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Autoimmunity Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428121/the-blood-brain-barrier-and-neuropsychiatric-lupus-new-perspectives-in-light-of-advances-in-understanding-the-neuroimmune-interface
#1
REVIEW
Ariel D Stock, Sivan Gelb, Ofer Pasternak, Ayal Ben-Zvi, Chaim Putterman
Experts have previously postulated a linkage between lupus associated vascular pathology and abnormal brain barriers in the immunopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus. Nevertheless, there are some discrepancies between the experimental evidence, or its interpretation, and the working hypotheses prevalent in this field; specifically, that a primary contributor to neuropsychiatric disease in lupus is permeabilization of the blood brain barrier. In this commonly held view, any contribution of the other known brain barriers, including the blood-cerebrospinal fluid and meningeal barriers, is mostly excluded from the discussion...
April 17, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428120/pathogenesis-of-immune-thrombocytopenia
#2
REVIEW
Sylvain Audia, Matthieu Mahévas, Maxime Samson, Bertrand Godeau, Bernard Bonnotte
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare autoimmune disease due to an abnormal T cell response, notably supported by splenic T follicular helper cells, that stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of autoreactive B cells. The antiplatelet autoantibodies they produce facilitate platelet phagocytosis by macrophages, essentially in the spleen. Macrophages contribute to the perpetuation of the auto-immune response as the main antigen-presenting cell during ITP. CD8(+) T cells also participate to thrombocytopenia by increasing platelet apoptosis...
April 17, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428119/timing-of-high-efficacy-therapy-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Bernd Merkel, Helmut Butzkueven, Anthony L Traboulsee, Eva Havrdova, Tomas Kalincik
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy initiated early after first presentation of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is associated with improved long-term outcomes. One can therefore speculate that early initiation of highly effective immunotherapies, with an average efficacy that is superior to the typical first-line therapies, could further improve relapse and disability outcomes. However, the most common treatment strategy is to commence first-line therapies, followed by treatment escalation in patients who continue to experience on-treatment disease activity...
April 17, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414154/targeting-synovial-neoangiogenesis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
REVIEW
Agathe Leblond, Yannick Allanore, Jérôme Avouac
In Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neoangiogenesis is an early and crucial event to promote the development of the hyperplasic proliferative pathologic synovium. Endothelial cells are critical for the formation of new blood vessels since they highly contribute to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Current therapies in RA target the inflammatory consequences of autoimmune activation and despite major improvements these last years still refractory patients or incomplete responders may be seen raising the point of the need to identify complementary additive and innovative therapies...
April 14, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414153/inflammatory-myopathy-associated-with-myasthenia-gravis-with-and-without-thymic-pathology-report-of-four-cases-and-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Ernestina Santos, Ester Coutinho, Ana Martins da Silva, António Marinho, Carlos Vasconcelos, Ricardo Taipa, Manuel Melo Pires, Guilherme Gonçalves, Carlos Lopes, Maria Isabel Leite
INTRODUCTION: the association of myasthenia gravis (MG) and inflammatory myopathy is rare and often only one of the diseases is diagnosed. Thymus pathology may be in the origin of such disease association. METHODS: we described four patients with both MG and inflammatory myopathy. RESULTS: these cases correspond to 2.3% of our MG cohort. Case 1: MG, polymyositis and thymolipoma; case 2: MG and necrotizing myopathy without thymic pathology on a background of scleroderma, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia (CREST); case 3: MG and dermatomyositis without thymic pathology; case 4: MG and dermatomyositis with type C thymoma...
April 13, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414152/rituximab-for-immunologic-renal-disease-what-the-nephrologist-needs-to-know
#6
REVIEW
Andreas Kronbichler, Martin Windpessl, Herwig Pieringer, David R W Jayne
Rituximab (RTX), a chimeric, monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, is increasingly used in immune-mediated renal diseases. While licensed in the induction treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis, it represents one of the most commonly prescribed off-label drugs. Much of the information regarding its safety has been drawn from experience in hematology and rheumatology. Ample evidence illustrates the safety of RTX, however, rare but serious adverse events have emerged that include progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and hepatitis B reactivation...
