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Daniela Becker, Nils B Jostmann, Wilhelm Hofmann, Rob W Holland
People often experience self-control conflicts (i.e., feel tempted to indulge while motivated to resist). But, how do people feel after making such conflicted self-control choices? Whereas previous research has focused almost exclusively on the influence of choice outcomes (healthy vs. unhealthy) on emotional reactions (e.g., pride vs. guilt), we propose that the experience of conflict during decision making could have a unique influence, possibly fueling negative emotions (i.e., regret) regardless of people's choice outcomes...
October 18, 2018: Emotion
Nadia Haddara, Jonathan Ravid, Erica L Miller, Molly O'Hagan, Chris Caracciolo, Vladimir Miskovic
When we view emotionally arousing images, our perception of stimuli that follow soon afterward is transiently impaired-a phenomenon known as emotion-induced blindness. Previous studies have demonstrated that the magnitude and time course of this visual processing impairment is exaggerated by the presence of psychopathology and anxiety-related traits. Here, we tested whether emotional interference on a primary task can be modulated on a more dynamic basis, by the anticipation of unpredictable electric shock...
October 18, 2018: Emotion
Julie A Cantelon, Grace E Giles, Marianna D Eddy, Zachary Haga, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor, F Caroline Davis
Individuals with stressful occupations, such as law enforcement and military personnel, are required to operate in high stakes environments that can be simultaneously physically and emotionally demanding. These individuals are tasked with maintaining peak performance under stressful and often unpredictable conditions, exerting high levels of cognitive control to sustain attention and suppress task-irrelevant actions. Previous research has shown that physical and emotional stressors differentially influence such cognitive control processes...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Robert M Mok, Jasper E Hajonides van der Meulen, Emily A Holmes, Anna Christina Nobre
Working memory (WM) shows significant decline with age. It is interesting to note that some research has suggested age-related impairments can be reduced in tasks that involve emotion-laden stimuli. However, only a few studies have explored how WM for emotional material changes in aging. Here we developed a novel experimental task to compare and contrast how emotional material is represented in older versus younger adults. The task enabled us to separate overall WM accuracy from emotional biases in the content of affective representations in WM...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Rachel S T Low, Nickola C Overall, Emily J Cross, Annette M E Henderson
How does emotion regulation in one social context spillover to functioning in another? We investigate this novel question by drawing upon recent evidence that 3 categories underpin the most commonly assessed emotion regulation strategies: disengagement, aversive cognitive perseveration, and adaptive engagement. We examine how these emotion regulation categories during marital conflict are associated with conflict resolution and assess the associated implications for functioning during a subsequent family activity...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Robert Jertberg, Carmel A Levitan, Aleksandra Sherman
Binocular rivalry occurs when two percepts, each presented to a single eye, compete for perceptual dominance. Across two experiments, we investigated whether emotional music influenced perceptual dominance of an emotionally congruent face. In the first experiment, participants heard music (happy, threatening, none) while viewing a positive or negative emotional face pitted against a neutral face or emotional faces pitted against each other. Several key findings emerged. As expected, emotional faces significantly dominated over neutral faces, irrespective of music...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Margee Kerr, Greg J Siegle, Jahala Orsini
This study examined survey data and neural reactivity associated with voluntarily engaging in high arousal negative experiences (VANE). Here we suggest how otherwise negative stimuli might be experienced as positive in the context of voluntary engagement. Participants were recruited from customers who had already purchased tickets to attend an "extreme" haunted attraction. Survey data measuring self-report affect, expectations, and experience was collected from 262 adults (139 women and 123 men; age M = 27...
October 11, 2018: Emotion
Kyla Rankin, Lisa C Walsh, Kate Sweeny
A worrisome period of uncertainty frequently precedes important life events, and many of the coping strategies people employ during such waiting periods are ineffective. Distraction can be efficacious, but individuals awaiting uncertain news often fail to lose themselves in a sufficiently diverting activity. Across three studies-two observational and one experimental-we test whether flow-inducing activities provide a better distraction and improve the waiting experience. In Study 1, law graduates ( N = 125) who experienced more flow while awaiting their bar exam results reported less worry, fewer negative emotions, and more positive emotions...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Thomas Carsten, Charlotte Desmet, Ruth M Krebs, Marcel Brass
The concept of pupillary contagion refers to the automatic imitation of observed pupil size and reflects shared autonomic arousal. Previous studies have linked the experience of sadness to changes in pupil size. Accordingly, in a 2006 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience article, Harrison, Singer, Rotshtein, Dolan, and Critchley found evidence for pupillary contagion when the observed face expressed sadness but not when it showed a neutral, happy, or angry expression. However, differences in eye movements might have influenced these results...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Andrea Piovesan, Laura Mirams, Helen Poole, David Moore, Ruth Ogden
Emotional distortions of the perceived duration of events are often explained in terms of increases and decreases in arousal. While this explanation is theoretically plausible, there is a lack of evidence for a direct relationship between physiological arousal and perceived duration. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physiological arousal, defined by autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is directly related to perceived duration. In two experiments we measured skin conductance level (SCL) and high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) during verbal estimation tasks...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Alica Bucher, Andreas Voss
