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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511964/evidence-on-multimorbidity-from-definition-to-intervention-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#1
REVIEW
Xiaolin Xu, Gita D Mishra, Mark Jones
The increasing challenge of multiple chronic diseases (multimorbidity) requires more evidence-based knowledge and effective practice. In order to better understand the existing evidence on multimorbidity, we performed a systematic review of systematic reviews on multimorbidity with pre-established search strategies and exclusion criteria by searching multiple databases and grey literature. Of 8006 articles found, 53 systematic reviews (including meta-analysis and qualitative research synthesis performed in some reviews) that stated multimorbidity as the main focus were included, with 79% published during 2013 to 2016...
May 13, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499883/the-role-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-development-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#2
REVIEW
V López, A F Fernández, M F Fraga
DNA methylation at the fifth position of cytosines (5mC) represents a major epigenetic modification in mammals. The recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting from 5mC oxidation, is redefining our view of the epigenome, as multiple studies indicate that 5hmC is not simply an intermediate of DNA demethylation, but a genuine epigenetic mark that may play an important functional role in gene regulation. Currently, the availability of platforms that discriminates between the presence of 5mC and 5hmC at single-base resolution is starting to shed light on the functions of 5hmC...
May 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487242/oxidative-stress-genomic-features-and-dna-repair-in-frail-elderly-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
María Sánchez-Flores, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Solange Costa, João Paulo Teixeira, Stefano Bonassi, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by higher vulnerability to stressors, with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, disability, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Although it is generally recognized to have a biological basis, no particular biological trait has been consistently associated to frailty status so far. In this work, epidemiological studies evaluating association of frailty status with alterations at cellular level - namely oxidative stress, genomic instability and DNA damage and repair biomarkers -were revised and compared...
May 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487241/influence-of-anaerobic-and-aerobic-exercise-on-age-related-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle
#4
Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Michel Bernier, Gloria Brea-Calvo, Rafael de Cabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457933/circuit-resistance-training-is-an-effective-means-to-enhance-muscle-strength-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Assaf Buch, Ofer Kis, Eli Carmeli, Lital Keinan-Boker, Yitshal Berner, Yael Barer, Gabi Shefer, Yonit Marcus, Naftali Stern
Physical exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is presently the only proven means to reduce the accelerated decline in muscle strength exhibited by older adults, but its effect is hindered by low adherence rate, even under well-structured programs. Here we investigate the efficacy of circuit resistance training (CRT) on muscle strength, lean mass and aerobic capacity in older adults. MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane electronic databases were systematically searched including references of pertinent articles up to August 2016...
April 27, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456680/splicing-regulatory-factors-ageing-and-age-related-disease
#6
REVIEW
Eva Latorre, Lorna W Harries
Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases...
April 26, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450269/in-vivo-prion-models-and-the-disconnection-between-transmissibility-and-neurotoxicity
#7
REVIEW
Matteo Senesi, Victoria Lewis, Jee H Kim, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein, Steven J Collins
The primary causative event in the development of prion diseases is the misfolding of the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into an ensemble of altered conformers (herein collectively denoted as PrP(Sc)) that accumulate in the brain. Prominent amongst currently unresolved key aspects underpinning prion disease pathogenesis is whether transmission and toxicity are sub-served by different molecular species of PrP(Sc), which may directly impact on the development of effective targeted treatments. The use of murine models of prion disease has been of fundamental importance for probing the relationship between hypothesised "neurotoxic" and "transmissible" PrP(Sc) and the associated kinetic profiles of their production during disease evolution, but unfortunately consensus has not been achieved...
April 24, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414155/recent-advances-in-cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-a-promising-opportunity-for-the-treatment-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#8
REVIEW
Miren Revuelta, Francisco Santaolalla, Olatz Arteaga, Antonia Alvarez, Ana Sánchez-Del-Rey, Enrique Hilario
The objective of this paper is to review current information regarding the treatment of age-related hearing loss by using cochlear hair cell regeneration. Recent advances in the regeneration of the inner ear, including the usefulness of stem cells, are also presented. Based on the current literature, cochlear cell regeneration may well be possible in the short term and cochlear gene therapy may also be useful for the treatment of hearing loss associated with ageing. The present review provide further insight into the pathogenesis of Inner Ear senescence and aged-related hearing loss and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to repair hair cells damaged by ageing...