April 13, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411169/the-impact-of-immunogenicity-of-tnf%C3%AE-inhibitors-in-autoimmune-inflammatory-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Valentina Pecoraro, Elena De Santis, Alessandra Melegari, Tommaso Trenti
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies drugs directed against TNFα, TNFα inhibitors, are immunogenic, and consequent anti-drug antibodies (ADA) formation may decrease the functional drug concentration, resulting in a loss of response. We evaluated the impact of ADA on TNFα therapeutic response. METHODS: We considered studies enrolling adult patients affected by autoimmune inflammatory disease in therapy with TNFα inhibitors. We collected data about study and population characteristics, treatment dosage, determination of ADA and adverse events (AE)...
April 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411168/dysregulated-homeostasis-of-target-tissues-or-autoantigens-a-novel-principle-in-autoimmunity
#8
REVIEW
Frank Petersen, Xiaoyang Yue, Gabriela Riemekasten, Xinhua Yu
Monogenic autoimmune disorders provide a powerful tool for our understanding of the principles of autoimmunity due to the obvious impact of a single gene on the disease. So far, approximately 100 single gene defects causing murine monogenic autoimmune disorders have been reported and the functional characterization of these genes will provide significant progress in understanding the nature of autoimmunity. According to their function, genes leading to monogenic autoimmune disorders can be categorized into two groups...
April 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411167/mast-cells-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-friends-or-foes
#9
REVIEW
Felice Rivellese, Alessandra Nerviani, Francesca Wanda Rossi, Gianni Marone, Marco Matucci-Cerinic, Amato de Paulis, Costantino Pitzalis
Mast cells are tissue-resident cells of the innate immunity, implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They are present in synovia and their activation has been linked to the potentiation of inflammation in the course of RA. However, recent investigations questioned the role of mast cells in arthritis. In particular, animal models generated conflicting results, so that many of their pro-inflammatory, i.e. pro-arthritogenic functions, even though supported by robust experimental evidences, have been labelled as redundant...
April 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411166/antiphospholipid-antibodies-can-identify-lupus-patients-at-risk-of-pulmonary-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Stéphane Zuily, Vinicius Domingues, Christine Suty-Selton, Valérie Eschwège, Laurent Bertoletti, Ari Chaouat, François Chabot, Véronique Regnault, Evelyn M Horn, Doruk Erkan, Denis Wahl
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening condition that may affect outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) on the risk of PH is controversial. Therefore our objective was to estimate the risk of PH (WHO groups 1-5) including associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (APAH, WHO group 1 only) related to aPL in patients with SLE. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, congress abstracts, and reference lists of eligible studies were searched through 2015...
April 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411165/vitamin-d-and-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Mario Garcia-Carrasco, Erick Alejandro Jiménez-Herrera, Jose Luis Gálvez-Romero, Luis Vázquez de Lara, Claudia Mendoza-Pinto, Ivet Etchegaray-Morales, Pamela Munguía-Realpozo, Alejandro Ruíz-Argüelles, Rosas Jose, Mauricio Vera-Recabarren, Ricard Cervera
The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have been extensively studied in the context of autoimmunity. Multiple studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in autoimmune diseases. Recently, a possible protective role of vitamin D in autoimmunity has been described; however, this function remains controversial. Few studies have investigated the role of vitamin D in patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS). In this review, we compiled the main features of SS pathogenesis, the vitamin D immunomodulatory effects and the possible interaction between both...
April 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347718/corrigendum-to-dry-eye-disease-and-uveitis-a-closer-look-at-immune-mechanisms-in-animal-models-of-two-ocular-autoimmune-diseases-autrev-15-12-2016-1181-1192
#12
Tanima Bose, Maria Diedrichs-Möhring, Gerhild Wildner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286109/bullous-pemphigoid
#13
REVIEW
Işın Sinem Bağcı, Orsolya N Horváth, Thomas Ruzicka, Miklós Sárdy
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous disorder which is characterized by autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal proteins of the skin and mucous membranes. Collagen XVII and dystonin-e have been identified as target antigens. BP affects mostly the elderly. The incidence of the disease is increasing gradually and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Clinically, BP is characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption with widespread bullous lesions. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging in the setting of atypical presentations...
