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Ageing Research Reviews

Lin-Hua Jiang, Xin Li, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Megan Lovatt, Wei Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative condition, is the most common cause of dementia among the elder people, but currently there is no treatment. A number of putative pathogenic events, particularly amyloid β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, are believed to be early triggers that initiate AD. However, thus far targeting Aβ generation/aggregation as the mainstay strategy of drug development has not led to effective AD-modifying therapeutics. Oxidative damage is a conspicuous feature of AD, but this remains poorly defined phenomenon and mechanistically ill understood...
July 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Yuko Koshimori, Michael H Thaut
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by a dysfunctional basal ganglia (BG) system, producing motor and non-motor symptoms. A significant number of studies have demonstrated that rhythmic auditory stimulation can improve gait and other motor behaviors in PD that are not well managed by the conventional therapy. As music, being highly complex stimulus, can modulate brain activity/function in distributed areas of brain, the therapeutic properties of music potentially extend to alleviate non-motor symptoms of PD...
July 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Kerstin Nowotny, David Schröter, Monika Schreiner, Tilman Grune
Due to their bioactivity and harmful potential, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are discussed to affect human health. AGEs are compounds formed endogenously in the human body and exogenously, especially, in foods while thermal processing. In contrast to endogenous AGEs, dietary AGEs are formed in much higher extent. However, their risk potential is also depending on absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. For over 10 years an intense debate on the risk of dietary AGEs on human health is going on...
June 30, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
A Silva-Palacios, M Ostolga-Chavarría, C Zazueta, M Königsberg
Increase in life-span is commonly related with age-related diseases and with gradual loss of genomic, proteomic and metabolic integrity. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-p45 derived factor 2) controls the expression of genes whose products include antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters and numerous cytoprotective proteins. Several experimental approaches have evaluated the potential regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 to enhance the expression of genes that contend against accumulative oxidative stress and promote healthy aging...
June 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Francisco Alejandro Lagunas-Rangel
Cancer and ageing can be regarded as two different manifestations of the same underlying process-accumulation of cellular damage-and therefore both are closely linked. Nowadays, the ageing of populations worldwide is leading to an unprecedented increase in cancer cases and fatalities, and therefore the understanding of links between cancer and ageing is more important than ever. Spalax is considered an excellent model for ageing and, additionally, for cancer research, due to not show clear age-related phenotypic changes and not develop spontaneous tumours, despite its relatively long lifespan (~20 years in captivity)...
June 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Lauren A Callender, Elizabeth C Carroll, Emilia A Bober, Sian M Henson
The impact of cellular senescence during ageing is well established, however senescence is now recognised to play a role in a variety of age related and metabolic diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. It is therefore crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that control cellular senescence. In recent years our understanding of the intimate relationship between cell metabolism, cell signalling and cellular senescence has greatly improved. In this review we discuss the differing roles of glucose and protein metabolism in both senescent fibroblast and CD8+ T-cells, and explore the impact cellular metabolism has on the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of these cell types...
June 11, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Keisuke Yaku, Keisuke Okabe, Takashi Nakagawa
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important co-factor involved in numerous physiological processes, including metabolism, post-translational protein modification, and DNA repair. In living organisms, a careful balance between NAD production and degradation serves to regulate NAD levels. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that NAD levels decrease with age, and the deterioration of NAD metabolism promotes several aging-associated diseases, including metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases and various cancers...
June 5, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Monika Cichocka, Anna Bereś
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge of metabolic changes across the lifespan is poorly understood. Thus we systematically reviewed the available literature to determine the changes in brain biochemical composition from fetus to older age and tried to explain them in the context of neural, cognitive, and behavioural changes. METHODS: The search identified 1262 articles regarding proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) examinations through December 2017. The following data was extracted: age range of the subjects, number of subjects studied, brain regions studied, MRS sequence used, echo time, MR system, method of statistical analysis, metabolites analyzed, significant differences in metabolites concentrations with age as well as the way of presentation of the results...
June 1, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
C Custodero, R T Mankowski, S A Lee, Z Chen, S Wu, T M Manini, J Hincapie Echeverri, C Sabbà, D P Beavers, J A Cauley, M A Espeland, R A Fielding, S B Kritchevsky, C K Liu, M M McDermott, M E Miller, R P Tracy, A B Newman, W T Ambrosius, M Pahor, S D Anton
Growing evidence suggests chronic low-grade inflammation (LGI) as a possible mechanism underlying the aging process. Some biological and pharmaceutical compounds may reduce systemic inflammation and potentially avert functional decline occurring with aging. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the association of pre-selected interventions on two established biomarkers of inflammation, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in middle-age and older adults with chronic LGI. We reviewed the literature on potential anti-inflammatory compounds, selecting them based on safety, tolerability, acceptability, innovation, affordability, and evidence from randomized controlled trials...
