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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624530/the-emerging-role-of-wnt-signaling-dysregulation-in-the-understanding-and-modification-of-age-associated-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway that participates in multiple aspects of cellular function during development and in adults. In particular, this pathway has been implicated in cell fate determination, proliferation and cell polarity establishment. In the brain, it contributes to synapse formation, axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. The expression and distribution of Wnt components in different organs vary with age, which may have important implications for preserving tissue homeostasis...
June 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610949/calorie-restriction-in-rodents-caveats-to-consider
#2
REVIEW
Donald K Ingram, Rafael de Cabo
The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward...
June 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587957/role-of-physical-exercise-on-cognitive-function-in-healthy-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#3
REVIEW
Mikel López Sáez de Asteasu, Nicolás Martínez-Velilla, Fabricio Zambom-Ferraresi, Álvaro Casas-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo
Cognitive impairment has a harmful effect on quality of life, is associated with functional limitations and disability in older adults. Physical activity (PA) has shown to have beneficial effects on cognition but the results and conclusions of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are less consistent. Update of knowledge was necessary to examine the effects on cognitive function of new training modalities developed in recent years, such as multicomponent exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the role of multicomponent training versus aerobic or resistance training alone on cognition in healthy older adults (>65 years) without known cognitive impairment...
June 3, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579130/vascular-aging-molecular-mechanisms-and-potential-treatments-for-vascular-rejuvenation
#4
REVIEW
Panagiotis Mistriotis, Stelios T Andreadis
Aging is the main risk factor contributing to vascular dysfunction and the progression of vascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the causes and mechanisms of vascular aging at the tissue and cellular level. We focus on Endothelial Cell (EC) and Smooth Muscle Cell (SMC) aging due to their critical role in mediating the defective vascular phenotype. We elaborate on two categories that contribute to cellular dysfunction: cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors reflect systemic or environmental changes which alter EC and SMC homeostasis compromising vascular function...
June 1, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552719/regulation-of-longevity-by-fgf21-interaction-between-energy-metabolism-and-stress-responses
#5
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses...
May 25, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552720/remote-tissue-conditioning-an-emerging-approach-for-inducing-body-wide-protection-against-diseases-of-ageing
#6
REVIEW
Boaz Kim, Alice Brandli, John Mitrofanis, Jonathan Stone, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Daniel M Johnstone
We have long accepted that exercise is 'good for us'; that - put more rigorously - moderate exercise is associated with not just aerobic fitness but also reduced morbidity and reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease and even malignancies. Caloric restriction (moderate hunger) and our exposure to dietary phytochemicals are also emerging as stresses which are 'good for us' in the same sense. This review focuses on an important extension of this concept: that stress localized within the body (e.g. in a limb) can induce resilience in tissues throughout the body...
May 24, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511964/evidence-on-multimorbidity-from-definition-to-intervention-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#7
REVIEW
Xiaolin Xu, Gita D Mishra, Mark Jones
The increasing challenge of multiple chronic diseases (multimorbidity) requires more evidence-based knowledge and effective practice. In order to better understand the existing evidence on multimorbidity, we performed a systematic review of systematic reviews on multimorbidity with pre-established search strategies and exclusion criteria by searching multiple databases and grey literature. Of 8006 articles found, 53 systematic reviews (including meta-analysis and qualitative research synthesis performed in some reviews) that stated multimorbidity as the main focus were included, with 79% published during 2013-2016...
May 13, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499883/the-role-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-development-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#8
REVIEW
V López, A F Fernández, M F Fraga
DNA methylation at the fifth position of cytosines (5mC) represents a major epigenetic modification in mammals. The recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting from 5mC oxidation, is redefining our view of the epigenome, as multiple studies indicate that 5hmC is not simply an intermediate of DNA demethylation, but a genuine epigenetic mark that may play an important functional role in gene regulation. Currently, the availability of platforms that discriminates between the presence of 5mC and 5hmC at single-base resolution is starting to shed light on the functions of 5hmC...
