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Lab on a Chip

Jiandong Wu, Aditya Kumar-Kanojia, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch, Thomas Klonisch, Francis Lin
Chemotaxis plays a fundamental role in immune defense and cancer metastasis. Microfluidic devices are increasingly applied to studying chemotaxis, owing to their advantages of reduced reagent consumption, ability to control chemical gradients, tracking of individual cells, and quantification of chemotaxis. Many existing microfluidic chemotaxis devices suffer from limited throughput and complex operation. Here, we describe a microfluidic device with a radial channel design which allows for simultaneous chemotaxis tests of different cell types and different gradient conditions...
November 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Chin Hong Ooi, Jing Jin, Kamalalayam Rajan Sreejith, Anh V Nguyen, Geoffrey M Evans, Nam-Trung Nguyen
A liquid marble is a microliter-sized droplet coated with hydrophobic powder. The porous coating prevents the liquid content from being in direct physical contact with its surroundings, making the liquid marble perfectly non-wetting. On the one hand, the non-wetting ability allows the liquid marble to float and move across a liquid surface with little resistance. On the other hand, the porosity enables gas exchange between the liquid marble and its surroundings. These properties allow the liquid marble to serve as a bioreactor platform for important applications such as cell culture...
November 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Mohammadhossein Dabaghi, Neda Saraei, Gerhard Fusch, Niels Rochow, John L Brash, Christoph Fusch, P Ravi Selvaganapathy
Many neonates who are born premature suffer from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) for which mechanical ventilation and an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) device are used in treatment. However, the use of these invasive techniques results in higher risk of complications like bronchopulmonary dysplasia or requires surgery to gain vascular access. An alternative biomimetic approach is to use the umbilical cord as a vascular access and to connect a passive device to the baby that functions like a placenta...
November 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Coleman Murray, Hiromi Miwa, Manjima Dhar, Da Eun Park, Edward Pao, Jessica Martinez, Sireesha Kaanumale, Evelina Loghin, John Graf, Khadir Raddassi, William W Kwok, David Hafler, Chris Puleo, Dino Di Carlo
Correction for 'Unsupervised capture and profiling of rare immune cells using multi-directional magnetic ratcheting' by Coleman Murray et al., Lab Chip, 2018, 18, 2396-2409.
November 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Qingming Chen, Tenghao Li, Zhaohui Li, Chao Lu, Xuming Zhang
This paper reports an electrically reconfigurable optofluidic lens with two air-liquid (silicone oil) interfaces actuated by dielectrophoretic (DEP) force. Initially, a symmetric biconcave air-liquid lens is formed by the surface tension in a microfluidic chip. Then, the DEP force deforms the air-liquid interfaces from biconcave to biconvex, tuning the focal length from -0.5 mm to infinite to +0.5 mm. The wide tunability of the focal length results from the large refractive index difference (∼0.4 at the air-liquid interface), which is only 0...
November 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Rong Sun, Xi Chen, Chun-Ying Yin, Lei Qi, Pak-Ming Lau, Hua Han, Guo-Qiang Bi
Fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) is commonly used for localizing specific cellular and subcellular targets. Electron microscopy (EM), on the other hand, can reveal ultrastructural details of cellular architectures beyond the limit of optical resolution. Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) that combines the two techniques has proven valuable in various cell biological applications that require both specificity and resolution. Here, we report an efficient and easy-to-use CLEM system, and its applications in studying neuronal synapses...
November 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
R Ziblat, J C Weaver, L R Arriaga, S Chong, D A Weitz
While the specificity of protein-lipid interactions is a key feature in the function of biological membranes, studying the specifics of these interactions is challenging because most membrane proteins are insoluble in water due to the hydrophobic nature of their transmembrane domains (TMDs). Here, we introduce a method that overcomes this solubility limitation and identifies the affinity profile of protein TMDs to specific lipid formulations. Using 5 human TMDs as a sample group, our results demonstrate that TMDs are highly selective and that these specific lipid-TMD interactions can involve either a single lipid, or the combination of multiple lipid species...
