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Emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333484/behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-infant-and-adult-tears-the-impact-of-maternal-love-withdrawal
#1
Madelon M E Riem, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Pietro De Carli, Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
The current study examined behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult tears, taking into account childhood experiences with parental love-withdrawal. With functional MRI (fMRI), we measured neural reactivity to pictures of infants and adults with and without tears on their faces in nulliparous women with varying childhood experiences of maternal use of love withdrawal. Behavioral responses to infant and adult tears were measured with an approach-avoidance task. We found that individuals with experiences of love withdrawal showed less amygdala and insula reactivity to adult tears, but love withdrawal did not affect amygdala and insula reactivity to infant tears...
March 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333483/monkeys-preferentially-process-body-information-while-viewing-affective-displays
#2
Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Gilda Moadab, Christopher J Machado
Despite evolutionary claims about the function of facial behaviors across phylogeny, rarely are those hypotheses tested in a comparative context-that is, by evaluating how nonhuman animals process such behaviors. Further, while increasing evidence indicates that humans make meaning of faces by integrating contextual information, including that from the body, the extent to which nonhuman animals process contextual information during affective displays is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) process dynamic affective displays of conspecifics that included both facial and body behaviors...
March 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287751/salivary-cytokine-response-in-the-aftermath-of-stress-an-emotion-regulation-perspective
#3
Tamara L Newton, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Keith B Lyle, Yvette Z Szabo, James J Miller, Ashlee J Warnecke
Elevated inflammation in the context of stress has been implicated in mental and physical health. Approaching this from an emotion regulation perspective, we tested whether the salivary cytokine response to stress is dampened by using distraction to minimize opportunity for poststressor rumination. Healthy young adults were randomized to an acute stressor: modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, Study 1) or angry memory retrieval (Study 2). Within each study, participants were randomized to poststressor condition-rest or distraction-at a 3:1 ratio...
March 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277713/relational-antecedents-and-social-implications-of-the-emotion-of-empathy-evidence-from-three-studies
#4
Sanghag Kim, Grazyna Kochanska
Despite emotion researchers' strong interest in empathy and its implications for prosocial functioning, surprisingly few studies have examined parent-child attachment as a context for early origins of empathy in young children. Consequently, empirical evidence on links among children's attachment, empathy, and prosociality is thin and inconsistent. We examined such links in 2 longitudinal studies of community families (Family Study, N = 101 mothers, fathers, and children, 14 to 80 months; Parent-Child Study, mothers and children, N = 108, 15 to 45 months) and a study of low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers (Play Study, N = 186, 30 months)...
March 9, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277712/when-less-is-more-effects-of-the-availability-of-strategic-options-on-regulating-negative-emotions
#5
Yochanan E Bigman, Gal Sheppes, Maya Tamir
Research in several domains suggests that having strategic options is not always beneficial. In this paper, we tested whether having strategic options (vs. not) is helpful or harmful for regulating negative emotions. In 5 studies (N = 151) participants were presented with 1 or more strategic options prior to watching aversive images and using the selected strategic option. Across studies, we found that people reported less intense negative emotions when the strategy they used to regulate their emotions was presented as a single option, rather than as 1 of several options...
March 9, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277711/hiding-feelings-for-whose-sake-attachment-avoidance-relationship-connectedness-and-protective-buffering-intentions
#6
Heike A Winterheld
Why do some people refrain from disclosing distress, even to those they feel closest to? Protective buffering, a coping strategy that involves hiding worries from one's partner, may carry mental health costs for those enacting it and the target of their protection. Although the strategy is often assumed to be targeted at a partner to shield him or her from distress (i.e., used with partner-protective intentions), it can also be used for one's own benefit (i.e., with self-protective intentions). Guided by attachment theory, the current research identified dispositional and relational factors that may explain and predict when people use the strategy to what end...
