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Lab on a Chip

Sung-Hwan Kim, Kihoon Ahn, Joong Yull Park
Human cells encounter a range of shear stress levels in situ and this natural variability in shear stress implies that realistic investigations of cell type characteristics may depend on nontrivial shear stress models. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) differentiate near the blood capillary vessels where interstitial flows predominate. However, the effects of interstitial levels of shear on hASCs are not fully understood. In this study, we propose a microfluidic shear generation system, in which a gradient distribution of the interstitial level of shear flow is created to investigate the effects of interstitial-level shear flow on hASCs...
May 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Iain C Clark, Adam R Abate
Nucleic acids encode the information of life, programming cellular functions and dictating many biological outcomes. Differentiating between cells based on their nucleic acid programs is, thus, a powerful way to unravel the genetic bases of many phenotypes. This is especially important considering that most cells exist in heterogeneous populations, requiring them to be isolated before they can be studied. Existing flow cytometry techniques, however, are unable to reliably recover specific cells based on nucleic acid content...
May 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Florian Kiebert, Stefan Wege, Julian Massing, Jörg König, Christian Cierpka, Robert Weser, Hagen Schmidt
The characterisation of the fluid motion induced by the acoustic streaming effect is of paramount interest for novel microfluidic devices based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs), e.g. for a detailed description of the achievable mixing efficiency and thus the design of such devices. Here, we present for the first time a quantitative 3D comparison between experimental measurements and numerical simulations of the acoustic streaming induced fluid flow inside a microchannel originating from a SAW. On the one hand, we performed fully three-dimensional velocity measurements using the astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry...
May 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Sunggu Kim, Sanghoon Han, Junghoon Lee
We report an asymmetric immunoaggregation assay for rapid, label-free, and sub-picomolar protein detection. Asymmetric immunoaggregated beads (AIBs) are formed when binding occurs between 1 μm magnetic (MG) and 2.8 μm polystyrene (PS) beads coated with specific antibodies for a target antigen. Detection of such aggregation is achieved by optical monitoring of AIBs in a flow under an external magnetic field. AIBs are attracted to the upper surface of the microchannel by a magnetic field and made to slide along the surface by a flow drag force...
May 23, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Colm Delaney, Peter McCluskey, Simon Coleman, Jeffrey Whyte, Nigel Kent, Dermot Diamond
A novel approach that allows control of flow in microfluidic channels with unsurpassed performance using light is described. Valve structures have been created using photoresponsive hydrogels based on spiropyran-functionalised pNIPAAm hydrogels photopolymerised around pillar structures within the channels. Valve actuation is controlled from outside the fluidic system using externally located LEDs. Highly precise and accurate flow rates can be selected by passing real-time flow rate measurements into a PID algorithm...
May 22, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Arvind Chandrasekaran, Nikita Kalashnikov, Roni Rayes, Claire Wang, Jonathan Spicer, Christopher Moraes
Innovation in microfluidics-based biological research has been aided by the growing accessibility of versatile microscale fabrication techniques, particularly in rapid prototyping of elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based devices. However, the use of PDMS presents considerable and often unexpected limitations, particularly in interpreting and validating biological data. To rapidly prototype microfluidic culture systems in conventional plastics commonly used in cell culture, we developed 'thermal scribing', a one-step micromachining technique in which thermoplastics are locally patterned by a heated tip, moving in user-controlled patterns...
May 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Siwon Choi, Bumjoo Kim, Jongyoon Han
Conventional water treatment process is composed of multiple stages, including desalination (salt removal) and pre/post-treatment of desalination to remove particles, chemicals, and other potential foulants for desalination. In this work, we developed a microfluidic proof-of-concept for a single device water treatment system, which removes both salt ions and non-salt contaminants. Our system combines electrocoagulation (EC), a versatile contaminant removal process, and ion concentration polarization (ICP) desalination, which is an electromembrane desalination process...
May 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
R J Beulig, R Warias, J J Heiland, S Ohla, K Zeitler, D Belder
A droplet-based microfluidic device with seamless hyphenation to electrospray mass spectrometry was developed to rapidly investigate organic reactions in segmented flow providing a versatile tool for drug development. A chip-MS interface with an integrated counterelectrode allowed for a flexible positioning of the chip-emitter in front of the MS orifice as well as an independent adjustment of the electrospray potentials. This was necessary to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer as well as sample overloading due to the high analyte concentrations...
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Shuangxi Xie, Xiaodong Wang, Niandong Jiao, Steve Tung, Lianqing Liu
Trapping and transporting microorganisms with intrinsic motility are important tasks for biological, physical, and biomedical applications. However, fast swimming speed makes the manipulation of these organisms an inherently challenging task. In this study, we demonstrated that an optoelectrical technique, namely, optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP), could effectively trap and manipulate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) cells swimming at velocities faster than 100 μm s(-1). Furthermore, live C...
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Andy K S Lau, Ho Cheung Shum, Kenneth K Y Wong, Kevin K Tsia
Correction for 'Optofluidic time-stretch imaging - an emerging tool for high-throughput imaging flow cytometry' by Andy K. S. Lau et al., Lab Chip, 2016, 16, 1743-1756.
