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Selene Nasso, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Ineke Demeyer, Rudi De Raedt
According to the neurocognitive framework for regulation expectation, adaptively regulating emotions in anticipation of a stressful event should help individuals deal with the stressor itself. The goal of this study was twofold: first, the authors compared the influence of adaptive versus maladaptive anticipatory emotion regulation (ER) on the autonomic system during anticipation of, confrontation with, and recovery from a stressor; second, they explored whether trait rumination moderated this relationship...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
Liza M Haas, Brae Anne McArthur, Taylor A Burke, Thomas M Olino, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
Past research on emotional clarity (EC), the ability to identify and label one's own emotions, has illustrated an association between EC deficits and poor psychosocial outcomes during the adolescent years. Although past research has connected EC to psychosocial outcomes during adolescence in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, no studies have traced the trajectory of EC over time to determine the developmental course of the construct during adolescence. Thus, this study investigated how EC developed over five years during adolescence and what factors were associated with the developmental trajectory of emotional clarity...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
Hannah L Connolly, Carmen E Lefevre, Andrew W Young, Gary J Lewis
Although it is widely believed that females outperform males in the ability to recognize other people's emotions, this conclusion is not well supported by the extant literature. The current study sought to provide a strong test of the female superiority hypothesis by investigating sex differences in emotion recognition for five basic emotions using stimuli well-calibrated for individual differences assessment, across two expressive domains (face and body), and in a large sample (N = 1,022: Study 1). We also assessed the stability and generalizability of our findings with two independent replication samples (N = 303: Study 2, N = 634: Study 3)...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
Alva Tang, Ayelet Lahat, Michael J Crowley, Jia Wu, Louis A Schmidt
Although the neural correlates of social exclusion have been well-documented, most studies have examined single age groups. No studies have directly compared specific age-related differences in social exclusion across children, adolescents, and adults using event-related oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics. The authors examined event-related theta EEG power and phase coherence in fair play and social exclusion conditions during the Cyberball task in 166 participants: 42 children (ages 10-12), 56 adolescents (ages 14-17), and 68 adults (ages 18-28)...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
Tracy C d'Arbeloff, M Justin Kim, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Cognitive reappraisal is a commonly used form of emotion regulation that utilizes frontal-executive control to reframe an approaching emotional event to moderate its potential psychological impact. Use of cognitive reappraisal has been associated with diminished experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as greater overall well-being. Using data from a study of 647 healthy young adults, we provide initial evidence that an association between typical use of cognitive reappraisal in daily life and the experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms is moderated by the microstructural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, which provides a major anatomical link between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
Jens Lange, Lea Boecker
Schadenfreude follows from misfortunes happening to other individuals. It is therefore an essentially social emotion. However, previous research has mainly explored its intrapersonal functions. Complementing these findings, we propose a social-functional approach to schadenfreude. Seven studies (total N = 2,362) support that (a) schadenfreude is a reaction to a misfortune befalling an initially dominance-displaying individual and (b) the public expression of schadenfreude downregulates the dominance of the other person...
May 17, 2018: Emotion
D Michael Burt, Markus Hausmann
Although many sensory phenomena vary continuously, humans tend to divide them into discrete categories with facial expressions being divided into categories such as happy, sad, anger, and fear. A critical effect of category use is categorical perception: same sized physical differences are better perceived if the difference occurs between two categories rather than within the same category. Here we investigate the lateralization of categorical perception of facial expressions. Categorical perception of facial expressions may be lateralized to the right hemisphere due to the intimacy of basic, possibly universal and innate, prototypical facial expression categories and face processing which is predominantly lateralized to the right hemisphere...
May 17, 2018: Emotion
Michael A Sayette, Kasey G Creswell, Catharine E Fairbairn, John D Dimoff, Katlin Bentley, Talya Lazerus
There is considerable interest in understanding the emotional effects of alcohol. While a great deal of experimental research has focused on alcohol's ability to relieve negative emotions, there has been far less focus on the effects of alcohol on positive emotions. Further, the available research on positive emotion tends to test alcohol while participants are alone. Yet alcohol is often consumed in social settings, and enhancing social pleasure is consistently identified as being a primary motive for drinking...
May 17, 2018: Emotion
Robert G Franklin, Reginald B Adams, Troy G Steiner, Leslie A Zebrowitz
Through 3 studies, we investigated whether angularity and roundness present in faces contributes to the perception of anger and joyful expressions, respectively. First, in Study 1 we found that angry expressions naturally contain more inward-pointing lines, whereas joyful expressions contain more outward-pointing lines. Then, using image-processing techniques in Studies 2 and 3, we filtered images to contain only inward-pointing or outward-pointing lines as a way to approximate angularity and roundness. We found that filtering images to be more angular increased how threatening and angry a neutral face was rated, increased how intense angry expressions were rated, and enhanced the recognition of anger...
May 14, 2018: Emotion
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Eric R Igou, Paul J Maher, Andrew B Moynihan, Dawn G Martin
Boredom involves a lack meaning. Conversely, religiosity offers people a sense of meaning. Accordingly, we proposed that by imbuing a sense of meaningfulnesss, religiosity leads people to experience less boredom. Furthermore, we hypothesized and tested that by reducing boredom, religiosity indirectly inhibits the search for meaningful engagement. In Study 1, following boring tasks, religious people experienced lower levels of boredom and were less motivated to search for meaning than nonreligious people. We found in Study 2 that religious (vs...
