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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429578/the-immunological-anatomy-of-the-skin
#1
REVIEW
Kenji Kabashima, Tetsuya Honda, Florent Ginhoux, Gyohei Egawa
The skin is the outermost organ of the body and is continuously exposed to external pathogens. Upon inflammation, various immune cells pass through, reside in or are recruited to the skin to orchestrate diverse cutaneous immune responses. To achieve this, immune cells interact with each other and even communicate with non-immune cells, including peripheral nerves and the microbiota. Immunologically important anatomical sites, such as skin appendages (for example, hair follicles and sweat glands) or postcapillary venules, act as special portal sites for immune cells and for establishing tertiary lymphoid structures, including inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue...
November 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425346/tame-or-inflame-gut-reactions-to-pro-and-antibiotics
#2
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420705/central-cd4-t-cell-tolerance-deletion-versus-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Ludger Klein, Ellen A Robey, Chyi-Song Hsieh
The diversion of MHC class II-restricted thymocytes into the regulatory T (Treg ) cell lineage is driven by intrathymic encounter of agonist self-antigens in a similar manner to the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Somewhat paradoxically, it thus seems that the expression of an autoreactive T cell receptor is a shared characteristic of T cells that are subject to clonal deletion and T cells that are diverted into the Treg cell lineage. Here, we discuss how thymocyte-intrinsic and thymocyte-extrinsic determinants may specify the choice between these two fundamentally different T cell fates...
November 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420704/immune-response-by-touch
#4
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420703/t-cell-help-to-stem-cells
#5
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410126/functional-cure-of-hiv-the-scale-of-the-challenge
#6
Miles P Davenport, David S Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Sharon R Lewin, Anthony D Kelleher, Stephen J Kent
A variety of interventions to induce a functional cure of HIV are being explored, with the aim being to allow patients to cease antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prolonged periods of time or for life. These interventions share the goal of inducing ART-free remission from HIV pathogenesis and disease progression but achieve this in quite different ways, by reducing the size of the latent reservoir (for example, small-molecule stimulation of latently infected cells), reducing the number of target cells available for the virus (for example, gene therapy) or improving immune responses (for example, active or passive immunotherapy)...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397332/mapping-innate-variation
#7
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367128/car-antigens-beyond-recognition
#8
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327546/a-new-guide-to-immunopharmacology
#9
Simon D Harding, Elena Faccenda, Chris Southan, Pasquale Maffia, Jamie A Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301972/small-rna-based-antimicrobial-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Zhongxin Guo, Yang Li, Shou-Wei Ding
Protection against microbial infection in eukaryotes is provided by diverse cellular and molecular mechanisms. Here, we present a comparative view of the antiviral activity of virus-derived small interfering RNAs in fungi, plants, invertebrates and mammals, detailing the mechanisms for their production, amplification and activity. We also highlight the recent discovery of viral PIWI-interacting RNAs in animals and a new role for mobile host and pathogen small RNAs in plant defence against eukaryotic pathogens...
October 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254251/recent-insights-into-targeting-the-il-6-cytokine-family-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Simon A Jones, Brendan J Jenkins
The IL-6 family of cytokines consists of IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, IL-31, oncostatin M (OSM), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 (CLCF1). Membership of this cytokine family is defined by usage of common β-receptor signalling subunits, which activate various intracellular signalling pathways. Each IL-6 family member elicits responses essential to the physiological control of immune homeostasis, haematopoiesis, inflammation, development and metabolism...
September 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242265/the-emerging-role-of-adam-metalloproteinases-in-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Bart N Lambrecht, Matthias Vanderkerken, Hamida Hammad
Proteolysis is an irreversible physiological process that can result in the termination or activation of protein function. Many transmembrane proteins that are involved in the cellular communication between immune cells and structural cells - for example, Notch, CD23, CD44, and membrane-anchored cytokines and their receptors - are cleaved by the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family of enzymes. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular activation, substrate specificity and function of ADAM proteins in the development and regulation of the immune system, with a particular focus on the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17...
September 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228378/cardioimmunology-the-immune-system-in-cardiac-homeostasis-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Filip K Swirski, Matthias Nahrendorf
The past few decades have generated growing recognition that the immune system makes an important contribution to cardiac development, composition and function. Immune cells infiltrate the heart at gestation and remain in the myocardium, where they participate in essential housekeeping functions throughout life. After myocardial infarction or in response to infection, large numbers of immune cells are recruited to the heart to remove dying tissue, scavenge pathogens and promote healing. Under some circumstances, immune cells can cause irreversible damage, contributing to heart failure...
September 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166618/baby-steps-for-the-immune-system
#14
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30140051/interplay-between-innate-immunity-and-alzheimer-disease-apoe-and-trem2-in-the-spotlight
#15
REVIEW
Yang Shi, David M Holtzman
Alzheimer disease is more than a pure proteopathy. Chronic neuroinflammation stands out during the pathogenesis of the disease and in turn modulates disease progression. The central nervous system (CNS) is separated from the blood circulation by the blood-brain barrier. In Alzheimer disease, neuroinflammation heavily relies on innate immune responses that are primarily mediated by CNS-resident microglia. APOE (which encodes apolipoprotein E) is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease, and APOE was recently shown to affect the disease in part through its immunomodulatory function...
August 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333619/uncovering-the-mystery-of-secreted-igd
#16
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327547/nets-awaken-sleeping-cancer-cells
#17
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315208/lncrna-nkila-a-killer-regulator
#18
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315207/author-correction-natural-killer-cells-and-other-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-cancer
#19
Laura Chiossone, Pierre-Yves Dumas, Margaux Vienne, Eric Vivier
In Box 1 in the originally published version of this article, three key references referring to mouse and human killer inhibitory receptors were mistakenly deleted during revision of the article. These references have now been added to the corrected version of the article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301973/publisher-correction-t-cells-under-starter-s-orders
#20
Kirsty Minton
In the 5th paragraph of the originally published version of this Highlight article, it was incorrectly stated that AMPK is activated by "a high ATP to AMP ratio"; this has now been corrected to a "high AMP to ATP ratio" in the HTML and PDF versions.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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