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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742452/anti-senescence-compounds-a-potential-nutraceutical-approach-to-healthy-aging
#1
REVIEW
Felicia Gurău, Simone Baldoni, Francesco Prattichizzo, Emma Espinosa, Francesco Amenta, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Maria Cristina Albertini, Massimiliano Bonafè, Fabiola Olivieri
The desire of eternal youth seems to be as old as mankind. However, the increasing life expectancy experienced by populations in developed countries also involves a significantly increased incidence of the most common age-related diseases (ARDs). Senescent cells (SCs) have been identified as culprits of organismal aging. Their number rises with age and their senescence-associated secretory phenotype fuels the chronic, pro-inflammatory systemic state (inflammaging) that characterizes aging, impairing the regenerative ability of stem cells and increasing the risk of developing ARDs...
May 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742451/muscle-plasticity-of-aged-subjects-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-training-and-inversion-and-or-limitation-of-the-sarcopenic-process
#2
REVIEW
Thierry Paillard
This review addresses the possible structural and functional adaptations of the muscle function to neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training in frail and/or aged (without advanced chronic disease) subjects. Evidence suggests that the sarcopenic process and its structural and functional effects would be limited and/or reversed through NMES training using excito-motor currents (or direct currents). From a structural viewpoint, NMES helps reduce muscle atrophy. From a functional viewpoint, NMES enables the improvement of motor output (i...
May 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715523/muscle-morphology-and-performance-in-master-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#3
REVIEW
James Mckendry, Leigh Breen, Brandon J Shad, Carolyn Greig
INTRODUCTION: The extent to which chronic exercise training preserves age-related decrements in physical function, muscle strength, mass and morphology is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine to what extent chronically trained master athletes (strength/power and endurance) preserve levels of physical function, muscle strength, muscle mass and morphology in older age, compared with older and younger controls and young trained individuals. METHODS: The systematic data search included Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases...
April 28, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705121/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-and-microbial-metabolites-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Meng-Fei Sun, Yan-Qin Shen
Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metabolites that contribute to the development of PD...
April 26, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698722/multi-tissue-dna-methylation-age-molecular-relationships-and-perspectives-for-advancing-biomarker-utility
#5
REVIEW
Jamaji C Nwanaji-Enwerem, Marc G Weisskopf, Andrea A Baccarelli
The multi-tissue DNA methylation estimator of chronological age (DNAm-age) has been associated with a wide range of exposures and health outcomes. Still, it is unclear how DNAm-age can have such broad relationships and how it can be best utilized as a biomarker. Understanding DNAm-age's molecular relationships is a promising approach to address this critical knowledge gap. In this review, we discuss the existing literature regarding DNAm-age's molecular relationships in six major categories: animal model systems, cancer processes, cellular aging processes, immune system processes, metabolic processes, and nucleic acid processes...
April 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689408/prenatal-exposure-to-oxidative-phosphorylation-xenobiotics-and-late-onset-parkinson-disease
#6
REVIEW
Eldris Iglesias, Alba Pesini, Nuria Garrido-Pérez, Patricia Meade, M Pilar Bayona-Bafaluy, Julio Montoya, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini
Late-onset Parkinson disease is a multifactorial and multietiological disorder, age being one of the factors implicated. Genetic and/or environmental factors, such as pesticides, can also be involved. Up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra are lost before motor features of the disorder begin to appear. In humans, these neurons are only formed a few weeks after fertilization. Therefore, prenatal exposure to pesticides or industrial chemicals during crucial steps of brain development might also alter their proliferation and differentiation...
April 22, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679658/effective-multicomponent-interventions-in-comparison-to-active-control-and-no-interventions-on-physical-capacity-cognitive-function-and-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-elderly-people-with-and-without-mild-impaired-cognition-a-systematic-review-and
#7
REVIEW
Marina Bruderer-Hofstetter, Anne-Kathrin Rausch-Osthoff, André Meichtry, Thomas Münzer, Karin Niedermann
Multicomponent interventions (MCT) combine physical exercises and cognitive training and seem to be most effective in improving cognition in elderly people. However, literature is inconclusive if MCTs are superior to active comparison interventions, if delivery modes matter, and if people can transfer achieved effects to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). This network meta-analysis aimed to a) identify MCTs that were effective on physical capacity and/or cognitive function and able to transfer these effects into IADL in elderly people with normal cognition (NC) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI); b) provide a rating on the best interventions per outcome; c) evaluate MCTs' mode of delivery...
