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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138094/foxo1-3-potential-suppressors-of-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Zhenlong Xin, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Shuai Jiang, Zhi Yang, Tian Li, Fulin Chen, Guozhan Jia, Yang Yang
Fibrosis is a universally age-related disease that involves nearly all organs. It is typically initiated by organic injury and eventually results in organ failure. There are still few effective therapeutic strategy targets for fibrogenesis. Forkhead box proteins O1 and O3 (FOXO1/3) have been shown to have favorable inhibitory effects on fibroblast activation and subsequent extracellular matrix production and can ameliorate fibrosis levels in numerous organs, including the heart, liver, lung, and kidney; they are therefore promising targets for anti-fibrosis therapy...
November 11, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113832/connecting-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-dysfunction-to-cellular-senescence
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Moreno-Blas, Elisa Gorostieta-Salas, Susana Castro-Obregón
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is one of the main pathways of the lysosome-autophagy proteolytic system. It regulates different cellular process through the selective degradation of cytosolic proteins. In ageing, the function of CMA is impaired causing an inefficient stress response and the accumulation of damaged, oxidized or misfolded proteins, which is associated with numerous age-related diseases. Deficient protein degradation alters cellular proteostasis and activates signaling pathways that culminate in the induction of cellular senescence, whose accumulation is a typical feature of ageing...
November 4, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102726/differential-gene-expression-analysis-in-ageing-muscle-and-drug-discovery-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Aicha Melouane, Abdelaziz Ghanemi, Simon Aubé, Mayumi Yoshioka, Jonny St-Amand
Identifying therapeutic target genes represents the key step in functional genomics-based therapies. Within this context, the disease heterogeneity, the exogenous factors and the complexity of genomic structure and function represent important challenges. The functional genomics aims to overcome such obstacles via identifying the gene functions and therefore highlight disease-causing genes as therapeutic targets. Genomic technologies promise to reshape the research on ageing muscle, exercise response and drug discovery...
November 1, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101043/the-influence-and-impact-of-ageing-and-immunosenescence-isc-on-adaptive-immunity-during-multiple-sclerosis-ms-and-the-animal-counterpart-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#4
REVIEW
Christopher Bolton, Paul A Smith
The human ageing process encompass mechanisms that effect a decline in homeostasis with increased susceptibility to disease and the development of chronic life-threatening illness. Increasing age affects the immune system which undergoes a progressive loss of efficiency, termed immunosenescence (ISC), to impact on quantitative and functional aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. The human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the corresponding animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are strongly governed by immunological events that primarily involve the adaptive arm of the immune response...
October 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081381/inflammageing-and-metaflammation-the-yin-and-yang-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Prattichizzo, Valeria De Nigris, Rosangela Spiga, Elettra Mancuso, Lucia La Sala, Roberto Antonicelli, Roberto Testa, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Fabiola Olivieri, Antonio Ceriello
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised by chronic low-grade inflammation, recently referred to as 'metaflammation', a relevant factor contributing to the development of both diabetes and its complications. Nonetheless, 'canonical' anti-inflammatory drugs do not yield satisfactory results in terms of prevention of diabetes progression and of cardiovascular events, suggesting that the causal mechanisms fostering metaflammation deserve further research to identify new druggable targets. Metaflammation resembles ageing-induced low-grade inflammation, previously referred to as inflammageing, in terms of clinical presentation and the molecular profile, pointing to a common aetiology for both conditions...
October 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106993/the-role-of-cellular-senescence-in-aging-through-the-prism-of-koch-like-criteria
#6
REVIEW
Hagai Yanai, Vadim E Fraifeld
Since Hayflick's discovery of cellular senescence (CS), a great volume of knowledge in the field has been accumulated and intensively discussed. Here, we attempted to organize the evidence "for" and "against" the hypothesized causal role of CS in aging. For that purpose, we utilized robust Koch-like logical criteria, based on the assumption that some quantitative relationships between the accumulation of senescent cells and aging rate should exist. If so, it could be expected that (i) the "CS load" would be greater in the premature aging phenotype and lesser in longevity phenotype; (ii) CS would promote age-related diseases, and (iii) the interventions that modulate the levels of senescent cells should also modulate health/lifespan...
October 26, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912076/positive-effects-of-combined-cognitive-and-physical-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
E G A Esther Karssemeijer, J A Justine Aaronson, W J Willem Bossers, T Tara Smits, M G M Marcel Olde Rikkert, R P C Roy Kessels
Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI or dementia. Ten randomized controlled trials that applied a combined cognitive-physical intervention with cognitive function as an outcome measure were included. For each study effect sizes were computed (i.e., post-intervention standardized mean difference (SMD) scores) and pooled, using a random-effects meta-analysis...
September 12, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903069/cell-reprogramming-therapeutic-potential-and-the-promise-of-rejuvenation-for-the-aging-brain
#8
REVIEW
Micaela López-León, Tiago F Outeiro, Rodolfo G Goya
Aging is associated with a progressive increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, with Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) disease being the most conspicuous examples. Within this context, the absence of efficacious therapies for most age-related brain pathologies has increased the interest in regenerative medicine. In particular, cell reprogramming technologies have ushered in the era of personalized therapies that not only show a significant potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases but also promise to make biological rejuvenation feasible...
