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Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345396/performance-rumen-fermentation-and-blood-metabolites-of-dairy-calves-fed-starter-mixtures-supplemented-with-herbal-plants-essential-oils-or-monensin
#1
M Akbarian-Tefaghi, E Ghasemi, M Khorvash
This study evaluated the supplementation effects of three herbal plants (thyme [THY], eucalyptus [EUC] and celery [CEL]), a commercial phytogenic additive ‎containing essential oils (PFA-EO, Digestarom® P.E.P.) and monensin (MON) in calf starter on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during pre- (days 3-55) and post-weaning (days 56-70). Sixty-six Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age, 41.2 ± 3 kg of BW) were allocated to one of six starters supplemented with: (i) no additives (CON), (ii) MON (30 mg/kg), (iii) THY (23 g/kg), (iv) CEL (23 g/kg), (v) EUC (23 g/kg) and (vi) PFA-EO (3 g/kg)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341282/expression-analyses-of-candidate-genes-related-to-meat-quality-traits-in-squabs-from-two-breeds-of-meat-type-pigeon
#2
M Ye, M Xu, C Chen, Y He, M Ding, X Ding, W Wei, S Yang, B Zhou
In this study, meat quality traits were compared between squabs from two pigeon breeds: one Chinese indigenous breed, the Shiqi (SQ) meat-type pigeon, and an imported breed, the white king (WK) meat-type pigeon. Breed differences were detected in the content of intramuscular fat (IMF) in the breast muscle. SQ squabs had significantly higher IMF content than the WK birds. The shear force value (an objective measure of meat tenderness) of SQ birds was also relatively lower than that of the WK squabs. Further analysis of fatty acids profile revealed that SQ squabs exhibited significant advantage in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while WK squabs were significantly higher in the sum of monounsaturated fatty acids...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341260/essential-oils-improved-weight-gain-growth-and-feed-efficiency-of-young-dairy-calves-fed-18-or-20-crude-protein-starter-diets
#3
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, R Falahati, M Poorhamdollah, S R Heidari, A Pezeshki
The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327786/differential-effects-of-experimental-hyperthyroidism-on-declined-immunity-of-broiler-chicken
#4
M S Khilji, M A Sandhu, M S Yousaf, A A Saeed, H U Rehman, H Zaneb, M A Rashid
Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development of lymphoid organs and regulation of immune function in birds. However, their role as an immune-modulator in the hyperthyroid state is still debatable. To explore the interrelationship of thyroxine (T4 ) and the immune system, chicks were divided into three groups. Group I was comprised of control birds, who received the basal diet while group II and III were given diets supplemented with 5 μg and 10 μg thyroxine/kg feed, respectively, from 15 to 28 days of age...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327443/effect-of-gut-stress-induced-by-oxidized-wheat-gluten-on-the-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-oxidative-states-of-broilers
#5
R B Liao, H J Yan, G H Liu, S Zhang, W H Chang, W Liu, C H Lin, X Y Huang, H Y Cai
This study was to investigate the effect of oxidized wheat gluten (OG) on growth performance, gut morphology and its oxidative states of broilers. One hundred and eighty-day-old male broilers (10 chicks/pen) were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments: control diet (CON), diet with 8% wheat gluten (WG) and diet with 8% OG with six pens/treatment. Body weight (BW) (21 and 35 days) and average daily gain (ADG) (1-21 days and 22-35 days) decreased (p < .05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1-21 days and 22-35 days) increased (p < ...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327380/effects-of-deficiency-and-surplus-dietary-threonine-on-reproductive-performance-of-primiparous-pregnant-gilts
#6
M Shi, T Liu, T Li, H Wang, T Yuan, D Li, J Wang
Dietary threonine imbalance is known to impair reproductive performances of gestating sows, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, effects of deficiency and surplus dietary threonine during gestation on reproductive performance, serum metabolites and hormones concentration, and colostral nutrient and immunoglobulin contents of primiparous sows were investigated. Ninety primiparous pregnant gilts were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments with different standardized ileal digestible threonine/lysine ratios at 0...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#7
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286177/kinetics-of-solutes-and-particles-of-different-size-in-the-digestive-tract-of-cattle-of-0-5-10%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-relationships-with-methane-production
#8
F Grandl, A Schwarm, S Ortmann, M Furger, M Kreuzer, M Clauss
