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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216454/protective-effects-of-short-term-dietary-restriction-in-surgical-stress-and-chemotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Sebastian Brandhorst, Eylul Harputlugil, James R Mitchell, Valter D Longo
Reduced caloric intake including fasting, as well as the dietary composition or the timing of food intake impact longevity, likely through a modification in the onset or the severity of chronic aging-related diseases such as cancer. As with pre- and post-operative dietary recommendations, evidence-based nutritional advice from healthcare professionals during and after cancer treatment is often vague or conflicting. We hypothesize that preventive dietary recommendations can help in the context of both chronic cancer treatment efficacy and the avoidance of development of secondary malignancies, as well as in the context of protection from the acute stress of surgery...
February 16, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189666/handgrip-strength-as-a-means-of-monitoring-progression-of-cognitive-decline-a-scoping-review
#2
REVIEW
Nora E Fritz, Caitlin J McCarthy, Diane E Adamo
Cognitive decline in older adults contributes to reduced ability to perform daily tasks and continued disuse leads to muscle weakness and potentiates functional loss. Despite explicit links between the motor and cognitive systems, few health care providers assess motor function when addressing the needs of individuals with cognitive loss. Early and easy measurable biomarkers of cognitive decline have the potential to improve care for individuals with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic search to determine the relationship among handgrip strength, as a measure of global muscle strength, and cognitive decline over time...
February 8, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179128/pain-perception-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies
#3
REVIEW
Trevor Thompson, Katy Gallop, Christoph U Correll, Andre F Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Ellen Wright, Brendon Stubbs
While hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of clinical pain in Parkinson's disease (PD), experimental research is equivocal and mechanisms are poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing PD patients to healthy controls (HCs) in their response to experimental pain stimuli. Articles were acquired through systematic searches of major databases from inception until 10/2016. Twenty-six studies met inclusion criteria, comprising 1292 participants (PD=739, HCs=553)...
February 4, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143778/risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-morbidity-and-mortality-in-frail-and-pre-frail-older-adults-results-from-a-meta-analysis-and-exploratory-meta-regression-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Nicola Veronese, Emanuele Cereda, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Claudio Luchini, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, Peter Manu, Tamara Harris, Luigi Fontana, Timo Strandberg, Helene Amieva, Julien Dumurgier, Alexis Elbaz, Christophe Tzourio, Monika Eicholzer, Sabine Rohrmann, Claudio Moretti, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Giorgio Quadri, Alessandro Polidoro, Roberto Alves Lourenço, Virgilio Garcia Moreira, Juan Sanchis, Valeria Scotti, Stefania Maggi, Christoph U Correll
Frailty is common and associated with poorer outcomes in the elderly, but its role as potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor requires clarification. We thus aimed to meta-analytically evaluate the evidence of frailty and pre-frailty as risk factors for CVD. Two reviewers selected all studies comparing data about CVD prevalence or incidence rates between frail/pre-frail vs. robust. The association between frailty status and CVD in cross-sectional studies was explored by calculating and pooling crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs); the data from longitudinal studies were pooled using the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)...
January 28, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109836/understanding-quasi-apoptosis-of-the-most-numerous-enucleated-components-of-blood-needs-detailed-molecular-autopsy
#5
REVIEW
Gennadii Petrovich Gusev, Rukmini Govekar, Nikhil Gadewal, Natalia Ivanovna Agalakova
Erythrocytes are the most numerous cells in human body and their function of oxygen transport is pivotal to human physiology. However, being enucleated, they are often referred to as a sac of molecules and their cellularity is challenged. Interestingly, their programmed death stands a testimony to their cell-hood. They are capable of self-execution after a defined life span by both cell-specific mechanism and that resembling the cytoplasmic events in apoptosis of nucleated cells. Since the execution process lacks the nuclear and mitochondrial events in apoptosis, it has been referred to as quasi-apoptosis or eryptosis...
January 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109835/gut-microbiota-a-player-in-aging-and-a-target-for-anti-aging-intervention
#6
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman, Alexander K Koliada, Francesco Marotta
Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance...
January 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089523/corrigendum-to-inflammation-and-frailty-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-ageing-res-rev-31-2016-1-8
#7
Pinar Soysal, Brendon Stubbs, Paola Lucato, Claudio Luchini, Marco Solmi, Roberto Peluso, Giuseppe Sergi, Ahmet Turan Isik, Enzo Manzato, Stefania Maggi, Marcello Maggio, A Matthew Prina, Theodore D Cosco, Yu-Tzu Wu, Nicola Veronese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065806/-tagging-along-memories-in-aging-synaptic-tagging-and-capture-mechanisms-in-the-aged-hippocampus
#8
REVIEW
Mahesh Shivarama Shetty, Sreedharan Sajikumar
Aging is accompanied by a general decline in the physiological functions of the body with the deteriorating organ systems. Brain is no exception to this and deficits in cognitive functions are quite common in advanced aging. Though a variety of age-related alterations are observed in the structure and function throughout the brain, certain regions show selective vulnerability. Medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is one such preferentially vulnerable region and is a crucial structure involved in the learning and long-term memory functions...
