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European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803430/effects-of-stimulated-aggrecanolysis-on-nanoscale-morphological-and-mechanical-properties-of-wild-type-and-aggrecanase-resistant-mutant-mice-cartilages
#1
Md Hemayet Uddin, Huabin Wang, Fraser M Rogerson, Peter Vee-Sin Lee, Xuehua Zhang
A key event in arthritis pathogenesis is the degradation of aggrecan, the major component in articular cartilage. In this work, we investigate the effects of stimulated aggrecanolysis on the morphological and nanomechanical properties of cartilage harvested from wild-type mice and aggrecanase-resistant mutant mice named "Jaffa". The cartilages were native or were subjected to stimulated aggrecanolysis by interleukin-1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text]) treatment. The nanoscale morphological and mechanical properties of the sectioned cartilages were measured by using a sharp probe by atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
August 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785865/shear-induced-slab-like-domains-in-a-directed-percolated-colloidal-gel
#2
Matthias Kohl, Michael Schmiedeberg
We explore the structural changes of a gel-forming colloid polymer mixture under shear by employing Brownian dynamics simulations of a colloidal system with short-ranged attractive depletion interaction in a linear flow profile. While the structure of unpercolated systems changes only slightly under shearing, we discover the formation of slab-like clusters in sheared directed percolated gel networks that are confined between two walls. These gel-slabs are stable over a long time and seem to be related to the syneresis phenomena that can be observed in directed percolated colloidal gels...
August 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770365/scaling-and-criticality-of-the-manning-transition
#3
Minryeong Cha, Juyeon Yi, Yong Woon Kim
We consider a system consisting of a charged cylinder in the presence of neutralizing counterions. This system is well known to exhibit the Manning transition of counterion condensation onto the charged cylinder. We study the criticality and the scaling properties of the Manning transition, analyzing involved thermodynamic quantities such as condensed fraction, its fluctuation, and heat capacity. Through the Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis, we find that near the transition point the examined quantities exhibit scale-invariant behaviors with specific exponents, which provides an evidence that the Manning transition is a critical phenomenon having a scale-invariant property, analogous to bulk phase transitions...
August 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744674/liquid-droplets-on-a-free-standing-glassy-membrane-deformation-through-the-glass-transition
#4
Adam Fortais, Rafael D Schulman, Kari Dalnoki-Veress
In this study, micro-droplets are placed on thin, glassy, free-standing films where the Laplace pressure of the droplet deforms the free-standing film, creating a bulge. The film's tension is modulated by changing temperature continuously from well below the glass transition into the melt state of the film. The contact angle of the liquid droplet with the planar film as well as the angle of the bulge with the film are measured and found to be consistent with the contact angles predicted by a force balance at the contact line...
July 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733727/low-density-lipoproteins-investigated-under-high-hydrostatic-pressure-by-elastic-incoherent-neutron-scattering
#5
J Peters, N Martinez, B Lehofer, R Prassl
Human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a highly complex nano-particle built up of various lipid classes and a single large protein moiety (apoB-100) owning essential physiological functions in the human body. Besides its vital role as a supplier of cholesterol and fat for peripheral tissues and cells, it is also a known key player in the formation of atherosclerosis. Due to these important roles in physiology and pathology the elucidation of structural and dynamical details is of great interest. In the current study we drew a broader picture of LDL dynamics using elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) as a function of specified temperature and pressure points...
July 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667343/interfacial-fluid-instabilities-and-kapitsa-pendula
#6
Madison S Krieger
The onset and development of instabilities is one of the central problems in fluid mechanics. Here we develop a connection between instabilities of free fluid interfaces and inverted pendula. When acted upon solely by the gravitational force, the inverted pendulum is unstable. This position can be stabilized by the Kapitsa phenomenon, in which high-frequency low-amplitude vertical vibrations of the base creates a fictitious force which opposes the gravitational force. By transforming the dynamical equations governing a fluid interface into an appropriate pendulum-type equation, we demonstrate how stability can be induced in fluid systems by properly tuned vibrations...