March 9, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252978/similar-representations-of-emotions-across-faces-and-voices
#7
Lisa Katharina Kuhn, Taeko Wydell, Nadine Lavan, Carolyn McGettigan, Lúcia Garrido
Emotions are a vital component of social communication, carried across a range of modalities and via different perceptual signals such as specific muscle contractions in the face and in the upper respiratory system. Previous studies have found that emotion recognition impairments after brain damage depend on the modality of presentation: recognition from faces may be impaired whereas recognition from voices remains preserved, and vice versa. On the other hand, there is also evidence for shared neural activation during emotion processing in both modalities...
March 2, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252977/rumination-is-associated-with-diminished-performance-monitoring
#8
Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajcak, Charles A Sanislow
Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error-related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness...
March 2, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230393/going-off-script-effects-of-awe-on-memory-for-script-typical-and-irrelevant-narrative-detail
#9
Alexander F Danvers, Michelle N Shiota
People often filter their experience of new events through knowledge they already have; for example, encoding new events by relying on prototypical event "scripts" at the expense of actual details. Previous research suggests that positive affect often increases this tendency. Three studies assessed whether awe-an emotion elicited by perceived vastness, and thought to promote cognitive accommodation-has the opposite effect, reducing rather than increasing reliance on event scripts. True/false questions on details of a short story about a romantic dinner were used to determine whether awe (a) reduces the tendency to impute script-consistent but false details into memory, and/or (b) promotes memory of unexpected details...
February 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230392/two-roads-diverged-distinct-mechanisms-of-attentional-bias-differentially-predict-negative-affect-and-persistent-negative-thought
#10
Sandersan Onie, Steven B Most
Attentional biases to threatening stimuli have been implicated in various emotional disorders. Theoretical approaches often carry the implicit assumption that various attentional bias measures tap into the same underlying construct, but attention itself is not a unitary mechanism. Most attentional bias tasks-such as the dot probe (DP)-index spatial attention, neglecting other potential attention mechanisms. We compared the DP with emotion-induced blindness (EIB), which appears to be mechanistically distinct, and examined the degree to which these tasks predicted (a) negative affect, (b) persistent negative thought (i...
February 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206797/social-information-influences-emotional-experience-and-late-positive-potential-response-to-affective-pictures
#11
Emily C Willroth, Leonie Koban, Matthew R Hilimire
Emotion experience and regulation frequently occur in social settings. Social influence is a common source of unconscious change in judgment in many contexts, but it has yet to be investigated as a form of automatic emotion regulation. Here, we demonstrate that nonpredictive social information (i.e., high or low "emotion intensity ratings from other people" that were not related to the actual intensity of the pictures) about the intensity of pleasant and unpleasant picture stimuli can influence self-reported emotional experience and the magnitude of the late positive potential, an event-related potential associated with the detection of emotional salience and sustained attention to motivationally significant stimulus features...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206796/affect-from-mere-perception-illusory-contour-perception-feels-good
#12
Thorsten M Erle, Rolf Reber, Sascha Topolinski
Can affect be evoked by mere perception? Earlier work on processing fluency, which manipulated the dynamics of a running perceptual process, has shown that efficient processing can indeed trigger positive affect. The present work introduces a novel route by not manipulating the dynamics of an ongoing perceptual process, but by blocking or allowing the whole process in the first place. We used illusory contour perception as one very basic such process. In 5 experiments (total N = 422), participants briefly (≤100 ms) viewed stimuli that either allowed illusory contour perception, so-called Kanizsa shapes, or proximally identical control shapes that did not allow for this process to occur...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206795/maternal-anxiety-predicts-attentional-bias-towards-threat-in-infancy
#13
Santiago Morales, Kayla M Brown, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Vanessa LoBue, Kristin A Buss, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
Although cognitive theories of psychopathology suggest that attention bias toward threat plays a role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety, there is relatively little evidence regarding individual differences in the earliest development of attention bias toward threat. The current study examines attention bias toward threat during its potential first emergence by evaluating the relations between attention bias and known risk factors of anxiety (i.e., temperamental negative affect and maternal anxiety)...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206794/the-devil-is-in-the-details-comparisons-of-episodic-simulations-of-positive-and-negative-future-events