January 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025174/biomarkers-associated-with-sedentary-behaviour-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Katharina Wirth, Jochen Klenk, Simone Brefka, Dhayana Dallmeier, Kathrin Faehling, Marta Roqué I Figuls, Mark A Tully, Maria Giné-Garriga, Paolo Caserotti, Antoni Salvà, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Michael Denkinger, Brendon Stubbs
OBJECTIVE: Pathomechanisms of sedentary behavior (SB) are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the associations between SB and various biomarkers in older adults. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED) up to July 2015 to identify studies with objective or subjective measures of SB, sample size≥50, mean age≥60years and accelerometer wear time ≥3 days. Methodological quality was appraised with the CASP tool...
December 23, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025173/does-music-therapy-enhance-behavioral-and-cognitive-function-in-elderly-dementia-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Yingshi Zhang, Jiayi Cai, Li An, Fuhai Hui, Tianshu Ren, Hongda Ma, Qingchun Zhao
Demographic aging is a worldwide phenomenon, cognitive and behavioral impairment is becoming global burden of nerve damage. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment is not satisfying. Therefore, we analyzed the efficacy of music therapy in elderly dementia patients, and if so, whether music therapy can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 34 studies (42 analyses, 1757 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro and CASP scale scores...
December 23, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017880/aberrant-spontaneous-low-frequency-brain-activity-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-fmri-studies
#11
REVIEW
PingLei Pan, Lin Zhu, TingTing Yu, HaiCun Shi, Bing Zhang, Ruomeng Qin, Xiaolei Zhu, Lai Qian, Hui Zhao, Hong Zhou, Yun Xu
Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have provided strong evidence of abnormal spontaneous brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the conclusions have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis of whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured differences in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) between aMCI patients and healthy controls was conducted using the Seed-based d Mapping software package. Twelve studies reporting 14 datasets were included in the meta-analysis...
December 23, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017879/circadian-rhythms-time-restricted-feeding-and-healthy-aging
#12
REVIEW
Emily N C Manoogian, Satchidananda Panda
Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models...
December 23, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017881/hiv-associated-cellular-senescence-a-contributor-to-accelerated-aging
#13
REVIEW
Justin Cohen, Claudio Torres
Due to the advent of antiretroviral therapy HIV is no longer a terminal disease and the HIV infected patients are becoming increasingly older. While this is a major success, with increasing age comes an increased risk for disease. The age-related comorbidities that HIV infected patients experience suggest that they suffer from accelerated aging. One possible contributor to this accelerated aging is cellular senescence, an age-associated response that can occur prematurely in response to stress, and that is emerging as a contributor to disease and aging...
December 22, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007498/dietary-restriction-and-lifespan-lessons-from-invertebrate-models
#14
REVIEW
Pankaj Kapahi, Matt Kaeberlein, Malene Hansen
Dietary restriction (DR) is the most robust environmental manipulation known to increase active and healthy lifespan in many species. Despite differences in the protocols and the way DR is carried out in different organisms, conserved relationships are emerging among multiple species. Elegant studies from numerous model organisms are further defining the importance of various nutrient-signaling pathways including mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and sirtuins in mediating the effects of DR...
December 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903442/are-micrornas-true-sensors-of-ageing-and-cellular-senescence
#15
REVIEW
Justin Williams, Flint Smith, Subodh Kumar, Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
All living beings are programmed to death due to aging and age-related processes. Aging is a normal process of every living species. While all cells are inevitably progressing towards death, many disease processes accelerate the aging process, leading to senescence. Pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and skin diseases have been associated with deregulated aging. Healthy aging can delay onset of all age-related diseases...
November 27, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876573/stem-cell-therapies-in-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Yuan Wang, Xunming Ji, Rehana K Leak, Fenghua Chen, Guodong Cao
Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
March 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865980/aging-of-cerebral-white-matter
#17
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Yuguo Xia, Wen Zhu, Rehana K Leak, Zhishuo Wei, Jianyi Wang, Xiaoming Hu
White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly...
March 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829172/disordered-app-metabolism-and-neurovasculature-in-trauma-and-aging-combined-risks-for-chronic-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Milos D Ikonomovic, Zhiping Mi, Eric E Abrahamson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), advanced age, and cerebral vascular disease are factors conferring increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). These conditions are also related pathologically through multiple interacting mechanisms. The hallmark pathology of AD consists of pathological aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. These molecules are also involved in neuropathology of several other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and are under intense investigation in the aftermath of TBI as potential contributors to the risk for developing AD and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
March 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702698/life-and-death-in-the-trash-heap-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway-and-uchl1-in-brain-aging-neurodegenerative-disease-and-cerebral-ischemia
#19
REVIEW
Steven H Graham, Hao Liu
The ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) is essential for removing abnormal proteins and preventing accumulation of potentially toxic proteins within the neuron. UPP dysfunction occurs with normal aging and is associated with abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates within neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. Ischemia disrupts UPP function and thus may contribute to UPP dysfunction seen in the aging brain and in neurodegenerative diseases. Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), an important component of the UPP in the neuron, is covalently modified and its activity inhibited by reactive lipids produced after ischemia...
March 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693240/the-impact-of-cerebrovascular-aging-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#20
REVIEW
Tuo Yang, Yang Sun, Zhengyu Lu, Rehana K Leak, Feng Zhang
As human life expectancy rises, the aged population will increase. Aging is accompanied by changes in tissue structure, often resulting in functional decline. For example, aging within blood vessels contributes to a decrease in blood flow to important organs, potentially leading to organ atrophy and loss of function. In the central nervous system, cerebral vascular aging can lead to loss of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, eventually resulting in cognitive and sensorimotor decline. One of the major of types of cognitive dysfunction due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID)...
March 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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