of drugs of abuse results in neurochemical, morphological and behavioral plasticity that underlies the emergence of compulsive drug seeking and vulnerability to relapse during periods of attempted abstinence. Identifying and reversing addiction-relevant plasticity is seen as a potential point of pharmacotherapeutic intervention in drug-addicted individuals. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the actions of drugs of abuse in the brain this information has thus far yielded few novel treatment options addicted individuals...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873274/epigenetics-at-the-crossroads-between-genes-environment-and-resilience-in-anxiety-disorders
#14
REVIEW
M A Schiele, K Domschke
The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is multifactorial, involving complex interactions between biological factors, environmental influences, and psychological mechanisms. Recent advances have highlighted the role of epigenetics in bridging the gap between multiple contributing risk factors towards an increased understanding of the pathomechanisms underlying anxiety. In this review, we present an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding putative risk mechanisms in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, placing a particular focus on the role of protective factors serving to buffer a risk factor constellation and the role epigenetic processes functioning as a potent turnstile changing passage direction towards disorder risk or resilience...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857504/persistent-histone-modifications-at-the-bdnf-and-cdk-5-promoters-following-extinction-of-nicotine-seeking-in-rats
#15
Matthew R Castino, Danay Baker-Andresen, Vikram S Ratnu, Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris, Timothy W Bredy, Neil A Youngson, Kelly J Clemens
Drugs of addiction lead to a wide range of epigenetic changes at the promoter regions of genes directly implicated in learning and memory processes. We have previously shown that the histone deactylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), accelerates the extinction of nicotine-seeking and provides resistance to relapse. Here we explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Rats received intravenous nicotine or saline self-administration, followed by six days of extinction training, with each extinction session followed immediately by treatment with NaB or vehicle...
August 31, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857482/dopaminergic-and-behavioral-changes-in-a-loss-of-imprinting-model-of-cdkn1c
#16
Gráinne I McNamara, Brittany A Davis, Molly Browne, Trevor Humby, Jeffrey W Dalley, Jing Xia, Rosalind M John, Anthony R Isles
The imprinted gene Cdkn1c is expressed exclusively from the maternally inherited allele as a consequences of epigenetic regulation. Cdkn1c exemplifies many of the functional characteristics of imprinted genes, playing a role in fetal growth and placental development. However, Cdkn1c also plays an important role in the brain, being key to the appropriate proliferation and differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Using a transgenic model (Cdkn1c(BACx1) ) with a two-fold elevation in Cdkn1c expression that mimics loss-of-imprinting, we show that increased expression of Cdkn1c in the brain gives rise to neurobiological and behavioural changes indicative of a functionally altered dopaminergic system...
August 31, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846187/increased-fear-learning-spatial-learning-as-well-as-neophobia-in-rgs2-mice
#17
A Raab, S Popp, K-P Lesch, M J Lohse, M Fischer, J Deckert, L Hommers
Anxiety disorders result from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors such as stress. On the level of cellular signaling, regulator of G protein signaling 2 (Rgs2) has been implicated in human and rodent anxiety. However, there is limited knowledge about the role of Rgs2 in fear learning and reactivity to stress. In the present study, Rgs2(-/-) mice showed increased fear learning, male mice displayed increased contextual and cued fear learning, while females showed selectively enhanced cued fear learning...
August 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115739/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115738/referees-list-for-volume-16
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749606/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-increased-rostral-middle-frontal-gyrus-cortical-thickness-a-family-based-and-discordant-sibling-investigation
#20
L J Michalski, C H Demers, D A A Baranger, D M Barch, M P Harms, G C Burgess, R Bogdan
Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n = 879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project...
November 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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