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Ageing Research Reviews

Andrea Correa-Pérez, Iosef Abraha, Antonio Cherubini, Avril Collinson, Dominique Dardevet, Lisette Cpgm de Groot, Marian A E de van der Schueren, Antje Hebestreit, Mary Hickson, Javier Jaramillo-Hidalgo, Isabel Lozano-Montoya, Denis O'Mahony, Roy L Soiza, Marjolein Visser, Dorothee Volkert, Maike Wolters, Alfonso J Cruz Jentoft
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to perform a review of SRs of non-pharmacological interventions in older patients with well-defined malnutrition using relevant outcomes agreed by a broad panel of experts. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and CINHAL databases were searched for SRs. Primary studies from those SRs were included. Quality assessment was undertaken using Cochrane and GRADE criteria. RESULTS: Eighteen primary studies from seventeen SRs were included...
November 1, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
E A Ostrakhovitch, S Tabibzadeh
There are numerous theories of aging, a process which still seems inevitable. Aging leads to cancer and multi-systemic disorders as well as chronic diseases including those that impair the functions of endothelial cells, kidney and lung. Decline in age- associated cellular functions leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline that affect the quality of life. Accumulation of damage, mutations, metabolic changes, failure in cellular energy production and clearance of altered proteins over the lifetime, and hyperhomocysteinemia, ultimately result in tissue degeneration...
November 1, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Siranjeevi Nagaraj, Katarzyna Marta Zoltowska, Katarzyna Laskowska-Kaszub, Urszula Wojda
microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Their profiles have been analyzed in blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue. However, due to the high variability between the reported data, stemming from the lack of methodological standardization and the heterogeneity of AD, the most promising miRNA biomarker candidates have not been selected. Our literature review shows that out of 137 miRNAs found to be altered in AD blood, 36 have been replicated in at least one independent study, and out of 166 miRNAs reported as differential in AD CSF, 13 have been repeatedly found...
November 1, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Aline Carla Araújo Carvalho, Mário Luis Tavares Mendes, Victor Santana Santos, Diego Moura Tanajura, Marco Antônio Prado Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins-Filho
Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to environmental factors. Several studies have examined the association between persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and poor clinical outcomes in the elderly, but the results are often contradictory. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the association between human herpesvirus seropositivity [CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Herpes simplex virus (HSV)] and frailty in elderly people...
October 31, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Arjen Mol, Esmee M Reijnierse, Phuong Thanh Silvie Bui Hoang, Richard J A van Wezel, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) may negatively affect physical functioning and aggravate morbidities, but existing evidence is contradictory. METHODS: MEDLINE (from 1946), PubMed (from 1966) and EMBASE databases (from 1947) were systematically searched for studies on the association of OH and physical functioning in older adults, categorized as: balance, gait characteristics, walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, handgrip strength (HGS), physical frailty, exercise tolerance, physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL), and performance on the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)...
October 28, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Eri Toda Kato, Shinya Goto, Robert P Giugliano
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an age-related arrhythmia, particularly affecting elderly patients. The ultimate goals in the treatment of AF are to improve prognosis and quality of life. Anticoagulants are effective for stroke prevention in AF patients, however, managing anticoagulation in elderly patients is especially challenging; requiring a comprehensive assessment of the patient and deep understanding of available therapies and doses to maximize the net benefit. This review summarizes available evidence on the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation therapy, and provides contemporary updates on the management of elderly patients with AF...
October 22, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Zhao Chen, Jorge Sequeiros, Beisha Tang, Hong Jiang
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases. Expansion size correlates with age-at-onset (AO) and severity, and shows a critical threshold for each polyQ disease. Although an expanded CAG tract is sufficient to trigger disease, not all variation in AO is explained by (CAG)n length, which suggests the contribution of other modifying factors. Methods used to identify genetic modifiers in polyQ diseases have progressed from candidate genes to unbiased genome-wide searches...
October 21, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Jay Jay Thaung Zaw, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Rachel Heloise Xiwen Wong
Menopause is a critical period during which, without timely interventions, increased risks of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction and premature cognitive decline will contribute to diminished quality-of-life in women. Hormone therapy (HT) used to be the standard of care for managing vasomotor symptoms and prevention of chronic diseases until publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002. Concerned about risks highlighted in WHI publications, many symptomatic women promptly ceased HT which resulted in increased vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis-related-fractures and insomnia...
October 21, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Francesco Prattichizzo, Angelica Giuliani, Emanuela Mensà, Jacopo Sabbatinelli, Valeria De Nigris, Maria Rita Rippo, Lucia La Sala, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Fabiola Olivieri, Antonio Ceriello
Metformin is the first-choice therapy to lower glycaemia and manage type 2 diabetes. Continuously emerging epidemiological data and experimental models are showing additional protective effects of metformin against a number of age-related diseases (ARDs), e.g., cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This evidence has prompted the design of a specific trial, i.e., the Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) trial, to test metformin as an anti-ageing molecule. However, a unifying or prevailing mechanism of action of metformin is still debated...
October 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Rosy Wang, R M Damian Holsinger
Emerging evidence indicates that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is positively correlated with cognitive function and memory. However, the exact mechanisms underlying such improvements remain unclear. Recent research in animal models allows proposition of a pathway in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator. This perspective draws upon evidence from animal and human studies to highlight such a mechanism whereby exercise drives synthesis and accumulation of neuroactive metabolites such as myokines and ketone bodies in the periphery and in the hippocampus to enhance BDNF expression...