The digestive physiology of cattle is characterised by comparatively long digesta mean retention times (MRTs), a particle sorting mechanism (difference in MRTs of large vs. small particles) and a distinct digesta washing (difference in MRTs between particles and fluids) in the reticulorumen (RR). How these processes mature during ontogeny, and how they link to other digestion characteristics and methane production, is largely unknown. We used a set of passage markers (Co-EDTA for fluids and hay particles of 2, 5 and 8 mm length mordanted with Cr, La and Ce, respectively) to measure MRTs in 12 heifers (0...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285805/atmospheric-ammonia-alters-lipid-metabolism-related-genes-in-the-livers-of-broilers-gallus-gallus
#9
R N Sa, H Xing, S J Luan, Y B Sun, C Y Sun, H F Zhang
Atmospheric ammonia in animal housing is reported to have adverse effects on livestock performance and animal health. Previous experiments have found that 75 ppm ammonia reduced the production performance and altered body fat distribution quality of broilers. In this study, we examined the body fat distribution, serum metabolites and lipid metabolism gene expression of broiler exposed to ammonia. A total of 400 chickens were randomly allocated to four groups with four replicates and received ammonia treatments at 0, 25, 50 and 75 ppm, respectively, for 3 weeks...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250876/levels-of-supplementation-of-inorganic-selenium-and-vitamin-e-for-meat-quail-aged-0-to-14-and-14-to-35%C3%A2-days
#10
V Zancanela, A C Furlan, P C Pozza, S M Marcato, D O Grieser, C E Stanquevis, E M Finco, T M Oliveira-Bruxel, M F Z Ferreira
Two experiments were carried out to determine the levels of supplementation of inorganic selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VE) in diets of quails aged 0-14 and 14-35 days old. A completely randomized design was used in a factorial design (Se = 0.1125; 0.2250; 0.3375 and 0.4500 mg kg-1  diet-1  × VE = 10; 23; 36 and 49 IU kg-1  diet-1 ). In experiment 1, quail (n = 2,400) were aged 0-14 days and were divided into 16 treatments, with three replicates of 50 birds. In experiment 2, quail (n = 1,680) were aged 14-35 days and were divided into the same treatments, with three replicates of 35 birds...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250860/effect-of-organic-acids-or-probiotics-alone-or-in-combination-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-enzyme-activities-intestinal-morphology-and-gut-microflora-in-broiler-chickens
#11
P Rodjan, K Soisuwan, K Thongprajukaew, Y Theapparat, S Khongthong, J Jeenkeawpieam, T Salaeharae
A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids or probiotics alone or in combination on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, enzyme activity, intestinal morphology and gut microflora in broiler chickens (Ross308). A completely randomized design was used, with 1,440 broiler chicks across four treatments and five replications of 72 chicks each. The chicks in the control treatment were fed on a control diet (CD), whereas for the other treatment groups, the CD was supplemented with 0...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243316/effect-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-treated-king-grass-silage-on-the-performance-traits-and-serum-metabolites-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#12
A A Shah, X Yuan, R U Khan, T Shao
This study examined the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici-treated silage of King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) on the productive traits and blood biochemistry of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. King grass was ensiled without or with L. plantarum (T1), P. acidilactici (T2) and P. acidilactici + L. plantarum (T3). A total of 72 male NZW rabbits (6 weeks) of similar weight and appearance were housed in groups in metallic cages in a completely randomized design. The performance traits, daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed convention ratio were not affected by the silage treatment...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235693/porcine-intestinal-yeast-species-kazachstania-slooffiae-a-new-potential-protein-source-with-favourable-amino-acid-composition-for-animals
#13
V Urubschurov, K Büsing, W-B Souffrant, N Schauer, A Zeyner
There is little information about Kazachstania slooffiae which dominates among other yeasts in the pigs' intestine. Therefore, the aims of this study were to characterise the yeast cell contents and to investigate which nitrogen sources, organic acids and alcohols may be utilised or produced by this species. The results showed that, K. slooffiae could use urea, ammonium sulphate, peptides and single amino acids and produce thereby ethanol and formic acid. However, this yeast did not metabolise amino acids, lactic, butyric, propionic and acetic acids as sole carbon source...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218772/signals-for-identifying-cows-at-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-veterinary-practice
#14
REVIEW
E Humer, J R Aschenbach, V Neubauer, I Kröger, R Khiaosa-Ard, W Baumgartner, Q Zebeli