May 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487242/oxidative-stress-genomic-features-and-dna-repair-in-frail-elderly-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
María Sánchez-Flores, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Solange Costa, João Paulo Teixeira, Stefano Bonassi, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by higher vulnerability to stressors, with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, disability, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Although it is generally recognized to have a biological basis, no particular biological trait has been consistently associated to frailty status so far. In this work, epidemiological studies evaluating association of frailty status with alterations at cellular level - namely oxidative stress, genomic instability and DNA damage and repair biomarkers -were revised and compared...
May 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487241/influence-of-anaerobic-and-aerobic-exercise-on-age-related-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Michel Bernier, Gloria Brea-Calvo, Rafael de Cabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457933/circuit-resistance-training-is-an-effective-means-to-enhance-muscle-strength-in-older-and-middle-aged-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Assaf Buch, Ofer Kis, Eli Carmeli, Lital Keinan-Boker, Yitshal Berner, Yael Barer, Gabi Shefer, Yonit Marcus, Naftali Stern
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is proven treatment to reduce the accelerated decline in muscle strength exhibited by older adults, but its effect is hindered by low adherence rate, even under well-structured programs. OBJECTIVE AND DATA SOURCES: We investigated the efficacy of circuit resistance training (CRT) on muscle strength, lean mass and aerobic capacity in older adults based on report in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials...
April 27, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456680/splicing-regulatory-factors-ageing-and-age-related-disease
#12
REVIEW
Eva Latorre, Lorna W Harries
Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases...
April 26, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450269/in-vivo-prion-models-and-the-disconnection-between-transmissibility-and-neurotoxicity
#13
REVIEW
Matteo Senesi, Victoria Lewis, Jee H Kim, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein, Steven J Collins
The primary causative event in the development of prion diseases is the misfolding of the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into an ensemble of altered conformers (herein collectively denoted as PrP(Sc)) that accumulate in the brain. Prominent amongst currently unresolved key aspects underpinning prion disease pathogenesis is whether transmission and toxicity are sub-served by different molecular species of PrP(Sc), which may directly impact on the development of effective targeted treatments. The use of murine models of prion disease has been of fundamental importance for probing the relationship between hypothesised "neurotoxic" and "transmissible" PrP(Sc) and the associated kinetic profiles of their production during disease evolution, but unfortunately consensus has not been achieved...
April 24, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396185/from-lymphopoiesis-to-plasma-cells-differentiation-the-age-related-modifications-of-b-cell-compartment-are-influenced-by-inflamm-ageing
#14
REVIEW
Matteo Bulati, Calogero Caruso, Giuseppina Colonna-Romano
Ageing is a complex process characterized by a general decline in physiological functions with increasing morbidity and mortality. The most important aspect of ageing is the chronic inflammatory status, named "inflamm-ageing", strictly associated with the deterioration of the immune function, termed "immunosenescence". Both are causes of increased susceptibility of elderly to infectious diseases, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmunity, and of a decreased response to vaccination. It has been widely demonstrated that ageing has a strong impact on the remodelling of the B cell branch of immune system...
April 7, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390891/aging-and-cancer-the-role-of-macrophages-and-neutrophils
#15
REVIEW
Connie Jackaman, Federica Tomay, Lelinh Duong, Norbaini Bintu Abdol Razak, Fiona J Pixley, Pat Metharom, Delia J Nelson
Impaired immune function has been implicated in the declining health and higher incidence of cancer in the elderly. However, age-related changes to immunity are not completely understood. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of defence yet their ability to phagocytose pathogens decrease with aging. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are critical in eliminating tumors, but T cell function is also compromised with aging. T cell responses can be regulated by macrophages and may depend on the functional phenotype macrophages adopt in response to microenvironmental signals...
