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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941639/the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-alzheimer-disease-etiology-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Stefan Jevtic, Ameet S Sengar, Michael W Salter, JoAnne McLaurin
The immune system is now considered a major factor in Alzheimer Disease (AD). This review seeks to demonstrate how various aspects of the immune system, both in the brain and peripherally, interact to contribute to AD. We highlight classical nervous system immune components, such as complement and microglia, as well as novel aspects of the peripheral immune system that can influence disease, such as monocytes and lymphocytes. By detailing the roles of various immune cells in AD, we summarize an emerging perspective for disease etiology and future therapeutic targets...
September 20, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923312/autophagy-its-mechanisms-and-regulation-implications-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Emad Ghobadi, Marjan Fallah, Shima Rasouli, Mohammad Abdollahi
Autophagy is a major regulatory cellular mechanism which gives the cell an ability to cope with some of the destructive events that normally occur within a metabolically living cell. This is done by maintaining the cellular homeostasis, clearance of damaged organelles and proteins and recycling necessary molecules like amino acids and fatty acids. There is a wide array of factors that influence autophagy in the state of health and disease. Disruption of these mechanisms may not only give rise to several autophagy-related disease, but also it can occur as the result of intracellular changes induced during disease pathogenesis causing exacerbation of the disease...
September 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912076/positive-effects-of-combined-cognitive-and-physical-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
E G A Esther Karssemeijer, J A Justine Aaronson, W J Willem Bossers, T Tara Smits, M G M Marcel Olde Rikkert, R P C Roy Kessels
Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI or dementia. Ten randomized controlled trials that applied a combined cognitive-physical intervention with cognitive function as an outcome measure were included. For each study effect sizes were computed (i.e., post-intervention standardized mean difference (SMD) scores) and pooled, using a random-effects meta-analysis...
September 12, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903070/role-of-the-ampk-pathway-in-promoting-autophagic-flux-via-modulating-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-insight-into-prion-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Tariq Hussain, Lifeng Yang
Neurons are highly energy demanding cells dependent on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Mitochondria generate energy via respiratory complexes that constitute the electron transport chain. Adenosine triphosphate depletion or glucose starvation act as a trigger for the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved protein that plays an important role in cell survival and organismal longevity through modulation of energy homeostasis and autophagy...
September 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903069/cell-reprogramming-therapeutic-potential-and-the-promise-of-rejuvenation-for-the-aging-brain
#5
REVIEW
Micaela López-León, Tiago F Outeiro, Rodolfo G Goya
Aging is associated with a progressive increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, with Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) disease being the most conspicuous examples. Within this context, the absence of efficacious therapies for most age-related brain pathologies has increased the interest in regenerative medicine. In particular, cell reprogramming technologies have ushered in the era of personalized therapies that not only show a significant potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases but also promise to make biological rejuvenation feasible...
September 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterised by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defence, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830800/initiation-of-the-age-related-decline-of-odor-identification-in-humans-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Chenping Zhang, Xiaochun Wang
BACKGROUND: Aging is an important contributor to olfactory system deterioration in humans, leading to increased health and safety risks as well as affecting the quality of life. However, it is currently unknown when age-related olfactory deterioration begins in humans and thus when to initiate interventions to prevent or slow it. OBJECTIVE: To determine the decade in which olfactory function begins to deteriorate in healthy humans by determining when odor identification is first impaired...
August 19, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802803/metformin-reduces-all-cause-mortality-and-diseases-of-ageing-independent-of-its-effect-on-diabetes-control-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Jared M Campbell, Susan M Bellman, Matthew D Stephenson, Karolina Lisy
This systematic review investigated whether the insulin sensitiser metformin has a geroprotective effect in humans. Pubmed and Embase were searched along with databases of unpublished studies. Eligible research investigated the effect of metformin on all-cause mortality or diseases of ageing relative to non-diabetic populations or diabetics receiving other therapies with adjustment for disease control achieved. Overall, 260 full-texts were reviewed and 53 met the inclusion criteria. Diabetics taking metformin had significantly lower all-cause mortality than non-diabetics (hazard ratio (HR)=0...
August 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789901/sirtuins-epigenetics-and-longevity
#9
REVIEW
Mateusz Wątroba, Ilona Dudek, Marta Skoda, Aleksandra Stangret, Przemysław Rzodkiewicz, Dariusz Szukiewicz
Aging of organisms begins from a single cell at the molecular level. It includes changes related to telomere shortening, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications. These processes accumulate over the lifespan. Research studies show that epigenetic signaling contributes to human disease, tumorigenesis and aging. Epigenetic DNA modifications involve changes in the gene activity but not in the DNA sequence. An epigenome consists of chemical modifications to the DNA and histone proteins without the changes in the DNA sequence...
