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Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

Adi Ratriyanto, Rainer Mosenthin
This review focuses on the osmoregulatory function of betaine and its effect in terms of alleviating heat stress in poultry. Poultry appear to be particularly sensitive to temperature-associated environmental challenges, especially heat stress. High ambient temperatures are deleterious to productive performance in poultry, including broilers, laying hens, quails and turkeys, resulting in considerable economic losses. Heat stress impairs overall poultry production by decreasing feed intake and negatively affecting intestinal development, leading to reduced nutrient digestibility...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Anusorn Cherdthong, Anuthida Seankamsorn, Chaichana Suriyapha, Pin Chanjula, Metha Wanapat
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ß-glucan on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients and ruminal fermentation in Thai native beef cattle that were fed low-quality roughage. Four, Thai native beef cattle with initial body weight (BW) of 100 ± 20.0 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four treatment by ß-glucan at 0, 1.6, 3.1 and 4.7 g/day respectively. Supplementation of ß-glucan at 0-4.7 g in cattle did not affect the intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF or ADF...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Mohamed F A Farghly, Enas A M Ahmad, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Reham A M Ali, Shaaban S Elnesr, Ayman E Taha, Ayman S Salah
The management practices implemented by the poultry sector as using some nutritional additives in the early stage of a bird's life can potentially detect other challenges to production development in the poultry farms. Many potential supplements can be included in the early feeding as which are added to drinking water. In this study, 180 1-day-old chicks were randomly distributed into six groups to investigate the use of some nutritional supplements in drinking water of growing turkeys during 1st month of age and their effect on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, leg problems, blood profile and oxidative status...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Anna Czech, Aleksandra Smolczyk, Eugeniusz R Grela, Martyna Kiesz
The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of dietary supplementation of two species of yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica (YL) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), with or without the addition of a probiotic, on growth performance, basic nutrients digestibility and blood profile in piglets. The experiment was conducted on 360 weaned piglets (180 barrows and 180 gilts). Each treatment comprised 60 piglets. The piglets (27-day-old) were assigned to the following dietary treatments: (a) basal control (C) diet, (b) C diet + probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis-2 × 109  CFU/kg of feed), (c) C diet + 3% Y...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Andor Molnár, Fanni Dublecz, László Pál, László Wágner, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess, Ferenc Husvéth, Károly Dublecz
Diets rich in various soluble nondigestible carbohydrates (sNDCs) were evaluated on different intestinal characteristics (histological, physico-chemical and microbiological) of chickens and compared with a maize-based diet as a control. A total of 160 Ross 308 male chickens were kept in deep litter pens (n = 40) and fed their appropriate diets from Day 1 to Day 35 of life. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, differing in their sNDC content, were composed; control (containing maize as the only cereal), maize-wheat-based (M + W) and maize-based supplemented with either 20 g/kg inulin (M + I) or 30 g/kg lactose (M + L)...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Manuela Falk, Andreas Münger, Rahel S Zbinden, Josef J Gross, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Hans Dieter Hess, Frigga Dohme-Meier
In Switzerland, fresh herbage is a favoured feed for dairy cows due to its high quality and availability and low production costs. However, transition and early lactation are periods characterized by an increased nutrient demand that may not be covered by herbage alone. To compare the effects of concentrate supplementation in early lactation on nutrient efficiency and ruminal fermentation, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to two performance groups according to their previous lactation milk yield: high- (8,959 ± 984 kg) and low- (6,204 ± 1,000 kg) potential cows...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Christina M Schmidt, Lee I Chiba, Wendy R Hood
During gestation and lactation, female mammals often mobilize endogenous nutrient reserves to meet the resource demands of offspring production. These mobilized stores include calcium, phosphorous and other minerals that are resorbed from maternal bone to facilitate rapid mineralization of offspring bones. The extent to which bone mineral is resorbed is governed by the total amount of mineral taken in from the diet, but also by the competing demands of offspring and the minimum level of bone density that a female must sustain to support self-maintenance...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Behnam Ahmadipour
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Securigera securidaca seed powder on growth performance, haematological parameters, cardiac indices, electrocardiographic parameters and expression of catalase (CAT), endothelin 1 (ET-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes in the lung in the broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m above sea level). A total number of 200-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to five treatments including different levels of S. securidaca 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg in a 42-day trial...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Rouhollah Nourmohammadi, Heshmatollah Khosravinia, Nazar Afzali
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feed form and xylanase supplementation on the growth performance, energetic efficiencies, energy partitioning, and nitrogen (N) balance of Ross 308 male broilers fed wheat-based diets. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 × 5 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of feed forms (mash or pellets) and xylanase (0 or 500 mg/kg), and five feeding levels (ad libitum, 85%, 70%, 55%, and 40% of ad libitum intake). Each of the 20 dietary treatments was fed to 5 replicate pens (5 birds/pen) from 22 to 42 days of age...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ching-Yi Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Shih-Torng Ding, Yuan-Yu Lin
Adiponectin is a circulatory cytokine secreted from adipose tissues and exerts critical metabolic functions in mammals. However, expression profiles of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in the avian species that may be very different from mammals, especially under affluent nutrition conditions, remain unexplored to examine the effects of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in chicken adipose tissues under high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Twenty Taiwan country chickens (L2 bred) of 12 weeks old were challenged with a 10% high-fat diet for 6 weeks...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ahmed Kacel, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada
