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Emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206797/social-information-influences-emotional-experience-and-late-positive-potential-response-to-affective-pictures
#1
Emily C Willroth, Leonie Koban, Matthew R Hilimire
Emotion experience and regulation frequently occur in social settings. Social influence is a common source of unconscious change in judgment in many contexts, but it has yet to be investigated as a form of automatic emotion regulation. Here, we demonstrate that nonpredictive social information (i.e., high or low "emotion intensity ratings from other people" that were not related to the actual intensity of the pictures) about the intensity of pleasant and unpleasant picture stimuli can influence self-reported emotional experience and the magnitude of the late positive potential, an event-related potential associated with the detection of emotional salience and sustained attention to motivationally significant stimulus features...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206796/affect-from-mere-perception-illusory-contour-perception-feels-good
#2
Thorsten M Erle, Rolf Reber, Sascha Topolinski
Can affect be evoked by mere perception? Earlier work on processing fluency, which manipulated the dynamics of a running perceptual process, has shown that efficient processing can indeed trigger positive affect. The present work introduces a novel route by not manipulating the dynamics of an ongoing perceptual process, but by blocking or allowing the whole process in the first place. We used illusory contour perception as one very basic such process. In 5 experiments (total N = 422), participants briefly (≤100 ms) viewed stimuli that either allowed illusory contour perception, so-called Kanizsa shapes, or proximally identical control shapes that did not allow for this process to occur...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206795/maternal-anxiety-predicts-attentional-bias-towards-threat-in-infancy
#3
Santiago Morales, Kayla M Brown, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Vanessa LoBue, Kristin A Buss, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
Although cognitive theories of psychopathology suggest that attention bias toward threat plays a role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety, there is relatively little evidence regarding individual differences in the earliest development of attention bias toward threat. The current study examines attention bias toward threat during its potential first emergence by evaluating the relations between attention bias and known risk factors of anxiety (i.e., temperamental negative affect and maternal anxiety)...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206794/the-devil-is-in-the-details-comparisons-of-episodic-simulations-of-positive-and-negative-future-events
#4
Vannia A Puig, Karl K Szpunar
Over the past decade, psychologists have devoted considerable attention to episodic simulation-the ability to imagine specific hypothetical events. Perhaps one of the most consistent patterns of data to emerge from this literature is that positive simulations of the future are rated as more detailed than negative simulations of the future, a pattern of results that is commonly interpreted as evidence for a positivity bias in future thinking. In the present article, we demonstrate across two experiments that negative future events are consistently simulated in more detail than positive future events when frequency of prior thinking is taken into account as a possible confounding variable and when level of detail associated with simulated events is assessed using an objective scoring criterion...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#5
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191996/the-impact-of-testimony-on-children-s-moralization-of-novel-actions
#6
Joshua Rottman, Liane Young, Deborah Kelemen
What leads children to moralize actions that cause no apparent harm? We hypothesized that adults' verbal instruction ("testimony"), as well as emotions such as disgust, would influence children's moralization of apparently harmless actions. To test this hypothesis, 7-year-old children were asked to render moral judgments of novel, seemingly victimless, body-directed or nature-directed actions after being exposed to adults' testimony or to an emotional induction. Study 1 demonstrated that children became more likely to judge actions as "wrong" upon being verbally presented with testimony about disgust or anger-but not upon being directly induced to feel disgusted...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191995/social-interaction-contexts-bias-the-perceived-expressions-of-interactants
