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Maud Grol, Rudi De Raedt
Recent efforts have been made to understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying psychological resilience. Cognitive flexibility in the context of affective information has been related to individual differences in resilience. However, it is unclear whether flexible affective processing is sensitive to mood fluctuations. Furthermore, it remains to be investigated how effects on flexible affective processing interact with the affective valence of information that is presented. To fill this gap, we tested the effects of positive mood and individual differences in self-reported resilience on affective flexibility, using a task switching paradigm (N = 80)...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
Lucy McGuirk, Peter Kuppens, Rosemary Kingston, Brock Bastian
Promoting happiness within society is good for health, but could the overpromotion of happiness have a downside? Across 2 studies, we investigate 2 emotion norms associated with an emphasis on happiness-the importance of (a) seeking positive emotion, and (b) avoiding negative emotion-and whether these norms have implications for how people respond to, and seek to regulate, their negative emotional experiences. In Study 1, we used an experimental design to show that emphasizing the importance of happiness increased rumination in response to failure...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
Vanessa L Castro, Linda A Camras, Amy G Halberstadt, Michael Shuster
Despite theoretical claims that emotions are primarily communicated through prototypic facial expressions, empirical evidence is surprisingly scarce. This study aimed to (a) test whether children produced more components of a prototypic emotional facial expression during situations judged or self-reported to involve the corresponding emotion than situations involving other emotions (termed "intersituational specificity"), (b) test whether children produced more components of the prototypic expression corresponding to a situation's judged or self-reported emotion than components of other emotional expressions (termed "intrasituational specificity"), and (c) examine coherence between children's self-reported emotional experience and observers' judgments of children's emotions...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
Peter J Reschke, Jennifer M Knothe, Lukas D Lopez, Eric A Walle
Affective face perception is influenced by nonfacial contextual elements. However, investigations often conflate body posture and emotion scene, making it unclear whether posture or the combination of posture and scene produces perception-altering effects. This study examined adults' categorizations of disgust facial expressions superimposed onto isolated emotion postures or postures embedded in emotion scenes. Results indicated that emotional postures exerted a significant contextual effect on adults' emotion categorizations of disgust faces...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
Maya Tamir, Yochanan E Bigman
Emotions shape behavior, but there is some debate over the manner in which they do so. The authors propose that how emotions shape behavior depends, in part, on how people expect emotions to shape behavior. In Study 1, angry (vs. calm) participants made more money in a negotiation when they expected anger to be beneficial. In Study 2, angry (vs. calm) participants killed more enemies in a computer game when they expected anger (but not calmness) to promote performance. In Study 3, excited (vs. calm) participants were more creative when they expected excitement to promote performance, whereas calm (vs...
July 6, 2017: Emotion
Monika Lohani, Brennan R Payne, Derek M Isaacowitz
The current study reports the first investigation of age-related changes in emotional coherence across multiple response systems (experiential, physiological, and expressive) in sadness reactivity and regulation. Some accounts indirectly suggest that blunted physiological responses to emotional stimuli (e.g., Mendes, 2010) may lead to an age-related decline in emotional coherence, whereas a conflicting account suggests that age-relevant content can modulate responses across multiple systems (e.g., Kunzmann & Grühn, 2005), which has the potential to increase emotional coherence in older adults...
July 6, 2017: Emotion
Kent M Lee, Kristen A Lindquist, B Keith Payne
Negative affect toward outgroup members has long been known to predict discriminatory behavior. However, psychological constructionist theories of emotion suggest that negative affect may not always reflect antipathy for outgroup members. Rather, the subjective experience depends on how negative affect is conceptualized as specific discrete emotions (e.g., fear vs. sympathy). Our current research integrates theories of implicit bias with psychological constructionist theories of emotion to understand the implications of negative affect toward outgroup members...
July 6, 2017: Emotion
Donice M Banks, Brandon G Scott, Carl F Weems
Theoretically, subjective levels of anxiety and hostile attributions of intent may affect physiological responding to ambiguous social situations. This study examined youths' (n = 80 aged 11-17 years; 51% female; 37.5% African American) physiological responding (i.e., heart rate [HR]) to a series of animated vignettes depicting ambiguous social situations. Anxiety, aggression, hostile attributional bias (HAB), and their interactions were tested as predictors of differential physiological responding to the vignettes...
July 6, 2017: Emotion
Louise Chim, Candice L Hogan, Helene H H Fung, Jeanne L Tsai
Do people derive more enjoyment from activities that match how they ideally want to feel (their "ideal affect")? Affect valuation theory (AVT) predicts that they do; however, no study has directly examined whether this is the case. Therefore, the authors conducted 4 studies that examined whether valuing calm and other low arousal positive states (LAP) increased enjoyment of calming (vs. exciting) activities. In Study 1, the more participants valued LAP, the more enjoyment they recalled during calming (vs. exciting) episodes from their lives...
June 26, 2017: Emotion
Peter Felsman, Philippe Verduyn, Ozlem Ayduk, Ethan Kross
Mindfulness theorists suggest that people spend most of their time focusing on the past or future rather than the present. Despite the prevalence of this assumption, no research that we are aware of has evaluated whether it is true or what the implications of focusing on the present are for subjective well-being. We addressed this issue by using experience sampling to examine how frequently people focus on the present throughout the day over the course of a week and whether focusing on the present predicts improvements in the 2 components of subjective well-being over time-how people feel and how satisfied they are with their lives...
