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Genes, Brain, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067462/association-of-akap6-and-mir2113-with-cognitive-performance-in-a-population-based-sample-of-older-adults
#1
Shea J Andrews, Debjani Das, Kaarin J Anstey, Simon Easteal
Genetic factors make a substantial contribution to inter-individual variability in cognitive function. A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identified two loci, AKAP6 and MIR2113, that are associated with general cognitive function. Here, we extend this previous research by investigating the association of MIR2113 and AKAP6 with baseline and longitudinal nonlinear change across a broad spectrum of cognitive domains in community-based cohort of older adults without dementia. Two SNPs, MIR211-rs10457441 and AKAP6-rs17522122 were genotyped in 1,570 non-demented older Australians of European ancestry, who were examined up to 4 times over 12 years...
January 9, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058793/effects-of-selection-for-ethanol-preference-on-gene-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-hs-cc-mice
#2
Alexandre M Colville, Ovidiu D Iancu, Denesa L Oberbeck, Priscila Darakjian, Christina L Zheng, Nicole A R Walter, Christina A Harrington, Robert P Searles, Shannon McWeeney, Robert J Hitzemann
Previous studies on changes in murine brain gene expression associated with the selection for ethanol preference have used F2 intercross or heterogeneous stock (HS) founders, derived from standard laboratory strains. However, these populations represent only a small proportion of the genetic variance available in Mus musculus. To investigate a wider range of genetic diversity, we selected mice for ethanol preference using a HS derived from the eight strains of the Collaborative Cross. These heterogeneous stock mice were selectively bred (four generations) for High and Low ethanol preference...
January 6, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009101/bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-moderates-the-link-between-child-maltreatment-and-reappraisal-ability
#3
Andrei C Miu, Mihai Cărnuță, Romana Vulturar, Raluca D Szekely-Copîndean, Mirela I Bîlc, Adina Chiș, Marius Cioară, Katya C Fernandez, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, James J Gross
Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for virtually all common mental disorders, but it is not yet clear why. One possible mechanism is emotion regulation ability. The present study investigated for the first time the influence of a BDNF Val66Met genotype × child maltreatment interaction on emotion regulation, and compared differential susceptibility and diathesis-stress models. A sample of N = 254 healthy volunteers were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and underwent an experimental assessment of reappraisal ability (i...
December 23, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000999/n-ofq-system-in-brain-areas-of-nerve-injured-mice-its-role-in-different-aspects-of-neuropathic-pain
#4
M Palmisano, D Mercatelli, F F Caputi, D Carretta, P Romualdi, S Candeletti
Several studies showed that chronic pain causes reorganization and functional alterations of supraspinal brain regions. The nociceptin-NOP receptor system is one of the major systems involved in pain control and much evidence also suggested its implication in stress, anxiety and depression. Therefore, we investigated the nociceptin-NOP system alterations in selected brain regions in a neuropathic pain murine model. Fourteen days after the common sciatic nerve ligature, PCR analysis indicated a significant decrease of pronociceptin and NOP receptor mRNA levels in the thalamus; these alterations could contribute to the decrease of the thalamic inhibitory function reported in neuropathic pain condition...
December 21, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886459/standardised-experiments-in-mutant-mice-reveal-behavioural-similarity-on-129s5-and-c57bl-6j-backgrounds
#5
Louie N van de Lagemaat, Lianne E Stanford, Charles Pettit, Douglas J Strathdee, Karen E Strathdee, Kathryn A Elsegood, David G Fricker, Mike D R Croning, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant
Behavioural analysis of mice carrying engineered mutations is widely used to identify roles of specific genes in components of the mammalian behavioural repertoire. The reproducibility and robustness of phenotypic measures has become a concern that undermines the use of mouse genetic models for translational studies. Contributing factors include low individual study power, non-standardised behavioural testing, failure to address confounds and differences in genetic background of mutant mice. We have examined the importance of these factors using a statistically robust approach applied to behavioural data obtained from three mouse mutations on 129S5 and C57BL/6J backgrounds generated in a standardised battery of five behavioural assays...
