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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890914/dendritic-cell-migration-in-health-and-disease
#1
Tim Worbs, Swantje I Hammerschmidt, Reinhold Förster
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent and versatile antigen-presenting cells, and their ability to migrate is key for the initiation of protective pro-inflammatory as well as tolerogenic immune responses. Recent comprehensive studies have highlighted the importance of DC migration in the maintenance of immune surveillance and tissue homeostasis, and also in the pathogenesis of a range of diseases. In this Review, we summarize the anatomical, cellular and molecular factors that regulate the migration of different DC subsets in health and disease...
November 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890913/early-local-immune-defences-in-the-respiratory-tract
#2
Akiko Iwasaki, Ellen F Foxman, Ryan D Molony
The respiratory immune response consists of multiple tiers of cellular responses that are engaged in a sequential manner in order to control infections. The stepwise engagement of effector functions with progressively increasing host fitness costs limits tissue damage. In addition, specific mechanisms are in place to promote disease tolerance in response to respiratory infections. Environmental factors, obesity and the ageing process can alter the efficiency and regulation of this tiered response, increasing pathology and mortality as a result...
November 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841281/a-third-signal-from-conditioned-dcs-dictates-microbial-effector-choice
#3
Alan Sher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841280/macrophages-shaping-good-eating-habits
#4
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818504/do-antibodies-select-a-healthy-microbiota
#5
Jason L Kubinak, June L Round
Disruptions to the microbiota can have pathological consequences, which highlights the need to understand the factors that contribute to its stability. Although decades of research have focused on the importance of IgA during pathogenic infection, much of the IgA that is generated in the gut targets the resident commensal microorganisms. Despite this observation, the role of antibodies in regulating microbiota composition remains controversial and poorly understood. Here we propose that antibodies generated in response to microbial colonization of the gut shape the composition of the microbiota to benefit the health of the host through a process that we term antibody-mediated immunoselection (AMIS)...
November 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818503/prime-boost-strategies-to-embrace-diversity-and-inclusion-in-immunology
#6
Cherie L Butts, Irelene P Ricks, Avery August
Immunologists appreciate the need for creative approaches to tackle complex scientific questions, which can involve not only the use of novel technologies but also the experience of scientists from diverse backgrounds. Here, we highlight measures to prime for the inclusion of women and underrepresented individuals in science to boost immunology research.
November 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748397/immunogenic-cell-death-in-cancer-and-infectious-disease
#7
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Aitziber Buqué, Oliver Kepp, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer
Immunogenicity depends on two key factors: antigenicity and adjuvanticity. The presence of exogenous or mutated antigens explains why infected cells and malignant cells can initiate an adaptive immune response provided that the cells also emit adjuvant signals as a consequence of cellular stress and death. Several infectious pathogens have devised strategies to control cell death and limit the emission of danger signals from dying cells, thereby avoiding immune recognition. Similarly, cancer cells often escape immunosurveillance owing to defects in the molecular machinery that underlies the release of endogenous adjuvants...
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748396/dendritic-cells-sorting-sorted
#8
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721483/regulation-of-t-cell-signalling-by-membrane-lipids
#9
Wei Wu, Xiaoshan Shi, Chenqi Xu
The plasma membrane is an essential cellular structure that separates the cell interior from the extracellular environment, while allowing for the exchange of signals and materials that are essential for cell survival and function. The complexity of the lipids in the plasma membrane has been long appreciated, but recent developments in lipidomics and imaging technologies have improved our understanding of plasma membrane lipid dynamics. New studies have started to unveil important functions for plasma membrane lipids in regulating T cell signalling...
October 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721482/trafficking-patterns-of-mononuclear-phagocytes
#10
Gwendalyn J Randolph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694913/crosstalk-between-autophagy-and-inflammatory-signalling-pathways-balancing-defence-and-homeostasis
#11
Ken Cadwell
Autophagy has broad functions in immunity, ranging from cell-autonomous defence to coordination of complex multicellular immune responses. The successful resolution of infection and avoidance of autoimmunity necessitates efficient and timely communication between autophagy and pathways that sense the immune environment. The recent literature indicates that a variety of immune mediators induce or repress autophagy. It is also becoming increasingly clear that immune signalling cascades are subject to regulation by autophagy, and that a return to homeostasis following a robust immune response is critically dependent on this pathway...
October 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667712/emerging-roles-of-p53-and-other-tumour-suppressor-genes-in-immune-regulation
#12
César Muñoz-Fontela, Anna Mandinova, Stuart A Aaronson, Sam W Lee
Tumour-suppressor genes are indispensable for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Recently, several of these genes, including those encoding p53, PTEN, RB1 and ARF, have been implicated in immune responses and inflammatory diseases. In particular, the p53 tumour- suppressor pathway is involved in crucial aspects of tumour immunology and in homeostatic regulation of immune responses. Other studies have identified roles for p53 in various cellular processes, including metabolism and stem cell maintenance. Here, we discuss the emerging roles of p53 and other tumour-suppressor genes in tumour immunology, as well as in additional immunological settings, such as virus infection...
September 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640624/interleukin-33-in-health-and-disease
#13
Foo Yew Liew, Jean-Philippe Girard, Heth Roderick Turnquist
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) - a member of the IL-1 family - was originally described as an inducer of type 2 immune responses, activating T helper 2 (TH2) cells and mast cells. Now, evidence is accumulating that IL-33 also potently stimulates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), regulatory T (Treg) cells, TH1 cells, CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. This pleiotropic nature is reflected in the role of IL-33 in tissue and metabolic homeostasis, infection, inflammation, cancer and diseases of the central nervous system...
September 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795547/food-allergy-immune-mechanisms-diagnosis-and-immunotherapy
#14
Wong Yu, Deborah M Hussey Freeland, Kari C Nadeau
Food allergy is a pathological, potentially deadly, immune reaction triggered by normally innocuous food protein antigens. The prevalence of food allergies is rising and the standard of care is not optimal, consisting of food-allergen avoidance and treatment of allergen-induced systemic reactions with adrenaline. Thus, accurate diagnosis, prevention and treatment are pressing needs, research into which has been catalysed by technological advances that are enabling a mechanistic understanding of food allergy at the cellular and molecular levels...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885281/macrophages-granuloma-macrophage-differentiation
#15
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885280/infection-zika-virus-end-of-transmission
#16
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885279/macrophages-macrophage-muscle-man
#17
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885278/infection-interferons-suppress-antibody-responses
#18
Elisabeth Kugelberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885277/t-cells-a-tissue-checkpoint-for-th2s
#19
Olive Leavy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885276/immunoregulation-by-members-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-superfamily
#20
WanJun Chen, Peter Ten Dijke
The transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily is encoded by 33 genes and includes TGFβ, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activins. Although TGFβ is well recognized as a crucial regulator of immune responses, the immunoregulatory functions of other TGFβ family members are less clear. However, recent evidence suggests that BMPs and activins have important roles in regulating immune responses. In this Review, we briefly outline the signalling pathways of the TGFβ superfamily and discuss new insights into the immunoregulatory functions of BMPs and activins in the context of infection, inflammation and cancer...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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