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Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

A Czech, K Ognik, M Laszewska, E Cholewińska, A Stępniowska
The aim of the study was to determine the most beneficial proportion of raw linseed in complete feed mixtures for turkey hens on the basis of lipid and redox indicators in the blood. In experiment 1, the turkey hens received the complete mixture with 2%, 4% or 6% linseed. On the basis of the results obtained in experiment 1, we selected the most effective proportion of linseed, which was given to the birds in the group receiving a 4% linseed additive. In experiment 2, the birds were fed mixtures with a 4% addition of raw or extruded linseed...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M H Salajegheh, M Yousef Elahi, M Salarmoini
This experiment was carried out to study the feeding value of ground date pits (DP) (Phoenix dactylifera L.) with and without enzyme supplementation on laying hens' performance. Apparent metabolizable energy value of DP was determined by the total collection method using 10 adult Leghorn cockerels. After that, a total number of 144 Lohmann 50-week-old LSL-Lite hens were randomly allocated into six groups consisting of four replicates of six birds, based on a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of the treatments...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
K Kienapfel, H Preuschoft, A Wulf, H Wagner
The activity patterns of trunk muscles are commonly neglected, in spite of their importance for maintaining body shape. Analysis of the biomechanics of the trunk under static conditions has led to predictions of the activity patterns. These hypotheses are tested experimentally by surface electromyography (EMG). Five horses, with and without a rider, were examined in the walk, trot and canter. Footfall was synchronised with EMG by an accelerometer. Averages of ten consecutive cycles were calculated and compared by statistical methods...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
S Schmitt, J Mack, E Kienzle, L G Alexander, P J Morris, A Colyer, B Dobenecker
According to a previous meta-analysis, adult dogs do not notably increase calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract when calcium intake is decreased. This results in a negative calcium balance even with a moderate calcium reduction. In this study we wanted to verify (i) whether a negative calcium balance occurs at a calcium intake equivalent to NRC (2006) (Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats, 2006, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) minimal requirements, and if so (ii) whether the negative calcium balance will persist for up to 6 months on a low-calcium diet...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M Mottaghitalab, H Ahmadi
A Box-Behnken design (BBD) in a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the response of broiler chicks to in ovo feeding (IOF) of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), dextrin and the timing of the first water and feed deprivation. On day 18th of incubation, 1,500 eggs were randomly assigned to 15 experimental runs of BBD, each with 4 replicates, as 3 levels IOF of HMB (0%, 0.5% and 1%) and dextrin (0%, 20% and 40%), and 3 levels of the first water and feed deprivation (6, 27 and 48 hr)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
G Acetoze, J Champagne, J J Ramsey, H A Rossow
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between mitochondrial proton leak and feed efficiency with supplementation of different levels of Cu, Mn and Zn (Bioplex, Alltech) at levels above Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (NRC, 2001). Milk yield and composition, mineral excretion in milk and faeces, feed efficiency and liver mitochondrial proton leak were measured in 60 Holstein dairy cows at approximately 70 days in milk on a commercial dairy. Treatments reflect total Cu, Mn and Zn intake/day and are as follows: (i) High: 444 mg/day Cu, 3492 mg/day Mn, 2234 mg/day Zn; (ii) Med: 436 mg/day Cu, 3002 mg/day Mn, 2047 mg/day Zn; (iii) Low: 420 mg/day Cu, 2764 mg/day Mn, 2186 mg/day Zn; (iv) LowMn: 391 mg/day Cu, 2617 mg/day Mn, 1849 mg/day Zn; and (v) Control: 264 mg/day Cu, 2850 mg/day Mn, 1593 mg/day Zn...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Zarqami, M Ganjkhanlou, A Zali, K Rezayazdi, A R Jolazadeh
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of vanadium (V) supplementation on performance, some plasma metabolites (cholesterol and triglycerides) and glucose metabolism in Mahabadi goat kids. Twenty-eight male kids (15 ± 2 kg body weight) were fed for 14 weeks in a completely randomized design with four treatments. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 1, 2, and 3 mg V as vanadyl sulfate/animal/daily. On day 70, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted. Dry matter intake did not change by V supplementation, but adding V quadraticaly improved feed efficiency (p = ...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
K P Deng, Y X Fan, T W Ma, Z Wang, W J TanTai, H T Nie, Y X Guo, X Q Yu, L W Sun, F Wang
The effects of perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) seed on carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant status and antioxidant gene expression in the liver and muscle of Hu lambs were investigated in this study. Sixty Hu lambs (23.02 ± 1.36 kg) were randomly divided into four experimental groups receiving diets containing 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% perilla seed (CD, 5%PFSD, 10%PFSD and 15%PFSD, respectively). The addition of perilla seed had no significant impacts on carcass traits (p > .05). There were no differences in pH, meat colour, drip loss, cooking loss or shear force among the four treatments (p > ...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
H W Liu, K Li, J S Zhao, W Deng
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on intestinal morphology, barrier function, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, microflora and antioxidant capacity in heat-stressed broilers. Four hundred 28-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned into four groups, with 10 replicates per group and 10 broilers per replicate. The broilers in the normal (NOR) group were kept at 22 ± 1°C and fed the basal diet, and each of the other three groups were treated with cyclic heat (33 ± 1°C from 0800 to 1800 and 22 ± 1°C from 1800 to 0800) and fed the basal diet with 0 (HT), 1 (CT1) or 2 (CT2) g of CT/kg of diet...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
S Qin, H Han, K Zhang, X Ding, S Bai, J Wang, Q Zeng
