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Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

J P F Santos, A A Aquino, M B A Glória, M J Avila-Campos, P M Oba, K de M Santos, T H A Vendramini, A C Carciofi, A R Junior, M A Brunetto
This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of spray-dried yeast cell wall (YCW) in diets for healthy adult cats on apparent nutrient digestibility and on bacterial composition and fermentation products in the stool. Fourteen cats with an average weight of 4.40 ± 1.05 kg and an average age of 6.2 ± 0.54 years were used and assigned to treatments in an unbalanced randomized block design (by experimental period) with two blocks and three or four cats per diet in each block. Treatments included: control (0% YCW), 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
J C Winter, G Sponder, R Merle, J R Aschenbach, H Gehlen
Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is a worldwide disease in horses that parallels human diabetes mellitus type 2. In both diseases, patients show an altered peripheral insulin sensitivity as a key feature. In humans, multiple studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity. However, serum magnesium levels vary and are therefore not a reliable indicator of the patients' magnesium status. Determining the intracellular free magnesium concentration appears to be a more sensitive diagnostic indicator...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
P Soleimani Roudi, A Golian, A Haghparast, M R Bassami, R Majidzadeh Heravi
This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of in ovo administration of aluminium hydroxide (AH) and/or mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) adjuvants along with lentogenic VG/GA strain-Avinew to alleviate the embryonic pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus. Six hundred and thirty fertilized Bovans eggs were divided into nine groups of 70 each incubated in a commercial hatchery and administered with eight types of in ovo injections in a factorial design of 2 × 2 × 2 including with/without AH, MOS and Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV), and one uninjected group on day 18 of incubation...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
H Jafari, F Fatahnia, A Khatibjoo, G Taasoli, H Fazaeli, S Varmaghany
The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary oak (Quercus persica) acorn (OA) level on dry matter intake (DMI), apparent nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) utilization, ruminal fermentation, protozoa population and urinary purine derivatives (PD) during the last 60 days of goat pregnancy. Twenty-four multiparous pregnant goats (41.7 ± 2.3 kg BW) were assigned to one of three experimental diets consisted of control diet (C, without OA) and diets containing 20 (OA20 ) or 40 g/100 g of OA (OA40 ) on a DM basis in a completely randomized block design...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
E G Smith, K Davis, L Sulsh, S C Harvey, K E Fowler
Breed-specific ideal bodyweight range information is widely used by dog owners and breeders as a guideline to ensure animals are within a healthy weight range. Body Condition Scoring, a method used by veterinarians to assess an animal's overall shape with regard to weight is considered to be an excellent method to determine an animal's overall body condition; these values, however, do not always correspond to published weight ranges. Here, the weight, neuter status, age and a nine-point Body Condition Score of a population of 140 purebred dogs were recorded and subsequently analysed to determine whether bodyweight was an effective predictor for Body Condition Scores...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
C Wang, Q Liu, G Guo, W J Huo, C X Pei, S L Zhang, H Wang
This study evaluated the effects of dietary concentrate levels and 2-methylbutyrate (2MB) supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, bacteria abundance, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers (12 months of age; 389 ± 3.7 kg of body weight) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Moderate-concentrate (400 g/kg diet [MC]) or high-concentrate (600 g/kg diet [HC]) diets were fed with or without 2MB (0 g/day [2MB-] or 15...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Joch, J Mrázek, E Skřivanová, L Čermák, M Marounek
In this study, the effects of seven pure plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) on rumen fermentation, methane (CH4 ) production and rumen bacterial community composition were determined. Two in vitro trials were conducted. In trial 1, nine concentrations of 8-hydroxyquinoline, α-terpineol, camphor, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, thymoquinone and thymol were incubated on separate days using in vitro 24-hr batch incubations. All compounds tested demonstrated the ability to alter rumen fermentation parameters and decrease CH4 production...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Z Liu, J Liu, L Chen, S Lv, L Liu, X Tang, H Zhang
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein (CP) levels of semi-purified diets on the additivity of values for standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in mixed diets from multiple protein sources for growing pigs. A total of 28 barrows (initial BW, 66.4 ± 1.3 kg) were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to a replicated 14 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 14 diets and 4 periods. The 14 experimental diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet; a corn-based diet (80 g CP/kg); nine semi-purified diets containing soya bean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (cDDGS), each type (protein source) of semi-purified diets supplied 80, 120 or 160 g CP/kg, respectively; three mixed diets based on corn, SBM, CM and cDDGS formulated to contain 120, 160 and 200 g CP/kg respectively...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
J O Zeitz, S Mohrmann, L Fehse, E Most, A Helmbrecht, B Saremi, K Eder
This study hypothesized that plasma and tissue antioxidant status of broilers is positively influenced when dietary Met concentrations exceed, and negatively when they go below NRC recommendations. In addition, different Met sources are hypothesized to affect the antioxidant defence system differently. Day-old male Cobb-500 broilers (n = 336) were allotted to seven groups and phase-fed three wheat-soya bean meal-based basal diets during days 1-10, 11-21 and 22-35. The basal diets (Met- group, Met + Cys concentration 15% below NRC recommendations) were supplemented with 0...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Sari, Y Monjezi, S F Anoosheh
