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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504257/early-life-factors-that-affect-allergy-development
#1
REVIEW
Lisa A Reynolds, B Brett Finlay
The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480895/immunological-implications-of-pregnancy-induced-microchimerism
#2
REVIEW
Jeremy M Kinder, Ina A Stelzer, Petra C Arck, Sing Sing Way
Immunological identity is traditionally defined by genetically encoded antigens, with equal maternal and paternal contributions as a result of Mendelian inheritance. However, vertically transferred maternal cells also persist in individuals at very low levels throughout postnatal development. Reciprocally, mothers are seeded during pregnancy with genetically foreign fetal cells that persist long after parturition. Recent findings suggest that these microchimeric cells expressing non-inherited, familially relevant antigenic traits are not accidental 'souvenirs' of pregnancy, but are purposefully retained within mothers and their offspring to promote genetic fitness by improving the outcome of future pregnancies...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461703/does-niche-competition-determine-the-origin-of-tissue-resident-macrophages
#3
REVIEW
Martin Guilliams, Charlotte L Scott
Most tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors but, under certain circumstances, circulating monocytes can differentiate into self-maintaining tissue-resident macrophages that resemble their embryonic counterparts. In this Opinion article, we propose that distinct macrophage precursors have an almost identical potential to develop into resident macrophages but they compete for a restricted number of niches. The tight regulation of the niche ensures that monocytes do not differentiate into macrophages when the niche is full but that these cells can differentiate efficiently into macrophages when the niche is available...
May 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461702/bach-transcription-factors-in-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Kazuhiko Igarashi, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Rahul Roychoudhuri
BTB and CNC homology (BACH) proteins are transcriptional repressors of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family. Recent studies indicate widespread roles of BACH proteins in controlling the development and function of the innate and adaptive immune systems, including the differentiation of effector and memory cells of the B and T cell lineages, CD4(+) regulatory T cells and macrophages. Here, we emphasize similarities at a molecular level in the cell-type-specific activities of BACH factors, proposing that competitive interactions of BACH proteins with transcriptional activators of the bZIP family form a common mechanistic theme underlying their diverse actions...
May 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436424/the-immunopathology-of-sepsis-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Tom van der Poll, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Brendon P Scicluna, Mihai G Netea
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction that is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. In sepsis, the immune response that is initiated by an invading pathogen fails to return to homeostasis, thus culminating in a pathological syndrome that is characterized by sustained excessive inflammation and immune suppression. Our understanding of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis has increased tremendously, yet this still needs to be translated into novel targeted therapeutic strategies...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393923/altered-b-cell-signalling-in-autoimmunity
#6
REVIEW
David J Rawlings, Genita Metzler, Michelle Wray-Dutra, Shaun W Jackson
Recent work has provided new insights into how altered B cell-intrinsic signals - through the B cell receptor (BCR) and key co-receptors - function together to promote the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. These combined signals affect B cells at two distinct stages: first, in the selection of the naive repertoire; and second, during extrafollicular or germinal centre activation responses. Thus, dysregulated signalling can lead to both an altered naive BCR repertoire and the generation of autoantibody-producing B cells...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317924/innate-lymphoid-cells-circulating-precursor-for-human-ilcs
#7
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504258/neuroimmunology-macrophages-help-you-burn-energy
#8
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480899/immunosuppressive-cell-death-in-cancer
#9
Jiajie Hou, Tim F Greten, Qiang Xia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480898/medullary-thymic-epithelial-cell-progenitors-hidden-in-plain-sight
#10
Graham Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480897/antigen-inexperienced-memory-cd8-t-cells-where-they-come-from-and-why-we-need-them
#11
REVIEW
Jason T White, Eric W Cross, Ross M Kedl
Memory-phenotype CD8(+) T cells exist in substantial numbers within hosts that have not been exposed to either foreign antigen or overt lymphopenia. These antigen-inexperienced memory-phenotype T cells can be divided into two major subsets: 'innate memory' T cells and 'virtual memory' T cells. Although these two subsets are nearly indistinguishable by surface markers alone, notable developmental and functional differences exist between the two subsets, which suggests that they represent distinct populations...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480896/reply-immunosuppressive-cell-death-in-cancer
#12
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Aitziber Buqué, Oliver Kepp, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461704/multi-receptor-detection-of-individual-bacterial-products-by-the-innate-immune-system
#13
REVIEW
Karen J Kieser, Jonathan C Kagan
The receptors of the innate immune system detect specific microbial ligands to promote effective inflammatory and adaptive immune responses. Although this idea is well appreciated, studies in recent years have highlighted the complexity of innate immune detection, with multiple host receptors recognizing the same microbial ligand. Understanding the collective actions of diverse receptors that recognize common microbial signatures represents a new frontier in the study of innate immunity, and is the focus of this Review...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436425/monocyte-differentiation-and-antigen-presenting-functions
#14
REVIEW
Claudia V Jakubzick, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Peter M Henson
Monocytes develop in the bone marrow and represent the primary type of mononuclear phagocyte found in the blood. They were long thought of as a source for tissue macrophages, but recent studies indicate more complex roles for monocytes, both within the circulation and after their migration into tissues and lymphoid organs. In this Review, we discuss the newer concepts underlying the maturation of emigrating monocytes into different classes of tissue macrophages, as well as their potential functions, as monocyte-derived cells, in the tissues...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393925/emil-von-behring-translational-medicine-at-the-dawn-of-immunology
#15
Stefan H E Kaufmann
On 31st March 1917, Emil von Behring passed away. Why is this event so important for immunologists a century later?
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393922/mitochondrial-dna-in-innate-immune-responses-and-inflammatory-pathology
#16
REVIEW
A Phillip West, Gerald S Shadel
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - which is well known for its role in oxidative phosphorylation and maternally inherited mitochondrial diseases - is increasingly recognized as an agonist of the innate immune system that influences antimicrobial responses and inflammatory pathology. On entering the cytoplasm, extracellular space or circulation, mtDNA can engage multiple pattern-recognition receptors in cell-type- and context-dependent manners to trigger pro-inflammatory and type I interferon responses. Here, we review the expanding research field of mtDNA in innate immune responses to highlight new mechanistic insights and discuss the physiological and pathological relevance of this exciting area of mitochondrial biology...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548135/immune-regulation-il-10-targets-macrophage-metabolism
#17
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548134/tumour-immunology-immune-atlas-sheds-light-on-anticancer-responses
#18
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548133/asthma-and-allergy-the-net-effect-of-respiratory-viruses
#19
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548132/tumour-immunology-platelets-a-new-target-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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