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Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885874/post-translational-regulation-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-implications-for-sympathoexcitatory-states
#1
Neeru M Sharma, Kaushik P Patel
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a significant role in regulation/modulation of autonomic control of circulation. Various pathological states are associated with diminished nNOS expression and blunted autonomic effects of NO in the central nervous system (CNS) including heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure etc. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanism/s involved in dysregulation of nNOS is essential to understand the pathogenesis of increased sympathoexcitation in these diseased states...
December 2, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892767/epigenetic-modifications-in-multiple-myeloma-recent-advances-on-the-role-of-dna-and-histone-methylation
#2
Nicola Amodio, Patrizia D'Aquila, Giuseppe Passarino, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Dina Bellizzi
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a clonal late B-cell disorder accounting for about 13% of hematological cancers and 1% of all neoplastic diseases. Recent studies on the molecular pathogenesis and biology of MM have highlighted a complex epigenomic landscape contributing to MM onset, prognosis and high individual variability. Areas covered: We describe here the current knowledge on epigenetic events characterizing MM initiation and progression, focusing on the role of DNA and histone methylation and on the most promising epi-therapeutic approaches targeting the methylation pathway...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892739/efflux-as-a-mechanism-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-in-clinical-relevant-microorganisms-the-role-of-efflux-inhibitors
#3
Clarissa Willers, Johannes Frederik Wentzel, Lissinda Hester du Plessis, Chrisna Gouws, Josias Hendrik Hamman
Microbial resistance against antibiotics is a serious threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases. Several mechanisms exist through which microorganisms can develop resistance against antimicrobial drugs, of which the over-expression of genes to produce efflux pumps is a major concern. Several efflux transporters have been identified in microorganisms, which infer resistance against specific antibiotics and even multi-drug resistance. Areas covered: This paper focuses on microbial resistance against antibiotics by means of the mechanism of efflux and gives a critical overview of studies conducted to overcome this problem by combining efflux pump inhibitors with antibiotics...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885880/decreased-zinc-in-the-development-and-progression-of-malignancy-an-important-common-relationship-and-potential-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-carcinomas
#4
Leslie C Costello, Renty B Franklin
Efficacious chemotherapy does not exist for treatment or prevention of prostate, liver, and pancreatic carcinomas, and some other cancers that exhibit decreased zinc in malignancy. Zinc treatment offers a potential solution; but its support has been deterred by adverse bias. Areas covered: 1. The clinical and experimental evidence for the common ZIP transporter/Zn down regulation in these cancers. 2. The evidence for a zinc approach to prevent and/or treat these carcinomas. 3. The issues that introduce bias against support for the zinc approach...
November 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885875/epigenomic-therapies-the-potential-of-targeting-sirt6-for-the-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Ihsan Ekin Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Helmut Friess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882807/jarid1-kdm5-demethylases-as-cancer-targets
#6
Joyce Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joy Burchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841046/targeting-mast-cells-a-new-way-to-treat-endometriosis
#7
Maria Mercedes Binda, Jacques Donnez, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease of unclear etiology that affects 15-20% of women of reproductive age. Efforts are now focusing on understanding new mechanisms involved in its physiopathology, like novel target pathways and different molecules. There is evidence that mast cells (MCs) play a role in this disease. This article summarizes recent achievements in preclinical studies and clinical activities investigating the role of MCs in endometriosis. Targeting MCs might offer new alternatives to treat this disease...
November 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841034/targeting-pancreatic-expressed-pax-genes-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Petra I Lorenzo, Livia López-Noriega, Benoit R Gauthier
Four members of the PAX family, PAX2, PAX4, PAX6 and PAX8 are known to be expressed in the pancreas. Accumulated evidences indicate that several pancreatic expressed PAX genes play a significant role in pancreatic development/functionality and alterations in these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic diseases. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the ongoing research related to pancreatic PAX genes in diabetes mellitus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We dissect the current knowledge at different levels; from mechanistic studies in cell lines performed to understand the molecular processes controlled by pancreatic PAX genes, to in vivo studies using rodent models that over-express or lack specific PAX genes...
November 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817222/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-friend-or-foe
#9
Ying Wang, Jingdian Zhang, Peijuan Luo, Jie Zhu, Jiachun Feng, Hong-Liang Zhang
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated disorder in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) serves as an animal model of GBS. TNF-α plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GBS and is a potential therapeutic target of GBS. Areas covered: "TNF-α" and "Guillain-Barré syndrome" were the keywords used to search for related publications on Pubmed. By binding to different TNF receptors, TNF-α bears distinct immune properties. TNF-α gene polymorphisms are associated with the features of GBS...
November 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786579/protein-disulphide-isomerases-emerging-roles-of-pdi-and-erp57-in-the-nervous-system-and-as-therapeutic-targets-for-als
#10
Emma Perri, Sonam Parakh, Julie Atkin
There is increasing evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones Protein Disulphide Isomerase (PDI) and ERp57 (endoplasmic reticulum protein 57) are protective against neurodegenerative diseases related to protein misfolding, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). PDI and Erp57 also possess disulphide interchange activity, in which protein disulphide bonds are oxidized, reduced and isomerized, to form their native conformation. Recently, missense and intronic variants of PDI and Erp57 were associated with ALS, implying that PDI proteins are relevant to ALS pathology...