#14
Vannia A Puig, Karl K Szpunar
Over the past decade, psychologists have devoted considerable attention to episodic simulation-the ability to imagine specific hypothetical events. Perhaps one of the most consistent patterns of data to emerge from this literature is that positive simulations of the future are rated as more detailed than negative simulations of the future, a pattern of results that is commonly interpreted as evidence for a positivity bias in future thinking. In the present article, we demonstrate across two experiments that negative future events are consistently simulated in more detail than positive future events when frequency of prior thinking is taken into account as a possible confounding variable and when level of detail associated with simulated events is assessed using an objective scoring criterion...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#15
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191996/the-impact-of-testimony-on-children-s-moralization-of-novel-actions
#16
Joshua Rottman, Liane Young, Deborah Kelemen
What leads children to moralize actions that cause no apparent harm? We hypothesized that adults' verbal instruction ("testimony"), as well as emotions such as disgust, would influence children's moralization of apparently harmless actions. To test this hypothesis, 7-year-old children were asked to render moral judgments of novel, seemingly victimless, body-directed or nature-directed actions after being exposed to adults' testimony or to an emotional induction. Study 1 demonstrated that children became more likely to judge actions as "wrong" upon being verbally presented with testimony about disgust or anger-but not upon being directly induced to feel disgusted...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191995/social-interaction-contexts-bias-the-perceived-expressions-of-interactants
#17
Katie L H Gray, Lee Barber, Jennifer Murphy, Richard Cook
The present study sought to determine whether contextual information available when viewing social interactions from third-person perspectives may influence observers' perception of the interactants' facial emotion. Observers judged whether the expression of a target face was happy or fearful, in the presence of a happy, aggressive, or neutral interactant. In 2 experiments, the same target expressions were judged to be happier when presented in the context of a happy interactant than when interacting with a neutral or aggressive partner...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191994/the-pleasure-of-making-a-difference-perceived-social-contribution-explains-the-relation-between-extraverted-behavior-and-positive-affect
#18
Jessie Sun, Kathryn Stevenson, Rachel Kabbani, Ben Richardson, Luke D Smillie
Why are trait extraversion and extraverted behaviors both associated with greater positive affect? Across 3 studies, we examined whether 2 aspects of social experience-perceived social contribution and social power-mediate the relation between extraversion and positive affect. Study 1 (N = 205) showed that trait measures of social contribution and power mediated the relation between trait extraversion and trait positive affect. Study 2 (N = 78) showed that state social contribution and power helped to explain the greater levels of state positive affect reported by participants who were instructed to enact extraverted behaviors...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191993/the-whole-is-not-the-sum-of-its-parts-specific-types-of-positive-affect-influence-sleep-differentially
#19
Sarah D Pressman, Brooke N Jenkins, Tara L Kraft-Feil, Heather Rasmussen, Michael F Scheier
Given the known detrimental effects of poor sleep on an array of psychological and physical health processes, it is critical to understand the factors that protect sleep, especially during times of stress when sleep particularly suffers. Positive affect (PA) arises as a variable of interest given its known associations with health and health behaviors and its ability to buffer stress. In 2 studies, we examined which types of PA (distinguished by arousal level and trait/state measurement) were most beneficial for sleep and whether these associations varied depending on the stress context...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191992/with-a-little-help-for-our-thoughts-making-it-easier-to-think-for-pleasure
#20
Erin C Westgate, Timothy D Wilson, Daniel T Gilbert
Can people enjoy thinking if they set their mind to it? Previous work suggests that many people do not enjoy the deliberate attempt to have pleasurable thoughts. We suggest that deliberately thinking for pleasure requires mental resources that people are either unwilling or unable to devote to the task. If so, then people should enjoy pleasant thoughts that occur unintentionally more than pleasant thoughts that occur intentionally. This hypothesis was confirmed in an experience sampling study (Study 1) in which participants were contacted 4 times a day for 7 days and asked to rate what they had been thinking about...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
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