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Alexander J Shackman, Jennifer S Weinstein, Stanton N Hudja, Conor D Bloomer, Matthew G Barstead, Andrew S Fox, Edward P Lemay
Dispositional negativity-the tendency to experience more frequent or intense negative emotions-is a fundamental dimension of temperament and personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity have profound consequences for public health and wealth, drawing the attention of researchers, clinicians, and policymakers. Yet, relatively little is known about the factors that govern the momentary expression of dispositional negativity in the real world. Here, we used smart phone-based experience-sampling to demonstrate that the social environment plays a central role in shaping the moment-by-moment emotional experience of 127 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of dispositional negativity...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Chui-De Chiu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Emotional empathy-feeling another person's affective states-entails simulating how one would feel in the same circumstance. Prior research has implicated the role of executive controls and shown a link between visuospatial perspective taking and personal disposition of empathy. No study has investigated how executive control processes involved in perspective shifting relate to emotional empathy. Incorporating a spatial perspective-taking task in a set switch paradigm, we investigated whether swiftly switching from the altercentric to the egocentric perspective is associated with heightened emotional empathy but not with accurate classification of low-level perceptual affective cues...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Jason Tipples
Fearful expressions are thought to warn of potential threat (Davis et al., 2011; Whalen, 1998) and therefore, 1 response to seeing fear might be to react cautiously. Although previous studies have tested for an effect of seeing fear on visual perception, they have not tested for increased decision making caution. Here, I applied hierarchical drift diffusion modeling (Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, & Lee, 2011; Wiecki, Sofer, & Frank, 2013) to the results of 4 experiments designed to test the idea that seeing facial expressions both impairs visual perception (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009) and leads to changes in decision making caution...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Todd B Kashdan, Fallon R Goodman, Melissa Stiksma, Cayla R Milius, Patrick E McKnight
Sex is rarely discussed in theories of well-being and rarely empirically examined using methods other than cross-sectional surveys. In the present study, a daily diary approach was used (for 21 days with 152 adults) to explore the relationship between the presence and quality of sexual episodes and well-being (positive affect, negative affect, meaning in life). Time-lagged analyses demonstrated that sexual activity on 1 day was related to greater well-being the next. As for the quality of episodes, higher reported sexual pleasure and intimacy predicted greater positive affect and lower negative affect the following day...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Jennifer M B Fugate, Maria Gendron, Satoshi F Nakashima, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word)...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Daniel T Cordaro, Rui Sun, Dacher Keltner, Shanmukh Kamble, Niranjan Huddar, Galen McNeil
We collected and Facial Action Coding System (FACS) coded over 2,600 free-response facial and body displays of 22 emotions in China, India, Japan, Korea, and the United States to test 5 hypotheses concerning universals and cultural variants in emotional expression. New techniques enabled us to identify cross-cultural core patterns of expressive behaviors for each of the 22 emotions. We also documented systematic cultural variations of expressive behaviors within each culture that were shaped by the cultural resemblance in values, and identified a gradient of universality for the 22 emotions...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Mariko L Visserman, Francesca Righetti, Emily A Impett, Dacher Keltner, Paul A M Van Lange
Gratitude is robustly linked to many positive outcomes for individuals and relationships (e.g., greater life and relationship satisfaction). However, little is known about how romantic partners come to feel grateful for each other's pro-relational acts, such as when a partner makes a sacrifice. The present research examines how perceptions of partner sacrifice motives evoke gratitude. We distinguish between partner, relationship, and self-focused motives, and how they are guided by approach or avoidance orientations...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Yudai Iijima, Keisuke Takano, Yoshihiko Tanno
Attentional bias toward threatening stimuli is recognized as 1 of the most important cognitive vulnerability factors for anxiety. However, the association between anxious attention and negative moods has not been fully elucidated, particularly in terms of the effect of such bias on mood fluctuations in daily life. We examined the associations between attentional bias and emotional dynamics under a daily life setting. Participants (46 university students) completed the dot-probe task in the laboratory, after which they entered a 6-day experience sampling measurement to assess temporal fluctuations of momentary levels of anxious mood and occurrence of stressful events...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Angela Scarpa, Richard A Ashley, Jonathan C Waldron, Yu Zhou, Deanna M Swain, Julie C Dunsmore, Martha Ann Bell
Physiological linkage (PL) refers to coordinated physiological responses among interacting partners (Feldman, 2012a), thought to offer mammals evolutionary advantages by promoting survival through social groups. Although PL has been observed in dyads who are familiar or have close relationships (e.g., parent-infant interactions, romantic couples), less is known with regard to PL in stranger dyads. The current study used dynamic linear time series modeling to assess cardiac interbeat interval linkage in 26 same-gender stranger dyads (17 female and 9 male dyads; 18-22 years old) while they spoke or wrote about emotional or neutral life events...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Gina M Grimshaw, Laura S Kranz, David Carmel, Rosie E Moody, Christel Devue
Attending to emotional stimuli is often beneficial, because they provide important social and environmental cues. Sometimes, however, current goals require that we ignore them. To what extent can we control emotional distraction? Here we show that the ability to ignore emotional distractions depends on the type of cognitive control that is engaged. Participants completed a simple perceptual task at fixation while irrelevant images appeared peripherally. In 2 experiments, we manipulated the proportion of trials in which images appeared, to encourage use of either reactive control (rare distractors) or proactive control (frequent distractors)...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Jozefien De Leersnyder, Peter Koval, Peter Kuppens, Batja Mesquita
People experience emotions when events are relevant to their current concerns, that is, when events affect their goals, values, or motives that are pertinent at that time. In the current research, we focused on one kind of concern-values-and examined whether different types of concerns are associated with different categories of emotion. More specifically, we investigated whether, at the situation level, the relevance of different types of values is linked to the intensity of different types of emotional experience...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
Ju-Hyun Song, Tyler Colasante, Tina Malti
Although emotionally well-regulated children are more likely to behave prosocially, the psychological processes that connect their emotion regulation abilities and prosocial behavior are less clear. We tested if other-oriented sympathy and trust mediated the links between emotion regulation capacities (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA], negative emotional intensity, and sadness regulation) and prosocial behavior in an ethnically diverse sample of 4- and 8-year-olds (N = 131; 49% girls). Resting RSA was calculated from children's electrocardiogram data in response to a nondescript video...