June 26, 2017: Emotion
Anthony D Ong, Lizbeth Benson, Alex J Zautra, Nilam Ram
There is growing evidence that inflammatory responses may help to explain how emotions get "under the skin" to influence disease susceptibility. Moving beyond examination of individuals' average level of emotion, this study examined how the breadth and relative abundance of emotions that individuals experience-emodiversity-is related to systemic inflammation. Using diary data from 175 adults aged 40 to 65 who provided end-of-day reports of their positive and negative emotions over 30 days, we found that greater diversity in day-to-day positive emotions was associated with lower circulating levels of inflammation (indicated by IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen), independent of mean levels of positive and negative emotions, body mass index, anti-inflammatory medications, medical conditions, personality, and demographics...
June 22, 2017: Emotion
Alexander J Shackman, Jennifer S Weinstein, Stanton N Hudja, Conor D Bloomer, Matthew G Barstead, Andrew S Fox, Edward P Lemay
Dispositional negativity-the tendency to experience more frequent or intense negative emotions-is a fundamental dimension of temperament and personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity have profound consequences for public health and wealth, drawing the attention of researchers, clinicians, and policymakers. Yet, relatively little is known about the factors that govern the momentary expression of dispositional negativity in the real world. Here, we used smart phone-based experience-sampling to demonstrate that the social environment plays a central role in shaping the moment-by-moment emotional experience of 127 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of dispositional negativity...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Chui-De Chiu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Emotional empathy-feeling another person's affective states-entails simulating how one would feel in the same circumstance. Prior research has implicated the role of executive controls and shown a link between visuospatial perspective taking and personal disposition of empathy. No study has investigated how executive control processes involved in perspective shifting relate to emotional empathy. Incorporating a spatial perspective-taking task in a set switch paradigm, we investigated whether swiftly switching from the altercentric to the egocentric perspective is associated with heightened emotional empathy but not with accurate classification of low-level perceptual affective cues...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Jason Tipples
Fearful expressions are thought to warn of potential threat (Davis et al., 2011; Whalen, 1998) and therefore, 1 response to seeing fear might be to react cautiously. Although previous studies have tested for an effect of seeing fear on visual perception, they have not tested for increased decision making caution. Here, I applied hierarchical drift diffusion modeling (Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, & Lee, 2011; Wiecki, Sofer, & Frank, 2013) to the results of 4 experiments designed to test the idea that seeing facial expressions both impairs visual perception (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009) and leads to changes in decision making caution...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Todd B Kashdan, Fallon R Goodman, Melissa Stiksma, Cayla R Milius, Patrick E McKnight
Sex is rarely discussed in theories of well-being and rarely empirically examined using methods other than cross-sectional surveys. In the present study, a daily diary approach was used (for 21 days with 152 adults) to explore the relationship between the presence and quality of sexual episodes and well-being (positive affect, negative affect, meaning in life). Time-lagged analyses demonstrated that sexual activity on 1 day was related to greater well-being the next. As for the quality of episodes, higher reported sexual pleasure and intimacy predicted greater positive affect and lower negative affect the following day...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Jennifer M B Fugate, Maria Gendron, Satoshi F Nakashima, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word)...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Daniel T Cordaro, Rui Sun, Dacher Keltner, Shanmukh Kamble, Niranjan Huddar, Galen McNeil
We collected and Facial Action Coding System (FACS) coded over 2,600 free-response facial and body displays of 22 emotions in China, India, Japan, Korea, and the United States to test 5 hypotheses concerning universals and cultural variants in emotional expression. New techniques enabled us to identify cross-cultural core patterns of expressive behaviors for each of the 22 emotions. We also documented systematic cultural variations of expressive behaviors within each culture that were shaped by the cultural resemblance in values, and identified a gradient of universality for the 22 emotions...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Mariko L Visserman, Francesca Righetti, Emily A Impett, Dacher Keltner, Paul A M Van Lange
Gratitude is robustly linked to many positive outcomes for individuals and relationships (e.g., greater life and relationship satisfaction). However, little is known about how romantic partners come to feel grateful for each other's pro-relational acts, such as when a partner makes a sacrifice. The present research examines how perceptions of partner sacrifice motives evoke gratitude. We distinguish between partner, relationship, and self-focused motives, and how they are guided by approach or avoidance orientations...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Yudai Iijima, Keisuke Takano, Yoshihiko Tanno
Attentional bias toward threatening stimuli is recognized as 1 of the most important cognitive vulnerability factors for anxiety. However, the association between anxious attention and negative moods has not been fully elucidated, particularly in terms of the effect of such bias on mood fluctuations in daily life. We examined the associations between attentional bias and emotional dynamics under a daily life setting. Participants (46 university students) completed the dot-probe task in the laboratory, after which they entered a 6-day experience sampling measurement to assess temporal fluctuations of momentary levels of anxious mood and occurrence of stressful events...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Angela Scarpa, Richard A Ashley, Jonathan C Waldron, Yu Zhou, Deanna M Swain, Julie C Dunsmore, Martha Ann Bell
Physiological linkage (PL) refers to coordinated physiological responses among interacting partners (Feldman, 2012a), thought to offer mammals evolutionary advantages by promoting survival through social groups. Although PL has been observed in dyads who are familiar or have close relationships (e.g., parent-infant interactions, romantic couples), less is known with regard to PL in stranger dyads. The current study used dynamic linear time series modeling to assess cardiac interbeat interval linkage in 26 same-gender stranger dyads (17 female and 9 male dyads; 18-22 years old) while they spoke or wrote about emotional or neutral life events...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
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