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Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

S Tasharofi, F Mohammadi, N Amiri, M N Nazem
This study carried out to investigate the effects of intra-yolk-sac injection (IYSI) of some solutions including 1 ml of distilled water, dextrose 20% and albumin 20% on hatch percentage, performance traits, jejunum morphology, glycogen content of liver and breast and serum metabolites in broilers (Ross 308). Fertile eggs were injected into the yolk sac at day 8 of incubation period. Results showed that hatchability, absolute body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at day 7 and 14 of growing period were not different among treatments, but in comparison with control group, BW and FCR were numerally better by IYSI of albumin...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Y-H Yu, F S-H Hsiao, W S Proskura, A Dybus, Y-H Siao, Y-H Cheng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a major mycotoxin from the trichothecene family of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi that cause disease in grains. Food and feed contaminated with DON cause a variety of adverse health effects in humans and farm animals. However, the fermentation conditions of DON for toxicological study remain to be optimised. Deoxynivalenol levels were increased in a constant temperature of 20°C after fermentation for 7 and 14 days compared with cycling temperatures between 10-20°C and 15-20°C...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A N Sharma, S Kumar, A K Tyagi
A study of 120 days was undertaken to ascertain the effect of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and faecal characteristics in Murrah buffalo calves. Twenty Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 days old and 31 ± 2.0 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups. Group I served as the control (CON) in which only basal diet (concentrate mixture and green fodder) was provided, without any supplementation. Mannan-oligosaccharides at 4 g/calf/day were supplemented as prebiotic to Group II (PRE), whereas Group III (PRO) received Lactobacillus acidophilus in the form of fermented milk as probiotic at 200 ml/calf/day having 108  CFU/ml and Group IV (SYN) was supplemented with both MOS and Lactobacillus acidophilus as synbiotic at similar dose...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Abedini, F Shariatmadari, M A Karimi Torshizi, H Ahmadi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the performance, egg quality, Zn retention, immunity responses, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), egg malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and serum parameters in laying hens in the late phase of production. A total of 288 laying hens at 64 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicates, and 12 birds within each group. Experimental diets included a corn-soybean meal-based diet (without Zn supplementation) and a basal diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg of Zn-oxide, ZnO-NPs, and Zn-methionine...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
P Kumar, A K Patra, G P Mandal, B C Debnath
A study was conducted to investigate the dietary supplementation of black cumin seeds (BCS) on carcass characteristics, chemical and fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant properties of thigh and breast meat of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. Three hundred sixty 1-day-old broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatment groups (each group containing eight replicate pens with each pen containing nine broiler chickens): basal diet (control; CON), CON + 0.05 g/kg of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (AB), CON + 5 g/kg of BCS (low dose of BCS), CON + 10 g/kg of BCS (medium dose of BCS) and CON + 20 g/kg of BCS (high dose of BCS)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M M Erdaw, R A Perez-Maldonado, P A Iji
A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Szlis, J Polkowska, E Skrzeczyńska, B J Przybył, A Wójcik-Gładysz
The participation of peripheral peptides in the processes regulating the food intake (energy homeostasis) at the central nervous system level remains unclear. This study focuses on the role of obestatin in neuronal activity within the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network in ruminants. The animals (n = 28) were randomly divided into two groups. The sheep in the control group received intracerebroventricular infusions of the Ringer-Locke solution, and the sheep in obestatin group were infused with obestatin (diluted in the Ringer-Locke solution) at 25 μg per 120 μl/hr...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
C L O Leo-Penu, J Picard, L A Fitzpatrick, A J Parker
The effects on rumen kinetics after feed and water had been deprived for 72 hr were studied using four fistulated Bos indicus steers. The animals were assigned in a 2 × 4 crossover design with two treatments: feed and water ad libitum (control) and no feed and water for 72 hr (deprived) with four steers per treatment over two time periods. Feed and water deprivation caused decreases in the numbers of cellulolytic bacteria (1.4 vs. 0.4 cfu × 106 /ml; p = .001), live (23.7 vs. 0.8 × 109 /ml; p = ...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
B Kiefer-Hecker, E Kienzle, B Dobenecker
To investigate the impact of a selective reduction in dietary phosphorus (P) supply on healthy growing dogs, a total of 23 Beagles and 30 Foxhound crossbreds (FBI) were used in a feeding trial between 6 and 24 weeks of age. Sixteen Beagles and 19 FBI were fed with selectively reduced P concentrations (low phosphorus, LP). The remaining puppies received a completely balanced control diet (CON). With these diets, the P supply in the Beagles at the age of 12 weeks added up to 2.5 ± 0.6 (LP) and 9.8 ± 1...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
R Bakhshalinejad, A Hassanabadi, H Nassiri-Moghaddam, H Zarghi
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of supplemental calcium iodate (CI) on productive performance, egg quality, blood indices and iodine (I) accumulation in the eggs in commercial laying hens. A total of 240 White Leghorn layers (Hy-line W36) were divided through a completely randomized design into six treatments with five replicates and eight hens per each at 32 weeks of age. This experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrations of I in the mash diets were 0.74, 3.13, 5.57, 8...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M A M Abdullah, M M Farghaly, I M I Youssef