April 26, 2018: Emotion
Jiquan Lin, Julia Dmitrieva
Culture is thought to shape an individual's ideal/desired emotions, which may in turn regulate actual emotional experiences (Tsai, Knutson, & Fung, 2006). In particular, European Americans tend to favor high-arousal positive (HAP) affect, whereas East Asians favor low-arousal positive affect. This study examined whether cultural adaptation from the East Asian to Western culture is associated with similar differences in ideal and actual affect. We recruited 150 Chinese international students enrolled in a midsize university in the United States and investigated the role of acculturation to U...
April 26, 2018: Emotion
Elizabeth Chervonsky, Caroline Hunt
Previous research has established that the ability to manage emotions effectively is critical to healthy psychological and social development in adolescents. However, less research has considered the relationships between specific emotion regulation (ER) strategies, such as reappraisal and suppression, and social wellbeing in this age group. The current study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between 2 ER strategies (reappraisal and suppression) and social outcomes (peer victimization, friendship satisfaction, and family satisfaction) in young adolescents...
April 26, 2018: Emotion
Eeske van Roekel, Vera E Heininga, Charlotte Vrijen, Evelien Snippe, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Anhedonia reflects a dysfunction in the reward system, which can be manifested in an inability to enjoy pleasurable situations (i.e., lack of positive emotions), but also by a lack of motivation to engage in pleasurable activities (i.e., lack of motivation). Little is known about the interrelations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life, and whether these associations are altered in anhedonic individuals. In the present study, we used a network approach to explore the reciprocal, lagged associations between positive emotions and motivation in anhedonic individuals (N = 66) and controls (N = 68)...
April 19, 2018: Emotion
Ethan Kross, Philippe Verduyn, Margaret Boyer, Brittany Drake, Izzy Gainsburg, Brian Vickers, Oscar Ybarra, John Jonides
Psychologists have long debated whether it is possible to assess how people subjectively feel without asking them. The recent proliferation of online social networks has recently added a fresh chapter to this discussion, with research now suggesting that it is possible to index people's subjective experience of emotion by simply counting the number of emotion words contained in their online social network posts. Whether the conclusions that emerge from this work are valid, however, rests on a critical assumption: that people's usage of emotion words in their posts accurately reflects how they feel...
April 5, 2018: Emotion
Shlomo Hareli, Shimon Elkabetz, Ursula Hess
How people react emotionally to an event can tell us much about the event itself. However, emotions vary in their situative informativeness, that is, in how much information about the situation they provide. We predicted that when emotions are shown that are low in situative informativeness participants rely more on context information, then when the emotions shown are high in situative informativeness. This hypothesis was tested in 2 studies in which participants were asked to evaluate the quality of a player's performance based on the emotional reactions of spectators to an unknown ball game...
March 29, 2018: Emotion
Katleen Van der Gucht, Egon Dejonckheere, Yasemin Erbas, Keisuke Takano, Mathilde Vandemoortele, Edel Maex, Filip Raes, Peter Kuppens
Research has shown that how well people can differentiate between different emotional states is an essential requirement for adaptive emotion regulation. People with low levels of emotion differentiation tend to be more vulnerable to develop emotional disorders. Although we know quite a lot about the correlates of emotion differentiation, research on factors or interventions which could improve emotion differentiation skills is scarce. Here, we hypothesize, and study empirically, whether a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) may impact the differentiation of negative and positive emotions...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
Simone Grassini, Henry Railo, Katja Valli, Antti Revonsuo, Mika Koivisto
The snake detection hypothesis claims that predatory pressure from snakes has shaped the primate visual system, but we still know very little about how the brain processes evolutionarily important visual cues, and which factors are crucial for quick detection of snakes. We investigated how visual features modulate the electrophysiological markers of early attentional processes. In Experiment 1, we compared snake, rope, gun, and bird images to isolate the effects due to curvilinearity of the stimuli. The results showed that both snake and rope images elicited enhanced P1 and N1 event-related potential components as well as early posterior negativity (EPN)...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
Shane W Bench, Heather C Lench
Building on functional models of emotion, we propose that boredom creates a seeking state that prompts people to explore new experiences, even if those experiences are hedonically negative. Specifically, as emotional responses fade, boredom motivates the pursuit of alternative experiences that differ from the experience that resulted in boredom. Participants who reported a higher degree of boredom after a neutral task were more likely to choose negative experiences (Study 1). Compared with a low-boredom condition, participants in a high-boredom condition desired novel experiences and, as a result of this desire, were more likely to choose novel negative experiences (Study 2)...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
C J Brainerd, S H Bookbinder
The emotional valence of target information has been a centerpiece of recent false memory research, but in most experiments, it has been confounded with emotional arousal. We sought to clarify the results of such research by identifying a shared mathematical relation between valence and arousal ratings in commonly administered normed materials. That relation was then used to (a) decide whether arousal as well as valence influences false memory when they are confounded and to (b) determine whether semantic properties that are known to affect false memory covary with valence and arousal ratings...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
Gijsbert Bijlstra, Rob W Holland, Ron Dotsch, Daniel H J Wigboldus
Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
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