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Ageing Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709692/ampk-orchestrates-an-elaborate-cascade-protecting-tissue-from-fibrosis-and-aging
#1
REVIEW
Shuai Jiang, Tian Li, Zhi Yang, Wei Yi, Shouyin Di, Yang Sun, Dongjin Wang, Yang Yang
Fibrosis is a common process characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation after inflammatory injury, which is also a crucial cause of aging. The process of fibrosis is involved in the pathogenesis of most diseases of the heart, liver, kidney, lung, and other organs/tissues. However, there are no effective therapies for this pathological alteration. Annually, fibrosis represents a huge financial burden for the USA and the world. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal energy sensor that alleviates or delays the process of fibrogenesis...
July 11, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689042/historical-demography-and-longevity-genetics-back-to-the-future
#2
REVIEW
Niels van den Berg, Marian Beekman, Ken Robert Smith, Angelique Janssens, Pieternella Eline Slagboom
Research into the genetic component of human longevity can provide important insights in mechanisms that may protect against age-related diseases and multi-morbidity. Thus far only a limited number of robust longevity loci have been detected in either candidate or genome wide association studies. One of the issues in these genetic studies is the definition of the trait being either lifespan, including any age at death or longevity, i.e. survival above a diverse series of thresholds. Likewise heritability and segregation research have conflated lifespan with longevity...
July 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676286/a-viewpoint-on-considering-physiological-principles-to-study-stress-resistance-and-resilience-with-aging
#3
REVIEW
Benjamin F Miller, Douglas R Seals, Karyn L Hamilton
Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience.
July 1, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648951/physical-activity-and-healthy-ageing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-cohort-studies
#4
REVIEW
C Daskalopoulou, B Stubbs, C Kralj, A Koukounari, M Prince, A M Prina
BACKGROUND: Older people constitute a significant proportion of the total population and their number is projected to increase by more than half by 2030. This increasing probability of late survival comes with considerable individual, economic and social impact. Physical activity (PA) can influence the ageing process but the specific relationship with healthy ageing (HA) is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies examining the associations of PA with HA...
June 23, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610949/calorie-restriction-in-rodents-caveats-to-consider
#5
REVIEW
Donald K Ingram, Rafael de Cabo
The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward...
June 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456680/splicing-regulatory-factors-ageing-and-age-related-disease
#6
REVIEW
Eva Latorre, Lorna W Harries
Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases...
April 26, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450269/in-vivo-prion-models-and-the-disconnection-between-transmissibility-and-neurotoxicity
#7
REVIEW
Matteo Senesi, Victoria Lewis, Jee H Kim, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein, Steven J Collins
The primary causative event in the development of prion diseases is the misfolding of the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into an ensemble of altered conformers (herein collectively denoted as PrP(Sc)) that accumulate in the brain. Prominent amongst currently unresolved key aspects underpinning prion disease pathogenesis is whether transmission and toxicity are sub-served by different molecular species of PrP(Sc), which may directly impact on the development of effective targeted treatments. The use of murine models of prion disease has been of fundamental importance for probing the relationship between hypothesised "neurotoxic" and "transmissible" PrP(Sc) and the associated kinetic profiles of their production during disease evolution, but unfortunately consensus has not been achieved...
April 24, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647612/evolution-of-human-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-isoforms-gene-structure-protein-function-and-interaction-with-dietary-factors
#8
REVIEW
Patricia Huebbe, Gerald Rimbach
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a member of the vertebrate protein family of exchangeable apolipoproteins that is characterized by amphipathic α-helices encoded by multiple nucleotide tandem repeats. Its equivalent in flying insects - apolipophorin-III - shares structural and functional commonalities with APOE, suggesting the possibility of an evolutionary relationship between the proteins. In contrast to all other known species, human APOE is functionally polymorphic and possesses three major allelic variants (ε4, ε3 and ε2)...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624530/the-emerging-role-of-wnt-signaling-dysregulation-in-the-understanding-and-modification-of-age-associated-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway that participates in multiple aspects of cellular function during development and in adults. In particular, this pathway has been implicated in cell fate determination, proliferation and cell polarity establishment. In the brain, it contributes to synapse formation, axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. The expression and distribution of Wnt components in different organs vary with age, which may have important implications for preserving tissue homeostasis...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587957/role-of-physical-exercise-on-cognitive-function-in-healthy-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Mikel López Sáez de Asteasu, Nicolás Martínez-Velilla, Fabricio Zambom-Ferraresi, Álvaro Casas-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo
Cognitive impairment has a harmful effect on quality of life, is associated with functional limitations and disability in older adults. Physical activity (PA) has shown to have beneficial effects on cognition but the results and conclusions of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are less consistent. Update of knowledge was necessary to examine the effects on cognitive function of new training modalities developed in recent years, such as multicomponent exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the role of multicomponent training versus aerobic or resistance training alone on cognition in healthy older adults (>65 years) without known cognitive impairment...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579130/vascular-aging-molecular-mechanisms-and-potential-treatments-for-vascular-rejuvenation
#11
REVIEW
Panagiotis Mistriotis, Stelios T Andreadis
