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Harmful Algae

Frederik Frøsig Gai, Cecilie Kirketerp Hedemand, Deon C Louw, Kolette Grobler, Bernd Krock, Øjvind Moestrup, Nina Lundholm
A field study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence and toxin production of species in the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia in Namibian waters, in the extremely productive Benguela upwelling system. From surveys conducted on the R/V Mirabilis and the R/V !Anichab, 52 strains were morphologically determined to species level, supported by nuclear ITS rDNA data. Seven species were identified; P. australis, P. decipiens, P. dolorosa, P. fraudulenta, P. plurisecta, P. pungens var. cingulata, and the new species P...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Stacie L Flood, JoAnn M Burkholder
The potential for toxic contaminants and nutrient pollution to alter natural cycles of estuarine phytoplankton blooms is well known, yet few studies have examined how these combined stressors affect harmful algal species. Here, a robust testing protocol was developed to enable an ecotoxicological assessment of responses to commonly co-occurring estuarine contaminants by harmful algal bloom species. The population growth and toxicity (as cell density and hemolytic activity, respectively) of a cultured strain of the toxigenic raphidiophycean, Chattonella subsalsa, were assessed in two experiments (duration 10 days and 28 days) across a gradient of atrazine concentrations and N:P ratios simulating nutrient-rich versus nutrient-depleted regimes...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Mitsutaka Nakada, Yuki Hatayama, Akira Ishikawa, Tetsuro Ajisaka, Shigeki Sawayama, Ichiro Imai
The occurrence of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) causative Gambierdiscus spp. was confirmed in the Sea of Japan for the first time in 2009. This paper reports seasonal distribution of Gambierdiscus spp. and epiphytic diatoms in the Sea of Japan. Monitoring results suggested an antagonistic interaction in abundances between epiphytic diatoms and the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. Allelopathic effects of diatoms were considered to be involved in the competitive phenomenon. Therefore it is hypothesized that cell densities of epiphytic pennate diatoms on macroalgae are a novel determinant affecting the abundance of Gambierdiscus spp...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Manjunath Manubolu, Jiyoung Lee, Kenneth M Riedl, Zi Xun Kua, Lindsay P Collart, Stuart A Ludsin
Human-driven environmental change has increased the occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. Concomitantly, exposure to microcystin (MC), a cyanobacterial toxin that can accumulate in animals, edible plants, and agricultural soils, has become a growing public health concern. For accurate estimation of health risks and timely monitoring, availability of reliable detection methods is imperative. Nonetheless, quantitative analysis of MCs in many types of biological and environmental samples has proven challenging because matrix interferences can hinder sample preparation and extraction procedures, leading to poor MC recovery...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Richard Johansen, Richard Beck, Jakub Nowosad, Christopher Nietch, Min Xu, Song Shu, Bo Yang, Hongxing Liu, Erich Emery, Molly Reif, Joseph Harwood, Jade Young, Dana Macke, Mark Martin, Garrett Stillings, Richard Stumpf, Haibin Su
This study evaluated the performances of twenty-nine algorithms that use satellite-based spectral imager data to derive estimates of chlorophyll-a concentrations that, in turn, can be used as an indicator of the general status of algal cell densities and the potential for a harmful algal bloom (HAB). The performance assessment was based on making relative comparisons between two temperate inland lakes: Harsha Lake (7.99 km2 ) in Southwest Ohio and Taylorsville Lake (11.88 km2 ) in central Kentucky. Of interest was identifying algorithm-imager combinations that had high correlation with coincident chlorophyll-a surface observations for both lakes, as this suggests portability for regional HAB monitoring...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Amber Brown, Amanda Foss, Melissa A Miller, Quincy Gibson
Microcystins/Nodularins (MCs/NODs) are potent hepatotoxic cyanotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs) that occur frequently in the upper basin of the St. Johns River (SJR), Jacksonville, FL, USA. Areas downstream of bloom locations provide critical habitat for an estuarine population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Since 2010, approximately 30 of these dolphins have stranded and died within this impaired watershed; the cause of death was inconclusive for a majority of these individuals...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Paul A Bukaveckas, Rima Franklin, Spencer Tassone, Brendan Trache, Todd Egerton
