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Ageing Research Reviews

Mohammad Bagherniya, Alexandra E Butler, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process and protective housekeeping mechanism to eliminate damaged organelles, long-lived misfolded proteins and invading pathogens. Autophagy functions to recycle building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis, allowing cells to adapt to stress. Modulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target for a diverse range of diseases, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and infectious diseases. Traditionally, food deprivation and calorie restriction (CR) have been considered to slow aging and increase longevity...
August 30, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Joon Tae Park, Young-Sam Lee, Kyung A Cho, Sang Chul Park
Mitochondria and lysosomes undergo the most marked senescence-related alterations among all cellular organelles. Whereas mitochondria undergo gradual structural changes associated with reduced function, lysosomes exhibit progressively deteriorated function along with the accumulation of lipofuscins. Lysosomal dysfunction induces the deterioration of mitochondrial turnover, resulting in the generation of more reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the increased ROS levels in turn targeting lysosomes. This vicious feedback loop between lysosomes and mitochondria thus aggravates senescence phenotypes...
August 21, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Chunhu Gu, Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Zhi Yang, Jianjun Lv, Wei Yi, Yang Yang, Minfeng Fang
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal regulator of some endogenous defensive molecules in various pathological processes, particularly myocardial ischemia (MI), a high risk of myocardial infarction. Thereby it is of great significance to explore the inherent mechanism between AMPK and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the structure and role of AMPK in the heart. Next, we introduce the mechanisms of AMPK in the heart; followed by the energy regulation of AMPK in MI. Lastly, the attention will be expanded to some potential directions and further perspectives...
August 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Nicole A Guitar, Denise M Connelly, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Joseph B Orange, Susan W Muir-Hunter
Executive function deficit is an indicator of Alzheimer's-type dementia and manifests as disruptions of attentional control, memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and reasoning, among other cognitive problems. Physical exercise is suggested to have a protective effect on global cognition with aging. However, whether it influences executive function in people living with Alzheimer's-type dementia specifically is unknown. The current systematic review examined the efficacy of physical exercise on executive function performance in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia...
August 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Lana Sargent, Mike Nalls, Angela Starkweather, Sarah Hobgood, Holly Thompson, Elaine J Amella, Andrew Singleton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Maryam Majidinia, Russel J Reiter, Seyed Kazem Shakouri, Bahman Yousefi
Biological ageing is generally accompanied by a gradual loss of cellular functions and physiological integrity of organ systems, the consequential enhancement of vulnerability, senescence and finally death. Mechanisms which underlie ageing are primarily attributed to an array of diverse but related factors including free radical-induced damage, dysfunction of mitochondria, disruption of circadian rhythms, inflammaging, genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, deregulated sensing of nutrients, epigenetic alterations, altered intercellular communication, and decreased capacity for tissue repair...
August 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Ana Luisa Cardoso, Adelaide Fernandes, Juan Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Joana Ribeiro Guedes, Maria Alexandra Brito, Saida Ortolano, Giovambattista Pani, Sophia Athanasopoulou, Efstathios S Gonos, Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Pärt Peterson, Bilge Guvenc Tuna, Soner Dogan, Angelika Meyer, Ronald van Os, Anne-Ulrike Trendelenburg
OBJECTIVE: Use of the frailty index to measure an accumulation of deficits has been proven a valuable method for identifying elderly people at risk for increased vulnerability, disease, injury, and mortality. However, complementary molecular frailty biomarkers or ideally biomarker panels have not yet been identified. We conducted a systematic search to identify biomarker candidates for a frailty biomarker panel. METHODS: Gene expression databases were searched (http://genomics...
July 30, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Molly Fox
Evolution by natural selection eliminates maladaptive traits from a species, and yet Alzheimer's Disease (AD) persists with rapidly increasing prevalence globally. This apparent paradox begs an explanation within the framework of evolutionary sciences. Here, I summarize and critique previously proposed theories to explain human susceptibility to AD, grouped into 8 distinct hypotheses based on the concepts of novel extension of the lifespan; lack of selective pressure during the post-reproductive phase; antagonistic pleiotropy; rapid brain evolution; delayed neuropathy by selection for grandmothering; novel alleles selected to delay neuropathy; by-product of selection against cardiovascular disease; and thrifty genotype...
July 27, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Alexander Vaiserman, Alexander Koliada, Oleh Lushchak
There is accumulating evidence that aging phenotype and longevity may be developmentally programmed. Main mechanisms linking developmental conditions to later-life health outcomes include persistent changes in epigenetic regulation, (re)programming of major endocrine axes such as growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and also early-life immune maturation. Recently, evidence has also been generated on the role of telomere biology in developmental programming of aging trajectory...
July 27, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Margaret Willis, Shaina N Reid, Esteban Calvo, Ursula M Staudinger, Pam Factor-Litvak
Numerous studies examine the relationship between social stressors and telomere length (TL). Beyond considering methods and major findings, this scoping systematic review takes a novel approach as it groups studies according to the types of social stressor considered and by age groups. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus. We included all English-language human subject research articles that modeled any measure of TL as a dependent variable and exposure to a social stressor as an independent variable...
