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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736436/heterogeneity-in-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Anthony M Cadena, Sarah M Fortune, JoAnne L Flynn
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), results in a range of clinical presentations in humans. Most infections manifest as a clinically asymptomatic, contained state that is termed latent TB infection (LTBI); a smaller subset of infected individuals present with symptomatic, active TB. Within these two seemingly binary states, there is a spectrum of host outcomes that have varying symptoms, microbiologies, immune responses and pathologies. Recently, it has become apparent that there is diversity of infection even within a single individual...
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714482/type-2-immunity-hero-turns-villain-in-fatty-liver
#2
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690318/haematopoiesis-osteopontin-skews-lymphoid-myeloid-balance
#3
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690317/cytoskeletal-control-of-b-cell-responses-to-antigens
#4
REVIEW
Pavel Tolar
The actin cytoskeleton is essential for cell mechanics and has increasingly been implicated in the regulation of cell signalling. In B cells, the actin cytoskeleton is extensively coupled to B cell receptor (BCR) signalling pathways, and defects of the actin cytoskeleton can either promote or suppress B cell activation. Recent insights from studies using single-cell imaging and biophysical techniques suggest that actin orchestrates BCR signalling at the plasma membrane through effects on protein diffusion and that it regulates antigen discrimination through the biomechanics of immune synapses...
July 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690316/early-life-immunology-fetal-dcs-born-to-be-mild
#5
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669986/mitochondrial-control-of-immunity-beyond-atp
#6
REVIEW
Manan M Mehta, Samuel E Weinberg, Navdeep S Chandel
Mitochondria are important signalling organelles, and they dictate immunological fate. From T cells to macrophages, mitochondria form the nexus of the various metabolic pathways that define each immune cell subset. In this central position, mitochondria help to control the various metabolic decision points that determine immune cell function. In this Review, we discuss how mitochondrial metabolism varies across different immune cell subsets, how metabolic signalling dictates cell fate and how this signalling could potentially be targeted therapeutically...
July 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669985/translation-inhibition-and-stress-granules-in-the-antiviral-immune-response
#7
REVIEW
Craig McCormick, Denys A Khaperskyy
Efficient viral gene expression is threatened by cellular stress response programmes that rapidly reprioritize the translation machinery in response to varied environmental assaults, including virus infection. This results in inhibition of bulk synthesis of housekeeping proteins and causes the aggregation of messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes into cytoplasmic foci that are known as stress granules, which can entrap viral mRNAs. There is accumulating evidence for the antiviral nature of stress granules, which is supported by the discovery of many viral factors that interfere with stress granule formation and/or function...
June 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627520/unique-aspects-of-the-perinatal-immune-system
#8
REVIEW
Xiaoming Zhang, Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627518/the-unique-immunological-and-microbial-aspects-of-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Gil Mor, Paulomi Aldo, Ayesha B Alvero
The comparison of the immunological state of pregnancy to an immunosuppressed host-graft model continues to lead research and clinical practice to ill-defined approaches. This Review discusses recent evidence that supports the idea that immunological responses at the receptive maternal-fetal interface are not simply suppressed but are instead highly dynamic. We discuss the crucial role of trophoblast cells in shaping not only the way in which immune cells respond to the invading blastocyst but also how they collectively react to external stimuli...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604736/how-nutrition-and-the-maternal-microbiota-shape-the-neonatal-immune-system
#10
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604735/fungal-dysbiosis-immunity-and-interactions-at-mucosal-barriers
#11
REVIEW
Iliyan D Iliev, Irina Leonardi
Fungi and mammals share a co-evolutionary history and are involved in a complex web of interactions. Studies focused on commensal bacteria suggest that pathological changes in the microbiota, historically known as dysbiosis, are at the root of many inflammatory diseases of non-infectious origin. However, the importance of dysbiosis in the fungal community - the mycobiota - was only recently acknowledged to have a pathological role, as novel findings have suggested that mycobiota disruption can have detrimental effects on host immunity...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604734/adult-haematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#12
REVIEW
Genevieve M Crane, Elise Jeffery, Sean J Morrison