April 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366616/relationship-between-depression-and-frailty-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Pinar Soysal, Nicola Veronese, Trevor Thompson, Kai G Kahl, Brisa S Fernandes, A Matthew Prina, Marco Solmi, Patricia Schofield, Ai Koyanagi, Ping-Tao Tseng, Pao-Yao Lin, Che-Sheng Chu, Theodore D Cosco, Matteo Cesari, Andre F Carvalho, Brendon Stubbs
AIM: Depression and frailty are prevalent and burdensome in older age. However, the relationships between these entities are unclear and no quantitative meta- analysis exists. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the associations between depression and frailty. METHODS: Two authors searched major electronic databases from inception until November-2016 for cross-sectional/longitudinal studies investigating depression and frailty. The strength of the reciprocal associations between frailty and depression was assessed through odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for potential confounders...
March 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414155/recent-advances-in-cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-a-promising-opportunity-for-the-treatment-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#17
REVIEW
Miren Revuelta, Francisco Santaolalla, Olatz Arteaga, Antonia Alvarez, Ana Sánchez-Del-Rey, Enrique Hilario
The objective of this paper is to review current information regarding the treatment of age-related hearing loss by using cochlear hair cell regeneration. Recent advances in the regeneration of the inner ear, including the usefulness of stem cells, are also presented. Based on the current literature, cochlear cell regeneration may well be possible in the short term and cochlear gene therapy may also be useful for the treatment of hearing loss associated with ageing. The present review provide further insight into the pathogenesis of Inner Ear senescence and aged-related hearing loss and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to repair hair cells damaged by ageing...
July 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223244/frailty-and-sarcopenia-the-potential-role-of-an-aged-immune-system
#18
REVIEW
Daisy Wilson, Thomas Jackson, Elizabeth Sapey, Janet M Lord
Frailty is a common negative consequence of ageing. Sarcopenia, the syndrome of loss of muscle mass, quality and strength, is more common in older adults and has been considered a precursor syndrome or the physical manifestation of frailty. The pathophysiology of both syndromes is incompletely described with multiple causes, inter-relationships and complex pathways proposed. Age-associated changes to the immune system (both immunesenescence, the decline in immune function with ageing, and inflammageing, a state of chronic inflammation) have been suggested as contributors to sarcopenia and frailty but a direct causative role remains to be established...
July 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179128/pain-perception-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies
#19
REVIEW
Trevor Thompson, Katy Gallop, Christoph U Correll, Andre F Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Ellen Wright, Brendon Stubbs
While hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of clinical pain in Parkinson's disease (PD), experimental research is equivocal and mechanisms are poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing PD patients to healthy controls (HCs) in their response to experimental pain stimuli. Articles were acquired through systematic searches of major databases from inception until 10/2016. Twenty-six studies met inclusion criteria, comprising 1292 participants (PD=739, HCs=553)...
May 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143778/risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-morbidity-and-mortality-in-frail-and-pre-frail-older-adults-results-from-a-meta-analysis-and-exploratory-meta-regression-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Nicola Veronese, Emanuele Cereda, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Claudio Luchini, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, Peter Manu, Tamara Harris, Luigi Fontana, Timo Strandberg, Helene Amieva, Julien Dumurgier, Alexis Elbaz, Christophe Tzourio, Monika Eicholzer, Sabine Rohrmann, Claudio Moretti, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Giorgio Quadri, Alessandro Polidoro, Roberto Alves Lourenço, Virgilio Garcia Moreira, Juan Sanchis, Valeria Scotti, Stefania Maggi, Christoph U Correll
Frailty is common and associated with poorer outcomes in the elderly, but its role as potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor requires clarification. We thus aimed to meta-analytically evaluate the evidence of frailty and pre-frailty as risk factors for CVD. Two reviewers selected all studies comparing data about CVD prevalence or incidence rates between frail/pre-frail vs. robust. The association between frailty status and CVD in cross-sectional studies was explored by calculating and pooling crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs); the data from longitudinal studies were pooled using the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)...
May 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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