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Harmful Algae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073566/mixotrophy-in-the-phototrophic-dinoflagellate-takayama-helix-family-kareniaceae-predator-of-diverse-toxic-and-harmful-dinoflagellates
#1
Hae Jin Jeong, Jin Hee Ok, An Suk Lim, Ji Eun Kwon, So Jin Kim, Sung Yeon Lee
Takayama spp. are phototrophic dinoflagellates belonging to the family Kareniaceae and have caused fish kills in several countries. Understanding their trophic mode and interactions with co-occurring phytoplankton species are critical steps in comprehending their ecological roles in marine ecosystems, bloom dynamics, and dinoflagellate evolution. To investigate the trophic mode and interactions of Takayama spp., the ability of Takayama helix to feed on diverse algal species was examined, and the mechanisms of prey ingestion were determined...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073565/heterogeneous-distribution-in-sediments-and-dispersal-in-waters-of-alexandrium-minutum-in-a-semi-enclosed-coastal-ecosystem
#2
Z K Klouch, F Caradec, M Plus, T Hernández-Fariñas, L Pineau-Guillou, A Chapelle, S Schmitt, J Quéré, L Guillou, R Siano
Within the framework of research aimed at using genetic methods to evaluate harmful species distribution and their impact on coastal ecosystems, a portion of the ITS1rDNA of Alexandrium minutum was amplified by real-time PCR from DNA extracts of superficial (1-3cm) sediments of 30 subtidal and intertidal stations of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France), during the winters of 2013 and 2015. Cell germinations and rDNA amplifications of A. minutum were obtained for sediments of all sampled stations, demonstrating that the whole bay is currently contaminated by this toxic species...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073564/education-and-notification-approaches-for-harmful-algal-blooms-habs-washington-state-usa
#3
F Joan Hardy, Debra Bouchard, Marisa Burghdoff, Ray Hanowell, Beth LeDoux, Ellen Preece, Lindsay Tuttle, Gene Williams
While numerous strategies have been used to educate and notify the public about potential hazards from exposure to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), at present there are no national guidelines or suggested outreach approaches. To raise public awareness and determine effective HAB outreach methods, two Washington State agencies and three counties in the Puget Sound region implemented several education and notification strategies. These approaches were rated for effectiveness by state and county public health and water quality professionals...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073563/genetic-and-toxinological-characterization-of-north-atlantic-strains-of-the-dinoflagellate-ostreopsis-and-allelopathic-interactions-with-toxic-and-non-toxic-species-from-the-genera-prorocentrum-coolia-and-gambierdiscus
#4
María García-Portela, Pilar Riobó, José Mariano Franco, Rosa Mª Bañuelos, Francisco Rodríguez
The genus Ostreopsis includes several toxic species that can develop blooms in benthic ecosystems, with potential harmful consequences for human health and marine invertebrates. Despite of this, little is known about the allelopathic interactions between these organisms and other co-occurring microalgae that exploit similar spatial and nutrient resources in benthic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to follow these interactions in cultures of two Ostreopsis ribotypes with different toxin profiles (O. cf...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073562/a-new-gambierdiscus-species-dinophyceae-from-rarotonga-cook-islands-gambierdiscus-cheloniae-sp-nov
#5
Kirsty F Smith, Lesley Rhodes, Arjun Verma, Belinda G Curley, D Tim Harwood, Gurjeet S Kohli, Dorothy Solomona, Teina Rongo, Rex Munday, Shauna A Murray
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been reported for many years in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and has had the world's highest reported incidence of this illness for the last 20 years. Following intensive sampling to understand the distribution of the causative organisms of CFP, an undescribed Gambierdiscus species was isolated from the Rarotongan lagoon. Gambierdiscus cheloniae sp. nov. has the common Gambierdiscus Kofoidian plate formula (except for a variability in the number of precingular plates in aberrant cells): Po, 3', 6″ (7″), 6C?, 6 or 7S, 5'″, 1p and 2″″...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073561/development-of-real-time-rt-pcr-for-detecting-viable-cochlodinium-polykrikoides-dinophyceae-cysts-in-sediment
#6
Tae Gyu Park, Jin Joo Kim, Won Jin Kim, Kyoung Mi Won
Morphological observations have confirmed that cysts are produced by dinoflagellates. However, finding a seed bed or unknown cysts in field samples by microscopy is extremely time consuming. Real-time PCR has been used to facilitate the detection of dinoflagellate cysts in sediment. However, DNA from dead vegetative cells remaining on the surface sediment may persist for a long period of time, which can cause false positive DNA detection. In this study, a non-quantitative RNA targeted probe using real-time RT-PCR was developed for detection of viable cysts in sediment...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073560/an-alternative-explanation-for-cyanobacterial-scum-formation-and-persistence-by-oxygenic-photosynthesis
#7
E Aparicio Medrano, R E Uittenbogaard, B J H van de Wiel, L M Dionisio Pires, H J H Clercx