This study investigated the effect of dietary fibre (DF) supplementation on hepatic fat deposition of Cherry Valley meat ducks. A total of 600 1-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to five dietary fibre diets (1.46 (basal diet), 3.09, 4.15, 6.18 and 7.52% (analysed)) for 14 days. Growth performance decreased with increasing DF concentrations, when the DF level more than 6.18% the average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (F/G) markedly decreased in meat ducks. Meat ducks supplemented over 4.15% DF had lower percentage of liver reported to live weight, liver lipid contents, hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations as well as decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations at 14 days...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
H-J Frey, J J Gross, R Petermann, S Probst, R M Bruckmaier, P Hofstetter
Feeding dairy cows indoors or on pasture affects not only labour, machinery and housing costs, but also animals' performance and metabolism. This study investigates the effects of indoor feeding (IF) with a partial-mixed ration (PMR) versus pasture-based feeding (PF) on milk production, fertility, backfat thickness (BFT), body weight (BW) loss and energy metabolism of Brown Swiss (BS) dairy cows with similar genetic production potential. The IF herd consisted of 13 cows fed a PMR composed of maize and grass silage plus protein concentrate according to each cow's requirements...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
H Y Liu, R Hou, G Q Yang, F Zhao, W G Dong
The experiment was conducted to investigate the in vitro effects of inulin and soya bean oligosaccharide (SBO) on the metabolism of L-tryptophan (L-try) to skatole production, and the intestinal microbiota in broilers. Treatments were as follows: caecal microbiota control (Cc), Cc + inulin, Cc + SBO, rectal microbiota control (Rc), Rc + inulin and Rc + SBO. Microbial suspensions were anaerobically incubated at 38°C for 24 hr. The results showed that concentrations of skatole and acetic acid were significantly lower in caecal microbiota fermentation broth (MFB) than those in rectal MFB (p < ...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Z-P Lv, Y-Z Peng, B-B Zhang, H Fan, D Liu, Y-M Guo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term treatment with dexamethasone (DEX) on the antioxidation and nutrition metabolism in broiler chickens. Broilers were placed on a high-nutrient diet for 41 days, and half were given orally DEX-supplemented water at 20 mg/L every other day from 19 to 41 days of age. DEX treatment downregulated superoxide dismutase activity as well as the mRNA expression of CuZn-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase with a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio and an increase in malondialdehyde level in the liver of broilers...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
S Khan, R U Khan, W Alam, A Sultan
This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative effect of maggot meal, silkworm meal and mealworm as dietary protein source on the production performance and some aspects of meat quality in broilers. In this regard, maggot meal was reared on chicken offal and poultry waste. Silkworm meal was obtained from silk industry, while mealworm was developed through beetles rearing. A total of 120-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups where soya bean meal (M0) was replaced with maggot meal (M1), silkworm meal (M2) and mealworm (M3) respectively...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
C Wang, Q Liu, G Guo, W J Huo, C X Pei, S L Zhang, W Z Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in Simmental steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers, averaging 18 months of age and 465 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW), were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (98.5 g CP/kg dry matter [LP] or high protein (128...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
D V G Vieira, F G P Costa, M R Lima, J G de V Júnior, T P Bonaparte, D T Cavalcante
An experiment was performed using 1,000 laying Japanese quails to assess the availability of two alternative dietary methionine sources. Treatment 01 = Basal Feed that is deficient in digestible methionine + cystine (Met + Cys). The other treatments were constituted by Met + Cys levels of 0.8, 1.60 and 2.40 g/kg, supplemented with DL-Methionine-99%, HMTBA-88% and HMTBA-84%, being 10 treatments in total. The following characteristics were studied: feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production (egg/day × 100), egg weight (g/egg), egg mass (g/egg), feed conversion per egg dozen (kg feed/dozen eggs), feed conversion per egg mass (kg feed/kg eggs), relative yolk weight (g/100 g of egg), relative albumen weight (g/100 g of egg), relative shell weight (g/100 g of egg), shell thickness (mm) and specific gravity (g/cm(3) )...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
P L Retes, A H S Clemente, D G Neves, M Espósito, L Makiyama, R R Alvarenga, L J Pereira, M G Zangeronimo
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence that the injection of carbohydrate-based solutions into embryonated eggs improves broiler performance. A literature search was conducted in April 2017 using the keywords broiler, carbohydrate, in ovo, nutrition and poultry. Only papers that involved in ovo carbohydrate injections in poultry were used in this study. After specific selection criteria, 17 papers were selected. The quality scoring system of the selected studies was based on the injection methodology, use of control groups, type of solution injected, period of injection, egg and hens characteristics, number of variables analysed and the statistical design...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
C Kaewtapee, R Mosenthin, S Nenning, M Wiltafsky, M Schäffler, M Eklund, P Rosenfelder-Kuon
This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSBRoasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBMAustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBMStd ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBMGMO-free )...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
L Wang, D Wu, T Yan, L Wang
The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of rumen cannulation on the microbial community of goat rumens using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Twelve Boer crossbred goats were used in the experiment: six goats were surgically fitted with rumen cannula, and the other six were used as controls. All goats were fed the same diet for 20 days, after which their rumen digesta were sampled once per week for three consecutive weeks. Total microbial DNA was extracted from the collected rumen fluid and was used as a template to amplify the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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