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European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527038/transport-of-alignment-active-particles-in-funnel-structures
#1
Wei-Jing Zhu, Feng-Guo Li, Bao-Quan Ai
We study the transport of alignment active particles in complex confined structures (an array of asymmetric funnels). It is found that due to the existence of the multiple pathways, the alignment interaction can enrich the transport behavior of active particles. In an array of asymmetric funnels, the purely nematic alignment always suppresses the rectification. However, the polar alignment does not always promote the rectification, the rectification is suppressed for large self-propulsion speed. In addition, we also found the existence of optimal parameters (the self-propulsion speed and the rotational diffusion coefficient) at which the directed velocity takes its maximal value...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527037/frequency-voltage-controlled-light-transmittance-in-ferroelectric-liquid-crystal-cells
#2
Aleksey A Kudreyko, Nail G Migranov, Olga V Bachurina, Song Wanqing
Light transmittance of a short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal cell was numerically studied when low and high voltage frequencies ([Formula: see text] kHz and [Formula: see text] kHz, respectively) are applied to the cell. The reported finding in the decay of light transmittance at increasing frequency is obtained due to reasonable simplifications of the temporal dependence of director's azimuthal angle. By taking experimentally known data, we numerically demonstrate that the increase in temperature of ferroelectric liquid crystals yields an insignificant change of light transmittance within all visible spectra...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510231/quantum-effects-in-dynamics-of-water-and-other-liquids-of-light-molecules
#3
REVIEW
V N Novikov, A P Sokolov
Nuclear quantum effects in atomic motions are well known at low temperatures [Formula: see text] K, but analyses of structural relaxation in liquids and description of the glass transition traditionally neglect quantum effects at higher temperatures, [Formula: see text] K. Recent studies, however, suggested that nuclear quantum effects in systems of light molecules (e.g., water) might play an important role in structural dynamics and provide non-negligible contributions at such temperatures, and even up to ambient temperature...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484938/pressure-dependence-of-the-electrical-transport-in-granular-materials
#4
M Creyssels, C Laroche, E Falcon, B Castaing
We report on systematic measurements of the electrical resistance of one- and three-dimensional (1D and 3D) metallic and oxidized granular materials under uni-axial compression. Whatever the dimension of the packing, the resistance follows a power law versus the pressure ([Formula: see text]), with an exponent [Formula: see text] much larger than the ones expected either with elastic or plastic contact between the grains. A simple model based on a statistical description of the micro-contacts between two grains is proposed...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480496/preferential-hydration-fully-controls-the-renaturation-dynamics-of-collagen-in-water-glycerol-solvents
#5
O Ronsin, C Caroli, T Baumberger
Glycerol is one of the additives which stabilize collagen, as well as globular proteins, against thermally induced denaturation --an effect explained by preferential hydration, i.e. by the formation, in water/glycerol solvents, of a hydration layer whose entropic cost favors the more compact triple-helix native structure against the denatured one, gelatin. Quenching gelatin solutions promotes renaturation which, however, remains incomplete, as the formation of a gel network gives rise to growing topological constraints...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477246/measuring-thin-films-using-quantitative-frustrated-total-internal-reflection-ftir
#6
Minori Shirota, Michiel A J van Limbeek, Detlef Lohse, Chao Sun
In the study of interactions between liquids and solids, an accurate measurement of the film thickness between the two media is essential to study the dynamics. As interferometry is restricted by the wavelength of the light source used, recent studies of thinner films have prompted the use of frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR). In many studies the assumption of a simple exponential decay of the intensity with film thickness was used. In the present study we highlight that this model does not satisfy the Fresnel equations and thus gives an underestimation of the films...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470433/effects-of-interplay-of-nanoparticles-surfactants-and-base-fluid-on-the-surface-tension-of-nanocolloids
