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Autoimmunity Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313811/imaging-modalities-for-the-diagnosis-and-disease-activity-assessment-of-takayasu-s-arteritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Lillian Barra, Tahir Kanji, Jacqueline Malette, Christian Pagnoux, Can Vasc
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of Takayasu's Arteritis (TAK) and detection of disease activity may reduce the risk of vascular complications. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of imaging modalities for the management of TAK. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies of patients undergoing various imaging modalities for TAK diagnosis or to assess disease activity. We excluded case reports, reviews and case series with <10 patients...
December 4, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196243/clinical-and-immunological-aspects-of-anti-peptidylarginine-deiminase-type-4-anti-pad4-autoantibodies-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
REVIEW
Zyanya Reyes-Castillo, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Mara A Llamas-Covarrubias
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common rheumatic autoimmune disease worldwide, which causes progressive joint damage and can lead to functional disability. Despite prominent advances in RA diagnosis and treatment during the last 20years, there is still a need for novel biomarkers that aid in diagnosis and prognosis of this heterogeneous disease. Citrullination is a key post-translational modification implicated on anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) production in RA, catalyzed by human peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs)...
December 2, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203292/pitfalls-in-the-detection-of-citrullination-and-carbamylation
#3
REVIEW
M K Verheul, P A van Veelen, M A M van Delft, A de Ru, G M C Janssen, T Rispens, R E M Toes, L A Trouw
Carbamylation and citrullination are both post-translational modifications against which (auto)antibodies can be detected in sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Carbamylation is the chemical modification of a lysine into a homocitrulline, whereas citrullination is an enzymatic conversion of an arginine into a citrulline. It is difficult to distinguish between the two resulting amino acids due to similarities in structure. However, differentiation between citrulline and homocitrulline is important to understand the antigens that induce antibody production and to determine which modified antigens are present in target tissues...
December 1, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196244/a-concise-review-of-significantly-modified-serological-biomarkers-in-giant-cell-arteritis-as-detected-by-different-methods
#4
REVIEW
B Burja, T Kuret, S Sodin-Semrl, K Lakota, Ž Rotar, R Ješe, K Mrak-Poljšak, P Žigon, G G Thallinger, J Feichtinger, S Čučnik, M Tomšič, S Praprotnik, A Hočevar
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a primary systemic vasculitis present in subjects older than 50years with involvement of large- and medium-sized arteries. Early diagnosis for GCA is essential to prevent serious complications, such as permanent vision loss and/or cerebrovascular events. Elevated inflammatory cytokines, with acute phase and other proteins dominate large- and medium-sized arteries leading to stenosis or occlusion of arterial lumen. To date, there are no reliable serological markers for monitoring GCA...
November 28, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196242/imaging-aspects-of-interstitial-lung-disease-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra Balbir-Gurman, Ludmila Guralnik, Mordechai Yigla, Yolanda Braun-Moscovici, Emilia Hardak
OBJECTIVE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent and severe complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), resulting in pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure (PF). METHODS: Chest computed tomography (CT-c) or high resolution CT (HRCT) is the main modality for assessment of ILD. We performed a systematic literature review on CT-c/HRCT findings in patients with ILD-RA, using the MEDLINE database for the period from 1991 to 2015. RESULTS: Findings on CT-c/HRCT attributed to ILD-RA are variable (ground glass opacities, reticular and nodular pattern, as well as a combined pattern of emphysema and PF)...
November 28, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196241/scleroderma-skin-ulcers-definition-classification-and-treatment-strategies-our-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Dilia Giuggioli, Andreina Manfredi, Lumetti Federica, Colaci Michele, Clodoveo Ferri
BACKGROUND: Skin ulcers (SU) are one of the most frequent manifestations of systemic sclerosis (SSc). SSc-SU are very painful, often persistent and recurrent; they may lead to marked impairment of patient's activities and quality of life. Despite their severe impact on the whole SSc patient's management, the proposed definition, classification criteria, and therapeutic strategies of SSc-SU are still controversial. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to elaborate a comprehensive proposal of definition, classification, and therapeutic strategy of SSc-SU on the basis of our long-term single center experience along with a careful revision of the world literature on the same topic...