The current study investigated the effect of olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation on rooster semen quality. Three groups of local breed roosters fifty fourth weeks old were randomly assigned to either one of the following diets during 8 weeks: ad libitum standard diet without OO dietary supplementation (Group 1), ad libitum standard diet with 0.2 ml of daily OO supplementation per rooster (Group 2), and ad libitum standard diet with 0.4 ml of daily OO supplementation per rooster (Group 3). Semen quality (volume, concentration, viability and motility) and biochemical seminal parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL) were determined twice weekly from the 5th to 8th week of treatment...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Britta Dobenecker, Peggy Hertel-Böhnke, Anna Webel, Ellen Kienzle
Renal and faecal phosphorus excretion of adult healthy European shorthaired cats after the intake of high phosphorus diets (meat/rice based) with either calcium monophosphate (HP-CaP) or sodium monophosphate (HP-NaP) as main phosphorus source was compared. The control diets (CON-CaP and CON-NaP, respectively) did not contain any added phosphorus. Calcium/phosphorus ratio was adjusted to 1.3/1 by adding calcium carbonate. Twenty-three cats were available for the trials. All cats were fed the control diets for 29 days; then, the HP diets were tested for 29 days against controls in a crossover design...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Yan Ma, Yujie J Gong, Qianqian Q Xu, Xiaoting Zou
This study investigated the effect of mercury (Hg) on progesterone secretion in ovarian granulosa cells of laying hens. The gene expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+ ) were further investigated to uncover the molecular mechanism. Results revealed that the cell viability was gradually decreased after Hg exposure from 0 to 24 hr...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Britta Kiefer-Hecker, Alexander Bauer, Britta Dobenecker
A sufficient and balanced supply of calcium and phosphorus is important mainly for the skeletal health of dogs, especially during growth. Numerous reports and research results are quoted, which focus mainly on the effects of both deficient or excessive calcium supplies. The important role that phosphorus plays in the disruption to skeletal development is also explored. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of a low phosphorus supply on selected serum parameters of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in both medium and large breed growing dogs, alongside the effects on the apparent digestibility and retention of these minerals as well as the musculoskeletal development, which were published before...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Jiashun Chen, Baoju Kang, Yurong Zhao, Kang Yao, Chenxing Fu
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Sangrovit® (SAG; minimum of 1.5% sanguinarine, a quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid extracted from Macleaya cordata) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora and its metabolites of early-weaned piglets. A total of 20 healthy weaned piglets (Duroc× [Large White×Landrace]), weaned at 21 days of age with an average body weight (BW) of 6.52 ± 0.23 kg, were randomly assigned to receive either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CTR) or a basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg SAG (SAG)...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
C Yang, J He, B Yu, J Yu, X B Mao, D W Chen, Y L Yin
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio (DAR) on serum and hepatic lipid content, luminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, and the expression of host genes involved in fat and glucose metabolism in liver and mucosa in growing-finishing pigs. Forty-eight Duroc × Landrace × Large White pigs (49.8 ± 2.8 kg) were randomly allocated to low amylose/amylopectin ratio (LR) and high amylose/amylopectin ratio (HR) groups, each group consisting of six replicates (pen) with four pigs per pen...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Yue Su, Yueping Chen, Lingjie Chen, Qiao Xu, Yuru Kang, Wenbo Wang, Aiqin Wang, Chao Wen, Yanmin Zhou
This experiment was designed to investigate effects of different levels of modified palygorskite (MPal) supplementation on growth performance, immunity, oxidative status and intestinal integrity and barrier function of broilers. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned into 5 dietary treatments and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg MPal, respectively, for a 42-day feeding trial. Treatments quadratically reduced feed/gain ratio (F:G) during 1-21 days and linearly decreased average daily feed intake and F:G during 22-42 days, and linearly and quadratically decreased average daily feed intake and F:G during overall period (p < 0...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Diego Moya, Alfred Ferret, Marta Blanch, Mari Carmen Fuentes, Jose Ignacio Fandiño, Sergio Calsamiglia
Live yeast additives may help optimize ruminal fermentation of high-grain diets, especially when the starch of the ration is highly fermentable. Eight dual flow continuous culture fermenters were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design in two replicated periods of 9 days (six for adaptation and three for sampling) to determine the effect of live yeast and type of cereal on rumen microbial fermentation and nutrient digestibility. Main factors were the addition of live yeast: no yeast (NY) vs. 2 × 107 CFU of yeast/g of diet (LY); and type of cereal in the diet: corn (CO) vs...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Joaquín Castro-Montoya, Maren Witzig, Mizanur Rahman, Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Uta Dickhoefer
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis and microbial community composition when replacing maize silage (MS) with red clover silage (RCS) in total mixed rations (TMR) of dairy cows. Treatments included TMR containing forage (MS and RCS) and concentrates (0.75:0.25) with targeted proportions (dry matter (DM) basis) of RCS in TMR of 0.15 (RCS15 ), 0.30 (RCS30 ), 0.45 (RCS45 ), and 0.60 (RCS60 ), in substitution of MS. Samples of the TMR were incubated using the in vitro Ankom RF technique with a mixture of rumen fluid and buffer solution (1:2 v/v) for 8 and 24 hr...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Letícia de Abreu Faria, Felippe Hoffmann Silva Karp, Patrícia Pimentel Righeto, Adibe Luiz Abdalla Filho, Ronaldo Carlos Lucas, Marcos Canto Machado, Andressa Santanna Natel, Thainá Carolina Graciano, Adibe Luiz Abdalla
Selenium (Se) fertilisation in grazing systems can improve the quality of animal forage, but there are few studies addressing the influence of Se fertilisation on the chemical composition and ruminal degradability of forage fertilised with Se. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro assays of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM), short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) total gas (GP) and methane (CH4 ) production of two harvests of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fertilised with urea coated with B, Cu and sodium selenate for 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 g/ha of Se...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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