November 25, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870313/hypothalamic-specific-proopiomelanocortin-deficiency-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#6
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption and relapse in both humans and rodents. The present study investigated whether hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (producing beta-endorphin and melanocortins) play a role in alcohol drinking behaviors. Both male and female mice with targeted deletion of two neuronal Pomc enhancers nPE1 and nPE2 (nPE-/-), resulting in hypothalamic-specific POMC deficiency, were studied in short-access (4-h/day) drinking-in-the-dark (DID, alcohol in one bottle), intermittent access (IA, 24-hour cycles of alcohol access every other day, alcohol vs...
November 21, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860243/lessons-from-the-canine-oxtr-gene-populations-variants-and-functional-aspects
#7
M Bence, P Marx, E Szantai, E Kubinyi, Z Ronai, Z Banlaki
Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) acts as a key behavioral modulator of the central nervous system, affecting social behavior, stress, affiliation and cognitive functions. Variants of the Oxtr gene are known to influence behavior both in animals and humans; however, canine Oxtr polymorphisms are less characterized in terms of possible relevance to function, selection criteria in breeding and domestication. In this report, we provide a detailed characterization of common variants of the canine Oxtr gene. In particular (1) novel polymorphisms were identified by direct sequencing of wolf and dog samples, (2) allelic distributions and pairwise linkage disequilibrium patterns of several canine populations were compared, (3) neighbor joining (NJ) tree based on common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was constructed, (4) mRNA expression features were assessed, (5) a novel splice variant was detected and (6) in vitro functional assays were performed...
November 11, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862969/mediation-of-oxidative-stress-in-hypothalamic-ghrelin-associated-appetite-control-in-rats-treated-with-phenylpropanolamine
#8
C-H Yu, S-C Chu, P-N Chen, Y-S Hsieh, D-Y Kuo
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-induced appetite control is associated with oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether hypothalamic antioxidants participated in hypothalamic ghrelin system-associated appetite control in PPA-treated rats. Rats were given PPA daily for 4 days, and changes in food intake and the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), superoxide dismutase, catalase, ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
November 8, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790850/regulation-of-behaviour-by-the-nuclear-receptor-tlx
#9
REVIEW
James D O'Leary, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan, Yvonne M Nolan
The orphan nuclear receptor Tlx (Nr2e1) is a key regulator of both embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Several different mouse models have been developed which target Tlx in vivo including spontaneous deletion models (from birth) and targeted and conditional knockouts. Although some conflicting findings have been reported, for the most part studies have demonstrated that Tlx is important in regulating the processes that underlie neurogenesis, spatial learning, anxiety-like behaviour and interestingly, aggression...
October 27, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790829/the-impact-of-cacna1c-gene-and-its-epistasis-with-znf804a-on-white-matter-microstructure-in-health-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#10
Emma-Jane Mallas, Francesco Carletti, Christopher A Chaddock, Sukhi Shergill, James Woolley, Marco M Picchioni, Colm McDonald, Timothea Toulopoulou, Eugenia Kravariti, Sridevi Kalidindi, Elvira Bramon, Robin Murray, Gareth J Barker, Diana P Prata
Genome-wide studies have identified allele A (adenine) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1006737 of the calcium-channel CACNA1C gene as a risk factor for both schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) as well as allele A for rs1344706 in the zinc-finger ZNF804A gene. These illnesses have also been associated with white matter abnormalities, reflected by reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA), measured using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We assessed the impact of the CACNA1C psychosis risk variant on FA in SZ, BD and health...