April 13, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396185/from-lymphopoiesis-to-plasma-cells-differentiation-the-age-related-modifications-of-b-cell-compartment-are-influenced-by-inflamm-ageing
#9
REVIEW
Matteo Bulati, Calogero Caruso, Giuseppina Colonna-Romano
Ageing is a complex process characterized by a general decline in physiological functions with increasing morbidity and mortality. The most important aspect of ageing is the chronic inflammatory status, named "inflamm-ageing", strictly associated with the deterioration of the immune function, termed "immunosenescence". Both are causes of increased susceptibility of elderly to infectious diseases, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmunity, and of a decreased response to vaccination. It has been widely demonstrated that ageing has a strong impact on the remodelling of the B cell branch of immune system...
April 7, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390891/aging-and-cancer-the-role-of-macrophages-and-neutrophils
#10
REVIEW
Connie Jackaman, Federica Tomay, Lelinh Duong, Norbaini Bintu Abdol Razak, Fiona J Pixley, Pat Metharom, Delia J Nelson
Impaired immune function has been implicated in the declining health and higher incidence of cancer in the elderly. However, age-related changes to immunity are not completely understood. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of defence yet their ability to phagocytose pathogens decrease with aging. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are critical in eliminating tumors, but T cell function is also compromised with aging. T cell responses can be regulated by macrophages and may depend on the functional phenotype macrophages adopt in response to microenvironmental signals...
April 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366616/relationship-between-depression-and-frailty-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Pinar Soysal, Nicola Veronese, Trevor Thompson, Kai G Kahl, Brisa S Fernandes, A Matthew Prina, Marco Solmi, Patricia Schofield, Ai Koyanagi, Ping-Tao Tseng, Pao-Yao Lin, Che-Sheng Chu, Theodore D Cosco, Matteo Cesari, Andre F Carvalho, Brendon Stubbs
AIM: Depression and frailty are prevalent and burdensome in older age. However, the relationships between these entities are unclear and no quantitative meta- analysis exists. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the associations between depression and frailty. METHODS: Two authors searched major electronic databases from inception until November-2016 for cross-sectional/longitudinal studies investigating depression and frailty. The strength of the reciprocal associations between frailty and depression was assessed through odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for potential confounders...
March 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351686/dna-damage-response-and-autophagy-in-the-degeneration-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-implications-for-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#12
REVIEW
Juha M T Hyttinen, Janusz Błasiak, Minna Niittykoski, Kati Kinnunen, Anu Kauppinen, Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta
In this review we will discuss the links between autophagy, a mechanism involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and controlling cellular waste management, and the DNA damage response (DDR), comprising various mechanisms preserving the integrity and stability of the genome. A reduced autophagy capacity in retinal pigment epithelium has been shown to be connected in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an eye disease. This degenerative disease is a major and increasing cause of vision loss in the elderly in developed countries, primarily due to the profound accumulation of intra- and extracellular waste: lipofuscin and drusen...
March 27, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342882/functional-neuroimaging-findings-in-healthy-middle-aged-adults-at-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Mirette Habib, Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Li Su, Guy Williams, Adam Waldman, Katie Wells, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, John T O'Brien
It is well established that the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins many years before symptom onset. This preclinical phase provides a crucial time-window for therapeutic intervention, though this requires biomarkers that could evaluate the efficacy of future disease-modification treatments in asymptomatic individuals. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of studies characterizing the temporal sequence of the earliest functional and structural brain imaging changes in AD. These efforts have focused on studying individuals who are highly vulnerable to develop AD, such as those with familial genetic mutations, susceptibility genes (i...