March 8, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285170/novel-risk-factors-related-to-cancer-in-scleroderma
#14
REVIEW
David Bernal-Bello, Jaime García de Tena, Alfredo Guillén-Del Castillo, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan, Eduardo L Callejas-Moraga, Ana María Marín-Sánchez, Vicent Fonollosa-Pla, Carmen Pilar Simeón-Aznar
OBJECTIVE: Emerging data have shown an increased risk of malignancy among patients diagnosed with systemic sclerosis (SSc) so identification of risk factors linking both disorders might have prognostic implications. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and treatment-related risk factors for cancer in a single-center cohort of patients with SSc. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, capillaroscopic, immunological and treatment-related data from 432 consecutive SSc patients were retrospectively analyzed...
March 8, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286108/international-therapeutic-guidelines-for-patients-with-hcv-related-extrahepatic-disorders-a-multidisciplinary-expert-statement
#15
REVIEW
Anna Linda Zignego, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Clodoveo Ferri, David Saadoun, Luca Arcaini, Dario Roccatello, Alessandro Antonelli, Anne Claire Desbois, Cloe Comarmond, Laura Gragnani, Milvia Casato, Peter Lamprecht, Alessandra Mangia, Athanasios G Tzioufas, Zobair M Younossi, Patrice Cacoub
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is both hepatotrophic and lymphotropic virus that causes liver as well extrahepatic manifestations including cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, the most frequent and studied condition, lymphoma, and neurologic, cardiovascular, endocrine-metabolic or renal diseases. HCV-extrahepatic manifestations (HCV-EHMs) may severely affect the overall prognosis, while viral eradication significantly reduces non-liver related deaths. Different clinical manifestations may coexist in the same patient. Due to the variety of HCV clinical manifestations, a multidisciplinary approach along with appropriate therapeutic strategies are required...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286107/streptococcus-mutans-antigen-i-ii-and-autoimmunity-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Alberta Lucchese
Infectious pathogens from the oral cavity cause oral diseases such as caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, endodontic infections, and alveolar osteitis, and often are also concomitant to systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, stroke, preterm birth, diabetes, and pneumonia, among others. The relationship(s) between oral infections and systemic diseases are still unclear. Using the bacterial cell surface antigen I/II from S. mutans and cardiovascular diseases as a model, this study analyzes peptide commonalities that might underlie autoimmune crossreactions between the bacterial antigen and human proteins associated with cardiovascular disorders...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286106/regulatory-immune-cells-and-functions-in-autoimmunity-and-transplantation-immunology
#17
REVIEW
Gabor Papp, Peter Boros, Britt Nakken, Peter Szodoray, Margit Zeher
In physiological circumstances, various tolerogenic mechanisms support the protection of self-structures during immune responses. However, quantitative and/or qualitative changes in regulatory immune cells and mediators can evoke auto-reactive immune responses, and upon susceptible genetic background, along with the presence of other concomitant etiological factors, autoimmune disease may develop. In transplant immunology, tolerogenic mechanisms are also critical, since the balance between of alloantigen-reactive effector cells and the regulatory immune cells will ultimately determine whether a graft is accepted or rejected...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286105/animal-models-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-how-to-overcome-a-translational-roadblock
#18
REVIEW
Ali Maisam Afzali, Tobias Ruck, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) encompass a heterogenic group of rare muscle diseases with common symptoms including muscle weakness and the presence of certain histological features. Since the pathogenesis remains unclear, therapeutic approaches in general comprise unspecific immunosuppression strategies that have been met with limited success. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is critically required to assist in development of targeted therapies. Animal models have proven to be tremendously helpful in mechanistic studies and allow researchers to overcome the inevitable restrictions of human research...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279839/comorbid-association-of-antiphospholipid-antibodies-and-migraine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Kah Keng Wong
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) namely anticardiolipin (aCL) antibody, anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) antibody and lupus anticoagulant (LA) are autoantibodies produced against anionic phospholipids and proteins on plasma membranes. Migraine is a primary headache disorder which has growing evidences of autoimmune-mediated pathogenesis and previous studies suggested the presence of aPLs in migraine patients. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comorbid association between aPLs (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) and migraine compared to healthy controls...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279838/modulation-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
REVIEW
Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Ronald Christopher, Dominic Behan, Cheryl Lassen
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, involve an inappropriate immune reaction in the digestive tract, causing a variety of disabling symptoms. The advent of monoclonal antibodies (anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-integrin, anti-interleukin -23) has revolutionized IBD management. Nevertheless, these agents, with potential for immunogenicity, are associated with high rates of response loss and disease relapse over time. They are also associated with high production costs...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
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