We examined seasonal and longitudinal patterns in the occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria in the James River Estuary (Virginia). Highest chlorophyll and cyanobacteria levels were observed in the tidal freshwater segment, particularly during dry summers when freshwater replacement time was long. Cyanobacteria accounted for a small proportion of phytoplankton biomass (7-15%), and Microcystis comprised a small proportion of the cyanobacteria (<1%). Despite this, measureable levels of microcystin were commonly observed in water (>85% of samples in July, August and September), fish tissues (87% of planktivorous fishes) and shellfish (83% of individuals)...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Adam K Rose, Larelle Fabbro, Susan Kinnear
Mitigation of cyanobacterial or "blue-green algal" blooms is a challenging task for water managers across Australia. In the present study, a regional drinking water source (located in Central Queensland) was studied to identify the potential risks posed by cyanobacteria. Data were collected from the drinking water source (a lagoon) as well as the drinking water supply infrastructure, at monthly intervals between September 2012 and December 2014. In March 2013 there was an extreme rainfall event where floodwaters infiltrated the water supply without passing through bank filtration...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Christos-Moritz Loukas, Matthew C Mowlem, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Nicolas G Green
This paper presents a novel portable sample filtration/concentration system, designed for use on samples of microorganisms with very low cell concentrations and large volumes, such as water-borne parasites, pathogens associated with faecal matter, or toxic phytoplankton. The example application used for demonstration was the in-field collection and concentration of microalgae from seawater samples. This type of organism is responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an example of which is commonly referred to as "red tides", which are typically the result of rapid proliferation and high biomass accumulation of harmful microalgal species in the water column or at the sea surface...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Liang Zhao, Yulong Song, Lin Li, Nanqin Gan, Jerry J Brand, Lirong Song
The occurrence of harmful Microcystis blooms is increasing in frequency in a myriad of freshwater ecosystems. Despite considerable research pertaining to the cause and nature of these blooms, the molecular mechanisms behind the cosmopolitan distribution and phenotypic diversity in Microcystis are still unclear. We compared the patterns and extent of DNA methylation in three strains of Microcystis, PCC 7806SL, NIES-2549 and FACHB-1757, using Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology. Intact restriction-modification (R-M) systems were identified from the genomes of these strains, and from two previously sequenced strains of Microcystis, NIES-843 and TAIHU98...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Eric Abadie, Claude Chiantella, Anaïs Crottier, Lesley Rhodes, Estelle Masseret, Tom Berteaux, Mohamed Laabir
Vulcanodinium rugosum, a dinoflagellate developing in Ingril Lagoon (Mediterranean, France) is responsible for shellfish intoxications due to the neurotoxin pinnatoxin G. A one year survey (March 2012-April 2013) was conducted in this oligotrophic shallow lagoon and key environmental parameters were recorded (temperature, salinity and nutrients). The spatio-temporal distribution of V. rugosum in water column and on macrophytes was also determined. Planktonic cells of V. rugosum were observed at all sampling stations, but in relatively low concentrations (maximum of 1000 cell/L)...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Stacie L Flood, JoAnn M Burkholder
The toxigenic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum is a mixotrophic phytoplankter with an extensive historic record of forming nearly monospecific, high-biomass, ecosystem-disrupting blooms, and it has been responsible for major fish kills in brackish waters and aquaculture facilities in many regions of the world. Little is known about how this species responds to commonly occurring environmental contaminants, or how nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) pollution may interact with environmentally relevant pesticide exposures to affect this harmful algal species...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Nancy I Lewis, Jennifer L Wolny, John Claude Achenbach, Lee Ellis, Joseph S Pitula, Cheryl Rafuse, Detbra S Rosales, Pearse McCarron
Benthic dinoflagellates of the toxigenic genus Coolia Meunier (Dinophyceae) are known to have a global distribution in both tropical and temperate waters. The type species, C. monotis, has been reported from the Mediterranean Sea, the NE Atlantic and from Rhode Island, USA in the NW Atlantic, whereas other species in the genus have been reported from tropical locations. Coolia cells were observed in algal drift samples collected at seven sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Clonal isolates were established from four of these locations and identified with light and scanning electron microscopy, then confirmed with genetic sequencing to be C...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Eva Ternon, Anne-Sophie Pavaux, Sophie Marro, Olivier P Thomas, Rodolphe Lemée