November 8, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Lingqian Zhang, Mengping Wei, Linbo Shao, Mingli Li, Wangzhi Dai, Yaxuan Cui, Zhihong Li, Chen Zhang, Wei Wang
Parylene-C is a popular polymer material in biomedical applications, with excellent physicochemical properties and microfabrication capability. Like many aromatic polymers, parylene-C also has autofluorescence, which was usually taken as a negative background noise in biomedical detection studies. However, the fluorescence intensity of thin-film (<1 μm) parylene-C was relatively weak, which may be a big limitation in visualization. In this work, we reported a simple annealing method to significantly enhance the fluorescence and achieve sufficient intensity as a visual marker...
November 8, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Xiaoxing Xing, Chun Ning Ng, Ming Lok Chau, Levent Yobas
We demonstrate a unique microfluidic device for continuous-flow cell sorting by railing target cells along physical tracks (electrode sidewalls) based on the combined effect of dielectrophoresis and hydrodynamic drag. The tracks are the raised digits of comb-like structures made of conducting bulk silicon as the electrodes. Unlike other volumetric electrodes, the structures feature a segmented sidewall profile with linear and concave segments forming the tracks and supporting columns, respectively. The interdigitated bulk electrodes lead to a built-in flow chamber in which the digits (tracks) extend downstream at a characteristic angle with respect to the flow, which runs through the passages between the columns...
November 7, 2018: Lab on a Chip
S Karthick, P N Pradeep, P Kanchana, A K Sen
Label-free isolation of CTCs from blood is critical for the development of diagnostic and prognostic tools for cancer. Here, we report a label-free method based on acoustic impedance contrast for the isolation of CTCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a microchannel using acoustophoresis. We describe a method in which the acoustophoretic migration of PBMCs is arrested by matching their acoustic impedance with that of the sample medium, and CTCs that have different acoustic impedance compared to PBMCs migrate toward the pressure node or antinode and thus become isolated...
November 7, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Kamalalayam Rajan Sreejith, Chin Hong Ooi, Jing Jin, Dzung Viet Dao, Nam-Trung Nguyen
Digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) technology has remained a "hot topic" in the last two decades due to its potential applications in cell biology, genetic engineering, and medical diagnostics. Various advanced techniques have been reported on sample dispersion, thermal cycling and output monitoring of digital PCR. However, a fully automated, low-cost and handheld digital PCR platform has not been reported in the literature. This paper attempts to critically evaluate the recent developments in techniques for sample dispersion, thermal cycling and output evaluation for dPCR...
November 7, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Aude I Segaliny, Guideng Li, Lingshun Kong, Ci Ren, Xiaoming Chen, Jessica K Wang, David Baltimore, Guikai Wu, Weian Zhao
Adoptive T cell transfer, in particular TCR T cell therapy, holds great promise for cancer immunotherapy with encouraging clinical results. However, finding the right TCR T cell clone is a tedious, time-consuming, and costly process. Thus, there is a critical need for single cell technologies to conduct fast and multiplexed functional analyses followed by recovery of the clone of interest. Here, we use droplet microfluidics for functional screening and real-time monitoring of single TCR T cell activation upon recognition of target tumor cells...
November 6, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Yang Yang, Yong Zeng
Rapid, sensitive analysis of protein biomarkers is of tremendous biological and clinical significance. Immunoassays are workhorse tools for protein analysis and have been under continuous investigation to develop new methods and to improve the analytical performance. Herein we report a pneumatically gated microfluidic communicating vessel (μCOVE) chip for rapid and sensitive immunomagnetic ELISA. A distinct feature of our device is that it employs the communicating vessel principle as a simple means to generate a fast transient hydrodynamic flow to enable effective flow washing without the need for excessive incubation, which greatly simplifies and expedites the assay workflow, compared to conventional microfluidic flow-based immunoassays...
November 5, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Venktesh S Shirure, Ye Bi, Matthew B Curtis, Andrew Lezia, Madeleine M Goedegebuure, S Peter Goedegebuure, Rebecca Aft, Ryan C Fields, Steven C George
Most cancer treatment strategies target cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and intravasation of tumor cells in an attempt to limit tumor growth and metastasis. An in vitro platform to assess tumor progression and drug sensitivity could provide avenues to enhance our understanding of tumor metastasis as well as precision medicine. We present a microfluidic platform that mimics biological mass transport near the arterial end of a capillary in the tumor microenvironment. A central feature is a quiescent perfused 3D microvascular network created prior to loading tumor cells or patient-derived tumor organoids in an adjacent compartment...
