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Johan C Karremans, Hein T van Schie, Iris van Dongen, Gesa Kappen, Gaia Mori, Sven van As, Isabel M Ten Bokkel, Reine C van der Wal
Using a multimethod approach, the current research tested the basic prediction that mindfulness is associated with interpersonal forgiveness. Across 5 studies, we found that mindfulness meditation, trait mindfulness, and an experimental induction of mindfulness, were positively associated with indicators of both dispositional forgiving tendencies, state levels of forgiveness regarding a past offense, and levels of perceived forgiving tendencies as rated by the romantic partner. Two studies examined the roles of perspective taking and rumination as potential mechanisms; results provided most consistent support for the role of perspective taking...
January 17, 2019: Emotion
Tae-Ho Lee, Michael T Perino, Nancy L McElwain, Eva H Telzer
The current study examined perceptual differences between adults and youth in perceiving ambiguous facial expressions. We estimated individuals' internal representation for facial expressions and compared it between age groups (adolescents: N = 108, Mage = 13.04 years, 43.52% female; adults: N = 81, Mage = 31.54, 65.43% female). We found that adolescents' perceptual representation for facial emotion is broader than that of adults', such that adolescents experience more difficulty in identifying subtle configurational differences of facial expressions...
January 10, 2019: Emotion
Tamara Luginbuehl, Dominik Schoebi
Responding appropriately to an intimate partner's emotional signals and needs requires that one's emotional responses be reactive to significant interpersonal experiences. The adaptive function of emotions is likely compromised if an individual's emotional states are insufficiently attuned to interpersonal events. The present studies examine how individual differences in moment-to-moment emotion dynamics affect interpersonal responsiveness and relationship satisfaction. Study 1 examines associations between emotion dynamics and emotional reactivity to positive and negative relationship events...
January 10, 2019: Emotion
David S Lee, Ariana Orvell, Julia Briskin, Taylor Shrapnell, Susan A Gelman, Ozlem Ayduk, Oscar Ybarra, Ethan Kross
Does talking to others about negative experiences improve the way people feel? Although some work suggests that the answer to this question is "yes," other work reveals the opposite. Here we attempt to shed light on this puzzle by examining how people can talk to others about their negative experiences constructively via computer-mediated communication, a platform that people increasingly use to provide and receive social support. Drawing from prior research on meaning-making and self-reflection, we predicted that cueing participants to reconstrue their experience in ways that lead them to focus on it from a broader perspective during a conversation would buffer them against negative affect and enhance their sense of closure compared with cueing them to recount the emotionally arousing details concerning what happened...
January 10, 2019: Emotion
Nicole Betz, Katie Hoemann, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Accumulating evidence indicates that context has an important impact on inferring emotion in facial configurations. In this paper, we report on three studies examining whether words referring to mental states contribute to mental inference in images from the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (Study 1), Baron-Cohen et al. (2001) in static emoji (Study 2), and in animated emoji (Study 3). Across all three studies, we predicted and found that perceivers were more likely to infer mental states when relevant words were embedded in the experimental context (i...
January 10, 2019: Emotion
Carl Senior, Stefanie Hassel, Arisha Waheed, Nathan Ridout
Something akin to motion perception occurs when actual motion is not present but implied. However, it is not known if the experience of implied motion occurs during the perception of static faces nor if the effect would vary for different facial expressions. To examine this, participants were presented with pairs of faces where successive expressions depicted either increasing emotional intensity or its diminution. Participants indicated if the second face in the pair was the same as, or different from, the first face shown...
January 3, 2019: Emotion
Julia Baum, Milena Rabovsky, Sebastian Benjamin Rose, Rasha Abdel Rahman
Affective information about other people's social behavior may prejudice social interactions and bias person judgments. The trustworthiness of person-related information, however, can vary considerably, as in the case of gossip, rumors, lies, or "fake news." Here, we investigated how spontaneous person likability and explicit person judgments are influenced by trustworthiness, employing event-related potentials as indices of emotional brain responses. Social-emotional information about the (im)moral behavior of previously unknown persons was verbally presented as trustworthy fact (e...
December 27, 2018: Emotion
Jonas Everaert, Ernst H W Koster, Jutta Joormann
In everyday life, people are exposed to continuous flows of emotional information. The ability to organize and segment this continuous input seems critical to understand what is happening around us. This study investigated whether people are sensitive to subtle statistical regularities embedded in flows of emotional information. Experiment 1 showed that people were able to identify regularities in streams of negative visual scenes. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the ability to extract statistical regularities was enhanced for negative compared to neutral visual scenes...
December 27, 2018: Emotion
Janna Nelson, Anne Klumparendt, Philipp Doebler, Thomas Ehring
The present study aimed to investigate the everyday emotional dynamics of depressed individuals, especially the role of emotional inertia, emotional context insensitivity, and emotional variability and instability. Using ecological momentary assessment, 40 currently depressed individuals and 40 healthy controls reported on their current emotional state and current activities 10 times a day for 4 consecutive days. There were no differences in the dynamics of positive affect (PA) between depressed and healthy subjects...
December 27, 2018: Emotion
Mingyu Joo, Wendy Liu, Kenneth C Wilbur
Liking and wanting are two foundational processes underlying the individual's reward system. Whereas the differences between liking and wanting have been studied extensively in the context of substance addiction, there have been few empirical studies of their manifestation in ordinary, nonaddictive contexts of behavior. In particular, previous research showed a temporal divergence of liking and wanting over repeated exposures to drugs; however, the temporal progression of liking versus wanting in response to ordinary stimuli remains less understood...