Previous research on valence biases in face perception revealed inconsistent findings either proposing angry or happy faces to be detected more efficiently. We argue that the typical experimental task in this field, the face-in-the-crowd (FiC) paradigm, leads to ambiguous results. In the present paper, we introduce a new task, the mood-of-the-crowd (MoC) paradigm that can complement existing FiC findings. In the new task, participants have to decide which expression is shown by most faces in a crowd. In Experiment 1, photographs were used as stimuli, whereas computer-generated faces were presented in Experiments 2 and 3...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Mona Moieni, Michael R Irwin, Kate E Byrne Haltom, Ivana Jevtic, Meghan L Meyer, Elizabeth C Breen, Steven W Cole, Naomi I Eisenberger
Although there has been much interest in understanding the effect of gratitude on health-related outcomes, this remains an understudied area of research, particularly regarding mechanisms and measurement of biological outcomes. The present study explored whether a gratitude intervention could reduce inflammatory outcomes and whether this occurred through increased support-giving. Healthy women ( n = 76) were randomly assigned to a 6-week gratitude intervention (i.e., writing on topics intended to induce gratitude) or a control condition (i...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Sophie L Cronin, Belinda M Craig, Ottmar V Lipp
We are better at recognizing faces of our own age group compared to faces of other age groups. It has been suggested that this own-age bias (OAB) might occur because of perceptual-expertise and/or social-cognitive mechanisms. Although there is evidence to suggest effects of perceptual-expertise, little research has explored the role of social-cognitive factors. To do so, we looked at how the presence of an emotional expression on the face changes the magnitude of the OAB. Across 3 experiments, young adult participants were presented with young and older adult faces to remember...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Heidi S Kane, Joshua F Wiley, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Theodore F Robles
Expressing emotions is a common strategy for coping with stress. Yet, little is known about the effects of using this strategy in close relationships, or when and for whom emotional expression is effective. This study examined romantic partner responsiveness and the dispositional tendency to use emotional approach coping (EAC; the processing and expression of emotions) as moderators of the effects of experimentally manipulated emotional expression on stress responses to a laboratory stressor. We brought couples ( N = 145) to the lab and randomly assigned 1 partner (the participant) to perform a stressful task...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Gemma Reynolds, Chris Askew
Fear and disgust are defensive emotions that have evolved to protect us from harm. Whereas fear is thought to elicit an instinctive response to deal with immediate threat, disgust elicits immediate sensory rejection to avoid contamination. One mechanism through which disgust and fear may be linked is via attentional bias toward threat. Attentional bias is a well-established feature of anxiety disorders and is known to increase following vicarious fear learning. However, the contribution of vicarious learning to the development of disgust-related attentional biases is currently unknown...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Neil Hester
Humans automatically form first impressions based on others' appearance, including their perceived emotional state. When others' facial expressions are neutral, or "resting," people nevertheless infer emotion, which they overgeneralize to trait judgments such as attractiveness and threat. I argue that perceived resting negative emotion (PRNE) predicts attractiveness and threat and that these effects are moderated by target gender, such that PRNE more strongly predicts attractiveness for women and threat for men...
September 27, 2018: Emotion
Martina Kaufmann, Thomas Goetz, Anastasiya A Lipnevich, Reinhard Pekrun
Positive emotions have been shown to benefit from optimistic perceptions, even if these perceptions are illusory (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). The current research investigated the effects of increases and decreases in illusory control on positive and negative emotions. In two studies we experimentally induced changes in illusory perceptions of control (increase vs. decrease of illusory control) and assessed the extent to which these changes, in turn, influenced participants' emotions. Extending prior research, the results of both studies revealed that whereas illusions of personal control over environmental outcomes mitigated the experience of negative emotions, they did not foster positive emotions...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Chloe Thompson-Booth, Essi Viding, Vanessa B Puetz, Helena J V Rutherford, Linda C Mayes, Eamon J McCrory
Previous studies have shown that the experience of childhood maltreatment can influence recognition and processing of emotional cues and that these effects can extend into adulthood. Such alterations in cognitive processing may have important implications for processing of infant affect and parenting behavior. This study investigated whether the experience of childhood maltreatment altered attentional processing of infant faces in a community sample of mothers, using an established visual search task. Increased scores on a measure of childhood maltreatment were associated with decreased preferential bias toward infant faces (indexed by slower reaction times to infant compared to adult faces)...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Despina Antypa, Patrik Vuilleumier, Ulrike Rimmele
Emotional memories are commonly recalled with an increased subjective sense of recollection but not necessarily with more accurate context recollection, depending on the type of context. Response-focused emotion regulation techniques, such as suppressing and intensifying emotion expression, can alter subjective arousal and later memory and confidence about memory. Here, we investigated if emotion suppression affects later subjective sense of recollection as well as context recollection for different types of details...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Lin Tan, Cynthia L Smith
Research on maternal socialization of child emotion regulation often involves measures of general parenting, yet little research has considered how maternal emotion regulation and emotion expressivity relate to children's ability to regulate their emotions. Because emotion regulation can be viewed as intergenerational, mothers who display higher levels of positive emotions and lower levels of negative emotions may create a more optimal emotional climate for children to learn and practice emotion regulation, aiding in the intergenerational transmission of optimal emotion regulation...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
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