Stem cell niches are specialized microenvironments that promote the maintenance of stem cells and regulate their function. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the niches that maintain adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These advances include new markers for HSCs and niche cells, systematic analyses of the expression patterns of niche factors, genetic tools for functionally identifying niche cells in vivo, and improved imaging techniques. Together, they have shown that HSC niches are perivascular in the bone marrow and spleen...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580958/transcriptional-determination-and-functional-specificity-of-myeloid-cells-making-sense-of-diversity
#13
REVIEW
Silvia Monticelli, Gioacchino Natoli
Early responses to invading pathogens and to non-microbial danger signals are mediated by different innate immune and parenchymal tissue cells, which are able to respond to a variety of pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. In most if not all instances, innate immune responses to a given molecule are not uniquely confined to one responding cell type, but instead involve the engagement of different cells with intrinsically distinct properties. In this Review, we discuss the molecular basis of the differentiation of myeloid cells, which is controlled by transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators and post-transcriptional mechanisms, and examine how the functional specification of the resulting mature immune cells of the myeloid lineage affects their response to danger signals...
June 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580957/the-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-immunity-and-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Shao-Cong Sun
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors is activated by canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways, which differ in both signalling components and biological functions. Recent studies have revealed important roles for the non-canonical NF-κB pathway in regulating different aspects of immune functions. Defects in non-canonical NF-κB signalling are associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas dysregulated activation of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
June 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555674/nk-cell-allorecognition
#15
Ashley Moffett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555673/the-dichotomous-nature-of-t-helper-17-cells
#16
REVIEW
Brigitta Stockinger, Sara Omenetti
T helper 17 (TH17) cells have been extensively studied since their discovery 10 years ago, primarily because of their known pathogenic role in many inflammatory diseases. Substantial progress has been made in understanding their development, regulation and functional activities, and genome-wide transcriptomic analysis has identified regulatory networks, nodes and interactions that provide vital clues for further studies. In this Review, we describe recent studies that have revealed the dichotomous nature of TH17 cells, which on the one hand allows these cells to be pathogenic drivers of inflammatory disorders and on the other hand allows them to support the integrity of the intestinal barrier in a non-inflammatory manner...
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555672/t-cell-b-cell-collaboration
#17
Jonathan Sprent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555670/chemokines-in-the-cancer-microenvironment-and-their-relevance-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Nisha Nagarsheth, Max S Wicha, Weiping Zou
The tumour microenvironment is the primary location in which tumour cells and the host immune system interact. Different immune cell subsets are recruited into the tumour microenvironment via interactions between chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these populations have distinct effects on tumour progression and therapeutic outcomes. In this Review, we focus on the main chemokines that are found in the human tumour microenvironment; we elaborate on their patterns of expression, their regulation and their roles in immune cell recruitment and in cancer and stromal cell biology, and we consider how they affect cancer immunity and tumorigenesis...
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504257/early-life-factors-that-affect-allergy-development
#19
REVIEW
Lisa A Reynolds, B Brett Finlay
The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480895/immunological-implications-of-pregnancy-induced-microchimerism
#20
REVIEW
Jeremy M Kinder, Ina A Stelzer, Petra C Arck, Sing Sing Way
Immunological identity is traditionally defined by genetically encoded antigens, with equal maternal and paternal contributions as a result of Mendelian inheritance. However, vertically transferred maternal cells also persist in individuals at very low levels throughout postnatal development. Reciprocally, mothers are seeded during pregnancy with genetically foreign fetal cells that persist long after parturition. Recent findings suggest that these microchimeric cells expressing non-inherited, familially relevant antigenic traits are not accidental 'souvenirs' of pregnancy, but are purposefully retained within mothers and their offspring to promote genetic fitness by improving the outcome of future pregnancies...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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