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Maital Neta, Michael D Dodd
Although some facial expressions provide clear information about people's emotions and intentions (happy, angry), others (surprise) are ambiguous because they can signal both positive (e.g., surprise party) and negative outcomes (e.g., witnessing an accident). Without a clarifying context, surprise is interpreted as positive by some and negative by others, and this valence bias is stable across time. When compared to fearful expressions, which are consistently rated as negative, surprise and fear share similar morphological features (e...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Bertram Gawronski, Paul Conway, Joel Armstrong, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Effects of incidental emotions on moral dilemma judgments have garnered interest because they demonstrate the context-dependent nature of moral decision-making. Six experiments (N = 727) investigated the effects of incidental happiness, sadness, and anger on responses in moral dilemmas that pit the consequences of a given action for the greater good (i.e., utilitarianism) against the consistency of that action with moral norms (i.e., deontology). Using the CNI model of moral decision-making, we further tested whether the three kinds of emotions shape moral dilemma judgments by influencing (a) sensitivity to consequences, (b) sensitivity to moral norms, or (c) general preference for inaction versus action regardless of consequences and moral norms (or some combination of the three)...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Michael Boiger, Eva Ceulemans, Jozefien De Leersnyder, Yukiko Uchida, Vinai Norasakkunkit, Batja Mesquita
The current research offers an alternative to essentialism for studying cultural variation in emotional experience. Rather than assuming that individuals always experience an emotion in the same way, our starting point was that the experience of an emotion like anger or shame may vary from one instance to another. We expected to find different anger and shame experience types, that is, groups of people who differ in the instances of anger and shame that they experience. We proposed that studying cultural differences in emotional experience means studying differences in the distribution of these types across cultural contexts: There should be systematic differences in the types that are most common in each culture...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Annett Schirmer, Tabitha Ng, Richard P Ebstein
Research has suggested that interpersonal touch promotes social processing and other-concern, and that women may respond to it more sensitively than men. In this study, we asked whether this phenomenon would extend to third-party observers who experience touch vicariously. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants (N = 64, 32 men and 32 women) viewed prime and target images with the intention of remembering them. Primes comprised line drawings of dyadic interactions with and without touch. Targets comprised two faces shown side-by-side, with one being neutral and the other being happy or sad...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Adam Maxwell Sparks, Daniel M T Fessler, Kai Qin Chan, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Colin Holbrook
The emotion disgust motivates costly behavioral strategies that mitigate against potentially larger costs associated with pathogens, sexual behavior, and moral transgressions. Because disgust thereby regulates exposure to harm, it is by definition a mechanism for calibrating decision making under risk. Understanding this illuminates two features of the demographic distribution of this emotion. First, this approach predicts and explains sex differences in disgust. Greater female disgust propensity is often reported and discussed in the literature, but, to date, conclusions have been based on informal comparisons across a small number of studies, while existing functionalist explanations are at best incomplete...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Tom R Kupfer
According to pathogen-avoidance perspectives on disgust, injuries, gore, mutilation, or body-envelope violations elicit disgust because they have infectious potential. Here, an alternative explanation is proposed: People empathically simulate an observed injury, leading to unpleasant vicarious feelings, and for lack of a more accurate word, they describe the feelings as disgust. In Study 1, factor analysis of participants' disgust ratings showed that injury items emerged as a separate factor from pathogen items...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Julia Moeller, Zorana Ivcevic, Marc A Brackett, Arielle E White
This study revisits the structure of emotions by using a co-occurrence network analysis. While previous studies have examined the structure of emotions primarily through interindividual correlations, we investigated how often and which specific positive and negative emotions occur together within individuals. Two studies were conducted with high school students, one (N = 21,678) using retrospective emotion measures (open-ended questions and 28 rated items) and the other (N = 472) using in-the-moment emotion measures (experience sampling)...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Caleb J Reynolds, Paul Conway
Moral dilemmas typically entail directly causing harm (said to violate deontological ethics) to maximize overall outcomes (said to uphold utilitarian ethics). The dual process model suggests harm-rejection judgments derive from affective reactions to harm, whereas harm-acceptance judgments derive from cognitive evaluations of outcomes. Recently, Miller, Hannikainen, and Cushman (2014) argued that harm-rejection judgments primarily reflect self-focused-rather than other-focused-emotional responses, because only action aversion (self-focused reactions to the thought of causing harm), not outcome aversion (other-focused reactions to witnessing suffering), consistently predicted dilemma responses...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Valerie T Chang, Nickola C Overall, Helen Madden, Rachel S T Low
The current research extends prior research linking negative emotions and emotion regulation tendencies to memory by investigating whether (a) naturally occurring negative emotions during routine weekly life are associated with more negatively biased memories of prior emotional experiences-a bias called projection; (b) tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression are associated with greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions; and (c) greater projection bias in memory is associated with poorer future well-being...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Graham H Lowman, Dustin Wood, Benjamin F Armstrong, P D Harms, David Watson
Short measures are commonly used when conducting research involving emotions. However, obtaining appropriate estimates of reliability for short measures is traditionally problematic and is a reoccurring concern in emotion research. To address this issue, we compare the within-session test-retest and factor analysis methods for estimating the reliability of items in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form. Results indicate that within-session test-retest (rXX(d)) estimates outperform the factor analysis method by demonstrating stronger relationships with item properties relevant to reliability and validity-related criteria...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Kelly A Durbin, David Clewett, Ringo Huang, Mara Mather
When faced with threat, people often selectively focus on and remember the most pertinent information while simultaneously ignoring any irrelevant information. Filtering distractors under arousal requires inhibitory mechanisms, which take time to recruit and often decline in older age. Despite the adaptive nature of this ability, relatively little research has examined how both threat and time spent preparing these inhibitory mechanisms affect selective memory for goal-relevant information across the life span...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Nicolas Dumay, Dinkar Sharma, Nora Kellen, Sarah Abdelrahim
Demonstrations of emotional Stroop in conditioned made-up words are flawed because of the lack of task ensuring similar word encoding across conditions. Here, participants were trained on associations between made-up words (e.g., 'drott') and pictures with an alarming or neutral content (e.g., 'a dead sheep' vs. 'a munching cow') in a situation that required attention to both ends of each association. To test whether word emotional attributes need to consolidate before they can hijack attention, one set of associations was learned seven days before the test, whereas the other set was learned either six hrs or immediately before the test...