March 22, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323064/the-relevance-of-%C3%AE-klotho-to-the-central-nervous-system-some-key-questions
#14
REVIEW
Marina Minto Cararo-Lopes, Caio Henrique Yokoyama Mazucanti, Cristoforo Scavone, Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto, Daniel Charles Berwick
α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-Klotho, which we define as brain α-Klotho, may play important roles as a neuroprotective factor and in promoting myelination, thereby supporting healthy brain aging...
March 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315409/in-vivo-tau-pet-imaging-in-dementia-pathophysiology-radiotracer-quantification-and-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-findings
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin Hall, Elijah Mak, Simon Cervenka, Franklin I Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
In addition to the deposition of β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Until now, our understanding about the natural history and topography of tau deposition has only been based on post-mortem and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and evidence continues to implicate tau as a central driver of downstream neurodegenerative processes and cognitive decline. Recently, it has become possible to assess the regional distribution and severity of tau burden in vivo with the development of novel radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging...
March 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284872/cognitive-functioning-of-individuals-aged-90-years-and-older-without-dementia-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
N Legdeur, T T Binnekade, R H Otten, M Badissi, P Scheltens, P J Visser, A B Maier
INTRODUCTION: Reference values to define cognitive impairment in individuals aged 90 years and older are lacking. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the level of cognitive functioning of individuals aged 90 years and older without dementia. METHODS: The search identified 3972 articles of which 20 articles were included in the review. We calculated mean cognitive test scores and cut-off scores for cognitive tests published in two or more articles...
March 8, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274839/dietary-protein-aging-and-nutritional-geometry
#17
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur, David Raubenheimer, Samantha M Solon-Biet, Gregory J Cooney, Victoria C Cogger, Luigi Fontana
Nearly a century of research has shown that nutritional interventions can delay aging and age- related diseases in many animal models and possibly humans. The most robust and widely studied intervention is caloric restriction, while protein restriction and restriction of various amino acids (methionine, tryptophan) have also been shown to delay aging. However, there is still debate over whether the major impact on aging is secondary to caloric intake, protein intake or specific amino acids. Nutritional geometry provides new perspectives on the relationship between nutrition and aging by focusing on calories, macronutrients and their interactions across a landscape of diets, and taking into account compensatory feeding in ad libitum-fed experiments...
March 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179128/pain-perception-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies
#18
REVIEW
Trevor Thompson, Katy Gallop, Christoph U Correll, Andre F Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Ellen Wright, Brendon Stubbs
While hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of clinical pain in Parkinson's disease (PD), experimental research is equivocal and mechanisms are poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing PD patients to healthy controls (HCs) in their response to experimental pain stimuli. Articles were acquired through systematic searches of major databases from inception until 10/2016. Twenty-six studies met inclusion criteria, comprising 1292 participants (PD=739, HCs=553)...
May 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143778/risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-morbidity-and-mortality-in-frail-and-pre-frail-older-adults-results-from-a-meta-analysis-and-exploratory-meta-regression-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Nicola Veronese, Emanuele Cereda, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Claudio Luchini, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, Peter Manu, Tamara Harris, Luigi Fontana, Timo Strandberg, Helene Amieva, Julien Dumurgier, Alexis Elbaz, Christophe Tzourio, Monika Eicholzer, Sabine Rohrmann, Claudio Moretti, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Giorgio Quadri, Alessandro Polidoro, Roberto Alves Lourenço, Virgilio Garcia Moreira, Juan Sanchis, Valeria Scotti, Stefania Maggi, Christoph U Correll
Frailty is common and associated with poorer outcomes in the elderly, but its role as potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor requires clarification. We thus aimed to meta-analytically evaluate the evidence of frailty and pre-frailty as risk factors for CVD. Two reviewers selected all studies comparing data about CVD prevalence or incidence rates between frail/pre-frail vs. robust. The association between frailty status and CVD in cross-sectional studies was explored by calculating and pooling crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs); the data from longitudinal studies were pooled using the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)...
May 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109835/gut-microbiota-a-player-in-aging-and-a-target-for-anti-aging-intervention
#20
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman, Alexander K Koliada, Francesco Marotta
Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance...
May 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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