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration on sorting, nutrient intake and feeding behaviour of growing lambs. Twelve weaned lambs were exposed, in a crossover design with 7-day periods, to each of two treatment diets: (i) lower-concentrate diet (LC; 40.0% concentrate) and (ii) a higher-concentrate diet (HC; 60.0% concentrate). Alfalfa hay was used as forage source. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and ort samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
W Pearson, K Wood, S Stanley, J MacNicol
Obesity is associated with inflammatory disorders in humans, including degenerative joint disease. While obesity is endemic in horses, its relationship to equine degenerative joint disease has not been explored. The current study sought to describe relationships between: body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), lameness grade (AAEP), total body fat mass (kg; FM) and fat per cent (FP) [multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (mfBIA)], age, gender, activity level (AL), synovial fluid (SF) and plasma (PL) PGE2 and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in horses...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Białek, M Białek, T Lepionka, K Kaszperuk, T Banaszkiewicz, A Tokarz
The aim of this study was to determine whether diet modification with different doses of grapeseed oil or pomegranate seed oil will improve the nutritive value of poultry meat in terms of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, as well as rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content in tissues diversified in lipid composition and roles in lipid metabolism. To evaluate the influence of applied diet modification comprehensively, two chemometric methods were used. Results of cluster analysis demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil modifies fatty acids profile in the most potent way, mainly by an increase in rumenic acid content...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Khatibjoo, H Kermanshahi, A Golian, M Zaghari
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
T Williams, B Rude, S Liao, C Mochal-King, M Nicodemus
The objective of this study was to observe how fat incorporated into an equine forage-based diet through supplementation altered levels of plasma glucose, insulin and fatty acids. Five Shetland/Hackney cross pony mares were fed alfalfa pellet diets top dressed with commercially available vegetable oil (blend of soya bean, canola and corn oils) at 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of diet. Ponies were randomly assigned one of four diets to start, with a 14-day adjustment period between transitioning to another one of the four diets...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
B Wang, F F Gu, X B Huang, J X Liu
This study was conducted to investigate the particulate passage rate, nutrient characteristics and fermentation parameters across the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in lactating dairy cows fed cereal straws in comparison with alfalfa hay. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets consisting of 55% concentrate, 15% corn silage and 30% different forage sources as follows (% of dry matter [DM]): (i) 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH); (ii) 30% corn stover (CS); and (iii) 30% rice straw (RS)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
S Stefanello, M P Mezzomo, D Zeni, R C Ebling, A V Soares, G V Kozloski
This study was conducted in an attempt to quantify the impact of N load on splanchnic tissues metabolism of sheep. The trial was conducted with four male sheep (45 ± 2.5 kg body weight (BW)) surgically implanted with chronic indwelling catheters into the portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins. Blood flow and metabolic flux through portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver and total splanchnic tissues (ST) were measured daily following a 4 × 4 Latin Square experimental design, where sheep were continually infused into the mesenteric vein with a physiological saline (0...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
C A Moran, M Morlacchini, J D Keegan, R Delles, G Fusconi
Two 125-day experiments of the same design were conducted to evaluate the effects of a heterotrophically grown microalgae (AURA) containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on pig performance, carcass traits and the fatty acid composition of lean and adipose tissue. In each experiment, 144 Hypor pigs were blocked by sex, allocated to three treatment groups, and fed 0, 0.25% or 0.50% AURA in isonutritive, isocaloric diets. Pigs were weighed on days 0, 28, 56, 84 and 112. Feed and water intakes were measured every 28 days...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
F M Macome, W F Pellikaan, W H Hendriks, D Warner, J T Schonewille, J W Cone
The relationship between in vitro rumen CH4 production of grass silages, using the gas production technique, and in vivo data obtained with the same cows and rations in respiration chambers was investigated. Silages were made from grass harvested in 2013 on May 6th, May 25th, July 1st and July 8th. The grass silages were used to formulate four different rations which were fed to 24 cows in early and late lactation, resulting in a slightly different dry matter intake (DMI; 16.5 kg/day vs. 15.4 kg/day). The experimental rations consisted of 70% grass silage, 10% maize silage, and 20% concentrates on a dry matter basis...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, D Szczerbińska
The aim of the study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity (in vitro) of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil (LEO) and the effect of its addition to the drinking water of broiler chickens on their production performance. Antimicrobial activity was determined by establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a series of microdilutions. Bird experiments were carried out on a commercial farm on 300 Ross 308 broilers. One-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of 100 individuals (five replications of 20 individuals each)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
J Rangel-Mendoza, J Hernández-García, C A Álvarez-González, R Guerrero-Zárate, C E Zenteno-Ruiz, M A López-Luna
Functional characteristics of digestive proteases and in vitro digestibility of several protein sources were studied in hatchlings of Central American river turtles, Dermatemys mawii. Acidic and alkaline proteases from the stomach and intestines were used, and optimums for acidic proteases were registered at 55°C and pH 2, while alkaline proteases were found at 55°C and pH 9. Ten protein ingredients, both vegetable and animal sources, were explored by the pH-STAT method, only for alkaline proteases. The degree of hydrolysis was at its highest for squid meal and lowest for blood meal, while the total free amino acids level was at its highest for squid meal, and lowest for wheat gluten meal...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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