July 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
D J Wilkinson, M Piasecki, P J Atherton
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, sarcopenia, is associated with physical frailty and increased risk of morbidity (chronic diseases), in addition to all-cause mortality. The loss of muscle mass occurs incipiently from middle-age (∼1%/year), and in severe instances can lead to a loss of ∼50% by the 8-9th decade of life. This review will focus on muscle deterioration with ageing and highlight the two underpinning mechanisms regulating declines in muscle mass and function: muscle fibre atrophy and muscle fibre loss (hypoplasia) - and their measurement...
July 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Pedro L Valenzuela, Javier S Morales, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Mikel Izquierdo, Enzo Emanuele, Pedro de la Villa, Alejandro Lucia
Disuse situations can have serious adverse health consequences in the elderly, including mainly functional impairment with subsequent increase in the risk of falls or morbimortality. The present review provides clinicians and care givers with detailed and practical information on the feasibility and effectiveness of physical strategies that are currently available to prevent or attenuate the functional decline that occurs secondarily to disuse situations in the elderly, notably in the hospital setting. In this context, active approaches such as resistance exercises and maximal voluntary contractions, which can be performed both isometrically and dynamically, are feasible during most immobilization situations including in hospitalized old people and represent powerful tools for the prevention of muscle atrophy...
July 18, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Lin-Hua Jiang, Xin Li, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Megan Lovatt, Wei Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative condition, is the most common cause of dementia among the elder people, but currently there is no treatment. A number of putative pathogenic events, particularly amyloid β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, are believed to be early triggers that initiate AD. However, thus far targeting Aβ generation/aggregation as the mainstay strategy of drug development has not led to effective AD-modifying therapeutics. Oxidative damage is a conspicuous feature of AD, but this remains poorly defined phenomenon and mechanistically ill understood...
July 16, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Yuko Koshimori, Michael H Thaut
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by a dysfunctional basal ganglia (BG) system, producing motor and non-motor symptoms. A significant number of studies have demonstrated that rhythmic auditory stimulation can improve gait and other motor behaviors in PD that are not well managed by the conventional therapy. As music, being highly complex stimulus, can modulate brain activity/function in distributed areas of brain, the therapeutic properties of music potentially extend to alleviate non-motor symptoms of PD...
July 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Olayemi K Ijomone, Philemon Shallie, Thajasvarie Naicker
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy specific syndrome that affects multiple organs including the brain. PE resolves after delivery of the placenta. Nonetheless, PE is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular disorders and hypertension later in life. These conditions are associated with a cognitive decline and dementia later in life. Studies have suggested that there may be long term pathological changes within the brain of the woman after PE/eclampsia and PE may be a risk marker for early cerebrovascular impairment...
July 2, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Kerstin Nowotny, David Schröter, Monika Schreiner, Tilman Grune
Due to their bioactivity and harmful potential, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are discussed to affect human health. AGEs are compounds formed endogenously in the human body andexogenously, especially, in foods while thermal processing. In contrast to endogenous AGEs, dietary AGEs are formed in much higher extent. However, their risk potential is also depending on absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. For over 10 years an intense debate on the risk of dietary AGEs on human health is going on...
June 30, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel K Y Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 24, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Monika Cichocka, Anna Bereś
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge of metabolic changes across the lifespan is poorly understood. Thus we systematically reviewed the available literature to determine the changes in brain biochemical composition from fetus to older age and tried to explain them in the context of neural, cognitive, and behavioural changes. METHODS: The search identified 1262 articles regarding proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) examinations through December 2017. The following data was extracted: age range of the subjects, number of subjects studied, brain regions studied, MRS sequence used, echo time, MR system, method of statistical analysis, metabolites analyzed, significant differences in metabolites concentrations with age as well as the way of presentation of the results...
September 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
C Custodero, R T Mankowski, S A Lee, Z Chen, S Wu, T M Manini, J Hincapie Echeverri, C Sabbà, D P Beavers, J A Cauley, M A Espeland, R A Fielding, S B Kritchevsky, C K Liu, M M McDermott, M E Miller, R P Tracy, A B Newman, W T Ambrosius, M Pahor, S D Anton
Growing evidence suggests chronic low-grade inflammation (LGI) as a possible mechanism underlying the aging process. Some biological and pharmaceutical compounds may reduce systemic inflammation and potentially avert functional decline occurring with aging. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the association of pre-selected interventions on two established biomarkers of inflammation, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in middle-age and older adults with chronic LGI. We reviewed the literature on potential anti-inflammatory compounds, selecting them based on safety, tolerability, acceptability, innovation, affordability, and evidence from randomized controlled trials...
September 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Tiffany S Pinho, Diogo M Verde, Sónia C Correia, Susana M Cardoso, Paula I Moreira
Since the first clinical case reported more than 100 years ago, it has been a long and winding road to demystify the initial pathological events underling the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fortunately, advanced imaging techniques extended the knowledge regarding AD origin, being well accepted that a decline in brain glucose metabolism occurs during the prodromal phases of AD and is aggravated with the progression of the disease. In this sense, in the last decades, the post-translational modification O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) has emerged as a potential causative link between hampered brain glucose metabolism and AD pathology...
September 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
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