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Genes, Brain, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719030/polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#1
Shi-Heng Wang, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ling-Ling Yeh, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yi-Ling Chien, Yi-Ting Lin, Sharon D Chandler, Stephen V Faraone, Nan Laird, Benjamin Neale, Steve A McCarroll, Stephen J Glatt, Ming T Tsuang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wei J Chen
Both neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia are highly heritable. Genetic overlap between neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia has been observed in both the general population and in clinical samples. This study aimed to examine if the polygenic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia modified neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) were first derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) on schizophrenia, and then the scores were calculated in our independent sample of 1130 schizophrenia trios, who had PsychChip data and were part of the Schizophrenia Families from Taiwan project...
July 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715127/increased-aggression-and-lack-of-maternal-behavior-in-dio3-deficient-mice-are-associated-with-abnormalities-in-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-systems
#2
J Patrizia Stohn, M Elena Martinez, Maryam Zafer, Daniela López-Espíndola, Lauren M Keyes, Arturo Hernandez
Thyroid hormones regulate many aspects of brain development and function, and alterations in the levels of thyroid hormone action lead to abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A complement of factors in the brain function independently of circulating levels of hormone to strictly controlled local thyroid hormone signaling. A critical factor is the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which is located in neurons and protects the brain from excessive thyroid hormone. Here we examined whether a local increase in brain thyroid hormone action secondary to DIO3 deficiency is of consequence for social behaviors...
July 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657172/asic1a-in-neurons-is-critical-for-fear-related-behaviors
#3
R J Taugher, Y Lu, R Fan, A Ghobbeh, C J Kreple, F M Faraci, J A Wemmie
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have been implicated in fear-, addiction-, and depression-related behaviors in mice. While these effects have been attributed to ASIC1A in neurons, it has been reported that ASICs may also function in non-neuronal cells. To determine if ASIC1A in neurons is indeed required, we generated neuron-specific knockout mice with floxed Asic1a alleles disrupted by Cre recombinase driven by the neuron-specific synapsin I promoter (SynAsic1a KO mice). We confirmed that Cre expression occurred in neurons, but not all neurons, and not in non-neuronal cells including astrocytes...
June 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627812/genetics-of-alcohol-consumption-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Sophia Fochler, Tatiana V Morozova, Morgan R Davis, Alexander W Gearhart, Wen Huang, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Individual variation in alcohol consumption in human populations is determined by genetic, environmental, social and cultural factors. In contrast to humans, genetic contributions to complex behavioral phenotypes can be readily dissected in Drosophila, where both the genetic background and environment can be controlled and behaviors quantified through simple high-throughput assays. Here, we measured voluntary consumption of ethanol in ~3,000 individuals of each sex from an advanced intercross population derived from 37 lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel...
June 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594147/casein-kinase-1-epsilon-deletion-increases-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-behaviors-and-binge-eating1
#5
L R Goldberg, S L Kirkpatrick, N Yazdani, K P Luttik, O A Lacki, R Keith Babbs, D F Jenkins, W Evan Johnson, C D Bryant
Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that casein kinase 1 epsilon (Csnk1e) contributes to psychostimulant, opioid, and ethanol motivated behaviors. We previously used pharmacological inhibition to demonstrate that Csnk1e negatively regulates the locomotor stimulant properties of opioids and psychostimulants. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Csnk1e negatively regulates opioid and psychostimulant reward using genetic inhibition and the conditioned place preference assay in Csnk1e knockout mice. Similar to pharmacological inhibition, Csnk1e knockout mice showed enhanced opioid-induced locomotor activity with the mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0...
June 8, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589689/genetic-variation-in-the-developmental-regulation-of-cortical-avpr1a-among-prairie-voles
#6
M Okhovat, I C Chen, Z Dehghani, D J Zheng, J E Ikpatt, H Momoh, S M Phelps
Early experiences can have enduring impacts on brain and behavior, but the strength of these effects can be influenced by genetic variation. In principle, polymorphic CpGs (polyCpGs) may contribute to gene-by-environment interactions (GxE) by altering DNA methylation. In this study, we investigate the influence of polyCpGs on the development of vasopressin receptor 1a abundance in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC-V1aR) of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Two alternative alleles (HI/LO) predict RSC avpr1a expression, V1aR abundance and sexual fidelity in adulthood; these alleles differ in the frequency of CpG sites and in methylation at a putative intron enhancer...