The cause of persistent cyanobacteria scum formation in lakes is an unresolved subject. Scum refers to the event in which cyanobacteria are at the water surface of a lake. Factors like low turbulence levels, long day-light, high water temperatures and the buoyant capacity of cyanobacterial cells play a role in the occurrence of scums. However, they do not explain why scums are observed at periods during the day when according to theory they should have disappeared into the deeper water layers. In this study, we present an alternative explanation...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073559/characterization-of-total-retinoid-like-activity-of-compounds-produced-by-three-common-phytoplankton-species
#8
Eliška Sychrová, Jana Priebojová, Marie Smutná, Kateřina Nováková, Jiří Kohoutek, Klára Hilscherová
Phytoplankton can produce various bioactive metabolites, which may affect other organisms in the aquatic environment. This study provides the first information on the total retinoid-like activity associated with both intracellular and extracellular metabolites produced by selected phytoplankton species that could play a role in teratogenic effects and developmental disruption in exposed organisms. The studied species included a coccoid cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), a filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) and a green alga (Desmodesmus quadricauda), all of which commonly occur in freshwater bodies in Europe...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073558/selective-growth-promotion-of-bloom-forming-raphidophyte-heterosigma-akashiwo-by-a-marine-bacterial-strain
#9
Aiko Higashi, Yoshiko Fujitani, Natsuko Nakayama, Akio Tani, Shoko Ueki
Algal bloom is typically caused by aberrant propagation of a single species, resulting in its predomination in the local population. While environmental factors including temperature and eutrophication are linked to bloom, the precise mechanism of its formation process is still obscure. Here, we isolated a bacterial strain that promotes growth of Heterosigma akashiwo, a Raphidophyceae that causes harmful algal blooms. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was identified as Altererythrobacter ishigakiensis, a member of the class Alphaproteobacteria...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073557/diatom-nitzschia-navis-varingica-bacillariophyceae-and-its-domoic-acid-production-from-the-mangrove-environments-of-malaysia
#10
Suh Nih Tan, Sing Tung Teng, Hong Chang Lim, Yuichi Kotaki, Stephen S Bates, Chui Pin Leaw, Po Teen Lim
The distribution of the toxic pennate diatom Nitzschia was investigated at four mangrove areas along the coastal brackish waters of Peninsular Malaysia. Eighty-two strains of N. navis-varingica were isolated and established, and their identity confirmed morphologically and molecularly. Frustule morphological characteristics of the strains examined are identical to previously identified N. navis-varingica, but with a sightly higher density of the number of areolae per 1μm (4-7 areolae). Both LSU and ITS rDNAs phylogenetic trees clustered all strains in the N...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073556/the-role-of-heterocytes-in-the-physiology-and-ecology-of-bloom-forming-harmful-cyanobacteria
#11
Lilen Yema, Elena Litchman, Paula de Tezanos Pinto
Dolichospermum flos-aquae and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii are two cyanobacteria species which cause harmful blooms around the world. Both these species share the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen in heterocytes (cell where fixation occurs). While Dolichospermum can express heterocytes at rather regular intervals across the filament, Cylindrospermopsis can only express heterocytes at the end of the filament. The aim of this study was to experimentally assess the role of heterocyte position in the eco-physiological responses of these bloom forming cyanobacteria...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073555/molecular-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-ostreopsis-dinophyceae-and-the-description-of-a-new-species-ostreopsis-rhodesae-sp-nov-from-a-subtropical-australian-lagoon
#12
Arjun Verma, Mona Hoppenrath, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Cryptic and pseudo-cryptic species are common amongst marine phytoplankton, and may cause misleading inferences of ecological and physiological data of plankton community studies. Deciphering the diversity and distribution of species of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis is one example, as there are many morphologically indistinct clades that differ greatly genetically and toxicologically from one another. In this study, a new species, Ostreopsis rhodesae from the southern Great Barrier Reef was described...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073554/an-overview-of-cyanobacterial-bloom-occurrences-and-research-in-africa-over-the-last-decade
#13
REVIEW
L L Ndlela, P J Oberholster, J H Van Wyk, P H Cheng
Cyanobacterial blooms are a current cause for concern globally, with vital water sources experiencing frequent and increasingly toxic blooms in the past decade. These increases are resultant of both anthropogenic and natural factors, with climate change being the central concern. Of the more affected parts of the world, Africa has been considered particularly vulnerable due to its historical predisposition and lag in social economic development. This review collectively assesses the available information on cyanobacterial blooms in Africa as well as any visible trends associated with reported occurrences over the last decade...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073553/the-effects-of-light-intensity-on-the-growth-of-japanese-gambierdiscus-spp-dinophyceae