September 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#9
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterized by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defense, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017893/chronic-inflammation-inflammaging-in-the-ageing-cochlea-a-novel-target-for-future-presbycusis-therapy
#10
Nathan Watson, Bo Ding, Xiaoxia Zhu, Robert D Frisina
Chronic, low-grade inflammation, or inflammaging, is a crucial contributor to various age-related pathologies and natural processes in aging tissue, including the nervous system. Over the past two decades, much effort has been done to understand the mechanisms of inflammaging in disease models such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. However, despite being the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, the number one communication disorder, and one of the top three chronic medical conditions of our aged population; little research has been conducted on the potential role of inflammation in age-related hearing loss (ARHL)...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993289/sirt1-and-parp1-as-epigenome-safeguards-and-micrornas-as-sasp-associated-signals-in-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#11
REVIEW
Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Ali Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mohamad Reza Zare-Khormizi, Fatemeh Pourrajab
Cellular senescence (CS) is underlying mechanism of organism aging and is closely interconnected with age-related diseases (ARDs). Thus, any attempt that influences CS, may be undertaken to reverse or inhibit senescence, whereby could prolong healthy life span. Until now, two main proposes are epigenetic and genetic modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns rejuvenation through effective reprogramming in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients, by which is effective in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986235/alpha-synuclein-epigenetics-mitochondria-metabolism-calcium-traffic-circadian-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrated-strategy-for-management
#12
REVIEW
Oliver T Phillipson
The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941639/the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-alzheimer-disease-etiology-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Stefan Jevtic, Ameet S Sengar, Michael W Salter, JoAnne McLaurin
The immune system is now considered a major factor in Alzheimer Disease (AD). This review seeks to demonstrate how various aspects of the immune system, both in the brain and peripherally, interact to contribute to AD. We highlight classical nervous system immune components, such as complement and microglia, as well as novel aspects of the peripheral immune system that can influence disease, such as monocytes and lymphocytes. By detailing the roles of various immune cells in AD, we summarize an emerging perspective for disease etiology and future therapeutic targets...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923312/autophagy-its-mechanisms-and-regulation-implications-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Emad Ghobadi, Marjan Fallah, Shima Rasouli, Mohammad Abdollahi
Autophagy is a major regulatory cellular mechanism which gives the cell an ability to cope with some of the destructive events that normally occur within a metabolically living cell. This is done by maintaining the cellular homeostasis, clearance of damaged organelles and proteins and recycling necessary molecules like amino acids and fatty acids. There is a wide array of factors that influence autophagy in the state of health and disease. Disruption of these mechanisms may not only give rise to several autophagy-related disease, but also it can occur as the result of intracellular changes induced during disease pathogenesis causing exacerbation of the disease...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903070/role-of-the-ampk-pathway-in-promoting-autophagic-flux-via-modulating-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-insight-into-prion-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Tariq Hussain, Lifeng Yang
Neurons are highly energy demanding cells dependent on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Mitochondria generate energy via respiratory complexes that constitute the electron transport chain. Adenosine triphosphate depletion or glucose starvation act as a trigger for the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved protein that plays an important role in cell survival and organismal longevity through modulation of energy homeostasis and autophagy...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789901/sirtuins-epigenetics-and-longevity
#16
REVIEW
Mateusz Wątroba, Ilona Dudek, Marta Skoda, Aleksandra Stangret, Przemysław Rzodkiewicz, Dariusz Szukiewicz
Aging of organisms begins from a single cell at the molecular level. It includes changes related to telomere shortening, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications. These processes accumulate over the lifespan. Research studies show that epigenetic signaling contributes to human disease, tumorigenesis and aging. Epigenetic DNA modifications involve changes in the gene activity but not in the DNA sequence. An epigenome consists of chemical modifications to the DNA and histone proteins without the changes in the DNA sequence...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823380/the-science-of-nutritional-modulation-of-aging
#17
EDITORIAL
Luigi Fontana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610949/calorie-restriction-in-rodents-caveats-to-consider
#18
REVIEW
Donald K Ingram, Rafael de Cabo
The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward...
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219777/nutrition-metabolism-and-targeting-aging-in-nonhuman-primates
#19
REVIEW
Priya Balasubramanian, Julie A Mattison, Rozalyn M Anderson
This short review focuses on the importance of nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and makes the case that a targeted expansion of the use of this highly translatable model would be advantageous to the biology of aging field. First, we describe the high degree of similarity of the model in terms of aging phenotypes including incidence and prevalence of common human age-related diseases. Second, we discuss the importance of the nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and the extent to which the outcomes of two ongoing long-term studies of caloric restriction are congruent with short-term equivalent studies in humans...
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007498/dietary-restriction-and-lifespan-lessons-from-invertebrate-models
#20
REVIEW
Pankaj Kapahi, Matt Kaeberlein, Malene Hansen
Dietary restriction (DR) is the most robust environmental manipulation known to increase active and healthy lifespan in many species. Despite differences in the protocols and the way DR is carried out in different organisms, conserved relationships are emerging among multiple species. Elegant studies from numerous model organisms are further defining the importance of various nutrient-signaling pathways including mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and sirtuins in mediating the effects of DR...
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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