June 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557378/lasting-effects-of-early-life-stress-in-mice-interaction-of-maternal-environment-and-infant-genes
#7
Ariel J Feifel, Harry N Shair, Claudia Schmauss
In the mouse, a powerful paradigm of early life stress, infant maternal separation (IMS), can trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in adulthood similar to those found in humans with a history of childhood adversity. The magnitude of IMS effects differs among diverse inbred strains suggesting an interaction between the genetic background of pups and the maternal care they received. Here we investigated this interaction with studies on reciprocal F1 hybrid mice of the stress-susceptible Balb/c and the resilient C57Bl/6 strains that were either raised by Balb/c mothers (low maternal care) or by C57Bl/6 mothers (higher maternal care) with or without IMS exposure...
May 30, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556463/a-single-bout-of-exercise-increases-hippocampal-bdnf-influence-of-chronic-exercise-and-noradrenalin
#8
Andrew C Venezia, Elizabeth Quinlan, Stephen M Roth
Research in human subjects suggests that acute exercise can improve memory performance, but the qualities of the exercise necessary to promote improved memory, and the signaling pathways that mediate these effects are unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), noradrenergic signaling, and post-translational modifications to AMPA receptors have all been implicated in the enhancement of memory following emotional or physical arousal; however, it is not known if a single bout of exercise is sufficient to engage these pathways...
May 26, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544613/qtl-and-systems-genetics-analysis-of-mouse-grooming-and-behavioral-responses-to-novelty-in-an-open-field
#9
Anna Delprato, Marie-Paule Algéo, Brice Bonheur, Jason A Bubier, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Elissa J Chesler, Wim E Crusio
The open field is a classic test used to assess exploratory behavior, anxiety, and locomotor activity in rodents. Here we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors displayed in an open field, using a panel of 53 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains with deep replication (10 per strain and sex). The use of these strains permits the integration and comparison of data obtained in different laboratories, and also offers the possibility to study trait covariance by exploiting powerful bioinformatics tools and resources...
May 24, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523735/variability-in-prescription-opioid-intake-and-reinforcement-amongst-129-substrains
#10
Susan M Jimenez, Aiden F Healy, Michal A Coelho, Chelsea N Brown, Tod E Kippin, Karen K Szumlinski
Opioid abuse in the United States has reached epidemic proportions, with treatment admissions and deaths associated with prescription opioid abuse quadrupling over the past 10 years. Although genetics are theorized to contribute substantially to inter-individual variability in the development, severity, and treatment outcomes of opioid abuse/addiction, little direct preclinical study has focused on the behavioral genetics of prescription opioid reinforcement and drug-taking. Herein, we employed different 129 substrains of mice currently available from The Jackson Laboratory (129S1/SvlmJ, 129X1/SvJ, 129S4/SvJaeJ and 129P3/J) as a model system of genetic variation and assayed mice for oral opioid intake and reinforcement, as well as behavioral and somatic signs of dependence...
May 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488329/phosphodiesterase-1b-deletion-confers-depression-like-behavioral-resistance-separate-from-stress-related-effects-in-mice
#11
J R Hufgard, M T Williams, C V Vorhees
Phosphodiesterase-1b (Pde1b) is highly expressed in striatum, dentate gyrus, CA3 and substantia nigra. In a new Floxed Pde1b × Cre(CMV) global knockout (KO) mouse model, we show an immobility-resistance phenotype that recapitulates that found in constitutive Pde1b KO mice. We use this new mouse model to show that the resistance to acute stress-induced depression-like phenotype is not the product of changes in locomotor activity or reactivity to other stressors (learned helplessness, novelty suppressed feeding or dexamethasone suppression), and is not associated with anhedonia using the sucrose preference test...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488276/cntnap2-is-a-direct-foxp2-target-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-zebra-finches-complex-regulation-by-age-and-activity
#12
I Adam, E Mendoza, U Kobalz, S Wohlgemuth, C Scharff
Mutations of FOXP2 are associated with altered brain structure, including the striatal part of the basal ganglia, and cause a severe speech and language disorder. Songbirds serve as a tractable neurobiological model for speech and language research. Experimental downregulation of FoxP2 in zebra finch Area X, a nucleus of the striatal song control circuitry, affects synaptic transmission and spine densities. It also renders song learning and production inaccurate and imprecise, similar to the speech impairment of patients carrying FOXP2 mutations...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466980/social-context-affects-behavior-preoptic-area-gene-expression-and-response-to-d2-receptor-manipulation-during-territorial-defense-in-a-cichlid-fish
#13
C A Weitekamp, J Nguyen, H A Hofmann
Social context often has profound effects on behavior, yet the neural and molecular mechanisms which mediate flexible behavioral responses to different social environments are not well understood. We used the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to examine aggressive defense behavior across three social contexts representing different motivational states: a reproductive opportunity, a familiar male and a neutral context. To elucidate how differences in behavior across contexts may be mediated by neural gene expression, we examined gene expression in the preoptic area, a brain region known to control male aggressive and sexual behavior...