May 25, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Tiffany S Pinho, Diogo M Verde, Sónia C Correia, Susana M Cardoso, Paula I Moreira
Since the first clinical case reported more than 100 years ago, it has been a long and winding road to demystify the initial pathological events underling the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fortunately, advanced imaging techniques extended the knowledge regarding AD origin, being well accepted that a decline in brain glucose metabolism occurs during the prodromal phases of AD and is aggravated with the progression of the disease. In this sense, in the last decades, the post-translational modification O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) has emerged as a potential causative link between hampered brain glucose metabolism and AD pathology...
May 19, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Felicia Gurău, Simone Baldoni, Francesco Prattichizzo, Emma Espinosa, Francesco Amenta, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Maria Cristina Albertini, Massimiliano Bonafè, Fabiola Olivieri
The desire of eternal youth seems to be as old as mankind. However, the increasing life expectancy experienced by populations in developed countries also involves a significantly increased incidence of the most common age-related diseases (ARDs). Senescent cells (SCs) have been identified as culprits of organismal aging. Their number rises with age and their senescence-associated secretory phenotype fuels the chronic, pro-inflammatory systemic state (inflammaging) that characterizes aging, impairing the regenerative ability of stem cells and increasing the risk of developing ARDs...
May 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Thierry Paillard
This review addresses the possible structural and functional adaptations of the muscle function to neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training in frail and/or aged (without advanced chronic disease) subjects. Evidence suggests that the sarcopenic process and its structural and functional effects would be limited and/or reversed through NMES training using excito-motor currents (or direct currents). From a structural viewpoint, NMES helps reduce muscle atrophy. From a functional viewpoint, NMES enables the improvement of motor output (i...
May 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
James Mckendry, Leigh Breen, Brandon J Shad, Carolyn A Greig
INTRODUCTION: The extent to which chronic exercise training preserves age-related decrements in physical function, muscle strength, mass and morphology is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine to what extent chronically trained master athletes (strength/power and endurance) preserve levels of physical function, muscle strength, muscle mass and morphology in older age, compared with older and younger controls and young trained individuals. METHODS: The systematic data search included Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases...
April 30, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Jamaji C Nwanaji-Enwerem, Marc G Weisskopf, Andrea A Baccarelli
The multi-tissue DNA methylation estimator of chronological age (DNAm-age) has been associated with a wide range of exposures and health outcomes. Still, it is unclear how DNAm-age can have such broad relationships and how it can be best utilized as a biomarker. Understanding DNAm-age's molecular relationships is a promising approach to address this critical knowledge gap. In this review, we discuss the existing literature regarding DNAm-age's molecular relationships in six major categories: animal model systems, cancer processes, cellular aging processes, immune system processes, metabolic processes, and nucleic acid processes...
April 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Eldris Iglesias, Alba Pesini, Nuria Garrido-Pérez, Patricia Meade, M Pilar Bayona-Bafaluy, Julio Montoya, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini
Late-onset Parkinson disease is a multifactorial and multietiological disorder, age being one of the factors implicated. Genetic and/or environmental factors, such as pesticides, can also be involved. Up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra are lost before motor features of the disorder begin to appear. In humans, these neurons are only formed a few weeks after fertilization. Therefore, prenatal exposure to pesticides or industrial chemicals during crucial steps of brain development might also alter their proliferation and differentiation...
April 22, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Meng-Fei Sun, Yan-Qin Shen
Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metabolites that contribute to the development of PD...
August 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Gabriel M Swords, Lydia T Nguyen, Raksha A Mudar, Daniel A Llano
Recent findings suggest that both peripheral and central auditory system dysfunction occur in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and therefore may represent early indicators of the disease. In addition, loss of auditory function itself leads to communication difficulties, social isolation and poor quality of life for both patients with AD and their caregivers. Developing a greater understanding of auditory dysfunction in early AD may shed light on the mechanisms of disease progression and carry diagnostic and therapeutic importance...
July 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Giel Detienne, Wouter De Haes, Lucas Mergan, Samantha L Edwards, Liesbet Temmerman, Sven Van Bael
Antioxidants were long predicted to have lifespan-promoting effects, but in general this prediction has not been well supported. While some antioxidants do seem to have a clear effect on longevity, this may not be primarily as a result of their role in the removal of reactive oxygen species, but rather mediated by other mechanisms such as the modulation of intracellular signaling. In this review we discuss peroxiredoxins, a class of proteinaceous antioxidants with redox signaling and chaperone functions, and their involvement in regulating longevity and stress resistance...
July 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Shuangzhe Lin, Haiping Xing, Tongtong Zang, Xin Ruan, Lulu Wo, Ming He
Mitochondria play an essential part in guaranteeing normal cellular physiological functions through providing ATP and participating in diverse processes and signaling pathways. Recently, more and more studies have revealed the vital roles of mitochondria in coping with stressors in the aging process, metabolic disturbances and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial stress responses, including the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt ), antioxidant defense, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy, are induced to maintain cellular integrity in response to stress...
July 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
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