#7
Katie L H Gray, Lee Barber, Jennifer Murphy, Richard Cook
The present study sought to determine whether contextual information available when viewing social interactions from third-person perspectives may influence observers' perception of the interactants' facial emotion. Observers judged whether the expression of a target face was happy or fearful, in the presence of a happy, aggressive, or neutral interactant. In 2 experiments, the same target expressions were judged to be happier when presented in the context of a happy interactant than when interacting with a neutral or aggressive partner...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191994/the-pleasure-of-making-a-difference-perceived-social-contribution-explains-the-relation-between-extraverted-behavior-and-positive-affect
#8
Jessie Sun, Kathryn Stevenson, Rachel Kabbani, Ben Richardson, Luke D Smillie
Why are trait extraversion and extraverted behaviors both associated with greater positive affect? Across 3 studies, we examined whether 2 aspects of social experience-perceived social contribution and social power-mediate the relation between extraversion and positive affect. Study 1 (N = 205) showed that trait measures of social contribution and power mediated the relation between trait extraversion and trait positive affect. Study 2 (N = 78) showed that state social contribution and power helped to explain the greater levels of state positive affect reported by participants who were instructed to enact extraverted behaviors...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191993/the-whole-is-not-the-sum-of-its-parts-specific-types-of-positive-affect-influence-sleep-differentially
#9
Sarah D Pressman, Brooke N Jenkins, Tara L Kraft-Feil, Heather Rasmussen, Michael F Scheier
Given the known detrimental effects of poor sleep on an array of psychological and physical health processes, it is critical to understand the factors that protect sleep, especially during times of stress when sleep particularly suffers. Positive affect (PA) arises as a variable of interest given its known associations with health and health behaviors and its ability to buffer stress. In 2 studies, we examined which types of PA (distinguished by arousal level and trait/state measurement) were most beneficial for sleep and whether these associations varied depending on the stress context...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191992/with-a-little-help-for-our-thoughts-making-it-easier-to-think-for-pleasure
#10
Erin C Westgate, Timothy D Wilson, Daniel T Gilbert
Can people enjoy thinking if they set their mind to it? Previous work suggests that many people do not enjoy the deliberate attempt to have pleasurable thoughts. We suggest that deliberately thinking for pleasure requires mental resources that people are either unwilling or unable to devote to the task. If so, then people should enjoy pleasant thoughts that occur unintentionally more than pleasant thoughts that occur intentionally. This hypothesis was confirmed in an experience sampling study (Study 1) in which participants were contacted 4 times a day for 7 days and asked to rate what they had been thinking about...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150953/interpersonal-closeness-and-morality-predict-feelings-of-being-moved
#11
Beate Seibt, Thomas W Schubert, Janis H Zickfeld, Alan Page Fiske
: The emotion commonly labeled in English as being moved or touched is widely experienced but only tacitly defined, and has received little systematic attention. Based on a review of conceptualizations from various disciplines, we hypothesize that events appraised as an increase in interpersonal closeness, or as moral acts, when sufficiently intense, elicit a positive emotion typically labeled "being moved," and characterized by tears, goosebumps, and a feeling of warmth in the chest...
February 2, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125240/compassionate-acts-and-everyday-emotional-well-being-among-newlyweds
#12
Harry T Reis, Michael R Maniaci, Ronald D Rogge
Compassion is deeply prized in Western marriages yet its benefits for emotional well-being have been investigated empirically only rarely. This research examined the association between compassionate acts and everyday emotional well-being in 175 newlywed couples. Following prior research and theory, we defined compassionate acts as caregiving that is freely given, focused on understanding and genuine acceptance of the other's needs and wishes, and expressed through openness, warmth, and a willingness to put a partner's goals ahead of one's own...
