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Lab on a Chip

Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Anqi Chen, Xue-Hui Ge, Jian Chen, Liyuan Zhang, Jian-Hong Xu
Micromotors are important for a wide variety of applications. Here, we develop a microfluidic approach for one-step fabrication of a Janus self-propelled micromotor with multiple functions. By fine tuning the fabrication parameters and loading functional nanoparticles, our micromotor reaches a high speed and achieves an oriented function to promote the water purification efficiency and recycling process.
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Yu Fu, Xiaoming Zhou, Da Xing
In this work, we describe for the first time a genetic diagnosis platform employing a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA)-modified capillary and a liquid-based thermalization system for rapid, simple and quantitative DNA analysis with minimal user interaction. Positively charged PDDA is modified on the inner surface of the silicon dioxide capillary by using an electrostatic self-assembly approach that allows the negatively charged DNA to be separated from the lysate in less than 20 seconds. The capillary loaded with the PCR mix is incorporated in the thermalization system, which can achieve on-site real-time PCR...
November 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Gopakumar Kamalakshakurup, Abraham P Lee
Single cell analysis has emerged as a paradigm shift in cell biology to understand the heterogeneity of individual cells in a clone for pathological interrogation. Microfluidic droplet technology is a compelling platform to perform single cell analysis by encapsulating single cells inside picoliter-nanoliter (pL-nL) volume droplets. However, one of the primary challenges for droplet based single cell assays is single cell encapsulation in droplets, currently achieved either randomly, dictated by Poisson statistics, or by hydrodynamic techniques...
November 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
N Kolluri, C M Klapperich, M Cabodi
Malaria continues to be one of the most devastating diseases impacting global health. Although there have been significant reductions in global malaria incidence and mortality rates over the past 17 years, the disease remains endemic throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has put forth ambitious milestones moving toward a world free of malaria as part of the United Nations Millennium Goals. Mass screening and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infections in endemic regions is integral to these goals and requires diagnostics that are both sensitive and affordable...
November 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Ya-Nan Zhang, Yong Zhao, Tianmin Zhou, Qilu Wu
Photonic crystal (PC) cavities, which possess the advantages of compactness, flexible design, and suitability for integration in a lab-on-a-chip system, are able to distinguish slight variations in refractive index with only a small amount of analyte. Combined with the newly proposed optofluidic technology, PC-cavity devices stimulate an emerging class of miniaturized and label-free biochemical sensors. In this review, an overview of optofluidic PC cavities based biochemical sensors is presented. First, the basic properties of the PC, as well as the sensing principle of the PC cavity, are discussed...
November 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
C G Burton, D Axford, A M J Edwards, R J Gildea, R H Morris, M I Newton, A M Orville, M Prince, P D Topham, P T Docker
This paper describes the design, development and successful use of an on-chip goniometer for room-temperature macromolecular crystallography via acoustically induced rotations. We present for the first time a low cost, rate-tunable, acoustic actuator for gradual in-fluid sample reorientation about varying axes and its utilisation for protein structure determination on a synchrotron beamline. The device enables the efficient collection of diffraction data via a rotation method from a sample within a surface confined droplet...
November 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
G Aubry, H Lu
Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model organism for studying chemosensation as a significant part of its nervous system and genome are devoted to the detection of chemical cues. Studies of decision-making, learning, mating behaviour, and intraspecies communication require measuring the acute behavioural response to chemical stimulation. Such assays require precise and repeatable chemical delivery and are often arduous when performed manually. Microfluidic platforms have been developed for chemosensation studies in C...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Elaine J Su, Amy E Herr
Cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions influence intracellular signalling and play an important role in physiologic and pathologic processes. Detachment of cells from the surrounding microenvironment alters intracellular signalling. Here, we demonstrate and characterise an integrated microfluidic device to culture single and clustered cells in tuneable microenvironments and then directly analyse the lysate of each cell in situ, thereby eliminating the need to detach cells prior to analysis. First, we utilise microcontact printing to pattern cells in confined geometries...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Franziska D Zitzmann, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Felix Nitschke, Annette G Beck-Sickinger, Bernd Abel, Detlev Belder, Andrea A Robitzki
Lab-on-a-chip devices that combine, e.g. chemical synthesis with integrated on-chip analytics and multi-compartment organ-on-a-chip approaches, are a fast and attractive evolving research area. While integration of appropriate cell models in microfluidic setups for monitoring the biological activity of synthesis products or test compounds is already in focus, the integration of label-free bioelectronic analysis techniques is still poorly realized. In this context, we investigated the capabilities of impedance spectroscopy as a non-destructive real-time monitoring technique for adherent cell models in a microfluidic setup...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
B Ibarlucea, T Rim, C K Baek, J A G M de Visser, L Baraban, G Cuniberti
