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Martina Kaufmann, Thomas Goetz, Anastasiya A Lipnevich, Reinhard Pekrun
Positive emotions have been shown to benefit from optimistic perceptions, even if these perceptions are illusory (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). The current research investigated the effects of increases and decreases in illusory control on positive and negative emotions. In two studies we experimentally induced changes in illusory perceptions of control (increase vs. decrease of illusory control) and assessed the extent to which these changes, in turn, influenced participants' emotions. Extending prior research, the results of both studies revealed that whereas illusions of personal control over environmental outcomes mitigated the experience of negative emotions, they did not foster positive emotions...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Chloe Thompson-Booth, Essi Viding, Vanessa B Puetz, Helena J V Rutherford, Linda C Mayes, Eamon J McCrory
Previous studies have shown that the experience of childhood maltreatment can influence recognition and processing of emotional cues and that these effects can extend into adulthood. Such alterations in cognitive processing may have important implications for processing of infant affect and parenting behavior. This study investigated whether the experience of childhood maltreatment altered attentional processing of infant faces in a community sample of mothers, using an established visual search task. Increased scores on a measure of childhood maltreatment were associated with decreased preferential bias toward infant faces (indexed by slower reaction times to infant compared to adult faces)...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Despina Antypa, Patrik Vuilleumier, Ulrike Rimmele
Emotional memories are commonly recalled with an increased subjective sense of recollection but not necessarily with more accurate context recollection, depending on the type of context. Response-focused emotion regulation techniques, such as suppressing and intensifying emotion expression, can alter subjective arousal and later memory and confidence about memory. Here, we investigated if emotion suppression affects later subjective sense of recollection as well as context recollection for different types of details...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Lin Tan, Cynthia L Smith
Research on maternal socialization of child emotion regulation often involves measures of general parenting, yet little research has considered how maternal emotion regulation and emotion expressivity relate to children's ability to regulate their emotions. Because emotion regulation can be viewed as intergenerational, mothers who display higher levels of positive emotions and lower levels of negative emotions may create a more optimal emotional climate for children to learn and practice emotion regulation, aiding in the intergenerational transmission of optimal emotion regulation...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Sofie Lindeberg, Belinda M Craig, Ottmar V Lipp
A happy face advantage has consistently been shown in emotion categorization tasks; happy faces are categorized as happy faster than angry faces as angry. Furthermore, social category cues, such as facial sex and race, moderate the happy face advantage in evaluatively congruent ways with a larger happy face advantage for more positively evaluated faces. We investigated whether attractiveness, a facial attribute unrelated to more defined social categories, would moderate the happy face advantage consistent with the evaluative congruence account...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Jessica E Cooke, Logan B Kochendorfer, Kaela L Stuart-Parrigon, Amanda J Koehn, Kathryn A Kerns
Attachment relationships serve as contexts within which children develop emotional capacities. This meta-analytic review assessed the strength of associations of parent-child attachment patterns with the experience and regulation of emotion in children under age 18 years. In a series of meta-analyses (k = 72 studies, N's ranged from 87 to 9,167), we examined children's positive and negative affective experiences (assessed either globally or elicited in specific contexts), emotion regulation ability, and coping strategies...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Maxim Milyavsky, David Webber, Jessica Renee Fernandez, Arie W Kruglanski, Amit Goldenberg, Gaurav Suri, James J Gross
Research shows that cognitive reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation (ER) strategy that often has clear benefits. Yet, surprisingly, recent findings demonstrate that people use cognitive reappraisal less frequently than might be expected (Suri, Whittaker, & Gross, 2015). We employ cognitive energetics theory (CET) to explain this puzzling behavior. CET posits that the likelihood of launching any cognitive process is a function of two opposing forces: the driving force (i.e., the motivation to launch the process) and the restraining force (i...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Lin Fang, Alvaro Sanchez-Lopez, Ernst H W Koster
Rumination is considered as a relatively maladaptive form of repetitive thinking that has a marked impact on mood. Individual differences in attentional scope have been proposed as an important mechanism rendering some individuals more prone to ruminate than others. The attentional scope model of rumination posits that rumination is related to a narrowed attentional scope, which may affect processing of neutral and emotional information. This study (n = 56) aimed to extend research on the relation between rumination and attentional scope while processing neutral, positive, and negative information...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Rachel E White, Maya M Kuehn, Angela L Duckworth, Ethan Kross, Özlem Ayduk
Prior research indicates that visual self-distancing enhances adaptive self-reflection about negative past events (Kross & Ayduk, 2011). However, whether this process is similarly useful when people reflect on anxiety-provoking future negative experiences, and if so, whether a similar set of mechanisms underlie its benefits in this context, is unknown. Here we addressed these questions using a combination of experimental and individual difference methods with adults and adolescents (total N = 2,344). In Studies 1 and 2, spontaneous self-distancing predicted less anxious emotional reactivity among adults and adolescents...
September 17, 2018: Emotion
Dieter Thoma, Amanda Baum
While the evidence for impoverished emotional reactions of bilinguals in their weaker second language (L2) accumulates, the underlying mechanisms of this effect remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate how unbalanced bilinguals' language-specific emotions vary depending on differences in language processing automaticity versus in language learning and use contexts. We analyzed behavioral emotional reactions in a hypothetical decision-making task with low emotional appeal, the Asian disease problem (Study 1) and pupil and valence responses to authentic narrative video advertising with high emotional appeal (Study 2)...