June 5, 2017: Emotion
Joseph Chancellor, Seth Margolis, Katherine Jacobs Bao, Sonja Lyubomirsky
A functional analysis of prosociality considers how predispositions for prosocial behavior prompt, reinforce, and propagate kind behaviors in the real world. To examine the effects of practicing, receiving, and observing everyday prosociality-as well as the mechanisms underlying these effects-we randomly assigned employees in a Spanish corporate workplace (N = 111) to be Givers, Receivers, and Controls. Givers practiced 5 acts of kindness for a personalized list of Receivers over 4 weeks. We found that Givers and Receivers mutually benefited in well-being in both the short-term (e...
June 5, 2017: Emotion
Christian Valt, Birgit Stürmer
We investigated the processing of faces with different smile expressions according to a context of personal performance. Individual judgments of smile happiness were collected to assess the processing of different types of smile when these were presented as a social response in a cognitive conflict task. Two main factors were considered: (a) Expression characteristics of the smile were manipulated: that is, happy (happy-happy), neutral (neutral-happy), or sad (sad-happy) eyes were morphed in faces with smiling mouth; (b) The performance context in which the smiling face appeared as social response (after fast, average, or slow correct response)...
June 5, 2017: Emotion
Güler Dunne, Chris Askew
Children can learn to fear stimuli vicariously, by observing adults' or peers' responses to them. Given that much of school-age children's time is typically spent with their peers, it is important to establish whether fear learning from peers is as effective or robust as learning from adults, and also whether peers can be successful positive models for reducing fear. During a vicarious fear learning procedure, children (6 to 10 years; N = 60) were shown images of novel animals together with images of adult or peer faces expressing fear...
June 1, 2017: Emotion
Gina M D'Andrea-Penna, Sebastian M Frank, Todd F Heatherton, Peter U Tse
Stimuli that attract exogenous attention have been shown to interfere with behavioral performance on various tasks. In the present study, participants performed multiple-object tracking (MOT) in conditions where either neutral or negatively valenced images were flashed at fixation. Results reveal a significant impairment of tracking accuracy in the emotional MOT conditions compared to the neutral conditions specifically at the highest level of task difficulty. These findings suggest that emotional distraction is most detrimental when maximal endogenous attentional engagement is required...
June 1, 2017: Emotion
Linda D Cameron, Nickola C Overall
Emotional suppression and expression both occur frequently in daily social interactions, yet research examining these emotion regulation processes simultaneously in naturalistic contexts remains limited. Although theory and research tend to reflect an implicit assumption that suppression and expression represent opposite sides of the same construct, they are likely to occur independently and exert different influences on intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences. In 4 experience-sampling and longitudinal studies, we assessed the personal and interpersonal consequences of daily emotional suppression and expression within romantic and close relationships...
June 1, 2017: Emotion
Eeske van Roekel, Maaike Verhagen, Rutger C M E Engels, Peter Kuppens
An important element of understanding the genotype-phenotype link in psychiatric disorders lies in identifying the psychological mechanisms through which genetic variation impacts mental health. Here we examined whether emotional inertia, the tendency for a person's emotions to carry over from 1 moment to the next and a prospective predictor of the development of depression, is associated with a known genetic risk factor for emotional dysregulation, a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR)...
June 1, 2017: Emotion
M Justin Kim, Jin Shin, James M Taylor, Alison M Mattek, Samantha J Chavez, Paul J Whalen
Oversensitivity to uncertain future threat is usefully conceptualized as intolerance of uncertainty (IU). Neuroimaging studies of IU to date have largely focused on its relationship with brain function, but few studies have documented the association between IU and the quantitative properties of brain structure. Here, we examined potential gray and white-matter brain structural correlates of IU from 61 healthy participants. Voxel-based morphometric analysis highlighted a robust positive correlation between IU and striatal volume, particularly the putamen...
May 18, 2017: Emotion
Shai Davidai, Thomas Gilovich
Research on the structural features of people's most enduring regrets has focused on whether they result from having acted or having failed to act. Here we focus on a different structural feature, their connection to a person's self-concept. In 6 studies, we predict and find that people's most enduring regrets stem more often from discrepancies between their actual and ideal selves than their actual and ought selves. We also provide evidence that this asymmetry is at least partly due to differences in how people cope with regret...
May 11, 2017: Emotion
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