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Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009539/peel-meals-as-feed-ingredients-in-poultry-diets-chemical-composition-dietary-recommendations-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Siaka S Diarra
The increase demand for poultry products has had direct effect on the supply and price of feed. This has increased research interest into the potential of locally available, less competed and low cost materials as feed ingredients. Several peels from roots/tubers and fruits have been evaluated in poultry diets but recommendations have not been consistent. High fibre, low nutrient density and likely presence of antinutritional factors limit the efficient utilisation of peel meal by poultry. Plant cultivar, age, agronomic practices, method of peel processing, breed and age of poultry all affect the inclusion level of peel meal in poultry diets...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009416/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methyl-butyrate-promotes-leucine-metabolism-and-improves-muscle-fibre-composition-in-growing-pigs
#2
Yehui H Duan, Liming M Zeng, Fengnan N Li, Xiangfeng F Kong, Kang Xu, Qiuping P Guo, Wenlong L Wang, Lingyu Y Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of excess leucine (Leu) vs. its metabolites α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on Leu metabolism, muscle fibre composition and muscle growth in growing pigs. Thirty-two pigs with a similar initial weight (9.55 ± 0.19 kg) were fed 1 of 4 diets for 45 days: basal diet, basal diet + 1.25% L-Leu, basal diet + 1.25% KIC-Ca, basal diet + 0.62% HMB-Ca. Results indicated that relative to the basal diet and HMB groups, Leu and KIC groups exhibited increased Leu concentrations and decreased concentrations of isoleucine, valine and EAAs in selected muscle (p < 0...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006982/direct-and-indirect-caecotrophy-behaviour-in-paca-cuniculus-paca
#3
Leticia Guerra Aldrigui, Sergio L G Nogueira-Filho, Vanessa Souza Altino, Alcester Mendes, Marcus Clauss, Selene S D C Nogueira
The colonic separation mechanism in lagomorphs and some rodents, associated with caecotrophy, serves to retain microbial protein. As tropical fruits have low protein concentrations, caecotrophy could be an important microbial protein source in frugivorous rodents such as the paca (Cuniculus paca). Due to conflicting reports on the occurrence of caecotrophy in this species, we obtained digestive tracts of three adult animals and observed the behaviour of four specimens maintained on a diet of a pelleted feed (P) and a supplemental mix of fruits and sweet potato (S, a source of structural fibre)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006938/weight-loss-improves-arterial-blood-gases-and-respiratory-parameters-in-obese-dogs
#4
Gláucia B Pereira-Neto, Márcio A Brunetto, Patrícia M Oba, Tatiana Champion, Cecilia Villaverde, Thiago H A Vendramini, Julio C C Balieiro, Aulus C Carciofi, Aparecido A Camacho
Canine obesity is a common medical disorder and a known risk factor for associated diseases; it can seriously influence various physiological functions, thereby limiting the longevity of the animal. In this study, we evaluated potential respiratory alterations in obese dogs before and after being subjected to caloric restriction to decrease their body weight by 20%, and compared those dogs with control dogs with ideal body condition score. The animals were divided into three experimental groups: GI (obese dogs; n = 11); GII (obese dogs after weight loss, same animals as in GI); GIII (control dogs; n = 11)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992642/basic-mechanisms-of-the-regulation-of-l-carnitine-status-in-monogastrics-and-efficacy-of-l-carnitine-as-a-feed-additive-in-pigs-and-poultry
#5
REVIEW
Robert Ringseis, Janine Keller, Klaus Eder
A great number of studies have investigated the potential of L-carnitine as feed additive to improve performance of different monogastric and ruminant livestock species, with, however, discrepant outcomes. In order to understand the reasons for these discrepant outcomes, it is important to consider the determinants of L-carnitine status and how L-carnitine status is regulated in the animal's body. While it is a long-known fact that L-carnitine is endogenously biosynthesized in certain tissues, it was only recently recognized that critical determinants of L-carnitine status, such as intestinal L-carnitine absorption, tissue L-carnitine uptake, endogenous L-carnitine synthesis and renal L-carnitine reabsorption, are regulated by specific nutrient sensing nuclear receptors...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981178/variability-in-nutrient-composition-and-in-vitro-crude-protein-digestibility-of-16-microalgae-products
#6
Katharina Judith Wild, Herbert Steingaß, Markus Rodehutscord
The chemical composition of 16 microalgae products of four genera, Arthrospira (n = 2), Chlorella (n = 8), Nannochloropsis (n = 4) and Phaeodactylum (n = 2), was assayed to evaluate the intra- and inter-genera variation of nutrient profiles of commercial microalgae products. Crude protein was the main component in all genera, followed by ether extract and crude ash. Mean crude protein concentrations were 690, 502, 431 and 446 g/kg dry matter, and mean ether extract concentrations were 63, 157, 188 and 113 g/kg dry matter for Arthrospira, Chlorella, Nannochloropsis and Phaeodactylum respectively...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978922/gas-and-short-chain-fatty-acid-production-from-feeds-commonly-fed-to-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-l-and-incubated-with-rumen-inoculum-from-red-deer-and-sheep
#7
Andrej Lavrenčič, Darko Veternik