July 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656499/electrical-properties-of-polyetherimide-thin-films-non-parametric-dielectric-response-analysis-with-distribution-of-relaxation-times
#7
Enis Tuncer
High temperature polymeric materials for electrical insulation and energy storage are needed for transformational power applications such as pulsed-power and hybrid electrical vehicles. One of the candidate materials has been polyetherimide, an amorphous thermoplastic with a glass transition over 200 (°)C. Here, the dielectric studies on the material are reported by taking into account the polarization and conduction processes in the polyetherimide. The dielectric data were analyzed with the distribution of relaxation times approach with Debye expression as the kernel in the inversion algorithm, the results then created the relaxation map for polyetherimide...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646255/protocol-to-perform-pressurized-blister-tests-on-thin-elastic-films
#8
François Boulogne, Sepideh Khodaparast, Christophe Poulard, Howard A Stone
This work aims to identify common challenges in the preparation of the blister test devices designed for the measurement of the energy release rate for brittle thin films and to propose easy-to-implement solutions accordingly. To this end, we provide a step-by-step guide for fabricating a blister test device comprised of thin polystyrene films adhered to glass substrates. Thin films are first transferred from donor substrates to an air-water interface, which is then used as a platform to locate them on a receiver substrate...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643192/on-the-kinetics-of-body-versus-end-evaporation-and-addition-of-supramolecular-polymers
#9
Nitin S Tiwari, Paul van der Schoot
The kinetics of the self-assembly of supramolecular polymers is dictated by how monomers, dimers, trimers etc., attach to and detach from each other. It is for this reasons that researchers have proposed a plethora of pathways to explain the kinetics of various self-assembling supramolecules, including sulfur, linear micelles, living polymers and protein fibrils. Recent observations hint at the importance of a hitherto ignored molecular aggregation pathway that we refer to as "body evaporation and addition"...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620696/tuning-ubiquinone-position-in-biomimetic-monolayer-membranes
#10
Javier Hoyo, Ester Guaus, Juan Torrent-Burgués
Artificial lipid bilayers have been extensively studied as models that mimic natural membranes (biomimetic membranes). Several attempts of biomimetic membranes inserting ubiquinone (UQ) have been performed to enlighten which the position of UQ in the lipid layer is, although obtaining contradictory results. In this work, pure components (DPPC and UQ) and DPPC:UQ mixtures have been studied using surface pressure-area isotherms and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of the same compounds have been transferred onto solid substrates being topographically characterized on mica using atomic force microscopy and electrochemically on indium tin oxide slides...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620695/liposomes-modified-by-mono-and-bis-phthalocyanines-a-comprehensive-epr-study
#11
Dariusz Man, Rudolf Słota, Anna Kawecka, Grzegorz Engel, Gabriela Dyrda
The impact of selected metallophthalocyanines, featuring diverse molecular structure, upon the fluidity of liposome membranes was studied using the spin label EPR technique. The "mono"-type MPc's (M = Zn, Sn; Pc = C32H16N8 is the phthalocyanine ligand) and sandwich LnPc2 complexes (Ln = Nd, Sm, Gd) were explored. Liposomes were obtained in a sonication process, from egg yolk lecithin (EYL) in water. TEMPO and 16-DOXYL spin labels were used to monitor the peripheral and central part of the lipid double layer, respectively, which allowed to localize the phthalocyanine additive within the bilayer, as well as to perform independent measurements of changes in fluidity upon addition thereof...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597111/equilibrium-mappings-in-polar-isotropic-confined-active-particles
#12
Yaouen Fily, Aparna Baskaran, Michael F Hagan
Despite their fundamentally nonequilibrium nature, the individual and collective behavior of active systems with polar propulsion and isotropic interactions (polar-isotropic active systems) are remarkably well captured by equilibrium mapping techniques. Here we examine two signatures of equilibrium systems --the existence of a local free energy function and the independence of the coarse-grained behavior on the details of the microscopic dynamics-- in polar-isotropic active particles confined by hard walls of arbitrary geometry at the one-particle level...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589413/single-particle-brownian-motion-with-solid-friction
#13
Prasenjit Das, Sanjay Puri, Moshe Schwartz
We study the Brownian dynamics of a solid particle on a vibrating solid surface. Phenomenologically, the interaction between the two solid surfaces is modeled by solid friction, and the Gaussian white noise models the vibration of the solid surface. The solid friction force is proportional to the sign of relative velocity. We derive the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the time-dependent probability distribution to find the particle at a given location. We calculate analytically the steady state velocity distribution function, mean-square velocity and diffusion coefficient in d-dimensions...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527038/transport-of-alignment-active-particles-in-funnel-structures