Aging is the main risk factor contributing to vascular dysfunction and the progression of vascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the causes and mechanisms of vascular aging at the tissue and cellular level. We focus on Endothelial Cell (EC) and Smooth Muscle Cell (SMC) aging due to their critical role in mediating the defective vascular phenotype. We elaborate on two categories that contribute to cellular dysfunction: cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors reflect systemic or environmental changes which alter EC and SMC homeostasis compromising vascular function...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552720/remote-tissue-conditioning-an-emerging-approach-for-inducing-body-wide-protection-against-diseases-of-ageing
#12
REVIEW
Boaz Kim, Alice Brandli, John Mitrofanis, Jonathan Stone, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Daniel M Johnstone
We have long accepted that exercise is 'good for us'; that - put more rigorously - moderate exercise is associated with not just aerobic fitness but also reduced morbidity and reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease and even malignancies. Caloric restriction (moderate hunger) and our exposure to dietary phytochemicals are also emerging as stresses which are 'good for us' in the same sense. This review focuses on an important extension of this concept: that stress localized within the body (e.g. in a limb) can induce resilience in tissues throughout the body...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552719/regulation-of-longevity-by-fgf21-interaction-between-energy-metabolism-and-stress-responses
#13
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511964/evidence-on-multimorbidity-from-definition-to-intervention-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#14
REVIEW
Xiaolin Xu, Gita D Mishra, Mark Jones
The increasing challenge of multiple chronic diseases (multimorbidity) requires more evidence-based knowledge and effective practice. In order to better understand the existing evidence on multimorbidity, we performed a systematic review of systematic reviews on multimorbidity with pre-established search strategies and exclusion criteria by searching multiple databases and grey literature. Of 8006 articles found, 53 systematic reviews (including meta-analysis and qualitative research synthesis performed in some reviews) that stated multimorbidity as the main focus were included, with 79% published during 2013-2016...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499883/the-role-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-development-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#15
REVIEW
V López, A F Fernández, M F Fraga
DNA methylation at the fifth position of cytosines (5mC) represents a major epigenetic modification in mammals. The recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting from 5mC oxidation, is redefining our view of the epigenome, as multiple studies indicate that 5hmC is not simply an intermediate of DNA demethylation, but a genuine epigenetic mark that may play an important functional role in gene regulation. Currently, the availability of platforms that discriminates between the presence of 5mC and 5hmC at single-base resolution is starting to shed light on the functions of 5hmC...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487242/oxidative-stress-genomic-features-and-dna-repair-in-frail-elderly-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
María Sánchez-Flores, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Solange Costa, João Paulo Teixeira, Stefano Bonassi, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by higher vulnerability to stressors, with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, disability, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Although it is generally recognized to have a biological basis, no particular biological trait has been consistently associated to frailty status so far. In this work, epidemiological studies evaluating association of frailty status with alterations at cellular level - namely oxidative stress, genomic instability and DNA damage and repair biomarkers -were revised and compared...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487241/influence-of-anaerobic-and-aerobic-exercise-on-age-related-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Michel Bernier, Gloria Brea-Calvo, Rafael de Cabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457933/circuit-resistance-training-is-an-effective-means-to-enhance-muscle-strength-in-older-and-middle-aged-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Assaf Buch, Ofer Kis, Eli Carmeli, Lital Keinan-Boker, Yitshal Berner, Yael Barer, Gabi Shefer, Yonit Marcus, Naftali Stern
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is proven treatment to reduce the accelerated decline in muscle strength exhibited by older adults, but its effect is hindered by low adherence rate, even under well-structured programs. OBJECTIVE AND DATA SOURCES: We investigated the efficacy of circuit resistance training (CRT) on muscle strength, lean mass and aerobic capacity in older adults based on report in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836705/arterial-ageing-major-nutritional-and-life-style-effects
#19
REVIEW
Theodore G Papaioannou, Kalliopi Karatzi, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Arterial ageing is a key mechanism underling the development and progression of cardiovascular (CV) and other diseases. New technologies allow the non-invasive assessement of various biomechanical and biological aspects of arterial ageing. We discuss a few major factors in respect to arterial ageing pathophysiology, methods of assessment and some important nutritional and life-style parameters that substantially affect arterial ageing.
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414155/recent-advances-in-cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-a-promising-opportunity-for-the-treatment-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#20
REVIEW
Miren Revuelta, Francisco Santaolalla, Olatz Arteaga, Antonia Alvarez, Ana Sánchez-Del-Rey, Enrique Hilario
The objective of this paper is to review current information regarding the treatment of age-related hearing loss by using cochlear hair cell regeneration. Recent advances in the regeneration of the inner ear, including the usefulness of stem cells, are also presented. Based on the current literature, cochlear cell regeneration may well be possible in the short term and cochlear gene therapy may also be useful for the treatment of hearing loss associated with ageing. The present review provide further insight into the pathogenesis of Inner Ear senescence and aged-related hearing loss and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to repair hair cells damaged by ageing...
July 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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