November 28, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191793/combined-therapies-to-treat-complex-diseases-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Laura Calvo-Barreiro, Herena Eixarch, Xavier Montalban, Carmen Espejo
The commensal microbiota has emerged as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models have shown that the commensal microbiota is an essential player in triggering autoimmune demyelination. Likewise, the commensal microbiota modulates the host immune system, alters the integrity and function of biological barriers and has a direct effect on several types of central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Moreover, a characteristic gut dysbiosis has been recognized as a consistent feature during the clinical course of MS, and the MS-related microbiota is gradually being elucidated...
November 27, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180127/curcumin-a-natural-modulator-of-immune-cells-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Saeed Mohammadian Haftcheshmeh, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Thomas P Johnston, Elham Abdollahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a polyphenol natural product isolated from turmeric, interacting with different cellular and molecular targets and, consequently, showing a wide range of pharmacological effects. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have revealed immunomodulatory properties of curcumin that arise from its effects on immune cells and mediators involved in the immune response, such as various T-lymphocyte subsets and dendritic cells, as well as different inflammatory cytokines. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory, chronic autoimmune-mediated disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, deposition of immune complexes in various organs, recruitment of autoreactive and inflammatory T cells, and excessive levels of plasma proinflammatory cytokines...
November 24, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180126/belimumab-in-the-treatment-of-systemic-lupus-erythematous-an-evidence-based-review-of-its-place-in-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Frederico Marcondes, Morton Scheinberg
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematous is an autoimmune disease with diverse clinical features and has its development associated with a complexity of genetic, hormonal and environmental factors and the development of autoantibodies. Identification of new treatments is currently an area of intense investigation. Belimumab is the first biologic approved for the treatment of the disease inhibiting the excessive B cell activity observed in these patients and consequently reduction of autoantibodies...
November 24, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180125/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-the-infections-in-patients-treated-with-rituximab-for-autoimmune-and-or-malignant-hematological-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Tudesq, Guillaume Cartron, Sophie Rivière, David Morquin, Laura Iordache, Alfred Mahr, Valérie Martinez-Pourcher, Kada Klouche, Diane Cerutti, Alain Le Quellec, Philippe Guilpain
INTRODUCTION: Rituximab is commonly used for the treatment of hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Despite a reputation for good tolerance, case-series and registries reported rituximab-related infections of variable severity including opportunistic infections. We aimed at describing the natural history of infectious events (IE) after treatment by rituximab providing clinical and microbiological features and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients treated with rituximab in an internal medicine department of a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2015, and identified all iE after this therapy...
November 24, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180124/nk-cells-in-autoimmune-diseases-linking-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#11
REVIEW
Elena Gianchecchi, Domenico Vittorio Delfino, Alessandra Fierabracci
The pathogenesis of autoimmunity remains to be fully elucidated, although the contribution of genetic and environmental factors is generally recognized. Despite autoimmune conditions are principally due to T and B lymphocytes, NK cells also appear to play a role in the promotion and/or maintenance of altered adaptive immune responses or in peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Although NK cells are components of the innate immune system, they shows characteristics of the adaptive immune system, such as the expansion of pathogen-specific cells, the generation of long-lasting "memory" cells able to persist upon cognate antigen encounter, and the possibility to induce an increased secondary recall response to re-challenge...
November 24, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180123/childhood-versus-adult-onset-anca-associated-vasculitides-a-nested-matched-case-control-study-from-the-french-vasculitis-study-group-registry
#12
REVIEW
Michele Iudici, Christian Pagnoux, Pierre Quartier, Matthias Büchler, Ramiro Cevallos, Pascal Cohen, Claire de Moreuil, Philippe Guilpain, Alain Le Quellec, Jacques Serratrice, Benjamin Terrier, Loïc Guillevin, Luc Mouthon, Xavier Puéchal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences between childhood-onset ANCA-associated vasculitides (cAAVs) and matched adult-onset controls (aAAVs). METHODS: cAAV clinical pictures at onset and outcomes were compared to a randomly selected sample of aAAV patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry. Cases and controls were matched for AAV (granulomatosis with polyangiitis [GPA], microscopic polyangiitis [MPA] or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis [EGPA]), sex and year of enrollment...
November 24, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108825/targeting-interferons-and-their-pathways-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
REVIEW
François Chasset, Laurent Arnaud
Significant advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of innate immunity have led to the identification of interferons (IFNs), particularly IFN-α, as central mediators in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Therefore, targeting of IFNs and of their downstream pathways has emerged as important developments for novel drug research in SLE. Based on this, several specific interferon blocking strategies using anti-IFN-α antibodies, anti-type I interferon receptor antibodies, Interferon-α-kinoid, or anti-IFN-γ antibodies have all been assessed in recent clinical trials...
