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Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446053/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#1
Mariela A Moreno Ayala, Maria Florencia Gottardo, Antonela S Asad, Camila Zuccato, Alejandro Nicola, Adriana Seilicovich, Marianela Candolfi
Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer as well as the highest cause of death by cancer in women worldwide. Although routine treatment improves the outcome of early stage breast cancer patients, there is no effective therapy for the disseminated disease. Immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of many cancers. Although traditionally conceived as a non-immunogenic tumor, breast cancer is now considered a potential target for immunotherapy. Areas covered In this review, the authors discuss different immunotherapeutic strategies that are currently being tested for the treatment of breast cancer: These strategies include: (i) the blockade of immunological checkpoints, (ii) antitumor vaccines, (iii) adoptive T-cell transfer therapy, and (iv) adoptive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies...
April 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443372/cord-blood-as-a-potential-therapeutic-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Jared Ehrhart, Paul R Sanberg
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. Treatment options are limited due to the complexity of underlying disease factors. Cell therapy, using human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells may be a promising new treatment for ALS, mainly by providing a protective microenvironment for motor neuron survival. Areas covered: Composition and in vitro and in vivo differentiation of hUCB cells and the advantages of cord blood as a source of transplant cells are discussed...
April 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438082/radioimmunoconjugates-for-treating-cancer-recent-advances-and-current-opportunities
#3
Mickaël Bourgeois, Clément Bailly, Mathieu Frindel, François Guerard, Michel Chérel, Alain Faivre-Chauvet, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Caroline Bodet-Milin
Radioimmunoconjugates have been used for 30 years to diagnose and treat cancer. For many years, the use of these therapeutic tools has been limited to haematological disorders, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, given that they have only had a moderate effect on solid tumours. Areas covered: Recently, several strategies have revived the potential therapeutic application for radioimmunoconjugates. In this review, the authors review the advances in immunological engineering to develop new tools like monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434255/daratumumab-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#4
Cyrille Touzeau, Philippe Moreau
Proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs have contributed to the dramatic improvement in survival for patients with myeloma over the past decades. However, the disease typically relapses and new classes of drugs are needed. In 2015, two monoclonal antibodies were approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed multiple myeloma, and immunotherapy has rapidly become indispensable in the management of myeloma patients. Areas covered: Here, the authors discuss the published data regarding the mechanism of action, safety and clinical efficacy of the CD38-targeted monoclonal antibody daratumumab for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429626/promising-immunotherapy-against-fungal-diseases
#5
Wilfried Posch, Marion Steger, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Despite the relatively high efficacy of antifungal drugs, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are still associated with tremendous morbidity and mortality, since late diagnosis makes an antifungal drug therapy inefficient. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapies to specifically strengthen the host´s own immune mechanisms constitute an additional promising strategy in taking action against fungal pathogens. Areas covered: The authors summarize efforts in research and clinical trials to provide safe and efficient immunotherapeutic options against invasive fungal diseases...
April 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406319/benralizumab-as-a-potential-treatment-of-asthma
#6
Sabina Antonela Antoniu
Current anti-inflammatory asthma therapies including inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers, are not always able to appropriately control the disease and other approaches are needed. These therapies specific target IgE (omalizumab) or IL-5 (mepolizumab). However, there is research underway investigating interleukin-based monoclonal antibodies such as benralizumab, an anti-IL-5R monoclonal antibody which is currently in phase III clinical development. Areas covered: This review summarizes the existing preclinical and clinical data of benralizumab...
April 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368668/immunotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer-the-future-of-treatment
#7
Xiujie Xie, Wendi O'Neill, Quintin Pan
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with >500,000 cases diagnosed each year. HNSCC patients often present to the clinic with advanced disease and are managed with a multi-disciplinary approach consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Morbidity and quality of life issues are major challenges in this patient population due to the debilitating effects of standard of care treatment paradigms. There is a critical need for new therapeutic approaches to manage HNSCC with better anti-tumor activities and toxicity profiles...