October 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Jack Sullivan, Leda Mirbahai, Janet M Lord
It is well established that numerous factors can affect the rate at which we age biologically. Diet, physical activity, lifestyle and our genes all play a major role in influencing the ageing trajectory and longevity. Major trauma affects millions globally, is the major cause of death in young adults and could influence ageing processes but has largely been ignored by biogenterologists. The long-term health consequences of physical trauma are well known in the medical community, how trauma effects the ageing process at a molecular level is not...
October 11, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Karan R Chadda, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
An ageing myocardium possesses significant electrophysiological alterations that predisposes the elderly patient to arrhythmic risk. Whilst these alterations are intrinsic to the cardiac myocytes, they are modulated by the cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consequently, ageing of the cardiac ANS is fundamental to the development of arrhythmias. A systems-based approach that incorporates the influence of the cardiac ANS could lead to better mechanistic understanding of how arrhythmogenic triggers and substrates interact spatially and temporally to produce sustained arrhythmia and why its incidence increases with age...
October 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Paola Simeone, Andrea Boccatonda, Rossella Liani, Francesca Santilli
Platelet activation plays a key role in atherogenesis and atherothrombosis. Biochemical evidence of increased platelet activation in vivo can be reliably obtained through non-invasive measurement of thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion. Persistent biosynthesis of TXA2 has been associated with several ageing-related diseases, including acute and chronic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic inflammatory diseases...
September 29, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Joanna Gerszon, Aleksandra Rodacka
A number of independent studies have shown the contribution of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, GAPDH aggregates have been found in many post-mortem samples of brains of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and Parkinson disease. Currently, it is accepted that GAPDH-mediated cell death pathways in the neurodegenerative processes are associated with apoptosis caused by GAPDH nuclear translocation and excessive aggregation under oxidative stress conditions...
September 22, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Qi Wang, Yiqiang Zhan, Nancy L Pedersen, Fang Fang, Sara Hägg
Telomere attrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of various age-related diseases. Reports of association between telomere length (TL) and all-cause mortality remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed using published cohort studies and un-published data from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). Twenty-five studies were included: four STR cohorts (12,083 individuals with 2517 deaths) and 21 published studies. In the STR studies, one standard deviation (SD) decrement of leukocyte TL corresponded to 13% increased all-cause mortality risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7%-19%); individuals in the shortest TL quarter had 44% higher hazard (95% CI: 27%-63%) than those in the longest quarter...
September 22, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
A chronic low-grade inflammation is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. This gradually augmenting inflammatory state has been termed inflammaging. Inflammaging is associated with increased myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. This myelopoiesis-biased process increases the generation not only of mature myeloid cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, but also immature myeloid progenitors and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). It is known that the aging process is associated with a significant increase in the presence of MDSCs in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes...
September 21, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Mohammad Bagherniya, Alexandra E Butler, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process and protective housekeeping mechanism to eliminate damaged organelles, long-lived misfolded proteins and invading pathogens. Autophagy functions to recycle building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis, allowing cells to adapt to stress. Modulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target for a diverse range of diseases, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and infectious diseases. Traditionally, food deprivation and calorie restriction (CR) have been considered to slow aging and increase longevity...
November 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Nicole A Guitar, Denise M Connelly, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Joseph B Orange, Susan W Muir-Hunter
Executive function deficit is an indicator of Alzheimer's-type dementia and manifests as disruptions of attentional control, memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and reasoning, among other cognitive problems. Physical exercise is suggested to have a protective effect on global cognition with aging. However, whether it influences executive function in people living with Alzheimer's-type dementia specifically is unknown. The current systematic review examined the efficacy of physical exercise on executive function performance in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia...
November 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Maryam Majidinia, Russel J Reiter, Seyed Kazem Shakouri, Bahman Yousefi
Biological ageing is generally accompanied by a gradual loss of cellular functions and physiological integrity of organ systems, the consequential enhancement of vulnerability, senescence and finally death. Mechanisms which underlie ageing are primarily attributed to an array of diverse but related factors including free radical-induced damage, dysfunction of mitochondria, disruption of circadian rhythms, inflammaging, genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, deregulated sensing of nutrients, epigenetic alterations, altered intercellular communication, and decreased capacity for tissue repair...
November 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Ana Luisa Cardoso, Adelaide Fernandes, Juan Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Joana Ribeiro Guedes, Maria Alexandra Brito, Saida Ortolano, Giovambattista Pani, Sophia Athanasopoulou, Efstathios S Gonos, Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Pärt Peterson, Bilge Guvenc Tuna, Soner Dogan, Angelika Meyer, Ronald van Os, Anne-Ulrike Trendelenburg
OBJECTIVE: Use of the frailty index to measure an accumulation of deficits has been proven a valuable method for identifying elderly people at risk for increased vulnerability, disease, injury, and mortality. However, complementary molecular frailty biomarkers or ideally biomarker panels have not yet been identified. We conducted a systematic search to identify biomarker candidates for a frailty biomarker panel. METHODS: Gene expression databases were searched (http://genomics...
November 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
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