November 4, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108831/are-the-acr-2010-diagnostic-criteria-for-fibromyalgia-better-than-the-1990-criteria
#14
REVIEW
Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Fabiola Atzeni, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Fausto Salaffi, Joab Chapman, Ernest Choy
Fibromyalgia (FM) is difficult to diagnose and manage chronic pain condition whose symptoms have no clear pathophysiological cause, although it is thought that patient hypersensitivity to a range of stimuli may give rise to mechanical hyperalgesia as a result of altered central nociceptive processing. The 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria, which have been widely used in clinical practice, require the existence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) for >3months, and the presence of at least 11 out of 18 specified tender points upon digital palpation, although this latter criterion has long been criticised...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108829/tnf-inhibitors-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-spondyloarthritis-are-they-the-same
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Rubbert-Roth, Fabiola Atzeni, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Roberto Caporali, Carlomaurizio Montecucco, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
The advent of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA) has revolutionised the approach to patients with active disease who do not respond to conventional therapy. Although there are differences in their structure, morphology, pharmacokinetic properties and activity, all anti-TNF drugs ultimately neutralise the TNFα pathway of inflammation. However, despite their similar clinical efficacy, there are disagreements concerning drug survival and safety, with systematic reviews and meta-analyses confirming one result or the other...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108827/controversies-in-rheumatology-and-autoimmunity-approaching-the-truth-by-the-discussion
#16
EDITORIAL
Andrea Doria, Mariele Gatto, Luca Iaccarino, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108824/can-we-withdraw-immunosuppressants-in-patients-with-lupus-nephritis-in-remission-an-expert-debate
#17
REVIEW
Gabriella Moroni, Mariele Gatto, Francesca Raffiotta, Valentina Binda, Eleni Frangou, Liz Lightstone, Dimitrios T Boumpas
Lupus nephritis (LN) treatment requires an initial intensive period of therapy followed by a long-term maintenance treatment in order to stabilize disease control and eventually reach renal remission. In this section, Authors discuss the feasibility of safely lowering and even suspending maintenance therapy in LN patients having entered remission, highlighting hurdles in predicting the depth and durability of disease quiescence together with the need for minimizing potentially toxic therapies. Even though no firm conclusions can still be drawn, the treating physician has to find the wise balance between disease control and treatment-related drawbacks by following patients closely and recognizing as early as possible the ones who are likely to reach a deep and durable renal remission; there is consensus that is these are the only patients in whom a potential safe complete withdrawal can be foreseen so far...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108823/cocaine-and-anca-associated-vasculitis-like-syndromes-a-case-series
#18
REVIEW
Sujith Subesinghe, Sander van Leuven, Leena Yalakki, Shirish Sangle, David D'Cruz
OBJECTIVES: We analysed the spectrum of clinical manifestations of cocaine associated pseudovasculitis. METHODS: Clinical, serological, radiological and histological features of 14 patients with cocaine pseudovasculitis syndromes were included. RESULTS: Twelve patients had significant sinus thickening or erosive disease. Other multi-system manifestations included vasculitic rashes, pulmonary lesions and peripheral neuropathy. All patients had positive ANCA titres at presentation...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108822/the-immunobiology-and-clinical-features-of-type-1-autoimmune-polyglandular-syndrome-aps-1
#19
REVIEW
Can-Jie Guo, Patrick S C Leung, Weici Zhang, Xiong Ma, M Eric Gershwin
Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a subtype of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome characterized by the simultaneous or sequential dysfunction of multiple endocrine or non-endocrine glands. A clinical diagnosis of APS-1 is typically based on the presence of at least two of three following criteria: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. The first identified causative mutated gene for APS-1 is autoimmune regulator (AIRE) encoding a critical transcription factor, which is primarily expressed in the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) for generating central immune tolerance...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108821/brain-diffusion-tensor-mri-in-systematic-lupus-erythematosus-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Beatriz Lavras Costallat, Daniel Miranda Ferreira, Aline Tamires Lapa, Letícia Rittner, Lilian Tereza Lavras Costallat, Simone Appenzeller
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps the brain's microstructure by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). This systematic review describes brain diffusion tensor Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The literature was reviewed following the PRISMA guidelines and using the terms "lupus", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "SLE", "diffusion tensor imaging", "DTI", "white matter" (WM), "microstructural damage", "tractography", and "fractional anisotropy"; the search included articles published in English from January 2007 to April 2017...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
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