Controlling rumen disorders is critical to ensure successful dairy herd health management. Lactation diets of dairy cows are commonly rich in concentrates and low in physically effective fibre. Feeding of these diets increases the risk of rumen disorders with far-reaching consequences for cattle health, welfare and sustainability of dairy production. The term subacute ruminal acidosis or SARA is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. Being subclinical, SARA lacks of clear symptoms and is therefore difficult to diagnose and to control in the practice...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218742/prevalence-of-foot-disorders-in-captive-sardinian-partridges-alectoris-barbara-barbara-bonnaterre-1790-as-useful-indicators-of-fitness-to-natural-environment
#15
M G Cappai, A Abd El-Wahab, G Arru, M Muzzeddu, W Pinna
Foot health represents an issue in wild avifauna breeding practices. In particular, prevalence of digital ulceration (DU) and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) are valid indicators of welfare in wildlife conservation centres and may be interpreted as to fitness for bird's reintroduction into the wild. This study meant to test the effects of raising practices on foot pad health in captive Sardinian partridges (Alectoris barbara barbara Bonnaterre, 1790) reared for biodiversity conservation, to assess welfare and fitness to reintroduction into nature...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218862/the-presence-and-distribution-of-cannabinoid-type-1-and-2-receptors-in-the-mandibular-gland-the-influence-of-different-physical-forms-of-diets-on-their-expression-in-piglets
#16
C Pirino, M G Cappai, M Maranesi, D Tomassoni, A Giontella, W Pinna, C Boiti, J Kamphues, C Dall'Aglio
We explored the expression and cell type distribution of cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptors type 2 (CB2) in the mandibular glands of pigs in relation to different physical forms of the diet. Thirty-two crossbred growing pigs (ages 5-6 weeks) were randomly allotted to four experimental groups (eight pigs/group) and fed four different physical types of the same diet for 4 weeks: finely ground pellet (FP), coarsely ground meal (CM), coarsely ground pellet (CP) and coarsely ground extruded (CE) with dMEAN of 0...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218776/is-the-consumption-of-snail-meat-actually-healthy-an-analysis-of-the-osteotropic-influence-of-snail-meat-as-a-sole-source-of-protein-in-growing-rats
#17
R P Radzki, M Bieńko, P Polak, K Szkucik, M Ziomek, M Ostapiuk, J Bieniaś
The study was aimed at determining the osteotropic effects of diets containing snail meat as a sole protein source. In our experiment, we tested three different diets incorporating snail meat originating from Helix pomatia (HP), Cornu.aspesa maxima (CAM) and Cornu.aspersum aspersum (CAA) and compared these to a control diet (CON) in which casein was the source of protein. In all diets, the protein content amounted to 10%, as calculated on a dry weight basis. In the study, forty male Wistar rats with an initial body mass of 50 ± 2 g were randomly placed within the control and three experimental groups...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193326/tibiotarsus-bone-characteristics-and-tibial-dyschondroplasia-incidence-of-broilers-fed-diets-supplemented-with-leucine-and-valine
#18
I C Ospina-Rojas, A E Murakami, C R A Duarte, M I Sakamoto, P C Aguihe, P C Pozza, T C Santos
Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) leucine and valine levels on tibiotarsus bone characteristics and the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia of broilers from day 1 to 21 (Experiment I) and day 21 to 42 post-hatch (Experiment II). Each experimental phase was evaluated independently. In both experiments, a total of 1,500 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193328/transport-of-valine-across-the-small-intestinal-epithelium-in-pigs-fed-different-valine-levels-and-bacillus-subtilis
#19
K Blaabjerg, J V Nørgaard, B Nielsen, M D Cantor, P Derkx, J Sehested, H D Poulsen
Mutants of Bacillus subtilis overproducing valine (B. subtilis VAL) could be an approach to supply pigs dietary valine (Val). In the study, 18 gilts were fed: (i) negative diet with a standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg); (ii) Neg added B. subtilis VAL (1.28 × 1011  cfu/kg as-fed) or; (iii) Neg added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1. Using the Ussing chamber method, the study aimed to investigate whether (i) the diets affect intestinal transport of additions of 0, 5, 10 or 20 mmol Val/L from the mucosal to the serosal side and (ii) the B...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178459/inflammatory-and-metabolic-responses-to-an-intramammary-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-early-lactating-cows-supplemented-with-conjugated-linoleic-acid
#20
J J Gross, L Grossen-Rösti, R Héritier, A Tröscher, R M Bruckmaier
Supplementation of dairy cows with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) allows nutrient repartitioning despite an energy deficiency in early lactation, which might be a benefit for the immune system, too. In this study, we investigated potential nutrient sparing effects of CLA in early lactating cows with low plasma glucose concentrations exposed to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were exposed to an intramammary LPS challenge in week 4 p.p. Eight cows (CLA) were supplemented daily with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA (6...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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