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Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092723/pertuzumab-and-breast-cancer-another-piece-in-the-anti-her2-puzzle
#1
Dr Lorenzo Gerratana, Dr Marta Bonotto, Dr Claudia Bozza, Dr Elena Ongaro, Dr Valentina Fanotto, Dr Giacomo Pelizzari, Prof Fabio Puglisi
The mechanism of action of pertuzumab, a recombinant anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody, is complementary to trastuzumab's. On June 8, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration approved the combination of pertuzumab with trastuzumab and docetaxel as first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, pertuzumab is the first drug to be approved in the neoadjuvant setting using a pathological complete response as an endpoint. Areas covered: The review provides insights into the main mechanisms of action of pertuzumab...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092486/use-of-polyclonal-monoclonal-antibody-therapies-in-transplantation
#2
Melissa Y Yeung, Steven Gabardi, Mohamed H Sayegh
For over thirty years, antibody (mAb)-based therapies have been a standard component of transplant immunosuppression, and yet much remains to be learned in order for us to truly harness their therapeutic capabilities. Current mAbs used in transplant directly target and destroy graft-destructive immune cells, interrupt cytokine and costimulation-dependent T and B cell activation, and prevent down-stream complement activation. Areas covered: This review summarizes our current approaches to using antibody-based therapies to prevent and treat allograft rejection...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064556/pd-1-checkpoint-blockade-alone-or-combined-pd-1-and-ctla-4-blockade-as-immunotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#3
Tawee Tanvetyanon, Jhanelle E Gray, Scott J Antonia
Signaling through T-cell surface, an immune checkpoint protein such as PD-1 or CTLA-4 helps dampen or terminate unwanted immune responses. Blocking a single immune checkpoint or multiple checkpoints simultaneously can generate anti-tumor activity against a variety of cancers including lung cancer. Area covered: This review highlights the results of recent clinical studies of single or combination checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The authors discuss pembrolizumab and pembrolizumab plus ipilimumab, durvalumab and durvalumab plus tremelimumab, nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab for NSCLC as well as nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab for SCLC...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064543/itolizumab-a-novel-anti-cd6-monoclonal-antibody-a-safe-and-efficacious-biologic-agent-for-management-of-psoriasis
#4
Sunil Dogra, Shraddha Uprety, Swaroop Hassan Suresh
Psoriasis, a chronic immune-mediated skin disorder is associated with significant physical, psychological, and quality of life impairments. Along with well-documented genetic and environmental factors, immunological factors also contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Among the immunological factors, CD6 - dependent T-cell proliferation to form Th1 and Th17 cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Itolizumab is the first humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody, which selectively targets CD6...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064540/romosozumab-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#5
Leonardo Bandeira, E Michael Lewiecki, John P Bilezikian
Introduction Sclerostin, a glycoprotein produced primarily by osteocytes, blocks the canonical Wnt signaling bone formation pathway. Romosozumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to sclerostin that binds to sclerostin, permitting the engagement of Wnt ligands with their co-receptors, resulting in an increase in bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). Clinical studies with romosozumab have shown dramatic improvements in BMD at the spine and hip. Romosozumab is associated with improvement in bone strength through mechanisms that include increases in bone formation and, different from classical osteoanabolic agents, suppression of bone resorption...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060539/bococizumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolaemia
#6
Nicola Ferri, Alberto Corsini, Cesare R Sirtori, Massimiliano Ruscica
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). LDL-C levels are considered primary targets of therapy. A new series of systemic biomolecules, the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), have a higher activity in reducing LDL-C. Areas Covered: The authors critically review the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of bococizumab, a humanized mAb against PCSK9, which was surprisingly discontinued in November 2016...