April 18, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630951/the-multiple-functions-of-melatonin-in-regenerative-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Russel J Reiter, Seyed Kazem Shakouri, Iraj Mohebbi, Mojgan Rastegar, Mojtaba Kaviani, Saber Ghazizadeh Darband, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Bahman Yousefi
Melatonin research has been experiencing hyper growth in the last two decades; this relates to its numerous physiological functions including anti-inflammation, oncostasis, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity. Recently, a large number of studies have focused on the role of melatonin in the regeneration of cells or tissues after their partial loss. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on the molecular involvement of melatonin in the regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others...
April 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630950/auditory-system-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease-and-its-prodromal-states-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Gabriel M Swords, Lydia T Nguyen, Raksha A Mudar, Daniel A Llano
Recent findings suggest that both peripheral and central auditory system dysfunction occur in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and therefore may represent early indicators of the disease. In addition, loss of auditory function itself leads to communication difficulties, social isolation and poor quality of life for both patients with AD and their caregivers. Developing a greater understanding of auditory dysfunction in early AD may shed light on the mechanisms of disease progression and carry diagnostic and therapeutic importance...
April 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580920/beyond-ros-clearance-peroxiredoxins-in-stress-signaling-and-aging
#10
REVIEW
Giel Detienne, Wouter De Haes, Lucas Mergan, Samantha L Edwards, Liesbet Temmerman, Sven Van Bael
Antioxidants were long predicted to have lifespan-promoting effects, but in general this prediction has not been well supported. While some antioxidants do seem to have a clear effect on longevity, this may not be primarily as a result of their role in the removal of reactive oxygen species, but rather mediated by other mechanisms such as the modulation of intracellular signaling. In this review we discuss peroxiredoxins, a class of proteinaceous antioxidants with redox signaling and chaperone functions, and their involvement in regulating longevity and stress resistance...
March 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580919/sirtuins-in-mitochondrial-stress-indispensable-helpers-behind-the-scenes
#11
REVIEW
Shuangzhe Lin, Haiping Xing, Tongtong Zang, Xin Ruan, Lulu Wo, Ming He
Mitochondria play an essential part in guaranteeing normal cellular physiological functions through providing ATP and participating in diverse processes and signaling pathways. Recently, more and more studies have revealed the vital roles of mitochondria in coping with stressors in the aging process, metabolic disturbances and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial stress responses, including the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt ), antioxidant defense, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy, are induced to maintain cellular integrity in response to stress...
March 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580918/pgc-1%C3%AE-sparks-the-fire-of-neuroprotection-against-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Jianjun Lv, Shuai Jiang, Zhi Yang, Wei Hu, Zheng Wang, Tian Li, Yang Yang
Recently, growing evidence has demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a superior transcriptional regulator that acts via controlling the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and uncoupling proteins and inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, which plays a beneficial part in the central nervous system (CNS). Given the significance of PGC-1α, we summarize the current literature on the molecular mechanisms and roles of PGC-1α in the CNS. Thus, in this review, we first briefly introduce the basic characteristics regarding PGC-1α...
March 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544875/epidemiological-and-clinical-significance-of-cognitive-frailty-a-mini-review
#13
REVIEW
Taiki Sugimoto, Takashi Sakurai, Rei Ono, Ai Kimura, Naoki Saji, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Liang-Kung Chen, Hidenori Arai
Since the operational definition of "cognitive frailty" was first proposed in 2013 by the International Academy of Nutrition and Aging and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, several studies have been carried out using this cognitive frailty model. In this review, we examined the available clinical and epidemiological evidence for cognitive frailty. Despite its low prevalence (1.0-1.8%) in the community setting, cognitive frailty has been associated with a high risk of disability, poor quality of life, and death; while cognitive frailty appears to be associated with a high risk of dementia, there is no clear evidence for this association...
