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European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter

Izabela Dobrzyńska
Divalent ions, in particular calcium ions, constitute important macroelements in living organisms. They are also found in cell membranes, i.e., ensuring their stabilization or participating in synaptic transmission of nerve impulses. The aim of this work is to describe the interactions of divalent ions, such as Ca2+ , Ba2+ , and Sr2+ , in electrolytes with the functional groups on the surface of liposomes formed from phosphatidylcholine (PC). Microelectrophoresis is used to determine the surface charge density as a function of pH...
January 10, 2019: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Jérôme Burelbach, Holger Stark
We use a hydrodynamic reciprocal approach to phoretic motion to derive general expressions for the electrophoretic and thermophoretic mobility of weakly charged colloids in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Our approach shows that phoretic motion can be understood in terms of the interfacial transport of thermodynamic excess quantities that arises when a colloid is kept stationary inside a bulk fluid flow. The obtained expressions for the mobilities are extensions of previously known results as they can account for different hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the colloidal surface, irrespective of how the colloid-fluid interaction range compares to the colloidal radius...
January 10, 2019: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Robert S Hoy
We discuss issues related to thermalization of plastic flow in the context of soft glassy rheology (SGR) theory. An apparent problem with the theory in its current form is that the stationarity of thermomechanical equilibrium obtained by requiring that its flow rule satisfy detailed balance in the absence of applied deformation requires plastic flow to be athermal. This prevents proper application of SGR to small-molecule and polymer glasses where plastic flow is often well thermalized. Clearly, one would like to have a SGR-like theory of thermalized plastic flow that satisfies stationarity...
January 9, 2019: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Jianlin Liu, Shanpeng Li
The phenomena on the capillarity-driven migration of small objects are full of interest for both scientific and engineering communities, and a critical review is thereby presented. The small objects mentioned here deal with the non-deformable objects, such as particles, rods, disks and metal sheets; and besides them, the soft objects are considered, such as droplets and bubbles. Two types of interfaces are analyzed, i.e., the solid-fluid interface and the fluid-fluid interface. Due to the easily deformable properties of the soft objects and distorted interfacial shapes induced by small objects, a more convenient way to obtain the driving force is through the potential energy of the system...
January 8, 2019: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
I Stanković
Conditional Moment Closure (CMC), an advanced turbulent reacting flow method, has been applied to the challenging cases with a varying degree of turbulence-chemistry interactions. The CMC approach may be used either in the RAMS or LES context, this is reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part is dedicated to applications on Sandia piloted jet flames D and F and lifted hydrogen jet flame. In case of the Sandia piloted jet flame D, the RANS-CMC simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data...
December 31, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Zefeng Jing, Chenchen Feng, Shuzhong Wang, Donghai Xu
Wet foam, as a typical multiphase soft material, has complex spatial structure. Foam quality (i.e., gas fraction of a foam fluid), one of fundamental structure parameters of a foam system, generally has a significant influence on the mechanical response of the wet foam to the continuous and oscillatory shear. This study shows that the stress level of the wet foam, including the shear stress and the normal stress difference, rises with the foam quality. An exponential link between the yield stress of wet foam and the foam quality is demonstrated...
December 24, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
F Doumenc, V Janeček, V S Nikolayev
Evaporation or condensation in the vicinity of the immobile (pinned) contact line in an atmosphere of some inert (noncondensable) gas is considered here in a partial wetting configuration. Such a problem is relevant to many situations, in particular to a drop or a liquid film drying in open air. The thermal effects are not important and the mass exchange rate is controlled by the vapor dynamics in the gas. By following previous works, we account for the weak coupling between the diffusion in the gas and flow in the liquid through the Kelvin effect...
December 19, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Timothée Mouterde, Lydéric Bocquet
In this paper, we explore the effect of a finite surface charge mobility on the interfacial transport: conductance, streaming currents, electro- and diffusio-osmotic flows. We first show that the surface charge mobility modifies the hydrodynamic boundary condition for the fluid, which introduces a supplementary term depending on the applied electric field. In particular, the resulting slip length is found to decrease inversely with the surface charge. We then derive expressions for the various transport mobilities, highlighting that the surface charge mobility merely moderates the amplification effect of interfacial slippage, to the noticeable exception of diffusio-osmosis and surface conductance...
December 19, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Dilafruz Kulmatova, Ferhat Hadri, Sylvain Guillou, Daniel Bonn
Recent theories of drag reduction in wall turbulence assumed that the presence of the polymer leads to an effective viscosity, which increases linearly with the distance from the wall. Such a linear viscosity profile reduces the Reynolds stress (i.e., the momentum flux to the wall), which leads to drag reduction. For the usual flexible polymers employed in drag reduction, the effective viscosity is however a strongly non-linear effect that is difficult to quantify. We therefore investigate the turbulent drag reduction characteristics of a stiff rod-like polymer for which any effective viscosity changes are only due to the orientation of the polymers...
December 12, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
M N Popescu, W E Uspal, Z Eskandari, M Tasinkevych, S Dietrich
Various aspects of self-motility of chemically active colloids in Newtonian fluids can be captured by simple models for their chemical activity plus a phoretic-slip hydrodynamic boundary condition on their surface. For particles of simple shapes (e.g., spheres) --as employed in many experimental studies-- which move at very low Reynolds numbers in an unbounded fluid, such models of chemically active particles effectively map onto the well studied so-called hydrodynamic squirmers (S. Michelin and E. Lauga, J...