#14
Wei-Jing Zhu, Feng-Guo Li, Bao-Quan Ai
We study the transport of alignment active particles in complex confined structures (an array of asymmetric funnels). It is found that due to the existence of the multiple pathways, the alignment interaction can enrich the transport behavior of active particles. In an array of asymmetric funnels, the purely nematic alignment always suppresses the rectification. However, the polar alignment does not always promote the rectification, the rectification is suppressed for large self-propulsion speed. In addition, we also found the existence of optimal parameters (the self-propulsion speed and the rotational diffusion coefficient) at which the directed velocity takes its maximal value...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527037/frequency-voltage-controlled-light-transmittance-in-ferroelectric-liquid-crystal-cells
#15
Aleksey A Kudreyko, Nail G Migranov, Olga V Bachurina, Song Wanqing
Light transmittance of a short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal cell was numerically studied when low and high voltage frequencies ([Formula: see text] kHz and [Formula: see text] kHz, respectively) are applied to the cell. The reported finding in the decay of light transmittance at increasing frequency is obtained due to reasonable simplifications of the temporal dependence of director's azimuthal angle. By taking experimentally known data, we numerically demonstrate that the increase in temperature of ferroelectric liquid crystals yields an insignificant change of light transmittance within all visible spectra...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510231/quantum-effects-in-dynamics-of-water-and-other-liquids-of-light-molecules
#16
REVIEW
V N Novikov, A P Sokolov
Nuclear quantum effects in atomic motions are well known at low temperatures [Formula: see text] K, but analyses of structural relaxation in liquids and description of the glass transition traditionally neglect quantum effects at higher temperatures, [Formula: see text] K. Recent studies, however, suggested that nuclear quantum effects in systems of light molecules (e.g., water) might play an important role in structural dynamics and provide non-negligible contributions at such temperatures, and even up to ambient temperature...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484938/pressure-dependence-of-the-electrical-transport-in-granular-materials
#17
M Creyssels, C Laroche, E Falcon, B Castaing
We report on systematic measurements of the electrical resistance of one- and three-dimensional (1D and 3D) metallic and oxidized granular materials under uni-axial compression. Whatever the dimension of the packing, the resistance follows a power law versus the pressure ([Formula: see text]), with an exponent [Formula: see text] much larger than the ones expected either with elastic or plastic contact between the grains. A simple model based on a statistical description of the micro-contacts between two grains is proposed...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480496/preferential-hydration-fully-controls-the-renaturation-dynamics-of-collagen-in-water-glycerol-solvents
#18
O Ronsin, C Caroli, T Baumberger
Glycerol is one of the additives which stabilize collagen, as well as globular proteins, against thermally induced denaturation --an effect explained by preferential hydration, i.e. by the formation, in water/glycerol solvents, of a hydration layer whose entropic cost favors the more compact triple-helix native structure against the denatured one, gelatin. Quenching gelatin solutions promotes renaturation which, however, remains incomplete, as the formation of a gel network gives rise to growing topological constraints...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477246/measuring-thin-films-using-quantitative-frustrated-total-internal-reflection-ftir
#19
Minori Shirota, Michiel A J van Limbeek, Detlef Lohse, Chao Sun
In the study of interactions between liquids and solids, an accurate measurement of the film thickness between the two media is essential to study the dynamics. As interferometry is restricted by the wavelength of the light source used, recent studies of thinner films have prompted the use of frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR). In many studies the assumption of a simple exponential decay of the intensity with film thickness was used. In the present study we highlight that this model does not satisfy the Fresnel equations and thus gives an underestimation of the films...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470433/effects-of-interplay-of-nanoparticles-surfactants-and-base-fluid-on-the-surface-tension-of-nanocolloids
#20
A R Harikrishnan, Purbarun Dhar, Prabhat K Agnihotri, Sateesh Gedupudi, Sarit K Das
A systematically designed study has been conducted to understand and demarcate the degree of contribution by the constituting elements to the surface tension of nanocolloids. The effects of elements such as surfactants, particles and the combined effects of these on the surface tension of these complex fluids are studied employing the pendant drop shape analysis method by fitting the Young-Laplace equation. Only the particle has shown an increase in the surface tension with particle concentration in a polar medium like DI water, whereas only a marginal effect of particles on surface tension in weakly polar mediums like glycerol and ethylene glycol has been demonstrated...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
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