#7
A R Harikrishnan, Purbarun Dhar, Prabhat K Agnihotri, Sateesh Gedupudi, Sarit K Das
A systematically designed study has been conducted to understand and demarcate the degree of contribution by the constituting elements to the surface tension of nanocolloids. The effects of elements such as surfactants, particles and the combined effects of these on the surface tension of these complex fluids are studied employing the pendant drop shape analysis method by fitting the Young-Laplace equation. Only the particle has shown an increase in the surface tension with particle concentration in a polar medium like DI water, whereas only a marginal effect of particles on surface tension in weakly polar mediums like glycerol and ethylene glycol has been demonstrated...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455744/stability-of-a-gravity-driven-thin-electrolyte-film-flowing-over-a-heated-substrate
#8
Tara Chand Kumawat, Ajit Vikram, Naveen Tiwari
The stability of a thin electrolyte liquid film driven by gravity over a vertical substrate is presented. A film thickness evolution equation is derived and solved numerically. The substrate is non-uniformly heated from below which is modeled by imposing a temperature profile at the liquid-solid interface. The electrohydrodynamics is included in the model with Maxwell's stress tensor. The governing flow and energy equations are simplified using the lubrication approximation. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation with Debye-Hückel approximation is used for the potential which is generated inside the film due to a charged layer at the liquid-solid interface...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455743/topical-issue-on-non-isothermal-transport-in-complex-fluids
#9
EDITORIAL
Rafael Delgado-Buscalioni, Mohamed Khayet, José Marıa Ortiz de Zárate, Fabrizio Croccolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429181/hydrodynamic-instabilities-in-active-cholesteric-liquid-crystals
#10
Carl A Whitfield, Tapan Chandra Adhyapak, Adriano Tiribocchi, Gareth P Alexander, Davide Marenduzzo, Sriram Ramaswamy
We describe the basic properties and consequences of introducing active stresses, with principal direction along the local director, in cholesteric liquid crystals. The helical ground state is found to be linearly unstable to extensile stresses, without threshold in the limit of infinite system size, whereas contractile stresses are hydrodynamically screened by the cholesteric elasticity to give a finite threshold. This is confirmed numerically and the non-linear consequences of instability, in both extensile and contractile cases, are studied...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429180/theoretical-models-for-the-thermo-gravitational-separation-process-in-porous-media-filled-by-n-component-mixtures
#11
Dimitri Mutschler, Mohamed Aziz Larabi, Abdelkader Mojtabi
The aim of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of the separation of an N-component mixture. In this study, two analytical models explaining the thermo-gravitational separation of components in N-component mixtures for vertical cavity filled by a porous medium are presented and assessed. The basic state and the separation are expressed in terms of the separation ratio, and the Lewis, cross-diffusion and Rayleigh numbers. Our computational analysis confirms that, for the given values of the mass fractions, thermodiffusion can be measured with a thermo-gravitational column, strongly supporting the experimentally determined transport coefficients...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429179/generalization-of-the-ericksen-leslie-theory
#12
Carlindo Vitoriano
We generalize the Ericksen-Leslie theory for the dynamics of nematic liquid crystals by including the director-density coupling energy [Formula: see text]. It corresponds to the cost in energy due to the interaction of spatially varying mass density [Formula: see text] and the liquid crystal director [Formula: see text]. A striking confirmation of the theory is achieved by confronting it with experimental data on acoustical Fréedericksz transition.