December 12, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Andrea Papale, Angelo Rosa
We study the properties of the classical Ising model with nearest-neighbor interaction for spins located at the monomers of long polymer chains in 2 and 3 dimensions. We compare results for two ensembles of polymers with very different single chain properties: 1) swollen, self-avoiding linear polymer chains in good solvent conditions and 2) compact, space-filling randomly branching polymers in melt. By employing a mean-field approach and Monte Carlo computer simulations, we show that swollen polymers cannot sustain an ordered phase...
December 11, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Francesco Serafin, Mark J Bowick, Sidney R Nagel
Chemical design of block copolymers makes it possible to create polymer vesicles with tunable microscopic structure. Here we focus on a model of a vesicle made of smectic liquid-crystalline block copolymers at zero temperature. The vesicle assumes a faceted tetrahedral shape and the smectic layers arrange in a stack of parallel straight lines with topological defects localized at the vertices. We counted the number of allowed states at [Formula: see text]. For any fixed shape, we found a two-dimensional countable degeneracy in the smectic pattern depending on the tilt angle between the smectic layers and the edge of the tetrahedral shell...
December 11, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
T V Lyutyy
The deterministic rotation of a ferromagnetic nanoparticle in a fluid is considered. The heating arising from viscous friction of a nanoparticle driven by circularly and linearly polarized alternating magnetic fields is investigated. Since the power loss of such fields depends on the character of the induced motion of a nanoparticle, all types of particle trajectories are described in detail. The dependences of the power loss on the alternating field parameters are determined. The optimal conditions for obtaining the maximum heating efficiency are discussed...
December 10, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Khanh Thuy Nguyen, Cristiano De Michele
Anisotropic interactions can bring about the formation, through self-assembly, of semi-flexible chains, which in turn can give rise to nematic phases for suitable temperatures and concentrations. A minimalist model constituted of hard cylinders decorated with attractive sites has been already extensively studied numerically. Simulation data shows that a theoretical approach recently proposed is able to properly capture the physical properties of these self-assembly-driven liquid crystals. Here, we investigated a simpler model constituted of bifunctional Kern-Frenkel hard spheres which does not possess steric anisotropy but which can undergo a istropic-nematic transition as a result of their self-assembly into semi-flexible chains...
December 6, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Shu Yang, Bolesław Mielniczuk, Moulay Saïd El Youssoufi, Tomasz Hueckel
Experiments with evaporation of capillary bridges between two glass spheres show that the bridge gorge radius decreases much faster than the contact radius, distorting the original constant mean curvature bridge shape. In addition, the Laplace pressure calculated from local principal curvatures exhibits high gradients along the bridge moving external surface, most commonly with a high suction near the triple phase contact and positive pressure near the gorge. The high suction results from a negative external curvature at contact...
December 5, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Yongli Wu, Xizhong An, Quan Qian, Lin Wang, Aibing Yu
The dynamic crystallization of cubic granular particles under three-dimensional mechanical vibration is numerically investigated by the discrete element method. The effects of operational conditions (vibration, container shape and system size) and particle properties (gravity and friction) on the formation of crystals and defects are discussed. The results show that the formation and growth of clusters with face-to-face aligned cubic particles can be easily realized under vibrations. Especially, a single crystal with both translational and orientational ordering can be reproduced in a rectangular container under appropriate vibrations...
November 27, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
G Kitenbergs, A Tatuļčenkovs, L Puķina, A Cēbers
Mixing remains an important problem for the development of successful microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices, where simple and predictable systems are particularly interesting. One is magnetic micro-convection, an instability happening on the interface of miscible magnetic and non-magnetic fluids in a Hele-Shaw cell under applied field. Previous work proved that the Brinkman model quantitatively explains the experiments. However, a gravity-caused convective motion complicated the tests. Here we first improve the experimental system to exclude the parasitic convection...
November 26, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
G Grosjean, M Hubert, Y Collard, S Pillitteri, N Vandewalle
In the study of microscopic flows, self-propulsion has been particularly topical in recent years, with the rise of miniature artificial swimmers as a new tool for flow control, low Reynolds number mixing, micromanipulation or even drug delivery. It is possible to take advantage of interfacial physics to propel these microrobots, as demonstrated by recent experiments using the proximity of an interface, or the interface itself, to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number. This paper discusses how a nearby interface can provide the symmetry breaking necessary for propulsion...
November 26, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
E S Nascimento
We introduce a density-functional formalism based on the Parsons-Lee and the generalized van der Waals theories in order to describe the thermodynamics of anisotropic particle systems with steric interactions. For ellipsoids of revolution, the orientational distribution function is obtained by minimizing the free energy functional and the equations of state are determined. The system exhibits a nematic-isotropic discontinuous transition, characterized by a phase separation between nematic and isotropic phases at finite as well low packing fractions...
November 26, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Natalia Kovalchuk, Constantinos Hadjistassou
Until recently, natural gas encountered in tight shales, which provided the source and seal of the gas, was considered uneconomical to produce. Although unconventional formations may be as porous as other reservoir rocks, their exceedingly small pore sizes and low permeability render them resistant to gas movement. Considering their importance to gas transport, we outline the characteristics of shale rocks, the mechanisms of Fickian and Knudsen diffusion as well as Klinkenberg's permeability. Given the challenges in unlocking natural gas from tight formations, various techniques such as the generation of artificial fractures and the introduction of pressurised fluids are detailed...
November 20, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
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