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Justin Storbeck, Jessica Dayboch, Jordan Wylie
One prominent and consistent effect is that negative emotions with high motivational intensity, such as fear, narrow attention. However, recent data concerning how fear influences vision may suggest that fear could make attention flexible. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine whether fear, like happiness, enhances attentional flexibility when multiple targets are present in noncontiguous locations. Fear, happiness, or sadness was induced followed by participants completing an attentional task that required splitting foci of attention to noncontiguous regions of space in the presence (Exp...
July 12, 2018: Emotion
Elisabetta Palagi, Ivan Norscia, Serena Pressi, Giada Cordoni
Play fighting, a common form of mammalian play, can escalate into aggression if playful motivation is misinterpreted and not shared by players. In primates, playful facial expressions and mimicry can be performed to signal and share playful motivation. Here we compare play facial expressions (play face [PF]: lower teeth exposed; full play face [FPF]: upper and lower teeth exposed) and their mimicry in captive chimpanzees and lowland gorillas, during play fighting. These two species have different social dynamics, with social cohesion being lower-and play possibly riskier-in gorillas than in chimpanzees...
July 12, 2018: Emotion
Emily E Bernstein, Joshua E Curtiss, Gwyneth W Y Wu, Paul J Barreira, Richard J McNally
Though it has been widely demonstrated that regular exercise is associated with better emotional wellbeing, the nature of this association remains unclear. The present study explored the relationship between voluntary exercise and the temporal dynamics of daily emotions, and thus how voluntary exercise could be impacting emotional reactivity and recovery in naturalistic contexts. Seventy-six young adults participated simultaneously in this ecological momentary assessment study, and received 75 prompts over the course of 15 days...
July 12, 2018: Emotion
Mohsen Joshanloo
People in different cultures may give different weights to emotional experience when evaluating their lives. In modern secularized cultures, people are more likely to focus on maximizing the experience of positive emotions and minimizing the experience of negative emotions to achieve well-being. In contrast, in traditional religious cultures, people are more likely to use religious standards to evaluate their lives. Therefore, the present study predicted that the frequency of positive and negative affect would be a better predictor of life satisfaction in secular (vs...
July 12, 2018: Emotion
Madeline J Farber, Adrienne L Romer, M Justin Kim, Annchen R Knodt, Nourhan M Elsayed, Douglas E Williamson, Ahmad R Hariri
Studies of early life extremes such as trauma, abuse, and neglect highlight the critical importance of quality caregiving in the development of brain circuits supporting emotional behavior and mental health. The impact of normative variability in caregiving on such biobehavioral processes, however, is poorly understood. Here, we provide initial evidence that even subtle variability in normative caregiving maps onto individual differences in threat-related brain function and, potentially, associated psychopathology in adolescence...
July 12, 2018: Emotion
André Mata, Cláudia Simão, Ana Rita Farias, Andreas Steimer
This research investigates the forecasts that people make about the duration of positive versus negative emotions, and tests whether these forecasts differ for self versus for others. Consistent with a motivated thinking framework, six studies show that people make optimistic, asymmetric forecasts that positive emotions will last longer than negative ones. However, for other people, wishful thinking is absent, and therefore people make less optimistic, more symmetric forecasts. Potential implications of these motivated forecasts and self-other differences are discussed...
July 12, 2018: Emotion
Eugenia I Gorlin, Alexandra J Werntz, Karl C Fua, Ann E Lambert, Nauder Namaky, Bethany A Teachman
Researchers and clinicians routinely rely on patients' retrospective emotional self-reports to guide diagnosis and treatment, despite evidence of impaired autobiographical memory and retrieval of emotional information in depression and anxiety. To clarify the nature and specificity of these impairments, we conducted two large online data collections (Study 1, N = 1,983; Study 2, N = 900) examining whether depression and/or anxiety symptoms would uniquely predict the use of self-reported episodic (i.e., remembering) and/or semantic (i...