October 27, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805462/cathepsin-d-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Fabio Di Domenico, Antonella Tramutola, Marzia Perluigi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797604/siderophores-iron-scavengers-the-novel-promising-targets-for-pathogen-specific-antifungal-therapy
#12
Meenakshi Balhara, Renu Chaudhary, Sonam Ruhil, Bharat Singh, Nisha Dahiya, Virinder S Parmar, Pawan K Jaiwal, Anil K Chhillar
The recent emergence of resistance, toxicity paradigm and limited efficacy of conventional antifungal drugs necessitate the identification of de novo targets in fungal metabolism. One of the most critical physiological processes during in vivo pathogenesis is maintenance of iron homeostasis. The most life threatening opportunistic human fungal pathogens like Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus exploit the siderophore mediated iron uptake mechanism either for survival, virulence, propagation or resistance to oxidative stress envisaged in vivo during infection...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797603/cyclin-dependent-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-hiv-1-infection
#13
Andrew P Rice
A number of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) mediate key steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle and therefore have potential to serve as therapeutic targets for HIV-1 infection, especially in HIV-1 cure strategies. Current HIV-1 cure strategies involve the development of small molecules that are able to activate HIV-1 from latent infection, thereby allowing the immune system to recognize and clear infected cells. Areas covered: The role of seven CDK family members in the HIV-1 replication cycle is reviewed, with a focus on CDK9, as the mechanism whereby the viral Tat protein utilizes CDK9 to enhance viral replication is known in considerable detail...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786597/targeting-cardiac-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-therapy-of-diabetes-and-obesity
#14
Cedric Moro
Atrial and B-type Natriuretic Peptides (NP) are cardiac hormones with potent cardiovascular and metabolic effects. They signal through the NPRA/cGMP system and are inactivated by a clearance receptor NPRC and neutral endopeptidases (NEP). Recombinant ANP and BNP are currently used as drug treatment for acute decompensated congestive heart failure. Recent literature indicate that a defective NP system is linked to obesity and predict the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Areas covered: This article reviews recent epidemiological, clinical and preclinical evidences that NP system deficiency may be causal of obesity and T2D...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782763/targeting-stox1-in-the-therapy-of-preeclampsia
#15
Daniel Vaiman, Francisco Miralles
Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy disease, explained partly by genetic predispositions. STOX1, a transcription factor discovered in 2005, was the first gene directly associated with genetic forms of the disease. Alterations of STOX1 expression as well as STOX1 variants have also been associated to Alzheimer's disease. These observations make of this gene a putative therapeutic target. Area covered: Two major isoforms (STOX1A and STOX1B) are encoded by the gene and are theoretically able to compete for the same binding site, while only the most complete (STOX1A) is supposed to be able to activate gene expression...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762152/mif-a-controversial-cytokine-a-review-of-structural-features-challenges-and-opportunities-for-drug-development
#16
Joshua Bloom, Shan Sun, Yousef Al-Abed
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has emerged as a promising drug target in diseases including sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. MIF has multiple properties that favor development of specific, targeted therapies: it is expressed broadly among human cells, has noted roles in diverse inflammatory and oncological processes, and has intrinsic enzymatic activity amenable to high-throughput screening. Despite these advantages, anti-MIF therapy remains well behind other cytokine-targeted therapeutics, with no small molecules in the pipeline for clinical development and anti-MIF antibodies only recently beginning clinical trials...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756179/an-overview-of-the-mechanisms-and-novel-roles-of-nrf2-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Shuai Jiang, Yang Yang, Tian Li, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Chao Deng, Chongxi Fan, Jianjun Lv, Yang Sun, Wei Yi
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor of the cap'n'collar (CNC) family that is present in various organs. The cardiovascular system (CVS) is susceptible to a spectrum of diseases that are strongly associated with increased risks of mortality and morbidity, and studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 has a pivotal role in protection against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Areas covered: Nrf2 is a basic protective molecule that guards against CVD by attenuating oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681264/targeting-ifn-%C3%AE-therapeutic-implications
#18
Mohammed Eslam, Jacob George
Type-III interferons (IFN-λ), the most recently discovered family of IFNs, shares common features with other family members, but also has many distinctive activities. IFN-λ uniquely has a different receptor complex, and a more focused pattern of tissue expression and signaling effects, from other classes of IFNs. Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent validation reports suggest a pivotal role for polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene in hepatitis C clearance and control, as also for several other epithelial cell tropic viruses...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459026/p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-reducing-the-risk-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes
#19
Ramkumar Menon, John Papaconstantinou
Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) remain as a major clinical and therapeutic problem for intervention and management. Current strategies, based on our knowledge of pathways of preterm labor, have only been effective, in part, due to major gaps in our existing knowledge of risks and risk specific pathways. Areas covered: Recent literature has identified physiologic aging of fetal tissues as a potential mechanistic feature of normal parturition. This process is affected by telomere dependent and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced senescence activation...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654702/targeting-p21-activated-kinase-1-pak1-to-pakup-pancreatic-cancer
#20
Sankar Jagadeeshan, Ganesh Venkatraman, Suresh K Rayala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
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