January 25, 2018: Emotion
Jean M Twenge, Gabrielle N Martin, W Keith Campbell
In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991-2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being...
January 22, 2018: Emotion
Wei Lü, Zhenhong Wang
Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reflects vagal tone, which has been found to be related to trait positive affect (PA). Resting RSA has also been found to be related to intraindividual reaction time (RT) variability (IIV), which is an index of executive brain function. However, research has yet to investigate whether IIV is associated with trait PA, and whether IIV interacts with resting RSA to predict trait PA. To examine this issue, data of trait PA, 5-min resting RSA, and trial-to-trial IIV of a flanker task (target detection) were collected in 117 young healthy adults...
December 21, 2017: Emotion
Nuno Gomes, Sandra C Soares, Samuel Silva, Carlos F Silva
The privileged processing of threat stimuli, even in the absence of visual awareness, has been associated with a subcortical superior colliculus (SC)-pulvinar pathway to the amygdala, bypassing the visual cortex. However, this has been heavily disputed by studies showing that cortical activity cannot be ruled out in fear processing. A recent study using continuous flash suppression (CFS) showed that rapid detection of fear faces relies on high spatial frequencies, which involve cortical visual areas. In the present study, we also used CFS and manipulated spatial frequency in order to assess if more primitive fear stimuli-snakes-follow a similar trend...
December 21, 2017: Emotion
Tanja Krone, Casper J Albers, Peter Kuppens, Marieke E Timmerman
In emotion dynamic research, one distinguishes various elementary emotion dynamic features, which are studied using intensive longitudinal data. Typically, each emotion dynamic feature is quantified separately, which hampers the study of relationships between various features. Further, the length of the observed time series in emotion research is limited and often suffers from a high percentage of missing values. In this article, we propose a vector autoregressive Bayesian dynamic model that is useful for emotion dynamic research...
December 21, 2017: Emotion
Eric N Smith, Carissa Romero, Brian Donovan, Rachel Herter, David Paunesku, Geoffrey L Cohen, Carol S Dweck, James J Gross
Individuals' theories about emotions-the beliefs about the nature of emotions and the ability to influence them-have been linked to well-being. However, their causal role is not clear. To address this issue, we delivered a randomized controlled intervention to 1,645 middle school students that targeted their theories of emotion through interactive online modules. Students were taught that they could modify their emotions, get better at modifying their emotions with practice, and use strategies to improve their well-being...
December 21, 2017: Emotion
Cynthia A Honan, Sarah Skromanis, Emma G Johnson, Matthew A Palmer
Alcohol intoxication is linked to negative social behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of high-dose alcohol intoxication on the ability to perceive a range of basic emotions (sad, happy, anger, disgust, fear, and surprise) of different intensities, and on self-appraisals of emotion perception ability (i.e., metacognitive judgments). Sixty-four participants consumed either an alcohol or placebo beverage. An emotion recognition task was used to assess emotion perception ability, and participants provided confidence ratings when providing each emotion recognition response...
December 21, 2017: Emotion
Paul K Piff, Jake P Moskowitz
Is higher social class associated with greater happiness? In a large nationally representative U.S. sample (N = 1,519), we examined the association between social class (household income) and self-reported tendencies to experience 7 distinct positive emotions that are core to happiness: amusement, awe, compassion, contentment, enthusiasm, love, and pride. Consistent with past research indicating that social class underlies differential patterns of attending to the self versus orienting to others, higher social class was associated with greater self-oriented feelings of contentment and pride, and with greater amusement...
December 18, 2017: Emotion
Paula R Pietromonaco
In this editorial, the incoming editor expresses his aspirations to continue to support Emotion's primary mission to publish high quality theory-driven, empirical research on emotion and to attract the very best research across all relevant areas of psychology and related fields. (PsycINFO Database Record
February 2018: Emotion
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