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417323/polymer-chain-collapse-induced-by-many-body-dipole-correlations
#13
Yu A Budkov, N N Kalikin, A L Kolesnikov
We present a simple analytical theory of a flexible polymer chain dissolved in a good solvent, carrying permanent freely oriented dipoles on the monomers. We take into account the dipole correlations within the random phase approximation (RPA), as well as a dielectric heterogeneity in the internal polymer volume relative to the bulk solution. We demonstrate that the dipole correlations of monomers can be taken into account as pairwise ones only when the polymer chain is in a coil conformation. In this case the dipole correlations manifest themselves through the Keesom interactions of the permanent dipoles...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417322/are-midge-swarms-bound-together-by-an-effective-velocity-dependent-gravity
#14
Andrew M Reynolds, Michael Sinhuber, Nicholas T Ouellette
Midge swarms are a canonical example of collective animal behaviour where local interactions do not clearly play a major role and yet the animals display group-level cohesion. The midges appear somewhat paradoxically to be tightly bound to the swarm whilst at the same time weakly coupled inside it. The microscopic origins of this behaviour have remained elusive. Models based on Newtonian gravity do, however, agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. They are biologically plausible since gravitational interactions have similitude with long-range acoustic and visual interactions, and they correctly predict that individual attraction to the swarm centre increases linearly with distance from the swarm centre...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389827/numerical-determination-of-shear-stress-relaxation-modulus-of-polymer-glasses
#15
I Kriuchevskyi, J P Wittmer, O Benzerara, H Meyer, J Baschnagel
Focusing on simulated polymer glasses well below the glass transition, we confirm the validity and the efficiency of the recently proposed simple-average expression [Formula: see text] for the computational determination of the shear stress relaxation modulus G(t). Here, [Formula: see text] characterizes the affine shear transformation of the system at t = 0 and h(t) the mean-square displacement of the instantaneous shear stress as a function of time t. This relation is seen to be particulary useful for systems with quenched or sluggish transient shear stresses which necessarily arise below the glass transition...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389826/thixotropy-and-shear-thinning-of-lubricated-contacts-with-confined-membranes
#16
Thomas Le Goff, Tung B T To, Olivier Pierre-Louis
We have modeled the nonlinear dynamics and the rheological behavior of a system under shear containing a membrane confined between two attractive walls. The presence of the membrane induces additional tangential forces on the walls that always increase the global friction. At low shear rates, the membrane exhibits chaotic dynamics with slow coarsening leading to thixotropy, i.e. to a slow decrease of the membrane-induced tangential forces on the walls. At intermediate shear rates, the membrane profile presents stationary periodic patterns...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389825/exploring-the-physics-of-sand-drawings-the-role-of-craters-furrows-and-piles
#17
Jorge González-Gutiérrez, J C Ruiz-Suárez
Few years ago an article addressing the physics behind aaabstract paintings was published by Herczyński et al. (Phys. Today 64, 31 (2011) issue No. 6). The authors aimed to understand how artists like Jackson Pollock manipulated paints to create pieces of art where the theory of fluid dynamics had a clear and perceivable role. Scaling laws were found to explain the plasticity observed in the artists's traces that we admire in worldwide museums. Because sand drawings are not only wonderful artistic expressions but also intangible cultural heritages of humanity, we wonder if they could be analyzed in a similar fashion...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389824/perils-of-ad-hoc-approximations-for-the-activity-function-of-chemically-powered-colloids
#18
M N Popescu, W E Uspal, M Tasinkevych, S Dietrich
Colloids can achieve motility by promoting at their surfaces chemical reactions in the surrounding solution. A well-studied case is that of self-phoresis, in which motility arises due to the spatial inhomogeneities in the chemical composition of the solution and the distinct interactions of the solvent molecules and of the reaction products with the colloid. For simple models of such chemically active colloids, the steady-state motion in an unbounded solution can be derived analytically in closed form. In contrast, for such chemically active particles moving in the vicinity of walls, the derivation of closed-form and physically intuitive solutions of the equations governing their dynamics turns out to be a severe challenge even for simple models...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389823/chaperone-driven-polymer-translocation-through-nanopore-spatial-distribution-and-binding-energy
#19
Rouhollah Haji Abdolvahab
Chaperones are binding proteins working as a driving force in biopolymer translocation. They bind to the biopolymer near the pore and prevent its backsliding. Chaperones may have different spatial distributions. Recently, we showed the importance of their spatial distribution in translocation and its effects on the sequence dependency of the translocation time. Here we focus on homopolymers and exponential distribution. Because of the exponential distribution of chaperones, the energy dependency of the translocation time will change...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382586/isothermal-molecular-diffusion-in-mixtures-containing-toluene-cyclohexane-and-methanol
#20
Cecília I A V Santos, Valentina Shevtsova, Ana C F Ribeiro
The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring ternary mutual diffusion coefficients for mixtures of cyclohexane-toluene-methanol, corresponding to the mixtures under study on the International Space Station (ISS) within the scope of the project DCMIX2 (second series of the experiment Diffusion Coefficients in Mixtures). Five ternary systems with different composition of cyclohexane-toluene-methanol were investigated in order to accurately obtain the mass diffusion coefficients, contributing to a better understanding of the isothermal molecular diffusion in conjunction with the coupled flows of solutes occurring in such fluid systems...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
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