January 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960591/immuno-oncology-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-treatment-future-perspectives-for-combinations-and-sequences-with-molecularly-targeted-agents
#7
Camillo Porta, Ilaria Toscani, Anna M Czarnecka, Cezary A Szczylik
From a theoretical viewpoint, combining molecularly targeted agents endowed with antiangiogenic properties with immunotherapy makes sense in treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC); this neoplasm is highly angiogenesis-dependent, as well as potentially immunogenic. Areas covered: The authors performed a literature search looking for clinical trials aimed at evaluating efficacy and tolerability of combinations (or sequences) of molecularly targeted agents and different immunotherapeutic approaches in metastatic RCC...
December 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936977/tanezumab-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-musculoskeletal-conditions
#8
Prakash Jayabalan, Thomas J Schnitzer
The management of pain associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions represents a significant challenge for the clinician. There remains a need for novel medications that have a significant analgesic benefit and are also safe and well tolerated. Both pre-clinical and clinical data have provided evidence of the role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in a multitude of pain eliciting conditions. Therefore, the development of monoclonal antibodies to NGF for chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions has generated interest...
December 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977315/antibody-sirna-conjugates-drugging-the-undruggable-for-anti-leukemic-therapy
#9
Jogender Tushir-Singh
Generating effective RNAi-based therapies with the potential to achieve leukemia remission remains critical unmet need. Despite a growing number of leukemia clinical trials, tissue specific delivery of therapeutic siRNA is a major roadblock in translating its clinical potential. The most recent reports in the antibody-siRNA-conjugates (ARCs) field add new dimensions to leukemic therapy, where a covalently ligated therapeutic antisense-RNA with the potential to repress the oncogenic transcript is selectively delivered into the cancer cells...
December 23, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960589/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-with-natural-killer-cell-immunotherapy
#10
Jesus I Luna, Steven K Grossenbacher, William J Murphy, Robert J Canter
Standard cytoreductive cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are frequently resisted by a small portion of cancer cells with 'stem-cell' like properties including quiescence and repopulation. Immunotherapy represents a breakthrough modality for improving oncologic outcomes in cancer patients. Since the success of immunotherapy is not contingent on target cell proliferation, it may also be uniquely suited to address the problem of resistance and repopulation exerted by cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
December 23, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936976/exon-skipping-a-first-in-class-strategy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#11
Erik H Niks, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus
Exon skipping is a therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) that has been in development for close to two decades. This approach uses antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to modulate pre-mRNA splicing of dystrophin transcripts to restore the disrupted DMD reading frame. The approach has moved from in vitro proof of concept studies to the clinical trial phase and marketing authorization applications with regulators. The first AON (eteplirsen) has recently received accelerated approval by the Food and Drug Administration in the US...
December 23, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960585/challenges-for-the-application-of-optical-stimulation-in-the-cochlea-for-the-study-and-treatment-of-hearing-loss
#12
Rachael T Richardson, Alexander C Thompson, Andrew K Wise, Karina Needham
Electrical stimulation has long been the most effective strategy for evoking neural activity from bionic devices and has been used with great success in the cochlear implant to allow deaf people to hear speech and sound. Despite its success, the spread of electrical current stimulates a broad region of neural tissue meaning that contemporary devices have limited precision. Optical stimulation as an alternative has attracted much recent interest for its capacity to provide highly focused stimuli, and therefore, potentially improved sensory perception...
December 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960557/the-biologics-of-ulcerative-colitis
#13
Fabio Salvatore Macaluso, Sara Renna, Ambrogio Orlando, Mario Cottone
Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors dramatically changed the management of moderate-to-severe phenotypes of ulcerative colitis. The recent incoming of vedolizumab, which targets gut-specific leukocyte trafficking, provides a new biologic option for these patients. Areas covered: This review focuses on the rationale of use, efficacy, and safety profile of all biologics currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, including tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (Infliximab and biosimilars, adalimumab, and golimumab), and the more recent vedolizumab...
December 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927023/novel-strategies-for-improving-hematopoietic-reconstruction-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-or-intensive-chemotherapy
#14
Frédéric Baron, Arnon Nagler
High-dose conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as well as intensive poly-chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induce prolonged periods of neutropenia. The duration of the neutropenia is particularly long following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Areas covered: After briefly reviewing the impact of hematopoietic growth factors administration to hasten hematologic reconstitution after allo-HCT or intensive AML chemotherapy, this article summarizes recent approaches that have been investigated to prompt hematologic reconstruction after UCBT or intensive AML chemotherapy...