March 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524596/the-neurochemistry-of-agitation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Kathy Y Liu, Aisling E Stringer, Suzanne J Reeves, Robert J Howard
OBJECTIVE: To provide an up-to-date systematic review of the characteristics, methodology and findings of studies that have investigated the neurochemistry of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for published peer-reviewed articles which provided data on any neurotransmitter system in relation to agitation in AD. Screening of titles and abstracts and data extraction from full texts were conducted in duplicate. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were included...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522820/interventional-programmes-to-improve-cognition-during-healthy-and-pathological-ageing-cortical-modulations-and-evidence-for-brain-plasticity
#15
REVIEW
Jesús Cespón, Carlo Miniussi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari
A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease)...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476819/role-of-sirtuin1-p53-regulatory-axis-in-aging-cancer-and-cellular-reprogramming
#16
REVIEW
Agnes L C Ong, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
Regulatory role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), one of the most extensively studied members of its kind in histone deacetylase family in governing multiple cellular fates, is predominantly linked to p53 activity. SIRT1 deacetylates p53 in a NAD+-dependent manner to inhibit transcription activity of p53, in turn modulate pathways that are implicated in regulation of tissue homoeostasis and many disease states. In this review, we discuss the role of SIRT1-p53 pathway and its regulatory axis in the cellular events which are implicated in cellular aging, cancer and reprogramming...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452267/git2-a-keystone-in-ageing-and-age-related-disease
#17
REVIEW
Jaana van Gastel, Jan Boddaert, Areta Jushaj, Richard T Premont, Louis M Luttrell, Jonathan Janssens, Bronwen Martin, Stuart Maudsley
Since its discovery, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2, GIT2, and its family member, GIT1, have received considerable interest concerning their potential key roles in regulating multiple inter-connected physiological and pathophysiological processes. GIT2 was first identified as a multifunctional protein that is recruited to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) during the process of receptor internalization. Recent findings have demonstrated that perhaps one of the most important effects of GIT2 in physiology concerns its role in controlling multiple aspects of the complex ageing process...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452266/healthy-brain-aging-interplay-between-reactive-species-inflammation-and-energy-supply
#18
REVIEW
O Garaschuk, H M Semchyshyn, V I Lushchak
Brains' high energy expenditure with preferable utilization of glucose and ketone bodies, defines the specific features of its energy homeostasis. The extensive oxidative metabolism is accompanied by a concomitant generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species, which will be here collectively referred to as RONCS. Such metabolism in combination with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids creates specific problems in maintaining brains' redox homeostasis. While the levels of products of interaction between RONCS and cellular components increase slowly during the first two trimesters of individuals' life, their increase is substantially accelerated towards the end of life...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427795/cellular-senescence-immunosurveillance-and-future-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Dominick G A Burton, Alexandra Stolzing
In response to persistent DNA damage, induction into cell senescence promotes an immunogenic program which facilitates immune clearance of these damaged cells. Under physiological conditions, senescent cells can activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, functioning to maintain tissue homeostasis. In addition, emerging findings suggest that programmed induction of cell senescence may be important for regulating reproductive processes, partly facilitated by immune clearance. However, likely owing to ageing of the immune system, a failure to eliminate senescent cells can contribute to their persistence in tissues, leading to the development and progression of age-related diseases...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408342/increasing-use-of-cognitive-measures-in-the-operational-definition-of-frailty-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
R Vella Azzopardi, I Beyer, S Vermeiren, M Petrovic, N Van Den Noortgate, I Bautmans, E Gorus
Ageing is associated both with frailty and cognitive decline. The quest for a unifying approach has led to a new concept: cognitive frailty. This systematic review explores the contribution of cognitive assessment in frailty operationalization. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched until December 2016 using the keywords aged; frail elderly; aged, 80 and over; frailty; diagnosis; risk assessment and classification, yielding 2863 hits. Seventy-nine articles were included, describing 94 frailty instruments...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
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