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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288112/the-genetics-of-parkinson-disease
#1
REVIEW
Hao Deng, Peng Wang, Joseph Jankovic
About 15% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have family history and 5-10% have a monogenic form of the disease with Mendelian inheritance. To date, at least 23 loci and 19 disease-causing genes for parkinsonism have been found, but many more genetic risk loci and variants for sporadic PD phenotype have been identified in various association studies. Investigating the mutated protein products has uncovered potential pathogenic pathways that provide insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration in familial and sporadic PD...
December 26, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258883/cartilage-regeneration-and-ageing-targeting-cellular-plasticity-in-osteoarthritis
#2
REVIEW
Marta Varela-Eirin, Jesus Loureiro, Eduardo Fonseca, Silvia Corrochano, Jose R Caeiro, Manuel Collado, Maria D Mayan
Ageing processes play a major contributing role for the development of Osteoarthritis (OA). This prototypic degenerative condition of ageing is the most common form of arthritis and is accompanied by a general decline, chronic pain and mobility deficits. The disease is primarily characterized by articular cartilage degradation, followed by subchondral bone thickening, osteophyte formation, synovial inflammation and joint degeneration. In the early stages, osteoarthritic chondrocytes undergo phenotypic changes that increase cell proliferation and cluster formation and enhance the production of matrix-remodelling enzymes...
December 16, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248758/poor-cognitive-ageing-vulnerabilities-mechanisms-and-the-impact-of-nutritional-interventions
#3
REVIEW
Sophie Miquel, Claire Champ, Jon Day, Esther Aarts, Ben A Bahr, Martijntje Bakker, Diána Bánáti, Vittorio Calabrese, Tommy Cederholm, John Cryan, Louise Dye, Jonathan A Farrimond, Aniko Korosi, Sophie Layé, Stuart Maudsley, Dragan Milenkovic, M Hasan Mohajeri, John Sijben, Alina Solomon, Jeremy P E Spencer, Sandrine Thuret, Wim Vanden Berghe, David Vauzour, Bruno Vellas, Keith Wesnes, Peter Willatts, Raphael Wittenberg, Lucie Geurts
BACKGROUND: Ageing is a highly complex process marked by a temporal cascade of events, which promote alterations in the normal functioning of an individual organism. The triggers of normal brain ageing are not well understood, even less so the factors which initiate and steer the neuronal degeneration, which underpin disorders such as dementia. A wealth of data on how nutrients and diets may support cognitive function and preserve brain health are available, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological action in both normal ageing, age-related cognitive decline, and in the development of neurodegenerative disorders have not been clearly elucidated...
December 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247713/role-of-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-diabetic-encephalopathy
#4
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Mingchao Li, Zuo Zhang, Yun Ye, Jiyin Zhou
In the central nervous system, the primary immune cells, the microglia, prevent pathogenic invasion as the first line of defense. Microglial energy consumption is dependent on their degree of activity. Microglia express transporters for the three primary energy substrates (glucose, fatty acids, glutamine) and regulate diabetic encephalopathy via microglia-neuron interactions. Microglia may play a sentry role for rapid protection or even ablation of impaired neurons. Neurons exhibit hyperactivity in response to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and neurotoxic factors and release potential microglial activators...
December 13, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246541/autobiographical-memory-the-ageing-brain-and-mechanisms-of-psychological-interventions
#5
REVIEW
Andrew P Allen, Caoilainn Doyle, Seán Commins, Richard A P Roche
Elucidating the impact of healthy cognitive ageing and dementia on autobiographical memory (AM) may help deepen our theoretical understanding of memory and underlying neural changes. The distinction between episodic and semantic autobiographical memory is particularly informative in this regard. Psychological interventions, particularly those involving reminiscence or music, have led to differential effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory. We propose that executive function is a key mediator of psychological therapies on autobiographical memory...
December 12, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233786/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-igf-1-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-decline-in-normal-ageing-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Julanne Frater, David Lie, Perry Bartlett, John J McGrath
Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and its signaling pathway play a primary role in normal growth and ageing, however serum IGF-1 is known to reduce with advancing age. Recent findings suggest IGF-1 is essential for neurogenesis in the adult brain, and this reduction of IGF-1 with ageing may contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Experimental studies have shown manipulation of the GH/GF-1 axis can slow rates of cognitive decline in animals, making IGF-1 a potential biomarker of cognition, and/or its signaling pathway a possible therapeutic target to prevent or slow age-related cognitive decline...