August 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774716/aging-and-osteoarthritis-central-role-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#10
REVIEW
Maryam Rahmati, Giovanna Nalesso, Ali Mobasheri, Masoud Mozafari
Osteoarthritis (OA), is a major cause of severe joint pain, physical disability and quality of life impairment in the aging population across the developed and developing world. Increased catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the articular cartilage is a key factor in the development and progression of OA. The molecular mechanisms leading to an impaired matrix turnover have not been fully clarified, however cellular senescence, increased expression of inflammatory mediators as well as oxidative stress in association with an inherently limited regenerative potential of the tissue, are all important contributors to OA development...
July 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757291/protein-aggregation-cardiovascular-diseases-and-exercise-training-where-do-we-stand
#11
Marisol Gouveia, Ke Xia, Wilfredo Colón, Sandra I Vieira, Fernando Ribeiro
Cells ensure their protein quality control through the proteostasis network. Aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, have been associated to the reduction of proteostasis network efficiency and, consequently, to the accumulation of protein misfolded aggregates. The decline in protein homeostasis has been associated with the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure. Exercise training is a key component of the management of patients with cardiovascular disease, consistently improving quality of life and prognosis...
July 28, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736117/modulation-of-dendritic-cell-and-t-cell-cross-talk-during-aging-the-potential-role-of-checkpoint-inhibitory-molecules
#12
REVIEW
Joanne K Gardner, Cyril D S Mamotte, Connie Jackaman, Delia J Nelson
Dendritic cells (DCs) undergo continuous changes throughout life, and there is evidence that elderly DCs have a reduced capacity to stimulate T cells, which may contribute to impaired anti-tumour immune responses in elderly people with cancer. Changes in checkpoint inhibitory molecules/pathways during aging may be one mechanism that impairs the ability of elderly DCs to activate T cells. However, little is currently known regarding the combined effects of aging and cancer on DC and T cell inhibitory molecules/pathways...
July 20, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709692/ampk-orchestrates-an-elaborate-cascade-protecting-tissue-from-fibrosis-and-aging
#13
REVIEW
Shuai Jiang, Tian Li, Zhi Yang, Wei Yi, Shouyin Di, Yang Sun, Dongjin Wang, Yang Yang
Fibrosis is a common process characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation after inflammatory injury, which is also a crucial cause of aging. The process of fibrosis is involved in the pathogenesis of most diseases of the heart, liver, kidney, lung, and other organs/tissues. However, there are no effective therapies for this pathological alteration. Annually, fibrosis represents a huge financial burden for the USA and the world. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal energy sensor that alleviates or delays the process of fibrogenesis...
July 12, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689042/historical-demography-and-longevity-genetics-back-to-the-future
#14
REVIEW
Niels van den Berg, Marian Beekman, Ken Robert Smith, Angelique Janssens, Pieternella Eline Slagboom
Research into the genetic component of human longevity can provide important insights in mechanisms that may protect against age-related diseases and multi-morbidity. Thus far only a limited number of robust longevity loci have been detected in either candidate or genome wide association studies. One of the issues in these genetic studies is the definition of the trait being either lifespan, including any age at death or longevity, i.e. survival above a diverse series of thresholds. Likewise heritability and segregation research have conflated lifespan with longevity...
July 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676286/a-viewpoint-on-considering-physiological-principles-to-study-stress-resistance-and-resilience-with-aging
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin F Miller, Douglas R Seals, Karyn L Hamilton
Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience.
July 1, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823380/the-science-of-nutritional-modulation-of-aging
#16
EDITORIAL
Luigi Fontana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610949/calorie-restriction-in-rodents-caveats-to-consider
#17
REVIEW
Donald K Ingram, Rafael de Cabo
The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward...
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219777/nutrition-metabolism-and-targeting-aging-in-nonhuman-primates
#18
REVIEW
Priya Balasubramanian, Julie A Mattison, Rozalyn M Anderson
This short review focuses on the importance of nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and makes the case that a targeted expansion of the use of this highly translatable model would be advantageous to the biology of aging field. First, we describe the high degree of similarity of the model in terms of aging phenotypes including incidence and prevalence of common human age-related diseases. Second, we discuss the importance of the nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and the extent to which the outcomes of two ongoing long-term studies of caloric restriction are congruent with short-term equivalent studies in humans...
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007498/dietary-restriction-and-lifespan-lessons-from-invertebrate-models
#19
REVIEW
Pankaj Kapahi, Matt Kaeberlein, Malene Hansen
Dietary restriction (DR) is the most robust environmental manipulation known to increase active and healthy lifespan in many species. Despite differences in the protocols and the way DR is carried out in different organisms, conserved relationships are emerging among multiple species. Elegant studies from numerous model organisms are further defining the importance of various nutrient-signaling pathways including mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and sirtuins in mediating the effects of DR...
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810402/impact-of-intermittent-fasting-on-health-and-disease-processes
#20
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Valter D Longo, Michelle Harvie
Humans in modern societies typically consume food at least three times daily, while laboratory animals are fed ad libitum. Overconsumption of food with such eating patterns often leads to metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance, excessive accumulation of visceral fat, etc.), particularly when associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Because animals, including humans, evolved in environments where food was relatively scarce, they developed numerous adaptations that enabled them to function at a high level, both physically and cognitively, when in a food-deprived/fasted state...
October 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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