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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903442/are-micrornas-true-sensors-of-ageing-and-cellular-senescence
#1
REVIEW
Justin Williams, Flint Smith, Subodh Kumar, Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
All living beings are programmed to death due to aging and age-related processes. Aging is a normal process of every living species. While all cells are inevitably progressing towards death, many disease processes accelerate the aging process, leading to senescence. Pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and skin diseases have been associated with deregulated aging. Healthy aging can delay onset of all age-related diseases...
November 26, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884595/melatonin-protection-against-age-related-cardiac-pathology
#2
REVIEW
Gaia Favero, Lorenzo Franceschetti, Barbara Buffoli, Moghadasian H Mohammed, Russel J Reiter, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Rita Rezzani
Aging is a complex and progressive process that involves physiological and metabolic deterioration in every organ and system. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among elderly subjects worldwide. Most age-related cardiovascular disorders can be influenced by modifiable behaviours such as a healthy diet rich in fruit and vegetables, avoidance of smoking, increased physical activity and reduced stress. The role of diet in prevention of various disorders is a well-established factor, which has an even more important role in the geriatric population...
November 21, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876574/the-emerging-role-of-ecm-crosslinking-in-t-cell-mobility-as-a-hallmark-of-immunosenescence-in-humans
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Francois Moreau, Thomas Pradeu, Andrea GRignolio, Christine Nardini, Filippo Castiglione, Paolo Tieri, Miriam Capri, Stefano Salvioli, Jean-Luc Taupin, Paolo Garagnani, Claudio Franceschi
Immunosenescence is thought to result from cellular aging and to reflect exposure to environmental stressors and antigens, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, not all of the features of immunosenescence are consistent with this view, and this has led to the emergence of the sister theory of "inflammaging". The recently discovered diffuse tissue distribution of resident memory T cells (TRM) which don't recirculate, calls these theories into question. These cells account for most T cells residing in barrier epithelia which sit in and travel through the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
November 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876573/stem-cell-therapies-in-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Yuan Wang, Xunming Ji, Rehana K Leak, Fenghua Chen, Guodong Cao
Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865980/aging-of-cerebral-white-matter
#5
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Yuguo Xia, Wen Zhu, Rehana K Leak, Zhishuo Wei, Jianyi Wang, Xiaoming Hu
White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly...
November 16, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836705/arterial-ageing-major-nutritional-and-life-style-effects
#6
REVIEW
Theodore G Papaioannou, Kalliopi Karatzi, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Arterial ageing is a key mechanism underling the development and progression of cardiovascular (CV) and other diseases. New technologies allow the non-invasive assessement of various biomechanical and biological aspects of arterial ageing. We discuss a few major factors in respect to arterial ageing pathophysiology, methods of assessment and some important nutritional and life-style parameters that substantially affect arterial ageing.
November 9, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836706/effects-of-age-on-force-steadiness-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Nathalie M C W Oomen, Jaap H van Dieën
The variability of force is indicative of the biological variability inherent in the human motor system. Previous literature showed inconsistent findings of the effect of age on the variability of force and hence a systematic review was performed. Twenty studies were included in this systematic review, of which twelve provided sufficient data to determine effect sizes for the effect of age. After determining the pooled effect size, the effect of sample size on dichotomized effect sizes (significant vs. non-significant) was determined...
November 8, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829173/multiple-pathways-of-sirt6-at-the-crossroads-in-the-control-of-longevity-cancer-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Milena Vitiello, Alberto Zullo, Luigi Servillo, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Adriana Borriello, Alfonso Giovane, Fulvio Della Ragione, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a member of the sirtuin family NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases with multiple roles in controlling organism homeostasis, lifespan, and diseases. Due to its complex and opposite functional roles, this sirtuin is considered a two-edged sword in health and disease. Indeed, SIRT6 improves longevity, similarly to the founding yeast member, silent information regulator-2 (Sir2), and modulates genome stability, telomere integrity, transcription, and DNA repair. Its deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, obesity, liver dysfunction, muscle/adipocyte disorders, and cancer...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829172/disordered-app-metabolism-and-neurovasculature-in-trauma-and-aging-combined-risks-for-chronic-neurodegenerative-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Milos D Ikonomovic, Zhiping Mi, Eric E Abrahamson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), advanced age, and cerebral vascular disease are factors conferring increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). These conditions are also related pathologically through multiple interacting mechanisms. The hallmark pathology of AD consists of pathological aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. These molecules are also involved in neuropathology of several other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and are under intense investigation in the aftermath of TBI as potential contributors to the risk for developing AD and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829171/metal-ions-influx-is-a-double-edged-sword-for-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Pu Wang, Zhan-You Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia in aged people, which is defined by two pathological characteristics: β-amyloid protein (Aβ) deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation. Although the mechanisms of AD development are still being debated, a series of evidence supports the idea that metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, magnesium and aluminium, are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, the processes of Aβ deposition in senile plaques (SP) and the inclusion of phosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are markedly influenced by alterations in the homeostasis of the aforementioned metal ions...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825897/the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-samp8-a-novel-murine-model-for-cardiac-aging
#11
REVIEW
Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Somasundaram Arumugam, Sahana S Babu, Suresh S Palaniyandi, Kenichi Watanabe, John P Cooke, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan
Because cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity world-wide, there remains a compelling need for new insights and novel therapeutic avenues. In this regard, the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) line is a particularly good model for studying the effects of aging on cardiovascular health. Accumulating evidence suggests that this model may shed light on age-associated cardiac and vascular dysfunction and disease. These animals manifest evidence of inflammation, oxidative stress and adverse cardiac remodeling that may recapitulate processes involved in human disease...