#14
Takamichi Yoshimatsu, Chaoyu Tie, Haruo Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Funaki, Chiho Honma, Kouki Tanaka, Masao Adachi
Marine toxic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus are the causative agents of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a form of seafood poisoning that is widespread in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions worldwide. The distributions of Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus and two phylotypes of Gambierdiscus spp. type 2 and type 3 have been reported for the waters surrounding the main island of Japan. To explore the bloom dynamics and the vertical distribution of these Japanese species and phylotypes of Gambierdiscus, the effects of light intensity on their growth were tested, using a photoirradiation-culture system...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073552/ciguatera-fish-poisoning-incidence-health-costs-and-risk-perception-on-moorea-island-society-archipelago-french-polynesia
#15
Ewen Morin, Clémence Gatti, Tamatoa Bambridge, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073510/tracing-the-origin-of-green-macroalgal-blooms-based-on-the-large-scale-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-ulva-microscopic-propagules-and-settled-mature-ulva-vegetative-thalli-in-coastal-regions-of-the-yellow-sea-china
#16
Yuanzi Huo, Hongbin Han, Liang Hua, Zhangliang Wei, Kefeng Yu, Honghua Shi, Jang Kyun Kim, Charles Yarish, Peimin He
From 2008 to 2016, massive floating green macroalgal blooms occurred annually during the summer months in the Yellow Sea. The original source of these blooms was traced based on the spatio-temporal distribution and species composition of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled Ulva vegetative thalli monthly from December 2012 to May 2013 in the Yellow Sea. High quantities of Ulva microscopic propagules in both the water column and sediments were found in the Pyropia aquaculture area along the Jiangsu coast before a green macroalgal bloom appeared in the Yellow Sea...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073509/harmful-effects-of-dinophysis-to-the-ciliate-mesodinium-rubrum-implications-for-prey-capture
#17
Luiz L Mafra, Satoshi Nagai, Hajime Uchida, Camila P S Tavares, Bruno P Escobar, Toshiyuki Suzuki
Toxigenic Dinophysis spp. are obligate mixotrophic dinoflagellates that require a constant supply of prey-Mesodinium rubrum-to achieve long-term growth by means of kleptoplasty. Mesodinium rubrum is, however, a fast moving, jumping ciliate exhibiting an effective escape response from suspensivorous predators. In the present study, a series of laboratory experiments evaluating the motility and survival of M. rubrum in the presence of Dinophysis cells and/or substances contained in their culture medium was designed, in order to assess the mechanisms involved in prey capture by Dinophysis spp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073508/mixotrophic-ability-of-the-phototrophic-dinoflagellates-alexandrium-andersonii-a-affine-and-a-fraterculus
#18
Kyung Ha Lee, Hae Jin Jeong, Ji Eun Kwon, Hee Chang Kang, Ji Hye Kim, Se Hyeon Jang, Jae Yeon Park, Eun Young Yoon, Jae Seong Kim
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. have received much attention due to their harmful effects on diverse marine organisms, including commercially important species. For minimizing loss due to red tides or blooms of Alexandrium spp., it is very important to understand the eco-physiology of each Alexandrium species and to predict its population dynamics. Its trophic mode (i.e., exclusively autotrophic or mixotrophic) is one of the most critical parameters in establishing prediction models. However, among the 35 Alexandrium species so far described, only six Alexandrium species have been revealed to be mixotrophic...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073507/evidence-of-freshwater-algal-toxins-in-marine-shellfish-implications-for-human-and-aquatic-health
#19
Corinne M Gibble, Melissa B Peacock, Raphael M Kudela
The occurrence of freshwater harmful algal bloom toxins impacting the coastal ocean is an emerging threat, and the potential for invertebrate prey items to concentrate toxin and cause harm to human and wildlife consumers is not yet fully recognized. We examined toxin uptake and release in marine mussels for both particulate and dissolved phases of the hepatotoxin microcystin, produced by the freshwater cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. We also extended our experimental investigation of particulate toxin to include oysters (Crassostrea sp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073506/changes-in-morphological-plasticity-of-ulva-prolifera-under-different-environmental-conditions-a-laboratory-experiment
#20
Guang Gao, Zhihai Zhong, Xianghong Zhou, Juntian Xu
The large-scale green tides, consisting mainly of Ulva prolifera, have invaded the coastal zones of western Yellow Sea each year since 2008, resulting in tremendous impacts on the local environment and economy. A large number of studies have been conducted to investigate the physiological traits of U. prolifera to explain its dominance in the green tides. However, little has been reported regarding the response of U. prolifera to changing environmental factors via morphological variation. In our experiments, we found remarkable morphological acclimation of U...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
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