April 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286970/daclizumab-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Marina Herwerth, Bernhard Hemmer
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Over the last two decades, the number of therapeutic options for the treatment of relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) has been constantly growing, providing new treatment options to patients. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the recently approved monoclonal antibody daclizumab for the treatment of RRMS. Based on original articles, they discuss its mode of action and evaluate its efficacy and safety profile compared to other available agents...
April 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379044/advances-in-umbilical-cord-blood-cell-therapy-the-present-and-the-future
#9
Sofia Berglund, Isabelle Magalhaes, Ahmed Gaballa, Bruno Vanherberghen, Michael Uhlin
Umbilical cord blood (UCB), previously seen as medical waste, is increasingly recognized as a valuable source of cells for therapeutic use. The best-known application is in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where UCB has become an increasingly important graft source in the 28 years since the first umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) was performed. Recently, UCB has been increasingly investigated as a putative source for adoptive cell therapy. Areas covered: This review covers the advances in umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) to overcome the limitation regarding cellular dose, immunological naivety and additional cell doses such as DLI...
April 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375039/immunotherapy-for-colorectal-cancer-where-are-we-heading
#10
Debora Basile, Silvio Ken Garattini, Marta Bonotto, Elena Ongaro, Mariaelena Casagrande, Monica Cattaneo, Valentina Fanotto, Elisa De Carlo, Fotios Loupakis, Federica Urbano, Francesca V Negri, Nicoletta Pella, Marco Russano, Oronzo Brunetti, Mario Scartozzi, Daniele Santini, Nicola Silvestris, Andrea Casadei Gardini, Marco Puzzoni, Lorenzo Calvetti, Nadia Cardarelli, Giuseppe Aprile
In the last few years, significant advances in molecular biology have provided new therapeutic options for colorectal cancer (CRC). The development of new drugs that target the immune response to cancer cells seems very promising and has already been established for other tumor types. In particular, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors seems to be an encouraging immunotherapeutic strategy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide an update of the current evidence related to this topic, though most immunotherapies are still in early-phase clinical trials for CRC...
April 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374644/adipose-derived-stem-cell-therapies-for-bone-regeneration
#11
Marta Barba, Giuseppe Di Di Taranto, Wanda Lattanzi
Cell-based therapies exploit the heterogeneous and self-sufficient biological environment of stem cells to restore, maintain and improve tissue functions. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are, to this aim, promising cell types thanks to advantageous isolation procedures, growth kinetics, plasticity and trophic properties. Specifically, bone regeneration represents a suitable, though often challenging, target setting to test and apply ASC-based therapeutic strategies. Areas covered: ASCs are extremely plastic and secrete bioactive peptides that mediate paracrine functions, mediating their trophic actions in vivo...
April 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374627/sirukumab-a-promising-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Eleftherios Pelechas, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Alexandros A Drosos
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which has a negative impact on the ability to perform activities daily. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) wields pleiotropic biological effects that are crucially implicated in the activation of acute inflammatory response. Sirukumab is a monoclonal antibody with high affinity for IL-6. Areas covered: In this review, the authors examine sirukumab as a novel agent and its potential use in the treatment of RA focusing on the available data. Data from Phase I to Phase III indicate that sirukumab is generally safe and well tolerated by the patients with decreased inflammatory response...
April 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368216/an-overview-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-the-latest-advances-in-their-development
#13
Josep M Sierra, Ester Fusté, Francesc Rabanal, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
The recent dramatic increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations and World Health Organization as well as the governments of the USA and several European countries. A relatively new weapon in the fight against severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These include colistin, currently regarded as the last line of antimicrobial therapy against multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Areas covered: Here, the authors provide an overview of the current research on AMPs...
