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Emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080091/dynamical-systems-modeling-of-early-childhood-self-regulation
#1
Pamela M Cole, Jason J Bendezú, Nilam Ram, Sy-Miin Chow
Self-regulation can be conceptualized in terms of dynamic tension between highly probable reactions (prepotent responses) and use of strategies that can modulate those reactions (executive processes). This study investigated the value of a dynamical systems approach to the study of early childhood self-regulation. Specifically, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were used to model the interactive influences of 115 36-month-olds' executive processes (strategy use) and prepotent responses to waiting to open a gift (desire for the gift and frustration about waiting to open it)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080090/we-are-sorry-they-don-t-care-misinterpretation-of-facial-embarrassment-displays-in-arab-white-intergroup-contexts
#2
Pum Kommattam, Kai J Jonas, Agneta H Fischer
Embarrassment displays show others that one is aware of one's own misbehavior and willing to make up for it. The facial actions of embarrassment, however, are partly similar to those of disinterest, which has an opposite function, signaling that one is not concerned about one's self in relation to others. In the context of negative intergroup relations, embarrassment displays of outgroup members may therefore be misinterpreted as disinterest. In the present research, the authors predicted that Whites would perceive Arab expressions of embarrassment more as disinterest, but embarrassment displays of Whites more as embarrassment...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080089/what-you-like-is-what-you-try-to-get-attitudes-toward-emotions-and-situation-selection
#3
Noam Markovitch, Liat Netzer, Maya Tamir
Why do people expose themselves to certain emotional stimuli and avoid others? We propose that what people want to feel is linked to attitudes toward emotions. In 3 studies, we show that individuals with more (vs. less) negative attitudes toward an emotion were more (vs. less) likely to avoid stimuli that induce that emotion. People who evaluated disgust (or joy) less favorably than others were less likely to expose themselves to disgusting (or joyful) pictures (Study 1). These links were emotion-specific and could not be explained by differences in state or trait emotion (Study 2) or in emotional reactivity (Study 3)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080088/the-effect-of-reactive-emotions-expressed-in-response-to-another-s-anger-on-inferences-of-social-power
#4
Shlomo Hareli, Shlomo David
Social perception of emotions is influenced by the context in which it occurs. One such context is a social interaction involving an exchange of emotions. The way parties to the interaction are perceived is shaped by the combination of emotions exchanged. This idea was examined by assessing the extent to which expressions of anger toward a target-which, in isolation, are perceived as signals of high social power-are influenced by the target's emotional reaction to it (i.e., reactive emotions). Three studies show that the angry person was perceived as having a higher level of social power when this anger was responded by fear or sadness than when it was responded by neutrality or anger...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080087/perceptual-salience-does-not-influence-emotional-arousal-s-impairing-effects-on-top-down-attention
#5
Matthew R Sutherland, Douglas A McQuiggan, Jennifer D Ryan, Mara Mather
Emotional arousal impairs top-down attentional control while strengthening bottom-up attentional biases. In this study, we examined whether top-down impairments due to arousal can be modulated by increasing the perceptual salience of the target stimulus. To examine this question, we briefly displayed positive and negative arousing images prior to the encoding of 2 emotionally neutral items, 1 of which was to be remembered and 1 of which was perceptually salient (the to-be-remembered and the salient items were either the same item or different items)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080086/attentional-capture-by-taboo-words-a-functional-view-of-auditory-distraction
#6
Jan P Röer, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
It is well established that task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech adversely affects serial short-term memory (STM) for visually presented items compared with a quiet control condition. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the semantic content of the speech has the capacity to capture attention and to disrupt memory performance. In the present article, we tested whether taboo words are more difficult to ignore than neutral words. Taboo words or neutral words were presented as (a) steady state sequences in which the same distractor word was repeated, (b) changing state sequences in which different distractor words were presented, and (c) auditory deviant sequences in which a single distractor word deviated from a sequence of repeated words...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080085/suppression-and-expression-of-emotion-in-social-and-interpersonal-outcomes-a-meta-analysis