January 26, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080091/dynamical-systems-modeling-of-early-childhood-self-regulation
#13
Pamela M Cole, Jason J Bendezú, Nilam Ram, Sy-Miin Chow
Self-regulation can be conceptualized in terms of dynamic tension between highly probable reactions (prepotent responses) and use of strategies that can modulate those reactions (executive processes). This study investigated the value of a dynamical systems approach to the study of early childhood self-regulation. Specifically, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were used to model the interactive influences of 115 36-month-olds' executive processes (strategy use) and prepotent responses to waiting to open a gift (desire for the gift and frustration about waiting to open it)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080090/we-are-sorry-they-don-t-care-misinterpretation-of-facial-embarrassment-displays-in-arab-white-intergroup-contexts
#14
Pum Kommattam, Kai J Jonas, Agneta H Fischer
Embarrassment displays show others that one is aware of one's own misbehavior and willing to make up for it. The facial actions of embarrassment, however, are partly similar to those of disinterest, which has an opposite function, signaling that one is not concerned about one's self in relation to others. In the context of negative intergroup relations, embarrassment displays of outgroup members may therefore be misinterpreted as disinterest. In the present research, the authors predicted that Whites would perceive Arab expressions of embarrassment more as disinterest, but embarrassment displays of Whites more as embarrassment...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080089/what-you-like-is-what-you-try-to-get-attitudes-toward-emotions-and-situation-selection
#15
Noam Markovitch, Liat Netzer, Maya Tamir
Why do people expose themselves to certain emotional stimuli and avoid others? We propose that what people want to feel is linked to attitudes toward emotions. In 3 studies, we show that individuals with more (vs. less) negative attitudes toward an emotion were more (vs. less) likely to avoid stimuli that induce that emotion. People who evaluated disgust (or joy) less favorably than others were less likely to expose themselves to disgusting (or joyful) pictures (Study 1). These links were emotion-specific and could not be explained by differences in state or trait emotion (Study 2) or in emotional reactivity (Study 3)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080088/the-effect-of-reactive-emotions-expressed-in-response-to-another-s-anger-on-inferences-of-social-power
#16
Shlomo Hareli, Shlomo David
Social perception of emotions is influenced by the context in which it occurs. One such context is a social interaction involving an exchange of emotions. The way parties to the interaction are perceived is shaped by the combination of emotions exchanged. This idea was examined by assessing the extent to which expressions of anger toward a target-which, in isolation, are perceived as signals of high social power-are influenced by the target's emotional reaction to it (i.e., reactive emotions). Three studies show that the angry person was perceived as having a higher level of social power when this anger was responded by fear or sadness than when it was responded by neutrality or anger...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080087/perceptual-salience-does-not-influence-emotional-arousal-s-impairing-effects-on-top-down-attention
#17
Matthew R Sutherland, Douglas A McQuiggan, Jennifer D Ryan, Mara Mather
Emotional arousal impairs top-down attentional control while strengthening bottom-up attentional biases. In this study, we examined whether top-down impairments due to arousal can be modulated by increasing the perceptual salience of the target stimulus. To examine this question, we briefly displayed positive and negative arousing images prior to the encoding of 2 emotionally neutral items, 1 of which was to be remembered and 1 of which was perceptually salient (the to-be-remembered and the salient items were either the same item or different items)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080086/attentional-capture-by-taboo-words-a-functional-view-of-auditory-distraction
#18
Jan P Röer, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
It is well established that task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech adversely affects serial short-term memory (STM) for visually presented items compared with a quiet control condition. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the semantic content of the speech has the capacity to capture attention and to disrupt memory performance. In the present article, we tested whether taboo words are more difficult to ignore than neutral words. Taboo words or neutral words were presented as (a) steady state sequences in which the same distractor word was repeated, (b) changing state sequences in which different distractor words were presented, and (c) auditory deviant sequences in which a single distractor word deviated from a sequence of repeated words...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080085/suppression-and-expression-of-emotion-in-social-and-interpersonal-outcomes-a-meta-analysis
#19
Elizabeth Chervonsky, Caroline Hunt
Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080084/negative-affect-mediates-the-relation-between-trait-urgency-and-behavioral-distress-tolerance
#20
Allison M Borges, Jennifer Dahne, Aaron C Lim, Laura MacPherson
Distress tolerance is associated with a range of psychopathology and risk-taking behavior. Current research suggests that the behavioral ability to persist at goal-directed behavior when distressed may be malleable. However, little is known about the contributing factors that underlie individual differences in distress tolerance. Trait urgency, or the tendency to act impulsively in the context of acute changes in affect, may predict distress tolerance because the prepotent response to avoid or remove an aversive state may undermine persistence...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
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