September 13, 2018: Emotion
Sam J Maglio, Taly Reich
Decisions need not always be deliberative. Instead, people confronting choices can recruit their gut feelings, processing information about choice options in accordance with how they feel about options rather than what they think about them. Reliance on feelings can change what people choose, but might this decision strategy also impact how people evaluate their chosen options? The present investigation tackles this question by integrating insights from the separate literatures on the true self and attitude certainty...
September 10, 2018: Emotion
Andras Norbert Zsido, Anita Deak, Laszlo Bernath
Organisms have to be able to detect threats in order to activate their defensive mechanisms. Previous research has suggested that evolutionary old stimuli have an advantage during visual processing. Recent evidence indicates that negative emotional stimuli have a greater effect on the cognitive system regardless of evolutionary relevance. We suggest that the arousal level of the stimuli could account for these mixed results. We investigated how visual processing is influenced by evolutionary relevant and modern threatening emotional stimuli...
September 6, 2018: Emotion
Maayan Katzir, Matan Hoffmann, Nira Liberman
When a person states that s/he is disgusted by an outgroup, what can we conclude about his/her attitudes, beliefs, and character? Based on an analysis of physical disgust, we predicted that expressing disgust toward a social group would convey a belief that this group possesses a negative essence; namely, that it has a biological basis, and clear boundaries, and that its members share immutable, inherent characteristics. Because being disgusting violates the moral foundation of purity, we also predicted that expressing disgust toward a social group would convey moral condemnation of that group...
August 27, 2018: Emotion
Juhyun Park, Kristin Naragon-Gainey
Although emotional clarity contributes to effective emotion regulation and has been suggested as a target for transdiagnostic interventions, little is known about how emotional clarity impacts symptoms and emotion regulation success in daily life. The present study examined the association of emotional clarity with internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety, panic, and worry) in a clinical sample assessed in naturalistic settings over the course of 10 days, examining both within-person and between-person models...
August 27, 2018: Emotion
Allison S Troy, Shadman Saquib, Jennifer Thal, David J Ciuk
Experimental investigations of emotion regulation have shown that reappraisal (changing interpretations to change emotions) and distraction (directing attention to change emotions) are effective for regulating the experience of both negative and positive affect, while suppression (changing the outward expression of emotion) has been consistently shown to be ineffective. It is unknown, however, whether this pattern of effects generalizes to the context of daily stressors-a common part of daily life in which effective emotion regulation should be particularly beneficial...
August 27, 2018: Emotion
Alain Van Hiel, Jonas De Keersmaecker, Emma Onraet, Tessa Haesevoets, Arne Roets, Johnny R J Fontaine
Previous research revealed that cognitive abilities are negatively related to right-wing and prejudiced attitudes. No study has, however, investigated if emotional abilities also show such a relationship, although this can be expected based on both classic and recent literature. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (a) to investigate the relationship between emotional abilities and right-wing and prejudiced attitudes, and (b) to pit the effects of emotional and cognitive abilities on these attitudes against each other...
August 23, 2018: Emotion
Hannah L Schacter, Gayla Margolin
Past research has suggested that engaging in prosocial acts enhances the well-being of the helper, but does prosocial behavior benefit some individuals more than others? The current study implements a daily diary design to test associations between adolescents' daily prosocial behaviors toward relationally close others and mood. The main goal was to investigate whether daily help-giving has unique benefits for adolescents experiencing greater emotional distress. For 10 days, a diverse sample of youth (N = 99; Mage = 18...
August 23, 2018: Emotion
Steven Beighley, Garret R Sacco, Laura Bauer, Adele M Hayes, Helene Intraub
Observers falsely remember seeing beyond the bounds of a photograph (i.e., boundary extension [BE]). Do observers "zoom in" when viewing negative emotion photographs, resulting in boundary restriction (Safer, Christianson, Autry, & Österlund, 1998)? Studies have yielded inconsistent outcomes, perhaps because emotional valence was compared across photographs of completely different scenes. To control physical scene structure, two contrasting (negative vs. positive) emotional versions of the same scenes were created by dramatically changing individuals' facial expressions; 14 such scene pairs were selected based on participants' (n = 134) ratings of the emotional valence elicited...
August 23, 2018: Emotion
Nathaniel A Young, Michael M Shuster, Joseph A Mikels
When faced with a decision, certain aspects of the decision itself shape our affective responses to choice options, which, in turn, influence our choices. These integral affective influences manifest as immediate feelings about choice options as well as the feelings that we anticipate we will feel after certain potential outcomes. We examined whether the effect of framing on risk taking can be explained through the mediating roles of immediate and anticipated affect. Two experiments were conducted using a gambling task...
August 23, 2018: Emotion
Lucy Finkelstein-Fox, Crystal L Park, Kristen E Riley
Dispositional mindfulness is often linked to higher positive affect and lower negative affect, and coping with stress has been hypothesized to mediate these links. However, few studies have explicitly tested the ways in which stress appraisals, coping strategies, or coping flexibility (i.e., fit of coping to controllability appraisals) uniquely relate to mindfulness and well-being. Drawing on a stress and coping framework, the present study tested the degree to which (a) lower stress appraisals mediate mindfulness' effects on daily positive and negative affect; (b) daily coping mediates mindfulness' impact on daily positive and negative affect, above and beyond the effects of stress appraisals; and (c) coping flexibility mediates mindfulness' impact on positive and negative affect, above and beyond the effects of stress appraisals and average daily coping...
August 23, 2018: Emotion
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