Efficient red deer supplementary feeding depends on estimations of the nutritive value of offered feeds, frequently estimated with the use of equations derived from domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to compare the 24-hour in vitro true dry matter degradability (ivTD24 ), in vitro gas production (GP) kinetic parameters, GP in 24 hr of incubation (GAS24 ) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial biomass (MBS) produced after 24-hour incubation of feeds in inoculum prepared from sheep and red deer rumen fluid...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974992/the-effect-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-3-and-phytase-inclusion-on-pig-performance-bone-parameters-and-pork-quality-in-finisher-pigs
#8
Sarah K Duffy, Alan K Kelly, Gaurav Rajauria, Louise C Clarke, Vivian Gath, Frank J Monahan, John V O'Doherty
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing both phytase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) on pig performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, bone parameters and pork quality in finisher pigs. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial comprising of four dietary treatments. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were blocked according to live weight and sex and allocated to the following dietary treatments: low P (4.81 g/kg) diet (basal) (T1); low P diet + phytase (T2); low P diet + 25-OH-D₃ (T3) and low P diet + phytase + 25-OH-D₃ (T4)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974977/effect-of-mercury-chloride-on-oxidative-stress-and-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-signalling-molecule-in-liver-and-kidney-of-laying-hens
#9
Y Ma, Y X Zheng, X Y Dong, X T Zou
This study investigated the effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2 ) on the deposition of mercury (Hg), histopathology and oxidative stress in liver and kidney of laying hens. The gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) were further studied to uncover the molecular mechanism. A total of 960 40-week-old Hyline brown laying hens were randomly allocated to five treatments with eight pens per treatment and 24 hens per pen...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971838/uv-light-and-dietary-vitamin-d-and-their-effects-on-ionized-calcium-and-25-oh-d-plasma-concentrations-in-captive-gentoo-penguins-pygoscelis-papua
#10
Ursina Tröndle, Hanspeter W Steinmetz, Simon R Rüegg, Anja Müller, Annette Liesegang
In this study, the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light and dietary vitamin D on calcium metabolism in permanently indoor-housed gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) was investigated. The study consisted of three periods, each completed with blood samples to analyse plasma concentrations of 25-OH-D, 1,25-(OH)2 -D, ionized (iCa) and total calcium (tCa). During the first study period (D), animals were housed under routine conditions without UV-light and fed a diet of different fish species, supplemented with 1,000 IU vitamin D per animal and day...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968943/effects-of-oral-administration-of-different-dosages-of-carvacrol-essential-oils-on-intestinal-barrier-function-in-broilers
#11
ShuDong Liu, MinHo Song, Won Yun, JiHwan Lee, ChangHee Lee, WooGi Kwak, NamSoo Han, HyeunBum Kim, JinHo Cho
Essential oils are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries, and many plant essential oils have shown that they have positive effects on broilers nutrition. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of orally administered different dosages of carvacrol essential oils on intestinal barrier function in broiler chickens. A total of eighty 28-day-old (1.28 ± 0.15 kg) ROSS 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups of 20 replicates each, with one chicken per replicate per cage, and all were fed with the same diet...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968941/supplemental-methionine-sources-have-a-neutral-impact-on-oxidative-status-in-broiler-chickens
#12
Shuai Zhang, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Behnam Saremi, Eric A Wong
To determine the effect of different dietary Met sources on oxidative status, male Cobb 500 broiler chickens were fed from day of hatch to 26 days of age (d26) a diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (control) or a diet containing 0.22% DL-Met, 0.22% L-Met or 0.31% Met precursor, DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) to meet the Met + Cys requirements. Liver, breast muscle, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected at day 10 (d10) and d26 to assay markers of oxidative stress, including total glutathione (TGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (rGSH), protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP)...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959800/effects-of-pearl-millet-silage-ammoniation-with-urea-on-carcass-and-meat-quality-of-lambs
#13
Gleidson G P de Carvalho, Poliane Meire D de Freitas, Edson M Santos, Gherman G L Araújo, Juliana S de Oliveira, Thomaz Cyro G de C Rodrigues, Maria Leonor G M L de Araujo, Dallyson Yehudi C de Assis, Roberto de O Roça, Nara Laiane C de Delbem, Renata L Lomele, Laudi C Leite, Carlindo S Rodrigues
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pearl millet silage ammoniated with urea on lamb carcass characteristics and meat quality. Thirty-two noncastrated crossbred lambs at 4-5 months of age, with an average initial body weight of 17.39 ± 2.16 kg, were distributed into four treatments in a randomized block experimental design with eight animals per treatment. Experimental diets were composed of pearl millet silage ammoniated with four levels of urea (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%, on dry matter basis (DM). Carcass conformation and fatness decreased linearly (p < 0...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959805/methyl-donors-dietary-supplementation-to-gestating-sows-diet-improves-the-growth-rate-of-offspring-and-is-associating-with-changes-in-expression-and-dna-methylation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene
#14
Chao Jin, Yong Zhuo, Jun Wang, Yang Zhao, Yuedong Xuan, Daolin Mou, Hong Liu, Pan Zhou, Zhengfeng Fang, Lianqiang Che, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Xuemei Jiang, Yan Lin, De Wu
