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Marissa A DiGirolamo, James A Russell
The claim that certain facial expressions signal certain specific emotions has been supported by high observer agreement in labeling the emotion predicted for that expression. Our hypothesis was that, with a method common to the field, high observer agreement can be achieved through a process of elimination: As participants move from trial to trial and they encounter a type of expression not previously encountered in the experiment, they tend to eliminate labels they have already associated with expressions seen on previous trials; they then select among labels not previously used...
November 28, 2016: Emotion
Nina Vogel, Nilam Ram, David E Conroy, Aaron L Pincus, Denis Gerstorf
Many theories highlight the role social contexts play in shaping affective experience. However, little is known about how individuals' social environments influence core affect on short time-scales (e.g., hours). Using experience sampling data from the iSAHIB, wherein 150 adults aged 18 to 89 years reported on 64,213 social interactions (average 6.92 per day, SD = 2.85) across 9 weeks of daily life, we examined how 4 features of individuals' social ecology (between-person differences) and immediate social situations (within-person changes) were associated with core affect-valence and arousal-and how those associations differ with age...
November 21, 2016: Emotion
Julia Vogt, Ernst H W Koster, Jan De Houwer
Theories of attention to emotional information suggest that attentional processes prioritize threatening information. In this article, we suggest that attention will prioritize the events that are most instrumental to a goal in any given context, which in threatening situations is typically reaching safety. To test our hypotheses, we used an attentional cueing paradigm that contained cues signaling imminent threat (i.e., aversive noises) as well as cues that allowed participants to avoid threat (instrumental safety signals)...
November 21, 2016: Emotion
Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini, Francesca Gozzo, Veronica Pelliccia, Giuseppe Casaceli, Giacomo Rizzolatti
It was recently proposed that the neural substrate mediating smile production might play a key role also in the recognition of others' smile. This hypothesis, however, has been challenged by difficulties in eliciting ecological smiling in standard laboratory settings. Here we report of a case where these difficulties were overcome by combining electrical stimulation and intracranial electroencephalogram recording in a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The stimulation of the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) elicited a smiling facial expression...
November 17, 2016: Emotion
Kathrin Klipker, Cornelia Wrzus, Antje Rauers, Michaela Riediger
People often seek to regulate their affective reactions when confronted with hassles. Hassle reactivity is lower for people with higher cognitive control, presumably because of better affect regulation. Many adolescents, however, show higher hassle reactivity than children, despite better cognitive control. The present study aims to understand whether motivational differences when seeking to regulate affective experiences moderate the association between cognitive control and hassle reactivity in adolescence...
November 10, 2016: Emotion
Elise K Kalokerinos, Maxime R├ęsibois, Philippe Verduyn, Peter Kuppens
Time is given a central place in theoretical models of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015), but key questions regarding the role of time remain unanswered. We investigated 2 such unanswered questions. First, we explored when different emotion regulation strategies were used within the course of an emotional episode in daily life. Second, we investigated the association between the temporal deployment of strategies and negative emotional experience. We conducted a daily diary study in which participants (N = 74) drew an intensity profile depicting the temporal unfolding of their negative emotional experience across daily events (N = 480), and mapped their usage of emotion regulation strategies onto this intensity profile...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Sheri L Johnson, Claudia M Haase, Ursula Beermann, Amy H Sanchez, Jordan A Tharp, Sandy J Lwi, James J Casey, Nguyen Khoi Nguyen
Positive urgency, defined as a tendency to become impulsive during positive affective states, has gained support as a form of impulsivity that is particularly important for understanding psychopathology. Despite this, little is known about the emotional mechanisms and correlates of this form of impulsivity. We hypothesized that positive urgency would be related to greater emotional reactivity in response to a positive film clip. Seventy-five undergraduates watched a positive film clip, and a multimodal assessment of emotion was conducted, including subjective emotional experience, physiological activation (i...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Carolyn Parkinson, Trent T Walker, Sarah Memmi, Thalia Wheatley
Patterns of bodily movement can be used to signal a wide variety of information, including emotional states. Are these signals reliant on culturally learned cues or are they intelligible across individuals lacking exposure to a common culture? To find out, we traveled to a remote Kreung village in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. First, we recorded Kreung portrayals of 5 emotions through bodily movement. These videos were later shown to American participants, who matched the videos with appropriate emotional labels with above chance accuracy (Study 1)...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Carmen Morawetz, Rainer W Alexandrowicz, Hauke R Heekeren
The experience of emotions and their cognitive control are based upon neural responses in prefrontal and subcortical regions and could be affected by personality and temperamental traits. Previous studies established an association between activity in reappraisal-related brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus and amygdala) and emotion regulation success. Given these relationships, we aimed to further elucidate how individual differences in emotion regulation skills relate to brain activity within the emotion regulation network on the one hand, and personality/temperamental traits on the other...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Michael M Shuster, Joseph A Mikels, Linda A Camras