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplying two levels of Acacia nilotica (A. nilotica) pods to rations of sheep on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumen liquor parameters (pH, total protozoa count, protein concentration and enzymes activity). Twelve mature rams (50 ± 1.25 kg B.W.) were distributed into three groups, each with four rams. Animals in group one were considered as a control which fed a basal diet, consisting of concentrate mixture and Egyptian clover. The second group and the third one received the same basal diet with supplying the concentrate mixture by 1...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Kiani, F Hoseini, P Ghorbaninejad, A Azarfar, M Kreuzer, A Azizi
The interaction between the sequence of feeding of hay and concentrate and the hydrothermal processing of barley in alleviating concentrate effects on intake, and hindgut fermentation in horses was tested. Six Arabian mares (4-10 years of age, 410 ± 35 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding sequence (FS) and type of barley (TB) on intake, and faecal volatile fatty acids (VFA), activities of α-amylase (AA: EC, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase: EC, microcrystalline cellulase (MCCase: EC 3...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
L C Clarke, T Sweeney, E Curley, S K Duffy, G Rajauria, J V O'Doherty
This study investigates the effect of dietary supplementation of a β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme mix to barley based diets, at two different chemical compositions achieved through different agronomical conditions on growth performance, coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of nutrients, selected faecal microbial populations and faecal scores in piglets. Sixty-four piglets (11.7 kg (SD 0.96)) housed in pens of two were assigned to one of four dietary treatments (n = 8). The dietary treatments were as follows: (T1) low quality barley diet, (T2) low quality barley diet containing a β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplement, (T3) high quality barley diet and (T4) high quality barley diet containing a β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplement...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Y Huang, J P Marden, C Julien, C Bayourthe
The ruminal ecosystem is a fermentative milieu which is interesting to discuss in terms of its redox status as a reflection of an intense bacterial activity. The objective of this systematic literature review is to quantitatively analyze data collected on redox potential (Eh) in the rumen and to explore relationship between ruminal Eh, nature of the diet fed to ruminants, and ruminal fermentation parameters. Data obtained from 15 studies comprising 24 different diets was used in the analysis. Studies included in the data file were selected based on the criteria of: (i) the nature of the reference electrode was specified, (ii) the ruminal Eh was recorded simultaneously to pH, (iii) animal body weight (BW) and dry matter intake (DMI) were reported and (iv) the composition of the diet was precisely described...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
J E Tipton, R E Ricks, C T LeMaster, N M Long
This study's objective was to determine if nutrient restriction during late gestation affected beef heifer feed intake, body weight (BW) gain and endocrine regulation during a 10-week feeding trial. During the last 100 days of gestation, control (CON) dams were fed to increase body condition score (BCS). Whereas, nutrient-restricted dams (NR) and NR dams protein supplemented 3 days/week (NRS) were fed to decrease BCS by 1.2. After parturition, all cow-calf pairs were moved to a common pasture and fed in excess of requirements until weaning...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Bhattacharyya, S Majumdar, S K Bhanja, A B Mandal, B B Dash
Two hundred turkey breeder hens and 24 viable toms of 30-35 weeks age of small white variety were distributed into two treatment groups having four replicates of 25 hens and three toms in each treatment. First four replicates were offered a turkey breeder diet (Diet A) (Nutrient requirements of poultry, 1994, National Academic Press, Washington, DC) and the rest four replicates were maintained on a higher plane of nutrition (Diet B) for 8-week duration. After 6 weeks of experimental feeding, two replicates from each treatment groups were vaccinated with ND (R2 B) vaccine...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Akbarian-Tefaghi, E Ghasemi, M Khorvash
This study evaluated the supplementation effects of three herbal plants (thyme [THY], eucalyptus [EUC] and celery [CEL]), a commercial phytogenic additive ‎containing essential oils (PFA-EO, Digestarom® P.E.P.) and monensin (MON) in calf starter on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during pre- (days 3-55) and post-weaning (days 56-70). Sixty-six Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age, 41.2 ± 3 kg of BW) were allocated to one of six starters supplemented with: (i) no additives (CON), (ii) MON (30 mg/kg), (iii) THY (23 g/kg), (iv) CEL (23 g/kg), (v) EUC (23 g/kg) and (vi) PFA-EO (3 g/kg)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Ye, M Xu, C Chen, Y He, M Ding, X Ding, W Wei, S Yang, B Zhou
In this study, meat quality traits were compared between squabs from two pigeon breeds: one Chinese indigenous breed, the Shiqi (SQ) meat-type pigeon, and an imported breed, the white king (WK) meat-type pigeon. Breed differences were detected in the content of intramuscular fat (IMF) in the breast muscle. SQ squabs had significantly higher IMF content than the WK birds. The shear force value (an objective measure of meat tenderness) of SQ birds was also relatively lower than that of the WK squabs. Further analysis of fatty acids profile revealed that SQ squabs exhibited significant advantage in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while WK squabs were significantly higher in the sum of monounsaturated fatty acids...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, R Falahati, M Poorhamdollah, S R Heidari, A Pezeshki
The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M S Khilji, M A Sandhu, M S Yousaf, A A Saeed, H U Rehman, H Zaneb, M A Rashid
Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development of lymphoid organs and regulation of immune function in birds. However, their role as an immune-modulator in the hyperthyroid state is still debatable. To explore the interrelationship of thyroxine (T4 ) and the immune system, chicks were divided into three groups. Group I was comprised of control birds, who received the basal diet while group II and III were given diets supplemented with 5 μg and 10 μg thyroxine/kg feed, respectively, from 15 to 28 days of age...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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