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Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927311/successes-and-failures-in-human-tuberculosis-vaccine-development
#1
Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2016, the WHO estimated 10.5 million new cases and 1.8 million deaths, making this disease the leading cause of death by an infectious agent. The current and projected TB situation necessitates the development of new vaccines with improved attributes compared to the traditional BCG method. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the most promising candidate vaccines against TB and discuss additional key elements in vaccine development, such as animal models, new adjuvants and immunization routes and new strategies for the identification of candidate vaccines...
September 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927307/biological-therapy-for-non-obstructive-azoospermia
#2
Sarah C Vij, Edmund Sabanegh, Ashok Agarwal
Most male patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) have no therapeutic options outside of assisted reproductive techniques to conceive a biological child. If mature sperm cannot be obtained from the testes, these patients must rely on options of donor sperm or adoption. Several techniques are in the experimental stage to provide this patient population alternatives for conceiving. Areas covered: This review discusses three of the experimental techniques for restoring fertility in men with NOA: spermatogonial stem cell transplantation, the use of adult and embryonic stem cells to develop mature gametes and gene therapy...
September 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905653/induction-of-cellular-and-molecular-immunomodulatory-pathways-by-vitamin-e-and-vitamin-c
#3
Joseph J Bivona, Sapna Patel, Michael Vajdy
Vitamins E and C are well known small molecules that have been used to maintain health for decades. Recent studies of the cellular and molecular pathways leading to immunomodulation by these molecules have been of interest, as have their anti-oxidant properties and signal transduction pathways for curing or improving infectious diseases and cancer. Areas covered: Herein, the authors provide a definition and the structural classification of vitamins E and C and how these molecules influence cellular function...
September 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893099/obinutuzumab-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-other-b-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#4
Rabih Said, Apostolia M Tsimberidou
Chemoimmunotherapeutic regimens using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab improved significantly the survival rates in various B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The next-generation CD20 antibody obinutuzumab represents an addition to the drug armamentarium used for the therapeutic management of patients with LPDs. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the biochemical and conformational engineering of obinutuzumab to increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and direct cell death...
September 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891339/immunotherapy-in-managing-metastatic-melanoma-which-treatment-when
#5
Teresa Amaral, Francisco Meraz-Torres, Claus Garbe
Ten to fifteen percent of melanoma patients develop distant or unresectable metastasis requiring systemic treatment. Around 45% of the patients diagnosed with metastatic cutaneous melanoma harbor a BRAFV600 mutation and derive benefit from combined targeted therapy with MAPK pathway inhibitors. These offer a rapid response that translates into improvement of symptoms and increased quality of life. However, resistance often develops with subsequent progressive disease. Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors may be offered to BRAF-mutated and wild-type patients and is associated with longer and durable responses that can continue over years...
September 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874100/immunotherapy-options-for-painful-bladder-syndrome-what-s-the-potential
#6
Ioannis Mykoniatis, Ioannis Katafigiotis, Stavros Sfoungaristos, Vladimir Yutkin
Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is an enigmatic disease characterized by lack of evidence-based knowledge and an ongoing scientific debate regarding its definition, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment algorithm. An autoimmune theory for PBS/IC etiology has suggested immunotherapy as a potential treatment choice. Areas covered: In this review, the authors report existing and future immunotherapeutic options, potentially valuable to the management of PBS/IC while evidence for the immunological aspect of PBS/IC pathogenesis are also presented...
September 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857616/adoptive-cell-therapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#7
S Vallet, M Pecherstorfer, K Podar
Recent breakthrough advances in Multiple Myeloma (MM) immunotherapy have been achieved with the approval of the first two monoclonal antibodies, elotuzumab and daratumumab. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) represents yet another, maybe the most powerful modality of immunotherapy, in which allogeneic or autologous effector cells are expanded and activated ex vivo followed by their re-infusion back into patients. Infused effector cells belong to two categories: naturally occurring, non-engineered cells (donor lymphocyte infusion, myeloma infiltrating lymphocytes, deltagamma T cells) or genetically- engineered antigen-specific cells (chimeric antigen receptor T or NK cells, TCR-engineered cells)...