April 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366014/promising-immunotherapies-for-esophageal-cancer
#14
Tomokazu Tanaka, Jun Nakamura, Hirokazu Noshiro
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer in the world, and the prognosis of EC is still poor. Although immunotherapy has been developed in melanoma and lung cancer, it is also expected to show efficacy in EC. Currently, several clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immunotherapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive T cell transfer, and therapeutic cancer vaccines in EC. Areas covered: This review provides an overview and the status of immunotherapy in EC. Clinical significance of molecules related immune checkpoints, especially PD-1 and PD-L1 is presented and the designs, results and future directions of clinical trials using immunotherapy in EC are provided...
April 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316250/adalimumab-in-ulcerative-colitis-efficacy-safety-and-optimization-in-the-era-of-treat-to-target
#15
Miles P Sparrow
Active ulcerative colitis is associated with significant morbidity and impairment to quality of life. Adalimumab is a welcome addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for clinicians treating patients with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapies, an indication with few prior treatment options. It offers the convenience of self-injection and is most appropriate for outpatients with moderate disease activity. Areas covered: This review briefly summarizes data from well-designed clinical trials and observational real-life studies that demonstrate the safety and efficacy of adalimumab in UC...
March 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303723/decellularized-material-as-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-studies-in-long-gap-esophageal-atresia
#16
Esmond Lee, Anna Milan, Luca Urbani, Paolo De Coppi, Mark W Lowdell
Esophageal atresia refers to an anomaly in foetal development in which the esophagus terminates in a blind end. Whilst surgical correction is achievable in most patients, when a long gap is present it still represents a major challenge associated with higher morbidity and mortality. In this context, tissue engineering could represent a successful alternative to restore oesophageal function and structure. Naturally derived biomaterials made of decellularized tissues retain native extracellular matrix architecture and composition, providing a suitable bed for the anchorage and growth of relevant cell types...
March 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335643/prospects-and-progress-of-atezolizumab-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Johan Vansteenkiste, Els Wauters, Keunchil Park, Achim Rittmeyer, Alan Sandler, Alexander Spira
Immunotherapy has recently come to the forefront of oncology treatment as a potential means of combating cancer by restoring the body's adaptive cancer-immunity cycle. Atezolizumab is a monoclonal antibody agent that specifically targets programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a key molecule in the cancer-immunity pathway, to block binding to its receptors PD-1 and B7.1. Areas covered: This review covers the role of atezolizumab in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several studies have reported promising efficacy in this indication...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330383/progress-in-nonviral-gene-therapy-for-breast-cancer-and-what-comes-next
#18
Giulia Bottai, Marta Truffi, Fabio Corsi, Libero Santarpia
The possibility of correcting defective genes and modulating gene expression through gene therapy has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for breast cancer. Furthermore, the relevance of tumor immune microenvironment in supporting the oncogenic process has paved the way for novel immunomodulatory applications of gene therapy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the most relevant delivery systems, focusing on nonviral vectors, along with the description of the major approaches used to modify target cells, including gene transfer, RNA interference (RNAi), and epigenetic regulation...
March 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323504/pembrolizumab-use-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-melanoma
#19
Pol Specenier
Until recently, overall long term survival in patients with stage IV melanoma was lower than 10 %. However, the treatment of melanoma has evolved rapidly over the last few years, with the advent of inhibitors of BRAF and MEK and of immunotherapeutic agents including ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab. Areas covered: This is a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of pembrolizumab in melanoma. Pembrolizumab is a Programmed Death Receptor 1 (PD-1) directed monoclonal antibody which is approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma...
March 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318336/are-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-protagonists-or-background-actors-in-patient-selection-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Federica Zito Marino, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Giulio Rossi, Stefania Staibano, Marco Montella, Daniela Russo, Roberto Alfano, Alessandro Morabito, Gerardo Botti, Renato Franco
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are frequently observed in several tumors, reflecting the dynamic process of ''cancer immunoediting''. Prognostic and predictive values of TILs have been demonstrated in different cancers, proving their pivotal role in clinical outcome. In recent years, new therapies targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors, especially CTLA-4 and PD-1/PDL-1 pathways, have been introduced into clinical practice. In this context, TILs may even have a possible utility as a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy response...
March 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
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