Miniaturized and cost-efficient methods aiming at high throughput analysis of microbes are of great importance for the surveillance and control of infectious diseases and the related issue of antimicrobial resistance. Here we demonstrate a miniature nanosensor based on a honeycomb-patterned silicon nanowire field effect transistor (FET) capable of detection of bacterial growth and antibiotic response in microbiologically relevant nutrient media. We determine the growth kinetics and metabolic state of Escherichia coli cells in undiluted media via the quantification of changes in the source-drain current caused by varying pH values...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Volodymyr B Koman, Tedrick T S Lew, Min Hao Wong, Seon-Yeong Kwak, Juan P Giraldo, Michael S Strano
Stomatal function can be used effectively to monitor plant hydraulics, photosensitivity, and gas exchange. Current approaches to measure single stomatal aperture, such as mold casting or fluorometric techniques, do not allow real time or persistent monitoring of the stomatal function over timescales relevant for long term plant physiological processes, including vegetative growth and abiotic stress. Herein, we utilize a nanoparticle-based conducting ink that preserves stomatal function to print a highly stable, electrical conductometric sensor actuated by the stomata pore itself, repeatedly and reversibly for over 1 week...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Rujing Zhang, Niels B Larsen
Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel constructs as self-contained chips, where confined culture volumes are traversed and surrounded by perfusable vascular-like networks...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
K N Clayton, D Lee, S T Wereley, T L Kinzer-Ursem
In the absence of efficient ways to test drug stability and efficacy, pharmaceuticals that have been stored outside of set temperature conditions are destroyed, often at great cost. This is especially problematic for biotherapeutics, which are highly sensitive to temperature fluctuations. Current platforms for assessing the stability of protein-based biotherapeutics in high throughput and in low volumes are unavailable outside of research and development laboratories and are not efficient for use in production, quality control, distribution, or clinical settings...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
ChunHui Wu, RiFei Chen, Yu Liu, ZhenMing Yu, YouWei Jiang, Xing Cheng
This paper reports the design and fabrication of a planar chip for high-throughput cell trapping and pairing (more than 2400 single cell-cell pairs in a microwell array) in a 1 × 1.5 cm area by positive dielectrophoresis (p-DEP) within only several minutes. The p-DEP was generated by applying an alternating current signal on a novel two-pair interdigitated array (TPIDA) electrode. The TPIDA electrode not only enabled the planar chip to be incorporated with a most often used PDMS microfluidic channel, but also contributed to a high single cell-cell pairing efficiency up to 74...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Takashi Anazawa, Motohiro Yamazaki
Although multi-point, multi-color fluorescence-detection systems are widely used in various sciences, they would find wider applications if they are miniaturized. Accordingly, an ultra-small, four-emission-point and four-color fluorescence-detection system was developed. Its size (space between emission points and a detection plane) is 15 × 10 × 12 mm, which is three-orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of a conventional system. Fluorescence from four emission points with an interval of 1 mm on the same plane was respectively collimated by four lenses and split into four color fluxes by four dichroic mirrors...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
D Barata, E Provaggi, C van Blitterswijk, P Habibovic
Microfluidic screening platforms offer new possibilities for performing in vitro cell-based assays with higher throughput and in a setting that has the potential to closely mimic the physiological microenvironment. Integrating functional biomaterials into such platforms is a promising approach to obtain a deeper insight into the interactions occurring at the cell-material interface. The success of such an approach is, however, largely dependent on the ability to miniaturize the biomaterials as well as on the choice of the assay used to study the cell-material interactions...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Liang-Jun Pan, Jia-Wei Tu, Hao-Tian Ma, Yu-Jun Yang, Zhi-Quan Tian, Dai-Wen Pang, Zhi-Ling Zhang
In recent years, a broad range of nanocrystals have been synthesized in droplet-based microfluidic reactors which provide obvious advantages, such as accurate manipulation, better reproducibility and reliable automation. In this review, we initially introduce general concepts of droplet reactors followed by discussions of their main functional regions including droplet generation, mixing of reactants, reaction controlling, in situ monitoring, and reaction quenching. Subsequently, the enhanced mass and heat transport properties are discussed...
November 3, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Hyungseok Cho, Jinho Kim, Chang-Wan Jeon, Ki-Ho Han
We describe an assembly-disposable microfluidic device based on a silicone-coated release polymer thin film. It consists of a disposable polymeric superstrate and a reusable functional substrate and they are assembled simply using vacuum pressure. The disposable polymeric superstrate is manufactured by bonding a silicone-coated release polymer thin film and a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica, containing only a simple structured microchannel. The reusable functional substrate generates an intricate energy field that can penetrate the micrometer-thick polymer film into the microchannel and control microfluids...
November 2, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Alicia J Kaestli, Michael Junkin, Savaş Tay
We developed an automated microfluidic chip that can measure dynamic cytokine secretion and transcription factor activation from cells responding to time-varying stimuli. Our chip patterns antibodies, exposes cells to time-varying inputs, measures cell secretion dynamics, and quantifies secretion all in the same platform. Secretion dynamics are measured using micrometer-sized immunoassays patterned directly inside the chip. All processes are automated, so that no user input is needed for conducting a complete cycle of device preparation, cell experiments, and secretion quantification...
November 2, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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