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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436425/monocyte-differentiation-and-antigen-presenting-functions
#1
REVIEW
Claudia V Jakubzick, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Peter M Henson
Monocytes develop in the bone marrow and represent the primary type of mononuclear phagocyte found in the blood. They were long thought of as a source for tissue macrophages, but recent studies indicate more complex roles for monocytes, both within the circulation and after their migration into tissues and lymphoid organs. In this Review, we discuss the newer concepts underlying the maturation of emigrating monocytes into different classes of tissue macrophages, as well as their potential functions, as monocyte-derived cells, in the tissues...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436424/the-immunopathology-of-sepsis-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#2
REVIEW
Tom van der Poll, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Brendon P Scicluna, Mihai G Netea
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction that is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. In sepsis, the immune response that is initiated by an invading pathogen fails to return to homeostasis, thus culminating in a pathological syndrome that is characterized by sustained excessive inflammation and immune suppression. Our understanding of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis has increased tremendously, yet this still needs to be translated into novel targeted therapeutic strategies...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393925/emil-von-behring-translational-medicine-at-the-dawn-of-immunology
#3
Stefan H E Kaufmann
On 31st March 1917, Emil von Behring passed away. Why is this event so important for immunologists a century later?
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393923/altered-b-cell-signalling-in-autoimmunity
#4
REVIEW
David J Rawlings, Genita Metzler, Michelle Wray-Dutra, Shaun W Jackson
Recent work has provided new insights into how altered B cell-intrinsic signals - through the B cell receptor (BCR) and key co-receptors - function together to promote the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. These combined signals affect B cells at two distinct stages: first, in the selection of the naive repertoire; and second, during extrafollicular or germinal centre activation responses. Thus, dysregulated signalling can lead to both an altered naive BCR repertoire and the generation of autoantibody-producing B cells...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393922/mitochondrial-dna-in-innate-immune-responses-and-inflammatory-pathology
#5
REVIEW
A Phillip West, Gerald S Shadel
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - which is well known for its role in oxidative phosphorylation and maternally inherited mitochondrial diseases - is increasingly recognized as an agonist of the innate immune system that influences antimicrobial responses and inflammatory pathology. On entering the cytoplasm, extracellular space or circulation, mtDNA can engage multiple pattern-recognition receptors in cell-type- and context-dependent manners to trigger pro-inflammatory and type I interferon responses. Here, we review the expanding research field of mtDNA in innate immune responses to highlight new mechanistic insights and discuss the physiological and pathological relevance of this exciting area of mitochondrial biology...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317924/innate-lymphoid-cells-circulating-precursor-for-human-ilcs
#6
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443641/neuroimmunology-immune-signals-packaged-in-the-brain
#7
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443640/cytokines-oncostatin-m-a-new-target-in-ibd
#8
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443639/insect-immunity-mechanism-of-adaptive-immunity-found-in-the-fruitfly
#9
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422177/microbiota-diet-can-protect-against-type-1-diabetes
#10
Elisabeth Kugelberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393924/immunometabolism-stress-induced-macrophage-polarization
#11
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368006/mechanisms-of-central-tolerance-for-b-cells
#12
REVIEW
David Nemazee
Immune tolerance hinders the potentially destructive responses of lymphocytes to host tissues. Tolerance is regulated at the stage of immature B cell development (central tolerance) by clonal deletion, involving apoptosis, and by receptor editing, which reprogrammes the specificity of B cells through secondary recombination of antibody genes. Recent mechanistic studies have begun to elucidate how these divergent mechanisms are controlled. Single-cell antibody cloning has revealed defects of B cell central tolerance in human autoimmune diseases and in several human immunodeficiency diseases caused by single gene mutations, which indicates the relevance of B cell tolerance to disease and suggests possible genetic pathways that regulate tolerance...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368005/finding-order-in-chaos
#13
Linda Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345586/new-insights-into-mononuclear-phagocyte-biology-from-the-visual-system
#14
REVIEW
Nancy J Reyes, Emily G O'Koren, Daniel R Saban
Major advances in mononuclear phagocyte biology have been made but key questions pertinent to their roles in health and disease remain, including in the visual system. One problem concerns how dendritic cells can trigger immune responses from certain tightly regulated immune- privileged sites of the eye. Another, albeit separate, problem involves whether there are functional specializations for microglia versus monocytes in retinal neurodegeneration. In this Review, we examine novel insights in eye immune privilege and, separately, we discuss recent inroads concerning retinal degeneration...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317925/liver-macrophages-in-tissue-homeostasis-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Oliver Krenkel, Frank Tacke
Macrophages represent a key cellular component of the liver, and are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and ensuring rapid responses to hepatic injury. Our understanding of liver macrophages has been revolutionized by the delineation of heterogeneous subsets of these cells. Kupffer cells are a self-sustaining, liver-resident population of macrophages and can be distinguished from the monocyte-derived macrophages that rapidly accumulate in the injured liver. Specific environmental signals further determine the polarization and function of hepatic macrophages...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317923/generation-of-diversity-in-thymic-epithelial-cells
#16
REVIEW
Yousuke Takahama, Izumi Ohigashi, Song Baik, Graham Anderson
In the thymus, diverse populations of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), including cortical and medullary TECs and their subpopulations, have distinct roles in coordinating the development and repertoire selection of functionally competent and self-tolerant T cells. Here, we review the expanding diversity in TEC subpopulations in relation to their functions in T cell development and selection as well as their origins and development.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163302/programmed-cell-death-and-the-immune-system
#17
REVIEW
Shigekazu Nagata, Masato Tanaka
More than 50 years ago, cells were observed to die during insect development via a process that was named 'programmed cell death'. Later, a similar cell death process was found to occur in humans, and the process was renamed 'apoptosis'. In the 1990s, a number of apoptosis-regulating molecules were identified, and apoptosis was found to have essential roles in the immune system. In this Timeline article, we highlight the key events that have demonstrated the importance of programmed cell death processes, including apoptosis and programmed necrosis, in the immune system...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287107/dying-cells-actively-regulate-adaptive-immune-responses
#18
REVIEW
Nader Yatim, Sean Cullen, Matthew L Albert
Dying cells have an important role in the initiation of CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity. The cross-presentation of antigens derived from dying cells enables dendritic cells to present exogenous tissue-restricted or tumour-restricted proteins on MHC class I molecules. Importantly, this pathway has been implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases and accounts for the priming of tumour antigen-specific T cells. Recent data have revealed that in addition to antigen, dying cells provide inflammatory and immunogenic signals that determine the efficiency of CD8(+) T cell cross-priming...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287106/neutrophils-as-protagonists-and-targets-in-chronic-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Oliver Soehnlein, Sabine Steffens, Andrés Hidalgo, Christian Weber
Traditionally, neutrophils have been acknowledged to be the first immune cells that are recruited to an inflamed tissue and have mainly been considered in the context of acute inflammation. By contrast, their importance during chronic inflammation has been studied in less depth. This Review aims to summarize our current understanding of the roles of neutrophils in chronic inflammation, with a focus on how they communicate with other immune and non-immune cells within tissues. We also scrutinize the roles of neutrophils in wound healing and the resolution of inflammation, and finally, we outline emerging therapeutic strategies that target neutrophils...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287105/immunometabolism-and-the-land-of-milk-and-honey
#20
Luke O'Neill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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