October 27, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097813/drug-addictions-new-insight-into-causes-comorbidity-and-potential-treatments
#11
EDITORIAL
Andrew Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906494/alcohol-dependent-molecular-adaptations-of-the-nmda-receptor-system
#12
REVIEW
N Morisot, D Ron
Phenotypes such as motivation to consume alcohol, goal-directed alcohol seeking and habit formation take part in mechanisms underlying heavy alcohol use. Learning and memory processes greatly contribute to the establishment and maintenance of these behavioral phenotypes. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a driving force of synaptic plasticity, a key cellular hallmark of learning and memory. Here, we describe data in rodents and humans linking signaling molecules that center around the NMDARs, and behaviors associated with the development and/or maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860248/restructuring-of-basal-ganglia-circuitry-and-associated-behaviors-triggered-by-low-striatal-d2-receptor-expression-implications-for-substance-use-disorders
#13
REVIEW
L K Dobbs, J C Lemos, V A Alvarez
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) consistently emerge as a critical substrate for the etiology of some major psychiatric disorders. Indeed, a central theory of substance use disorders (SUDs) postulates that a reduction in D2R levels in the striatum is a determining factor that confers vulnerability to abuse substances. A large number of clinical and preclinical studies strongly support this link between SUDs and D2Rs; however, identifying the mechanism by which low D2Rs facilitate SUDs has been hindered by the complexity of circuit connectivity, the heterogeneity of D2R expression and the multifaceted constellation of phenotypes observed in SUD patient...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749004/neurobiology-of-comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#14
REVIEW
N W Gilpin, J L Weiner
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are highly comorbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of comorbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on comorbid PTSD and AUD...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706932/do-specific-nmda-receptor-subunits-act-as-gateways-for-addictive-behaviors
#15
REVIEW
F W Hopf
Addiction to alcohol and drugs is a major social and economic problem, and there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote addictive drives. A number of proteins have been identified that contribute to expression of addictive behaviors. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors, have been of particular interest because their physiological properties make them an attractive candidate for gating induction of synaptic plasticity, a molecular change thought to mediate learning and memory...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657733/reprogramming-of-mpfc-transcriptome-and-function-in-alcohol-dependence
#16
REVIEW
M Heilig, E Barbier, A L Johnstone, J Tapocik, M W Meinhardt, S Pfarr, C Wahlestedt, W H Sommer
Despite its limited immediate reinforcement value, alcohol has a potent ability to induce neuroadaptations that promote its incentive salience, escalation of voluntary alcohol intake and aversion-resistant alcohol seeking. A constellation of these traits, collectively called 'post-dependent', emerges following brain exposure to repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its subdivisions exert top-down regulation of approach and avoidance behaviors, including those that lead to alcohol intake...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621103/preclinical-voluntary-drinking-models-for-alcohol-abstinence-induced-affective-disturbances-in-mice
#17
REVIEW
K M Holleran, D G Winder
Negative reinforcement is widely thought to play an important role in chronic alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), and high comorbidity between AUDs and affective disorders highlights the importance of investigating this relationship. Prominent models posit that repeated cycles of alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) exposure and withdrawal produce circuit adaptations in the central nervous system that drive a transition from positive- to negative reinforcement-based alcohol seeking. Evidence supporting this theory has accumulated in large part using forced EtOH administration models, such as chronic intragastric gavage and chronic vapor inhalation...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612655/how-contexts-promote-and-prevent-relapse-to-drug-seeking
#18
REVIEW
S Y-S Khoo, G D Gibson, A A Prasad, G P McNally
The contexts where drugs are self-administered play an important role in regulating persistent drug taking and in relapse to such taking after periods of abstinence. Here, we review the behavioral and brain mechanisms enabling contexts to promote and prevent relapse to drug seeking. We review the key brain structures, their neuropharmacology and their connectivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between the mechanisms for context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking vs. other forms of relapse to drug seeking in animal models and we highlight the numerous deficits in our understanding...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573875/addiction-cognitive-decline-and-therapy-seeking-ways-to-escape-a-vicious-cycle
#19
REVIEW
C J Perry, A J Lawrence
Any type of behavioral change is an effortful process. Thus, the process of behavioral therapy, where clients seek to change maladaptive behavioral patterns, requires high-level cognitive engagement. It is unfortunate, then, that cognitive impairment is a feature of substance use disorders (SUDs), and especially because the domains that tend to be impaired are the very ones involved in the process of therapeutic behavioral change. In this review, we compare the cognitive profile that is frequently observed with chronic SUD with the skills that are required to initiate and sustain behavioral change during rehabilitation...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561549/structural-and-functional-plasticity-of-dendritic-spines-root-or-result-of-behavior
#20
REVIEW
C D Gipson, M F Olive
Dendritic spines are multifunctional integrative units of the nervous system and are highly diverse and dynamic in nature. Both internal and external stimuli influence dendritic spine density and morphology on the order of minutes. It is clear that the structural plasticity of dendritic spines is related to changes in synaptic efficacy, learning and memory and other cognitive processes. However, it is currently unclear whether structural changes in dendritic spines are primary instigators of changes in specific behaviors, a consequence of behavioral changes, or both...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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