August 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846051/in-vivo-or-ex-vivo-t-cell-depletion-or-both-to-prevent-graft-versus-host-disease-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Alessandro Busca, Franco Aversa
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents a widely accepted therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hematologic disorders which are otherwise considered incurable. Alloreactive T cells infused with the stem cell inoculum may generate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) representing one the most relevant obstacles to the successful outcome of patients receiving allogeneic HSCT. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide an overview of the most recent approaches of T-cell depletion (TCD) including ex-vivo αβ+ TCD and in-vivo TCD with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)...
August 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829215/monoclonal-antibodies-against-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphomas
#9
Mauro Alaibac
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) comprise of a group of rare and heterogeneous skin lymphoproliferative disorders derived from skin resident T cells. Treatment of CTCLs is based on skin-directed approaches and/or systemic therapies. Advanced CTCLs are difficult to treat with the currently available treatments as they generally fail to obtain prolonged clinical remission. Recent studies concerning the pathogenetic mechanisms that are operative in CTCL have provided additional potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these disorders...
August 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835191/t-cell-optimization-for-the-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Fang Liu, Muhammad Wasif Saif
Pancreatic cancer remains a deadly disease despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Treatment failure is likely due to intense chemoresistance and immunosuppression. Therefore, new treatment paradigms are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, particularly adoptive T cell transfer, is a highly-personalized therapy that involves the isolation and ex vivo expansion of tumor-specific T cells before administration to cancer-bearing hosts. Areas covered: This review summarizes different strategies of adoptive T cell therapy and their application in pancreatic cancer treatment...
August 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832261/prospects-and-progress-of-immunotherapy-for-bladder-cancer
#11
Martin Boegemann, Ahmet Murat Aydin, Aditya Bagrodia, Laura-Maria Krabbe
With recent advances in immunooncology and the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors into clinical practice for many cancers, the treatment landscape of urothelial carcinoma has changed dramatically and will continue to change further. Currently, a number of compounds and combinations are under investigation in numerous clinical trials and various clinical scenarios for bladder cancer. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide an overview of the history and rationale for immunotherapy in bladder cancer...
August 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832222/natalizumab-in-the-treatment-of-crohn-s-disease-patients
#12
Cristiano Pagnini, Kristen O Arseneau, Fabio Cominelli
Amongst the available therapies for moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) patients who are refractory to conventional therapy, anti-TNF blockers are the most effective biological treatment option. However, many patients experience a primary or secondary non-response to anti-TNF therapy, creating the need for alternative biological drugs that target different mechanisms of action and inflammatory pathways. Natalizumab, the first non-anti-TNF biological drug to be approved for treatment of CD patients, is a recombinant humanized antibody that targets the α4-subunit of both α4β1 and α4β7 integrins, thus preventing activated leukocyte homing to the intestinal mucosa...
August 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829204/adalimumab-for-treating-childhood-plaque-psoriasis-a-clinical-trial-evaluation
#13
Vito Di Lernia
Most systemic therapies have not been systematically investigated in moderate to severe childhood plaque psoriasis. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of systemic treatments is limited and therapeutic guidelines are lacking. Recently adalimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha, was investigated in childhood psoriasis. Adalimumab is licensed for many inflammatory conditions including chronic plaque psoriasis in adults. Areas covered: A randomized phase III study published provided favourable efficacy and safety data of adalimumab in childhood psoriasis...
August 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823183/prospects-and-progress-of-listeria-based-cancer-vaccines
#14
Azam Bolhassani, Niloofar Naderi, Sepehr Soleymani
The development of an effective therapeutic vaccine to induce cancer-specific immunity remains problematic. Recently, a species of intracellular pathogen known as Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) has been used to transfer DNA, RNA and proteins into tumour cells as well as elicit an immune response against tumour-specific antigens. Areas covered: Herein, the authors provide the mechanisms of different Listeria monocytogenes strains, which are potential therapeutic cancer vaccine vectors, in addition to their preclinical and clinical development...