November 5, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Zhihua Pu, Jiaan Tu, Ruixue Han, Xingguo Zhang, Jianwei Wu, Chao Fang, Hao Wu, Xiaoli Zhang, Haixia Yu, Dachao Li
A novel cylindrical flexible enzyme-electrode sensor was fabricated with a bigger working electrode (WE) surface than the traditional pin-like one for implantable continuous glucose monitoring. On the WE surface, a 3D nanostructure consisting of graphene and platinum nanoparticles was constructed to enhance the sensitivity; in conjunction with the bigger WE, this nanostructure enabled hypoglycemia detection, which is still a big challenge in clinics. The cylindrical sensor was fabricated by rotated inkjet printing which enabled direct patterning of microstructures on a curved surface, thus overcoming the restriction of the traditional planar micromachining by photolithography...
October 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Gopikrishnan G Meena, Aadhar Jain, Joshua W Parks, Alexandra Stambaugh, Jean L Patterson, Aaron R Hawkins, Holger Schmidt
Detection of molecular biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity from biological samples requires both sophisticated sample preparation and subsequent analysis. These tasks are often carried out on separate platforms which increases required sample volumes and the risk of errors, sample loss, and contamination. Here, we present an optofluidic platform which combines an optical detection section with single nucleic acid strand sensitivity, and a sample processing unit capable of on-chip, specific extraction and labeling of nucleic acid and protein targets in complex biological matrices...
October 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Maryam Navi, Niki Abbasi, Morteza Jeyhani, Vaskar Gnyawali, Scott S H Tsai
Droplet microfluidics enables cellular encapsulation for biomedical applications such as single-cell analysis, which is an important tool used by biologists to study cells on a single-cell level, and understand cellular heterogeneity in cell populations. However, most cell encapsulation strategies in microfluidics rely on random encapsulation processes, resulting in large numbers of empty droplets. Therefore, post-sorting of droplets is necessary to obtain samples of purely cell-encapsulating droplets. With the recent advent of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) as a biocompatible alternative of the conventional water-in-oil droplet systems for cellular encapsulation, there has also been a focus on integrating ATPS with droplet microfluidics...
October 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Witold Postek, Pawel Gargulinski, Ott Scheler, Tomasz S Kaminski, Piotr Garstecki
Measurement of antibiotic susceptibility at the level of single cells is important as it reveals the concentration of an antibiotic that leads to drug resistance in bacterial strains. To date, no solution for large-scale studies of antibiotic susceptibility at the single-cell level has been shown. Here, we present a method for production and separation of emulsions consisting of subnanoliter droplets that allows us to identify each emulsion by their spatial position in the train of emulsions without chemical barcoding...
October 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Peter Reichert, Dhananjay Deshmukh, Lukas Lebovitz, Jürg Dual
Acoustophoresis, the movement of particles with sound, has evolved as a promising handling tool for micrometer-sized particles. Recent developments in thin film deposition technologies have enabled the reproducible fabrication of thin film piezoelectric materials for miniaturized ultrasound transducers. In this study, we combine both technologies and present the first implementation of a thin film Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) transducer as actuation source for bulk acoustic wave (BAW) acoustophoresis. The design and fabrication process was developed for thin film BAW (TFBAW) devices...
October 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Iain C Clark, Adam R Abate
Microsphere beads are functionalized with oligonucleotides, antibodies, and other moieties to enable specific detection of analytes. Droplet microfluidics leverages this for single-molecule or -cell analysis by pairing beads and targets in water-in-oil droplets. Pairing is achieved with devices operating in the dripping regime, limiting throughput. Here, we describe a pairing method that uses beads to trigger the breakup of a jet into monodispersed droplets. We use the method to pair 105 Human T cells with polyacrylamide beads ten times faster than methods operating in the dripping regime...
October 26, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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