The study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary methyl donors on the performance of sows and their offspring, and the associated hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression of the offspring. A total of 24 multiparous sows were randomly fed the control (CON) or the CON diet supplemented with methyl donors (MD) at 3 g/kg betaine, 15 mg/kg folic acid, 400 mg/kg choline and 150 μg/kg VB12 , from mating until delivery. After farrowing, sows were fed a common lactation diet through a 28-days lactation period and six litters per treatment were selected to be fed until at approximately 110 kg BW...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953673/effects-of-dietary-phytoncides-extracted-from-korean-pine-pinus-koraiensis-cone-on-performance-egg-quality-gut-microflora-and-immune-response-in-laying-hens
#15
Min-Jeong Kim, U-Suk Jung, Jae-Sung Lee, Seung-Woo Jeon, Won-Seob Kim, Byoung-Ki An, Eun-Jib Kim, Tao Wang, Bae-Young Kim, Jin-Taek Im, Hong-Gu Lee
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncides extracted from discarded Korean pine cones (Pinus koraiensis) on the performance, egg quality, immune response and gut microflora in laying hens. A total of 400 Hy-Line brown laying hens (50-week old) were allotted into four dietary treatments including a control diet or a diet supplemented with phytoncides at 0.002%, 0.004% and 0.008%. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, 0.008% of dietary phytoncides improved egg production, feed conversion ratio (p < 0...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952028/efficacy-of-essential-oils-combination-on-performance-ileal-bacterial-counts-intestinal-histology-and-immunocompetence-of-laying-hens-fed-alternative-lipid-sources
#16
Asma Mousavi, Amir Hossein Mahdavi, Ahmad Riasi, Masoud Soltani-Ghombavani
This study was carried out to assess the effects of a blend of herbal essential oils (namely Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus offisinalis and Anethum graveolens) and different dietary lipid sources on the performance, ileal bacterial enumeration, intestinal histological alterations and immune responses in laying hens. For this purpose, a total of 150 laying hens were randomly allocated to six experimental treatments with five replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of three levels of a mixture of essential oils (0, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and two sources of lipid (soybean oil and fish oil containing different ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids) fed to the animals during an 80-days feeding trial...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932481/nonlinear-mixed-models-of-growth-curves-from-domestic-shorthair-cats-in-a-breeding-colony-housed-in-a-seasonal-facility-to-predict-obesity
#17
Nick John Cave, Janis P Bridges, Karin Weidgraaf, David Granville Thomas
Obesity is highly prevalent in pet cats (Felis silvestris catus) and is associated with several comorbidities, yet very little is understood about the early life risk factors. The aim of this study was to develop a mathematical model that describes growth in cats, to determine which early life variables were associated with being overweight in adulthood and to identify when during life the overweight phenotype developed in a colony of cats. We used pedigree, birth and growth data of 212 colony cats that were fed ad libitum from weaning...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920791/influence-of-vitamin-e-on-organic-matter-fermentation-ruminal-protein-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-protozoa-concentrations-and-transfer-of-fatty-acids
#18
Stephanie Schäfers, Ulrich Meyer, Dirk von Soosten, Britta Krey, Liane Hüther, Arnulf Tröscher, Wolf Pelletier, Hermine Kienberger, Michael Rychlik, Sven Dänicke
Vitamin E (Vit. E) is discussed to influence ruminal biohydrogenation. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a Vit. E supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics, ruminal microbial protein synthesis as well as ruminal organic matter fermentation. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the influence of Vit. E supplementation on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and protozoa concentrations in the rumen and, in addition, on transfer rates of middle-chain and long-chain fatty acids into the duodenum in lactating dairy cows...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920783/food-intake-and-energy-expenditure-in-growing-cats-with-and-without-a-predisposition-to-overweight
#19
Vivien Ghielmetti, Brigitta Wichert, Simon Rüegg, Diana Frey, Annette Liesegang
Overweight and obesity are multifactorial diseases caused by an imbalance in energy metabolism. An underlying genetic predisposition is often a factor in these conditions. In the cat breeding family of the Institute of Animal Nutrition at the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, a segregating overweight phenotype with a genetic contribution was observed. From this breeding family, 26 kittens were followed from birth up to 8 months of age. During this time, food intake was measured using an automatic feeding station, and energy expenditure was investigated using indirect calorimetry at the ages of 4 and 6 months...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908038/the-effect-of-dietary-corn-oil-and-fish-oil-supplementation-in-dogs-with-naturally-occurring-gingivitis
#20
Ana L Lourenço, Henriette E Booij-Vrieling, Carmen B Vossebeld, António Neves, Carlos Viegas, Ronald J Corbee
The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate if downregulation of the inflammatory response due to ingestion of high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can slow down gingivitis development, and thus delay the progression of periodontal disease (PD) in dogs. To this aim, 44 client-owned adult dogs (>1 and <8 years old) with naturally occurring PD (stages 1 and 2) were submitted to a plaque, gingivitis and calculus scoring followed by a dental cleaning procedure and collection of blood samples...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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