#7
Elizabeth Chervonsky, Caroline Hunt
Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080084/negative-affect-mediates-the-relation-between-trait-urgency-and-behavioral-distress-tolerance
#8
Allison M Borges, Jennifer Dahne, Aaron C Lim, Laura MacPherson
Distress tolerance is associated with a range of psychopathology and risk-taking behavior. Current research suggests that the behavioral ability to persist at goal-directed behavior when distressed may be malleable. However, little is known about the contributing factors that underlie individual differences in distress tolerance. Trait urgency, or the tendency to act impulsively in the context of acute changes in affect, may predict distress tolerance because the prepotent response to avoid or remove an aversive state may undermine persistence...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080083/the-empathy-impulse-a-multinomial-model-of-intentional-and-unintentional-empathy-for-pain
#9
C Daryl Cameron, Victoria L Spring, Andrew R Todd
Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991819/autonomic-reactivity-and-vulnerability-to-depression-a-multi-wave-study
#10
Jonathan P Stange, Jessica L Hamilton, Thomas M Olino, David M Fresco, Lauren B Alloy
The ability of the autonomic nervous system to flexibly adapt to environmental changes is thought to indicate efficient use of self-regulatory resources. Deficits in autonomic reactivity appear to characterize current depression; however, whether autonomic reactivity confers vulnerability to future depression when individuals encounter environmental stressors is unknown. Fluctuations in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated in response to emotion-eliciting films among 134 undergraduates...
December 19, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991818/don-t-look-at-my-teeth-when-i-smile-teeth-visibility-in-smiling-faces-affects-emotionality-ratings-and-gaze-patterns
#11
Ivan Blanco, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza, Carmelo Vazquez
Research on facial emotion processing has offered inconclusive results on whether certain emotional expressions, like happiness, are detected faster over others. A source of discrepancy among studies could stem from differences in physically salient features (e.g., teeth visibility), which are often left uncontrolled in this field of research. In Study 1, happy faces from the Karolinska Database Emotional Databse with visible, normal teeth unexpectedly obtained lower scores on intensity and prototypicality than the same faces with covered teeth...
December 19, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991817/working-memory-regulates-trait-anxiety-related-threat-processing-biases
#12
Robert W Booth, Bundy Mackintosh, Dinkar Sharma
High trait anxious individuals tend to show biased processing of threat. Correlational evidence suggests that executive control could be used to regulate such threat-processing. On this basis, we hypothesized that trait anxiety-related cognitive biases regarding threat should be exaggerated when executive control is experimentally impaired by loading working memory. In Study 1, 68 undergraduates read ambiguous vignettes under high and low working memory load; later, their interpretations of these vignettes were assessed via a recognition test...
December 19, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991816/instrumental-motives-in-negative-emotion-regulation-in-daily-life-frequency-consistency-and-predictors
#13
Elise K Kalokerinos, Maya Tamir, Peter Kuppens
People regulate their emotions not only for hedonic reasons but also for instrumental reasons, to attain the potential benefits of emotions beyond pleasure and pain. However, such instrumental motives have rarely been examined outside the laboratory as they naturally unfold in daily life. To assess whether and how instrumental motives operate outside the laboratory, it is necessary to examine them in response to real and personally relevant stimuli in ecologically valid contexts. In this research, we assessed the frequency, consistency, and predictors of instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life...
December 19, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991815/effects-of-learning-context-on-the-acquisition-and-processing-of-emotional-words-in-bilinguals
#14
Julia Brase, Nivedita Mani
Although bilinguals respond differently to emotionally valenced words in their first language (L1) relative to emotionally neutral words, similar effects of emotional valence are hard to come by in second language (L2) processing. We examine the extent to which these differences in first and second language processing are due to the context in which the 2 languages are acquired: L1 is typically acquired in more naturalistic settings (e.g., family) than L2 (e.g., at school). Fifty German-English bilinguals learned unfamiliar German and English negative and neutral words in 2 different learning conditions: One group (emotion video context) watched videos of a person providing definitions of the words with facial and gestural cues, whereas another group (neutral video context) received the same definitions without gestural and emotional cues...