December 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892722/present-and-future-dna-vaccines-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-treatment
#15
Lucyna Cova
With at least 240 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, being at a high risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chronic hepatitis B remains a major public health issue. Because current antiviral treatments are only virostatic, there is an urgent need for the development of innovative anti-HBV strategies leading to the functional cure. In this context, DNA-based vaccines appear as a promising approach. Area covered: In this review, the authors summarize the pertinent features of DNA vaccines for chronic hepatitis B therapy...
December 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845852/platelet-rich-plasma-a-source-of-autologous-growth-factors-and-biomimetic-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#16
Mikel Sánchez, Eduardo Anitua, Diego Delgado, Peio Sanchez, Roberto Prado, Gorka Orive, Sabino Padilla
In mammals, axons of injured peripheral nerves (PNI) can and do regenerate, but often the functional recovery is incomplete or suboptimal. In recent years, in vivo tissue engineering approaches through molecular intervention and scaffolding are offering promising outcomes. Evidence is accumulating in both preclinical and clinical settings indicating that platelet rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin scaffolds obtained from this technology hold an important adjuvant therapeutic potential. Areas covered: This review addresses current molecular and cellular data in intrinsic nerve repair processes and describes different strategies to harness and enhance these processes by using biochemical and biomechanical cues...
November 15, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817214/antibody-therapeutics-for-treating-prostate-cancer-where-are-we-now-and-what-comes-next
#17
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Giuseppe Galletti, Jessica Palmer, Linda Lam, Beerinder S Karir, Scott T Tagawa
Progress in the understanding of molecular events of carcinogenesis and cancer evolution as well as the identification of tumor antigens has led to the development of different targeted therapeutic approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Prostate cancer (PC) is highly amenable to mAb targeting given the existence of prostate-specific targets and the natural history and localization of metastatic disease. Areas covered: Several aspects of the PC phenotype, including growth factors, angiogenesis mediators, bone microenvironment signals, and immune evasion pathways, have become areas of ongoing investigation in terms of mAb targeting...
November 20, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871200/denosumab-targeting-the-rankl-pathway-to-treat-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Yahui Grace Chiu, Christopher T Ritchlin
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by focal pathologic bone resorption due to excessive activity of osteoclasts (OC). Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is essential for the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of OC. Denosumab (DMab) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL with high affinity and blocks its subsequent association with its receptor RANK on the surface of OC precursors. Area covered: The authors review the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying therapeutic applications of DMab, provide recent highlights on pharmacology, efficacy and safety of DMab, and discuss the potential of DMab as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817215/biological-therapy-targeting-the-il-23-il-17-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Bram Verstockt, Gert Van Assche, Séverine Vermeire, Marc Ferrante
As many inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not benefit from long-term anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, new anti-inflammatories are urgently needed. After the discovery of the interleukin (IL) 23/17 axis being pivotal in IBD pathogenesis, many different compounds were developed, targeting different components within this pathway. Areas covered: A literature search to March 2016 was performed to identify the most relevant reports on the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in IBD and on the different molecules targeting this pathway...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817204/golimumab-for-the-treatment-of-axial-spondyloarthritis
#20
Carlo Palazzi, Salvatore D'angelo, Michele Gilio, Pietro Leccese, Angela Padula, Ignazio Olivieri
Anti-TNF drugs have represented an epochal revolution in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. In the field of axial spondyloarthritis, golimumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-TNFα administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks, has shown significant efficacy and good safety in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. More recently, it was also indicated as an effective treatment for patients suffering from non-radiographic axial spondyloarthitits. Areas covered: A systematic literature search was completed, using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), with the aim to review all data concerning the administration of golimumab in patients suffering from axial spondyloartritis...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
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