December 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208544/mandibuloacral-dysplasia-a-premature-ageing-disease-with-aspects-of-physiological-ageing
#7
REVIEW
Vittoria Cenni, Maria Rosaria D'Apice, Paolo Garagnani, Marta Columbaro, Giuseppe Novelli, Claudio Franceschi, Giovanna Lattanzi
Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is a rare genetic condition characterized by bone abnormalities including localized osteolysis and generalized osteoporosis, skin pigmentation, lipodystrophic signs and mildly accelerated ageing. The molecular defects associated with MAD are mutations in LMNA or ZMPSTE24 (FACE1) gene, causing type A or type B MAD, respectively. Downstream of LMNA or ZMPSTE24 mutations, the lamin A precursor, prelamin A, is accumulated in cells and affects chromatin dynamics and stress response...
December 2, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146545/werner-syndrome-wrn-gene-variants-and-their-association-with-altered-function-and-age-associated-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Michel Lebel, Raymond J Monnat
Werner syndrome (WS) is a heritable autosomal recessive human disorder characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies including cancer. The protein defective in WS patients, WRN, is encoded by a member of the human RECQ gene family that contains both a DNA exonuclease and a helicase domain. WRN has been shown to participate in several DNA metabolic pathways including DNA replication, recombination and repair, as well as telomere maintenance and transcription modulation. Here we review base pair-level genetic variation that has been documented in WRN, with an emphasis on non-synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their associations with anthropomorphic features, longevity and disease risk...
November 14, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138094/foxo1-3-potential-suppressors-of-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Zhenlong Xin, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Shuai Jiang, Zhi Yang, Tian Li, Fulin Chen, Guozhan Jia, Yang Yang
Fibrosis is a universally age-related disease that involves nearly all organs. It is typically initiated by organic injury and eventually results in organ failure. There are still few effective therapeutic strategy targets for fibrogenesis. Forkhead box proteins O1 and O3 (FOXO1/3) have been shown to have favorable inhibitory effects on fibroblast activation and subsequent extracellular matrix production and can ameliorate fibrosis levels in numerous organs, including the heart, liver, lung, and kidney; they are therefore promising targets for anti-fibrosis therapy...
November 11, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113832/connecting-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-dysfunction-to-cellular-senescence
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Moreno-Blas, Elisa Gorostieta-Salas, Susana Castro-Obregón
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is one of the main pathways of the lysosome-autophagy proteolytic system. It regulates different cellular process through the selective degradation of cytosolic proteins. In ageing, the function of CMA is impaired causing an inefficient stress response and the accumulation of damaged, oxidized or misfolded proteins, which is associated with numerous age-related diseases. Deficient protein degradation alters cellular proteostasis and activates signaling pathways that culminate in the induction of cellular senescence, whose accumulation is a typical feature of ageing...
November 4, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102726/differential-gene-expression-analysis-in-ageing-muscle-and-drug-discovery-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Aicha Melouane, Abdelaziz Ghanemi, Simon Aubé, Mayumi Yoshioka, Jonny St-Amand
Identifying therapeutic target genes represents the key step in functional genomics-based therapies. Within this context, the disease heterogeneity, the exogenous factors and the complexity of genomic structure and function represent important challenges. The functional genomics aims to overcome such obstacles via identifying the gene functions and therefore highlight disease-causing genes as therapeutic targets. Genomic technologies promise to reshape the research on ageing muscle, exercise response and drug discovery...
November 2, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101043/the-influence-and-impact-of-ageing-and-immunosenescence-isc-on-adaptive-immunity-during-multiple-sclerosis-ms-and-the-animal-counterpart-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#12
REVIEW
Christopher Bolton, Paul A Smith
The human ageing process encompasses mechanisms that effect a decline in homeostasis with increased susceptibility to disease and the development of chronic life-threatening illness. Increasing age affects the immune system which undergoes a progressive loss of efficiency, termed immunosenescence (ISC), to impact on quantitative and functional aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. The human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the corresponding animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are strongly governed by immunological events that primarily involve the adaptive arm of the immune response...