July 12, 2018: Emotion
Jacob Israelashvili, Ran R Hassin, Hillel Aviezer
Although positive and negative affect are assumed to be highly distinct, recent work has shown that facial valence of positive and negative situations may be highly confusable, especially when the emotions are intense. However, previous work has relied exclusively on static images, portraying a single peak frame of the emotional display. Dynamic expressions, on the other hand, convey a far broader representation of the emotional reaction, but are they diagnostic of the situational valence? Participants ( N = 245) watched videos portraying reactions to real-life highly positive situations and evaluated the affective valence of the target...
July 9, 2018: Emotion
Lucy Zhang Bencharit, Yuen Wan Ho, Helene H Fung, Dannii Y Yeung, Nicole M Stephens, Rainer Romero-Canyas, Jeanne L Tsai
Do cultural differences in emotion play a role in employment settings? We predicted that cultural differences in ideal affect-the states that people value and ideally want to feel-are reflected in: (a) how individuals present themselves when applying for a job, and (b) what individuals look for when hiring someone for a job. In Studies 1-2 ( N S1 = 236, N S2 = 174), European Americans wanted to convey high arousal positive states (HAP; excitement) more and low arousal positive states (LAP; calm) less than did Hong Kong Chinese when applying for a job...
July 5, 2018: Emotion
Thomas Talhelm, Shigehiro Oishi, Xuemin Zhang
Previous studies have found that Westerners value high intensity positive emotions more than people in China and Japan, yet few studies have compared actual rates of smiling across cultures. Particularly rare are observational studies of real-time smiling (as opposed to smiling in photos). In Study 1, raters coded student ID photos of European American and East Asian students in the U.S. In Study 2, observers coded people's smiles as they walked outside in the U.S. and China. Both studies found that people from East Asia smiled much less-about 50% less...
July 2, 2018: Emotion
Sélim Yahia Coll, Anaëlle Glauser, Didier Grandjean
Our brain codes perceptual features and actions in a distributed fashion, causing a binding problem: How does the brain recognize that information pertains to a specific object and not to other concurrently processed objects? Hommel (1998) suggested the event file concept: An episodic memory trace binding perceptual features and actions related to an event. By adapting Hommel's paradigm to emotional faces in a previous series of studies (Coll & Grandjean, 2016), we revealed that emotion could take part in an event file with motor responses when emotion is task relevant and in specific situations when emotion is task irrelevant...
July 2, 2018: Emotion
Danielle M Shore, Magdalena Rychlowska, Job van der Schalk, Brian Parkinson, Antony S R Manstead
Intergroup exchanges are an integral part of social life but are compromised when one group pursues its interests at another group's expense. The present research investigates whether expressing emotion can mitigate the negative consequences of such actions. We examine how emotions communicated by either an ingroup or outgroup member following an ingroup member's breach of trust affect other ingroup members' feelings of guilt and pride, and subsequent allocation of resources. In both studies, groups of participants played a two-round trust game with another group...
July 2, 2018: Emotion
Emily A Farris, Michael P Toglia
Frequently, emotion is associated with enhancements in memory as long as arousal is not too extreme. Negative valence can also lead to increased false memories. Yet less is known about specific memory processes that drive these effects of emotional content on memory performance. The present study uses conjoint recognition analyses to investigate the memory processes associated with memory for negative and positive pictorial stimuli. Participants studied pictures, which had been rated as negative-arousing, positive-arousing, or neutral-non-arousing, before completing a recognition memory test 48 hr later...
July 2, 2018: Emotion
Alon Alkoby, Ruthie Pliskin, Eran Halperin, Nava Levit-Binnun
Individuals encounter a variety of emotional challenges daily, with optimal emotion modulation requiring adaptive choice among available means of regulation. However, individuals differ in the ability to flexibly and adaptively move between engaging and disengaging emotion regulation (ER) strategies as per contextual demands, referred to as regulatory choice flexibility. Greater regulatory choice flexibility is associated with greater mental health, well-being and resilience, warranting the development of interventions to increase such flexibility...