November 5, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818249/the-origin-of-life-at-the-origin-of-ageing
#12
Antonio Currais
At first glance, the ageing of unicellular organisms would appear to be different from the ageing of complex, multicellular organisms. In an attempt to describe the nature of ageing in diverse organisms, the intimate links between the origins of life and ageing are examined. Departing from Leslie Orgel's initial ideas on why organisms age, it is then discussed how the potentially detrimental events characteristic of ageing are continuous, cell-autonomous and universal to all organisms. The manifestation of these alterations relies on the balance between their production and cellular renewal...
November 3, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810402/impact-of-intermittent-fasting-on-health-and-disease-processes
#13
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Valter D Longo, Michelle Harvie
Humans in modern societies typically consume food at least three times daily, while laboratory animals are fed ad libitum. Overconsumption of food with such eating patterns often leads to metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance, excessive accumulation of visceral fat, etc.), particularly when associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Because animals, including humans, evolved in environments where food was relatively scarce, they developed numerous adaptations that enabled them to function at a high level, both physically and cognitively, when in a food-deprived/fasted state...
October 31, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793608/introduction-to-special-issue-neurovascular-aging-a-driving-force-for-neurological-dysfunction-in-stroke-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
EDITORIAL
Steven H Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777039/structural-neuroimaging-in-preclinical-dementia-from-microstructural-deficits-and-grey-matter-atrophy-to-macroscale-connectomic-changes
#15
Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Habib Mirette, Li Su, Guy B Williams, Adam Waldman, Katie Wells, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, John O'Brien
The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of neuroimaging studies characterising brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), where both widespread atrophy and 'signature' brain regions have been implicated. In parallel, a prolonged latency period has been established in AD, with abnormal cerebral changes beginning many years before symptom onset. This raises the possibility of early therapeutic intervention, even before symptoms, when treatments could have the greatest effect on disease-course modification...
October 21, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771474/sex-differences-in-the-prevalence-and-incidence-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-meta-analysis
#16
Bonnie Au, Sydney Dale-McGrath, Mary C Tierney
OBJECTIVE: More women have Alzheimer's disease (AD) than men. Understanding sex differences in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may further knowledge of AD etiology and prevention. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine sex differences in the prevalence and incidence of MCI, which included amnestic and non-amnestic subtypes. METHOD: Systematic searches were performed in July 2015 using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO for population-or community-based studies with MCI data for men and women...
October 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721062/molecular-pathology-endpoints-useful-for-aging-studies
#17
L J Niedernhofer, J L Kirkland, W Ladiges
The first clinical trial aimed at targeting fundamental processes of aging will soon be launched (TAME: Targeting Aging with Metformin). In its wake is a robust pipeline of therapeutic interventions that have been demonstrated to extend lifespan or healthspan of preclinical models, including rapalogs, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and senolytics. This ensures that if the TAME trial is successful, numerous additional clinical trials are apt to follow. But a significant impediment to these trials remains the question of what endpoints should be measured? The design of the TAME trial very cleverly skirts around this based on the fact that there are decades of data on metformin in humans, providing unequaled clarity of what endpoints are most likely to yield a positive outcome...
October 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713095/nutrition-for-the-ageing-brain-towards-evidence-for-an-optimal-diet
#18
David Vauzour, Maria Camprubi-Robles, Sophie Miquel-Kergoat, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Diána Bánáti, Pascale Barberger-Gateau, Gene L Bowman, Laura Caberlotto, Robert Clarke, Eef Hogervorst, Amanda J Kiliaan, Ugo Lucca, Claudine Manach, Anne-Marie Minihane, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Robert Perneczky, Hugh Perry, Anne-Marie Roussel, Jeroen Schuermans, John Sijben, Jeremy P E Spencer, Sandrine Thuret, Ondine van de Rest, Maurits Vandewoude, Keith Wesnes, Robert J Williams, Robin S B Williams, Maria Ramirez
As people age they become increasingly susceptible to chronic and extremely debilitating brain diseases. The precise cause of the neuronal degeneration underlying these disorders, and indeed normal brain ageing remains however elusive. Considering the limits of existing preventive methods, there is a desire to develop effective and safe strategies. Growing preclinical and clinical research in healthy individuals or at the early stage of cognitive decline has demonstrated the beneficial impact of nutrition on cognitive functions...
October 3, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702700/sarcopenic-obesity-or-obese-sarcopenia-a-cross-talk-between-age-associated-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-as-a-main-mechanism-of-the-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune cells as well as dysregulated production of various adipokines that together with senescent cells and the immune cell-released cytokines and chemokines create a local pro-inflammatory status...
October 1, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702699/targeting-chaperones-heat-shock-factor-1-and-unfolded-protein-response-promising-therapeutic-approaches-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#20
Shambhunath Bose, Jungsook Cho
Protein misfolding, which is known to cause several serious diseases, is an emerging field that addresses multiple therapeutic areas. Misfolding of a disease-specific protein in the central nervous system ultimately results in the formation of toxic aggregates that may accumulate in the brain, leading to neuronal cell death and dysfunction, and associated clinical manifestations. A large number of neurodegenerative diseases in humans, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases, are primarily caused by protein misfolding and aggregation...
October 1, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
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