August 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819991/infliximab-biosimilar-ct-p13-therapy-is-effective-and-safe-in-maintaining-remission-in-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis-experiences-from-a-single-center
#15
Klaudia Farkas, Mariann Rutka, Tamás Ferenci, Ferenc Nagy, Anita Bálint, Renáta Bor, Ágnes Milassin, Anna Fábián, Kata Szántó, Zsuzsanna Végh, Zsuzsanna Kürti, Péter L Lakatos, Zoltán Szepes, Tamás Molnár
BACKGROUND: CT-P13, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody to infliximab (IFX), has been confirmed to be efficacious in inducing remission in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of CT-P13 therapy in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and to identify predictors of sustained clinical response during a 54-week CT-P13 treatment period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with CD and UC, who were administered CT-P13, were prospectively enrolled...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777667/challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-manufacture-and-expansion-of-cells-for-therapy
#16
Joachim H Maartens, Elena De-Juan-Pardo, Felix M Wunner, Antonio Simula, Nicolas H Voelcker, Simon C Barry, Dietmar W Hutmacher
Laboratory-based ex vivo cell culture methods are largely manual in their manufacturing processes. This makes it extremely difficult to meet regulatory requirements for process validation, quality control and reproducibility. Cell culture concepts with a translational focus need to embrace a more automated approach where cell yields are able to meet the quantitative production demands, the correct cell lineage and phenotype is readily confirmed and reagent usage has been optimized. Areas covered: This article discusses the obstacles inherent in classical laboratory-based methods, their concomitant impact on cost-of-goods and that a technology step change is required to facilitate translation from bed-to-bedside...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780894/gene-therapy-for-hypertension
#17
Ludovit Paulis, Heinrich Franke, Fedor Simko
The control of hypertension and the resulting cardiovascular events is still insufficient. Thus, the search for novel means for blood pressure (BP) reduction remains worth further clinical and research attention. The advances in vector and construct design sketch the use of gene therapy in hypertension. Areas covered: We have searched for studies using gene therapy in hypertension reporting BP outcomes. We have identified 63 experimental studies demonstrating feasible targeting of the classical and new renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, β1-adrenergic receptor, NO-cGMP axis, endothelin, natriuretic peptides, kallikrein system, cytochrome P-450 hydroxylase, oncogenes, growth factors, interleukins, angiopoietin-1, adrenomedullin or Klotho in small rodents...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812389/evolocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolemia
#18
Brian Tomlinson, Miao Hu, Yuzhen Zhang, Paul Chan, Zhong-Min Liu
Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 directed against human proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). It is administered by subcutaneous injection every 2 weeks or once monthly. Area covered: Herein, the authors discuss the rationale for inhibiting PCSK9 and describe the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and clinical trials with evolocumab. Evolocumab reduces low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50 to 60% in most patients with and without background treatment with statins or other lipid lowering agents...
August 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805081/bezlotoxumab-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#19
Antoine Couture-Cossette, Alex Carignan, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Louis Valiquette
Clostridium difficile infection is a major economic and clinical burden, due to its high frequency of recurrence. Currently recommended treatments are not efficient for prevention and may contribute to the risk of recurrent infection. In recent years, research has focused on strategies to lessen this risk. Bezlotoxumab is a monoclonal antibody that prevents recurrences of C. difficile infection through the antagonism of toxin B. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the burden of C. difficile infection and its recurrences, the mechanisms underlying the recurrences, and current C...
August 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796556/systemic-virotherapy-for-multiple-myeloma
#20
Stefania Oliva, Manuela Gambella, Mario Boccadoro, Sara Bringhen
The multiple myeloma (MM) treatment scenario has changed considerably over the past few years. Several novel targeted therapies are currently under consideration including oncolytic virotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an analysis of the mechanisms of action of virotherapy, and summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies of systemic virotherapy developed for the treatment of MM. Different types of viruses have been identified, including: adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus 1, myxoma virus, reovirus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and coxsackievirus A21...
August 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
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