December 20, 2018: Emotion
Jacobien M van Peer, Thomas E Gladwin, Arne Nieuwenhuys
The ability to control action is crucial for adaptive responding, but may be compromised in situations involving strong emotions (e.g., threat) or when people are deprived of resources (e.g., sleep). As compromised action control can have large consequences in threatening situations, for example when police officers face a potentially armed suspect, we experimentally investigated how acute threat and partial sleep deprivation affect the ability to control impulsive responses, in 52 healthy young adults performing a simulated shooting task...
December 20, 2018: Emotion
Lea K Hildebrandt, Cade McCall, Tania Singer
A variety of contemplative practices putatively improves the ability to deal with difficult emotions. However, it is unclear how these different types of mental training differentially affect the use of different emotion regulation strategies. We addressed this question in a 9-month longitudinal study in which participants ( N = 332) took part in three distinct 3-month mental training modules cultivating attentional (the Presence module), sociocognitive (the Perspective module), and socioaffective, compassion-based skills (the Affect module)...
December 20, 2018: Emotion
Corinna Laube, Wouter van den Bos
Affect is integral to most decisions involving temptation. For instance, people may have difficulty saving for a house because they keep spending money on enjoyable, but more immediate items and events (e.g., fancy dinners). Little is known about how affect influences these types of intertemporal decisions. On the one hand, studies investigating the influence of incidental affect (i.e., affect that is unrelated to a decision, such as a person's mood) suggest that positive affect leads to increased impatience...
December 20, 2018: Emotion
Ella K Moeck, Nicole A Thomas, Melanie K T Takarangi
The right hemisphere plays a critical role in visuospatial attention and emotional perception, particularly for negative emotions. Therefore, preferential processing of emotional stimuli by the right, compared to the left, hemisphere could enhance our memory for emotional stimuli. We examined whether recognition memory for negative versus neutral IAPS images (Experiment 1) and negative versus positive IAPS and NAPS images (Experiment 2) differed depending on initial right or left hemisphere processing-manipulated by presenting images in the left (i...
December 20, 2018: Emotion
Zarah Rowland, Mario Wenzel, Thomas Kubiak
Mindfulness plays an important role in moderating affect dynamics. To date, associations between mindfulness and affect dynamics have mostly been examined with mindfulness as a trait-like characteristic. However, examining associations between momentary mindfulness and affect dynamics could reveal important within-person processes underlying mindfulness and wellbeing. The present study first examined dispositional mindfulness as a 1-dimensional as well as a multifaceted construct in relation to affect dynamics (instability, inertia, and valence switch)...
December 20, 2018: Emotion
Daniel M Stout, Jessica Bomyea, Victoria B Risbrough, Alan N Simmons
Rumination and worry are prominent symptoms of many psychiatric disorders. These symptoms compete for the same working memory (WM) storage space as those required for task-goals, leaving few cognitive resources available for successful goal-directed behavior. Once lodged in WM, negative information reduces cognitive control and further biases cognition toward affective stimuli. However, few studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with maintaining affectively negative information in WM and the filtering of aversive distractors...
December 20, 2018: Emotion
Emily F Hittner, Katie L Rim, Claudia M Haase
Cognitive reappraisal reduces anxiety, but we know little about how socioeconomic status (SES) moderates this association. Drawing from developmental, affective, and health psychological frameworks, the present 2 studies investigated SES as a moderator of reappraisal and anxiety using performance-based (Study 1) and self-report (Study 1 and 2) measures of reappraisal; analyzing nonclinical (Study 1) and clinical (Study 2) symptoms of anxiety; and utilizing a small, laboratory-based study (Study 1) and a large-scale 9-year longitudinal study (Study 2)...
December 17, 2018: Emotion
Grant S Shields, Chandler M Spahr, Andrew P Yonelinas
Acute stress impairs working memory (i.e., the ability to update and keep information in mind). Although that effect is well established, the boundaries around it are not. In particular, little is known about how recalling an unresolved stressor might influence working memory, or about how stress-or recalling a stressful event-influences the processes underlying working memory task performance (e.g., sustained/controlled attention vs. capacity). We addressed these issues in the present study (N = 171) by randomly assigning participants to write about an unresolved, extremely stressful experience (stressful writing condition; n = 85) or the events of the prior day (control condition; n = 86), and, subsequently, both measured change detection task performance and used computational cognitive modeling to estimate the processes underlying it-namely, attention, capacity, and bias...
December 13, 2018: Emotion
Swantje Tannert, Klaus Rothermund
Attention to emotional faces was tested in a series of 5 experiments using the flanker paradigm. Distraction and compatibility effects that were stronger for emotional compared to neutral faces were found in only one of the studies. No reliable differences were found between faces displaying different emotions. The data suggest that attentional capture of emotional faces depends on emotion being a task relevant feature, indicating that attention has to be intentionally allocated to emotional information for those effects to materialize...
December 13, 2018: Emotion
Johanna M Grosse Rueschkamp, Peter Kuppens, Michaela Riediger, Elisabeth S Blanke, Annette Brose
Within the study of emotions, researchers have increasingly stressed the importance of studying individual differences in emotion dynamics and emotional responding and the way these relate to more stable differences in well-being. However, there is no clear picture regarding affective reactivity to positive events and how different emotional reactions relate to differences in well-being, particularly higher levels of well-being. Theoretical work and empirical findings from different lines of research (e.g., clinical studies, aging literature, positive and personality psychology) support either of 2 predictions: Higher well-being is related to an enhanced or reduced affective reactivity to positive events in daily life...
December 13, 2018: Emotion
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