December 19, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936815/the-effect-of-the-social-regulation-of-emotion-on-emotional-long-term-memory
#15
Luis E Flores, Howard Berenbaum
Memories for emotional events tend to be stronger than for neutral events, and weakening negative memories can be helpful to promote well-being. The present study examined whether the social regulation of emotion (in the form of handholding) altered the strength of emotional long-term memory. A sample of 219 undergraduate students viewed sets of negative, neutral, and positive images. Each participant held a stress ball while viewing half of the images and held someone's hand while viewing the other half. Participants returned 1 week later to complete a recognition task...
December 12, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936814/neural-substrates-and-social-consequences-of-interpersonal-gratitude-intention-matters
#16
Hongbo Yu, Qiang Cai, Bo Shen, Xiaoxue Gao, Xiaolin Zhou
Voluntary help during a time of need fosters interpersonal gratitude, which has positive social and personal consequences such as improved social relationships, increased reciprocity, and decreased distress. In a behavioral and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, participants played a multiround interactive game where they received pain stimulation. An anonymous partner interacted with the participants and either intentionally or unintentionally (i.e., determined by a computer program) bore part of the participants' pain...
December 12, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936813/the-social-regulation-of-emotion-and-updating-negative-contents-of-working-memory
#17
Luis E Flores, Howard Berenbaum
The social regulation of emotion reduces negative affect and may also help remove negative contents from working memory. The present studies investigated whether the social regulation of emotion (in the form of handholding) altered the ability to update negative contents from working memory and whether a person's level of desired emotional closeness moderated this effect. In each of 2 studies, an unselected sample of undergraduate students completed an emotional working memory task that measured the ability to remove irrelevant information from working memory and a self-report questionnaire measuring their level of desired emotional closeness...
December 12, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929305/is-fear-in-your-head-a-comparison-of-instructed-and-real-life-expressions-of-emotion-in-the-face-and-body
#18
Lior Abramson, Inbal Marom, Rotem Petranker, Hillel Aviezer
The majority of emotion perception studies utilize instructed and stereotypical expressions of faces or bodies. While such stimuli are highly standardized and well-recognized, their resemblance to real-life expressions of emotion remains unknown. Here we examined facial and body expressions of fear and anger during real-life situations and compared their recognition to that of instructed expressions of the same emotions. In order to examine the source of the affective signal, expressions of emotion were presented as faces alone, bodies alone, and naturally, as faces with bodies...
December 8, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893222/the-emotion-seen-in-a-face-can-be-a-methodological-artifact-the-process-of-elimination-hypothesis
#19
Marissa A DiGirolamo, James A Russell
The claim that certain facial expressions signal certain specific emotions has been supported by high observer agreement in labeling the emotion predicted for that expression. Our hypothesis was that, with a method common to the field, high observer agreement can be achieved through a process of elimination: As participants move from trial to trial and they encounter a type of expression not previously encountered in the experiment, they tend to eliminate labels they have already associated with expressions seen on previous trials; they then select among labels not previously used...
November 28, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869467/how-the-social-ecology-and-social-situation-shape-individuals-affect-valence-and-arousal
#20
Nina Vogel, Nilam Ram, David E Conroy, Aaron L Pincus, Denis Gerstorf
Many theories highlight the role social contexts play in shaping affective experience. However, little is known about how individuals' social environments influence core affect on short time-scales (e.g., hours). Using experience sampling data from the iSAHIB, wherein 150 adults aged 18 to 89 years reported on 64,213 social interactions (average 6.92 per day, SD = 2.85) across 9 weeks of daily life, we examined how 4 features of individuals' social ecology (between-person differences) and immediate social situations (within-person changes) were associated with core affect-valence and arousal-and how those associations differ with age...
November 21, 2016: Emotion
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