May 3, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296079/magel2-knockout-mice-manifest-altered-social-phenotypes-and-a-deficit-in-preference-for-social-novelty
#14
M D Fountain, H Tao, C-A Chen, J Yin, C P Schaaf
MAGEL2 is one of five protein-coding, maternally imprinted, paternally expressed genes in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)-critical domain on chromosome 15q11-q13. Truncating pathogenic variants of MAGEL2 cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG) (OMIM #615547), a neurodevelopmental disorder related to PWS. Affected individuals manifest a spectrum of neurocognitive and behavioral phenotypes, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Magel2 knockout mice carrying a maternally inherited, imprinted wild-type (WT) allele and a paternally inherited Magel2-lacZ knock-in allele, which abolishes endogenous Magel2 gene function, exhibit several features reminiscent of the human Prader-Willi phenotypes, including neonatal growth retardation, excessive weight gain after weaning and increased adiposity in adulthood...
July 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220990/oxidative-stress-serotonergic-changes-and-decreased-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-a-mouse-model-of-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome
#15
N F Sharif, Z Korade, N A Porter, F E Harrison
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is an inherited monogenic disorder in which mutations to the 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase (Dhcr7) gene lead to deficits in cholesterol synthesis. As a result, many patients suffer from gross physiological and neurological deficits. The purpose of this study was to identify a potential abnormal behavioral phenotype in a compound mutant mouse model for Smith-Lemli-Opitz disease (Dhcr7 (Δ3)(-5/)(T93M) ) to further validate the model and to provide potential targets for future therapeutic interventions...
July 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220999/drosophila-divalent-metal-ion-transporter-malvolio-is-required-in-dopaminergic-neurons-for-feeding-decisions
#16
E Søvik, A LaMora, G Seehra, A B Barron, J G Duncan, Y Ben-Shahar
Members of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family are evolutionarily conserved metal ion transporters that play an essential role in regulating intracellular divalent cation homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Malvolio (Mvl), the sole NRAMP family member in insects, plays a role in food choice behaviors in Drosophila and other species. However, the specific physiological and cellular processes that require the action of Mvl for appropriate feeding decisions remain elusive...
June 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188958/potassium-channel-gene-associations-with-joint-processing-speed-and-white-matter-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#17
H A Bruce, P Kochunov, S A Paciga, C L Hyde, X Chen, Z Xie, B Zhang, H S Xi, P O'Donnell, C Whelan, C R Schubert, A Bellon, S A Ament, D K Shukla, X Du, L M Rowland, H O'Neill, L E Hong
Patients with schizophrenia show decreased processing speed on neuropsychological testing and decreased white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, two traits shown to be both heritable and genetically associated indicating that there may be genes that influence both traits as well as schizophrenia disease risk. The potassium channel gene family is a reasonable candidate to harbor such a gene given the prominent role potassium channels play in the central nervous system in signal transduction, particularly in myelinated axons...
June 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186690/reduced-levels-of-cacna1c-attenuate-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-function
#18
C E Terrillion, D T Dao, R Cachope, M K Lobo, A C Puche, J F Cheer, T D Gould
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic-dopamine (ML-DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk...
June 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425198/the-cell-adhesion-molecule-epha4-is-involved-in-circadian-clock-functions
#19
Silke Kiessling, Emma K O'Callaghan, Marlène Freyburger, Nicolas Cermakian, Valérie Mongrain
Circadian (~24 h) rhythms of cellular network plasticity in the central circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been described. The neuronal network in the SCN regulates photic resetting of the circadian clock as well as stability of the circadian system during both entrained and constant conditions. EphA4, a cell adhesion molecule regulating synaptic plasticity by controlling connections of neurons and astrocytes, is expressed in the SCN. To address whether EphA4 plays a role in circadian photoreception and influences the neuronal network of the SCN, we have analysed circadian wheel-running behavior of EphA4 knockout (EphA4(-/-) ) mice under different light conditions and upon photic resetting, as well as their light-induced protein response in the SCN...
April 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-shows-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#20
I J I Dela Peña, I Dela Peña, J B de la Peña, H J Kim, A Sohn, C Y Shin, D H Han, B-N Kim, J H Ryu, J H Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the 'normal' heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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