For decades the microphytobenthos assemblage in the coastal Mediterranean Sea has been regularly colonized by the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata. This harmful algal species is a toxin producer and occupies the same ecological niche as various diatoms. Surprisingly, there are only few insights reported on the physiological responses of diatoms to blooms of O. cf. ovata The chemical interactions of O. cf. ovata with the co-occurring diatom Licmophora paradoxa was studied using a bioassay (measuring impact of cell-free culture filtrate) and a co-culture approach (separate by a membrane) to investigate the effects of the exometabolome and its mode of action...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Xinguo Shi, Ling Li, Senjie Lin
PCP and acpPC are the two major antennae proteins that bind pigments in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. The relationship between antennae proteins and cellular pigments at molecular level is still poorly understood. Here we identified and characterized the two antennae protein genes in dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense under different light conditions. The mature PCP protein was 32 kDa, while acpPC was a polyprotein each of 19 kDa. Both genes showed higher expression under low light than under high light, suggesting their possible role in a low light adaptation mechanism...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
David Morse, Sirius P K Tse, Samuel C L Lo
Dinoflagellates are notorious for their ability to form the harmful algal blooms known as "red tides," yet the mechanisms underlying bloom formation remain poorly understood. Despite recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing, which have generated transcriptomes from a wide range of species exposed to a variety of different conditions, measuring changes in RNA levels have not generally produced great insight into dinoflagellate cell biology or environmental physiology, nor do we have a thorough grasp on the molecular events underpinning bloom formation...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Deon C Louw, Gregory J Doucette, Nina Lundholm
The Benguela upwelling system, considered the world's most productive marine ecosystem, has a long record of potentially toxic diatoms belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Species of Pseudo-nitzschia were reported as early as 1936 from the northern Benguela upwelling system (nBUS). For the current study, long-term phytoplankton monitoring data (2004-2011) for the Namibian coast were analysed to examine inshore and offshore temporal distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia species, their diversity and ultrastructure...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Anette Engesmo, David Strand, Sandra Gran-Stadniczeñko, Bente Edvardsen, Linda K Medlin, Wenche Eikrem
Blooms of ichthyotoxic microalgae pose a great challenge to the aquaculture industry world-wide, and there is a need for fast and specific methods for their detection and quantification in monitoring programs. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for the detection and enumeration of three ichthyotoxic flagellates: the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake & Kominami ex Oda) Hansen & Moestrup and the two raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Hara & Chihara and Fibrocapsa japonica Toriumi & Takano were developed...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Nicholas Williamson, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, David Outhet, Lee C Bowling
Cyanobacterial survival following their release in water from major headwaters reservoirs was compared in five New South Wales rivers. Under low flow conditions, cyanobacterial presence disappeared rapidly with distance downstream in the Cudgegong and Hunter Rivers, whereas the other three rivers were contaminated for at least 300 km. Cyanobacterial survival is likely to be impacted by the geomorphology of each river, especially the extent of gravel riffle reaches (cells striking rocks can destroy them) and by the different turbulent flow conditions it produces within each...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Priscilla T Y Leung, Meng Yan, Veronica T T Lam, Sam K F Yiu, Chia-Yun Chen, J Sam Murray, D Tim Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, Paul K S Lam, Tak-Cheung Wai
Species of Fukuyoa, recently revised from the globular Gambierdiscus, are toxic benthic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera. In this study, a total of ten strains of Fukuyoa collected from Hong Kong waters were characterized using morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Results from both analyses showed that one of the strains is a putative new species, namely Fukuyoa sp. HK Type 1 (plate formula Po, 3', 7″, 6c, 7s, 5‴, 1p and 2'‴ with a distinctive small and narrow cell shape, narrow Po plate, high Po pore density, large and broad Plate 1' but small and round Po pore size, small and narrow Plate 2', long and narrow Plates 2'‴ and 1p), and the others were F...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
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