June 28, 2018: Emotion
Benjamin A Swerdlow, Jennifer G Pearlstein, Sheri L Johnson
Prior research has indicated that ideal affect (i.e., the affective states that people value and would ideally like to experience) may be relevant to mental health outcomes. Studies to date, however, have not used comprehensive multivariate models that account for covariation among facets of ideal affect and incorporate multiple clinical outcomes. In the present studies, we used structural equation modeling to examine the multivariate effects of ideal affect on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in 2 moderately large samples of undergraduates (N = 293 and N = 146)...
June 25, 2018: Emotion
Lauren M Knott, Mark L Howe, Enrico Toffalini, Datin Shah, Louise Humphreys
Two experiments examined the effect of reduced attentional resources on false memory production for emotionally valenced stimuli using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Prior research has demonstrated that emotional information is often better remembered than neutral information and that enhanced memory for emotional information is dependent on either automatic or controlled neural processing (Kensinger & Corkin, 2004). Behavioral studies designed to reduce attention resources at encoding have supported neuroimaging findings that indicate high arousal negative stimuli rely more on automatic processing but positive high arousal stimuli rely more on controlled processing...
June 21, 2018: Emotion
Craig L Anderson, Maria Monroy, Dacher Keltner
The power of nature to both heal and inspire awe has been noted by many great thinkers. However, no study has examined how the impact of nature on well-being and stress-related symptoms is explained by experiences of awe. In the present investigation, we examine this process in studies of extraordinary and everyday nature experiences. In Study 1, awe experienced by military veterans and youth from underserved communities while whitewater rafting, above and beyond all the other positive emotions measured, predicted changes in well-being and stress-related symptoms one week later...
June 21, 2018: Emotion
Janis H Zickfeld, Thomas W Schubert, Beate Seibt, Johanna K Blomster, Patrícia Arriaga, Nekane Basabe, Agata Blaut, Amparo Caballero, Pilar Carrera, Ilker Dalgar, Yi Ding, Kitty Dumont, Valerie Gaulhofer, Asmir Gračanin, Réka Gyenis, Chuan-Peng Hu, Igor Kardum, Ljiljana B Lazarević, Leemamol Mathew, Sari Mentser, Ravit Nussinson, Mayuko Onuki, Darío Páez, Anna Pásztor, Kaiping Peng, Boban Petrović, José J Pizarro, Victoria Schönefeld, Magdalena Śmieja, Akihiko Tokaji, Ad Vingerhoets, Anja Vorster, Jonna Vuoskoski, Lei Zhu, Alan Page Fiske
English-speakers sometimes say that they feel "moved to tears," "emotionally touched," "stirred," or that something "warmed their heart;" other languages use similar passive contact metaphors to refer to an affective state. The authors propose and measure the concept of kama muta to understand experiences often given these and other labels. Do the same experiences evoke the same kama muta emotion across nations and languages? They conducted studies in 19 different countries, 5 continents, 15 languages, with a total of 3,542 participants...
June 11, 2018: Emotion
Peter J Reschke, Eric A Walle, Jennifer M Knothe, Lukas D Lopez
Face perception is susceptible to contextual influence and perceived physical similarities between emotion cues. However, studies often use structurally homogeneous facial expressions, making it difficult to explore how within-emotion variability in facial configuration affects emotion perception. This study examined the influence of context on the emotional perception of categorically identical, yet physically distinct, facial expressions of disgust. Participants categorized two perceptually distinct disgust facial expressions, "closed" (i...
June 11, 2018: Emotion
Jennifer K MacCormack, Kristen A Lindquist
Many people feel emotional when hungry-or "hangry"-yet little research explores the psychological mechanisms underlying such states. Guided by psychological constructionist and affect misattribution theories, we propose that hunger alone is insufficient for feeling hangry. Rather, we hypothesize that people experience hunger as emotional when they conceptualize their affective state as negative, high arousal emotions specifically in a negative context. Studies 1 and 2 use a cognitive measure (the affect misattribution procedure; Payne, Hall, Cameron, & Bishara, 2010) to demonstrate that hunger shifts affective perceptions in negative but not neutral or positive contexts...
June 11, 2018: Emotion
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