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Xudong Zhang, William Wang, Fang Li, Ioana Voiculescu
This paper presents the fabrication and testing of a novel stretchable electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) lab on a chip device. This is the first time that ECIS electrodes were fabricated on a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate and ECIS measurements were performed on mammalian cells exposed to cyclic strain. The stretchable ECIS biosensors simulate in vitro the dynamic environment of organisms, such as pulsation, bending and stretching, which enables investigations on cell behavior that undergoes mechanical stimuli in biological tissue...
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Haishui Huang, Yin Yu, Yong Hu, Xiaoming He, O Berk Usta, Martin L Yarmush
Hydrogel microcapsules provide miniaturized and biocompatible niches for three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture. They can be easily generated by droplet-based microfluidics with tunable size, morphology, and biochemical properties. Therefore, microfluidic generation and manipulation of cell-laden microcapsules can be used for 3D cell culture to mimic the in vivo environment towards applications in tissue engineering and high throughput drug screening. In this review of recent advances mainly since 2010, we will first introduce general characteristics of droplet-based microfluidic devices for cell encapsulation with an emphasis on the fluid dynamics of droplet breakup and internal mixing as they directly influence microcapsule's size and structure...
May 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Samin Akbari, Tohid Pirbodaghi, Roger D Kamm, Paula T Hammond
Biocompatible microparticles are valuable tools in biomedical research for applications such as drug delivery, cell transplantation therapy, and analytical assays. However, their translation into clinical research and the pharmaceutical industry has been slow due to the lack of techniques that can produce microparticles with controlled physicochemical properties at high throughput. We introduce a robust microfluidic platform for the production of relatively homogeneous microdroplets at a generation frequency of up to 3...
May 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Seyed M Azmayesh-Fard, Aaron Melnyk, Lawrence Lam, Trevor Allen, Robert Fedosejevs, Ray G DeCorby
We propose a strategy for real time multicolour detection of light emitting particles under flow conditions, using the diffracted orders of a grating. The method relies on the fact that the spatial (angular/linear) separation between the orders of a diffraction grating is a wavelength dependent quantity. Thus, the difference in arrival times at a fixed detector for neighbouring orders produced by a moving, light-emitting particle can be used as a wavelength sensing mechanism. We demonstrate this functionality using a prototype PDMS microfluidic device that incorporates a focusing transmission grating...
May 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Gungun Lin, Denys Makarov, Oliver G Schmidt
Detection and quantification of a variety of micro- and nanoscale entities, e.g. molecules, cells, and particles, are crucial components of modern biomedical research, in which biosensing platform technologies play a vital role. Confronted with the drastic global demographic changes, future biomedical research entails continuous development of new-generation biosensing platforms targeting even lower costs, more compactness, and higher throughput, sensitivity and selectivity. Among a wide choice of fundamental biosensing principles, magnetic sensing technologies enabled by magnetic field sensors and magnetic particles offer attractive advantages...
May 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Hakan Ceylan, Joshua Giltinan, Kristen Kozielski, Metin Sitti
Untethered micron-scale mobile robots can navigate and non-invasively perform specific tasks inside unprecedented and hard-to-reach inner human body sites and inside enclosed organ-on-a-chip microfluidic devices with live cells. They are aimed to operate robustly and safely in complex physiological environments where they will have a transforming impact in bioengineering and healthcare. Research along this line has already demonstrated significant progress, increasing attention, and high promise over the past several years...
May 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Dongfei Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Flavia Fontana, Jouni T Hirvonen, Hélder A Santos
The microfluidic technique has brought unique opportunities toward the full control over the production processes for drug delivery carriers, owing to the miniaturisation of the fluidic environment. In comparison to the conventional batch methods, the microfluidic setup provides a range of advantages, including the improved controllability of material characteristics, as well as the precisely controlled release profiles of payloads. This review gives an overview of different fluidic principles used in the literature to produce either polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles, focusing on the materials that could have an impact on drug delivery...
May 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
O Scheler, N Pacocha, P R Debski, A Ruszczak, T S Kaminski, P Garstecki
Standard digital assays need a large number of compartments for precise quantification of a sample over a broad dynamic range. We address this issue with an optimized droplet digital approach that uses a drastically reduced number of compartments for quantification. We generate serial logarithmic dilutions of an initial bacterial sample as an array of microliter-sized droplet plugs. In a subsequent step, these droplets are split into libraries of nanoliter droplets and pooled together for incubation and analysis...
May 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Modong Tan, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Shinya Yamahira, Motonao Nakamura, Teruyuki Nagamune
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important targets in medical and pharmaceutical research fields, because they play key roles in a variety of biological processes. Recently, intracellular trafficking of GPCRs involving endosomal internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane has been studied as a regulation mechanism for GPCR activities. However, the absence of a quantitative single-cell analysis method has hampered conditional GPCR trafficking studies and the possibility of gaining significant insights into the mechanism of regulation of GPCR signaling...
May 5, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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