October 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081381/inflammageing-and-metaflammation-the-yin-and-yang-of-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Prattichizzo, Valeria De Nigris, Rosangela Spiga, Elettra Mancuso, Lucia La Sala, Roberto Antonicelli, Roberto Testa, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Fabiola Olivieri, Antonio Ceriello
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised by chronic low-grade inflammation, recently referred to as 'metaflammation', a relevant factor contributing to the development of both diabetes and its complications. Nonetheless, 'canonical' anti-inflammatory drugs do not yield satisfactory results in terms of prevention of diabetes progression and of cardiovascular events, suggesting that the causal mechanisms fostering metaflammation deserve further research to identify new druggable targets. Metaflammation resembles ageing-induced low-grade inflammation, previously referred to as inflammageing, in terms of clinical presentation and the molecular profile, pointing to a common aetiology for both conditions...
October 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106993/the-role-of-cellular-senescence-in-aging-through-the-prism-of-koch-like-criteria
#14
REVIEW
Hagai Yanai, Vadim E Fraifeld
Since Hayflick's discovery of cellular senescence (CS), a great volume of knowledge in the field has been accumulated and intensively discussed. Here, we attempted to organize the evidence "for" and "against" the hypothesized causal role of CS in aging. For that purpose, we utilized robust Koch-like logical criteria, based on the assumption that some quantitative relationships between the accumulation of senescent cells and aging rate should exist. If so, it could be expected that (i) the "CS load" would be greater in the premature aging phenotype and lesser in longevity phenotype; (ii) CS would promote age-related diseases, and (iii) the interventions that modulate the levels of senescent cells should also modulate health/lifespan...
October 26, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017893/chronic-inflammation-inflammaging-in-the-ageing-cochlea-a-novel-target-for-future-presbycusis-therapy
#15
Nathan Watson, Bo Ding, Xiaoxia Zhu, Robert D Frisina
Chronic, low-grade inflammation, or inflammaging, is a crucial contributor to various age-related pathologies and natural processes in aging tissue, including the nervous system. Over the past two decades, much effort has been done to understand the mechanisms of inflammaging in disease models such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. However, despite being the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, the number one communication disorder, and one of the top three chronic medical conditions of our aged population; little research has been conducted on the potential role of inflammation in age-related hearing loss (ARHL)...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993289/sirt1-and-parp1-as-epigenome-safeguards-and-micrornas-as-sasp-associated-signals-in-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#16
REVIEW
Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Ali Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mohamad Reza Zare-Khormizi, Fatemeh Pourrajab
Cellular senescence (CS) is underlying mechanism of organism aging and is closely interconnected with age-related diseases (ARDs). Thus, any attempt that influences CS, may be undertaken to reverse or inhibit senescence, whereby could prolong healthy life span. Until now, two main proposes are epigenetic and genetic modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns rejuvenation through effective reprogramming in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients, by which is effective in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986235/alpha-synuclein-epigenetics-mitochondria-metabolism-calcium-traffic-circadian-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrated-strategy-for-management
#17
REVIEW
Oliver T Phillipson
The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941639/the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-alzheimer-disease-etiology-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Stefan Jevtic, Ameet S Sengar, Michael W Salter, JoAnne McLaurin
The immune system is now considered a major factor in Alzheimer Disease (AD). This review seeks to demonstrate how various aspects of the immune system, both in the brain and peripherally, interact to contribute to AD. We highlight classical nervous system immune components, such as complement and microglia, as well as novel aspects of the peripheral immune system that can influence disease, such as monocytes and lymphocytes. By detailing the roles of various immune cells in AD, we summarize an emerging perspective for disease etiology and future therapeutic targets...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923312/autophagy-its-mechanisms-and-regulation-implications-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Emad Ghobadi, Marjan Fallah, Shima Rasouli, Mohammad Abdollahi
Autophagy is a major regulatory cellular mechanism which gives the cell an ability to cope with some of the destructive events that normally occur within a metabolically living cell. This is done by maintaining the cellular homeostasis, clearance of damaged organelles and proteins and recycling necessary molecules like amino acids and fatty acids. There is a wide array of factors that influence autophagy in the state of health and disease. Disruption of these mechanisms may not only give rise to several autophagy-related disease, but also it can occur as the result of intracellular changes induced during disease pathogenesis causing exacerbation of the disease...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912076/positive-effects-of-combined-cognitive-and-physical-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
E G A (Esther) Karssemeijer, J A (Justine) Aaronson, W J (Willem) Bossers, T (Tara) Smits, M G M (Marcel) Olde Rikkert, R P C (Roy) Kessels
Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI or dementia. Ten randomized controlled trials that applied a combined cognitive-physical intervention with cognitive function as an outcome measure were included. For each study effect sizes were computed (i.e., post-intervention standardized mean difference (SMD) scores) and pooled, using a random-effects meta-analysis...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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