Research on adult age differences in the interpretation of facial expressions has yet to examine evaluations of surprised faces, which signal that an unexpected and ambiguous event has occurred in the expresser's environment. The present study examined whether older and younger adults differed in their interpretations of the affective valence of surprised faces. Specifically, we examined older and younger participants' evaluations of happy, angry, and surprised facial expressions. We predicted that, on the basis of age-related changes in the processing of emotional information, older adults would evaluate surprised faces more positively than would younger adults...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Hayley A Rahl, Emily K Lindsay, Laura E Pacilio, Kirk W Brown, J David Creswell
Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Amanda E Chue, Kathleen C Gunthert, Anthony H Ahrens, Lauren M Skalina
Research has suggested that there are benefits to socially sharing anger as an emotion regulation strategy. We hypothesized that these benefits may depend on the frequency with which one is experiencing anger. We used an experience sampling methodology to explore the interaction between frequency of anger and reliance on social expression of anger as a predictor of changes in depression symptoms 4 months later. We found that a strong reliance on social expression prospectively predicted lower depression symptoms when participants endorsed anger infrequently but predicted an increase in subsequent depression symptoms when anger was endorsed frequently...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak, Catherine R Glenn, Autumn J Kujawa, Daniel N Klein
Identifying biomarkers that characterize developmental trajectories leading to anxiety disorders will likely improve early intervention strategies as well as increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that occurs during error commission, is increased in anxious adults and children-and has been shown to predict the onset of anxiety disorders across childhood. The ERN has therefore been suggested as a biomarker of anxiety...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Daniel Preciado, Jaap Munneke, Jan Theeuwes
The present study rigorously tests whether an arbitrary stimulus that signals threat affects attentional selection and perception. Thirty-four volunteers completed a spatial-emotional cueing paradigm to examine how perceptual sensitivity (d') and response times (RTs) were affected by a threatening stimulus. On each side of fixation, 2 colored circles were presented as cues, followed by 2 Gabor patches, 1 of which was tilted and served as target. The color of 1 of the cues was paired with an electric shock, while others remained neutral...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
Margaret S Clark, Katherine R Von Culin, Elizabeth Clark-Polner, Edward P Lemay
In 2 studies involving 96 married couples (Study 1) and 118 romantic couples (Study 2), we investigated partners' perceptions of each others' recently experienced emotions. In both studies, both individuals within each couple independently provided reports of (a) their own recently experienced emotions, (b) their perceptions of their partners' recently experienced emotions, and (c) the extent to which they had expressed the emotions they had experienced to their partner. We then assessed the extent to which perceptions of partners' emotions were (a) accurate (i...
November 3, 2016: Emotion
Elizabeth M Planalp, Carol Van Hulle, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, H Hill Goldsmith
We studied developmental changes in infant positive affect from 6 to 12 months of age, a time marked by increasing use of positive vocalizations, laughter, and social smiles. We estimated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on observed and parent reported infant positive affect across development. Participants were drawn from a longitudinal twin study of infancy and toddlerhood (N = 536 twin pairs). Mothers and fathers reported on infant temperament and infants were videotaped during 2 observational tasks assessing positive affect...
October 31, 2016: Emotion
Jomel W X Ng, Eddie M W Tong, Dael L Y Sim, Samantha W Y Teo, Xingqi Loy, Timo Giesbrecht
Past research has established clear support for the prosocial function of gratitude in improving the well-being of others. The present research provides evidence for another hypothesized function of gratitude: the social alignment function, which enhances the tendency of grateful individuals to follow social norms. We tested the social alignment hypothesis of gratitude in 2 studies with large samples. Using 2 different conformity paradigms, participants were subjected to a color judgment task (Experiment 1) and a material consumption task (Experiment 2)...
October 31, 2016: Emotion
Elena L R Flohr, Elena Erwin, Ilona Croy, Thomas Hummel
Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days...
October 31, 2016: Emotion
Tammy English, Jordan Davis, Melissa Wei, James J Gross
Homesickness can put individuals at risk for a host of adjustment difficulties. The millions of students that leave home for college each year may be particularly susceptible to experiencing homesickness. There is little work, however, examining individual variation in homesickness over time and how these changes predict different outcomes in college. The present study examines weekly levels of homesickness during the first term of college and tests the associations between homesickness and various aspects of adjustment...
October 24, 2016: Emotion
Alycia Chin, Amanda Markey, Saurabh Bhargava, Karim S Kassam, George Loewenstein
We report new evidence on the emotional, demographic, and situational correlates of boredom from a rich experience sample capturing 1.1 million emotional and time-use reports from 3,867 U.S. adults. Subjects report boredom in 2.8% of the 30-min sampling periods, and 63% of participants report experiencing boredom at least once across the 10-day sampling period. We find that boredom is more likely to co-occur with negative, rather than positive, emotions, and is particularly predictive of loneliness, anger, sadness, and worry...
October 24, 2016: Emotion
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