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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317925/liver-macrophages-in-tissue-homeostasis-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Oliver Krenkel, Frank Tacke
Macrophages represent a key cellular component of the liver, and are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and ensuring rapid responses to hepatic injury. Our understanding of liver macrophages has been revolutionized by the delineation of heterogeneous subsets of these cells. Kupffer cells are a self-sustaining, liver-resident population of macrophages and can be distinguished from the monocyte-derived macrophages that rapidly accumulate in the injured liver. Specific environmental signals further determine the polarization and function of hepatic macrophages...
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317924/innate-lymphoid-cells-circulating-precursor-for-human-ilcs
#2
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317923/generation-of-diversity-in-thymic-epithelial-cells
#3
REVIEW
Yousuke Takahama, Izumi Ohigashi, Song Baik, Graham Anderson
In the thymus, diverse populations of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), including cortical and medullary TECs and their subpopulations, have distinct roles in coordinating the development and repertoire selection of functionally competent and self-tolerant T cells. Here, we review the expanding diversity in TEC subpopulations in relation to their functions in T cell development and selection as well as their origins and development.
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287107/dying-cells-actively-regulate-adaptive-immune-responses
#4
REVIEW
Nader Yatim, Sean Cullen, Matthew L Albert
Dying cells have an important role in the initiation of CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity. The cross-presentation of antigens derived from dying cells enables dendritic cells to present exogenous tissue-restricted or tumour-restricted proteins on MHC class I molecules. Importantly, this pathway has been implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases and accounts for the priming of tumour antigen-specific T cells. Recent data have revealed that in addition to antigen, dying cells provide inflammatory and immunogenic signals that determine the efficiency of CD8(+) T cell cross-priming...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287106/neutrophils-as-protagonists-and-targets-in-chronic-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Oliver Soehnlein, Sabine Steffens, Andrés Hidalgo, Christian Weber
Traditionally, neutrophils have been acknowledged to be the first immune cells that are recruited to an inflamed tissue and have mainly been considered in the context of acute inflammation. By contrast, their importance during chronic inflammation has been studied in less depth. This Review aims to summarize our current understanding of the roles of neutrophils in chronic inflammation, with a focus on how they communicate with other immune and non-immune cells within tissues. We also scrutinize the roles of neutrophils in wound healing and the resolution of inflammation, and finally, we outline emerging therapeutic strategies that target neutrophils...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287105/immunometabolism-and-the-land-of-milk-and-honey
#6
Luke O'Neill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260787/dysbiosis-and-the-immune-system
#7
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
Throughout the past century, we have seen the emergence of a large number of multifactorial diseases, including inflammatory, autoimmune, metabolic, neoplastic and neurodegenerative diseases, many of which have been recently associated with intestinal dysbiosis - that is, compositional and functional alterations of the gut microbiome. In linking the pathogenesis of common diseases to dysbiosis, the microbiome field is challenged to decipher the mechanisms involved in the de novo generation and the persistence of dysbiotic microbiome configurations, and to differentiate causal host-microbiome associations from secondary microbial changes that accompany disease course...
March 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192415/immune-regulation-by-glucocorticoids
#8
REVIEW
Derek W Cain, John A Cidlowski
Endogenous glucocorticoids are crucial to various physiological processes, including metabolism, development and inflammation. Since 1948, synthetic glucocorticoids have been used to treat various immune-related disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the immunosuppressive properties of these hormones have been intensely scrutinized, and it is widely appreciated that glucocorticoids have pleiotropic effects on the immune system. However, a clear picture of the cellular and molecular basis of glucocorticoid action has remained elusive...
February 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163302/programmed-cell-death-and-the-immune-system
#9
REVIEW
Shigekazu Nagata, Masato Tanaka
More than 50 years ago, cells were observed to die during insect development via a process that was named 'programmed cell death'. Later, a similar cell death process was found to occur in humans, and the process was renamed 'apoptosis'. In the 1990s, a number of apoptosis-regulating molecules were identified, and apoptosis was found to have essential roles in the immune system. In this Timeline article, we highlight the key events that have demonstrated the importance of programmed cell death processes, including apoptosis and programmed necrosis, in the immune system...
February 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111476/antibody-responses-a-thymic-niche-for-plasma-cells
#10
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111474/inflammation-inflammasome-related-ageing
#11
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044055/immunometabolism-complex-metabolic-responses-to-microbial-stimuli
#12
Elisabeth Kugelberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028312/reply-the-complement-system-is-also-important-in-immunogenic-cell-death
#13
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Aitziber Buqué, Oliver Kepp, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028311/the-complement-system-is-also-important-in-immunogenic-cell-death
#14
Junfei Jin, Songqing He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216614/infection-il-22-controls-iron-scavenging
#15
Elisabeth Kugelberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216613/infectious-disease-hitching-a-ride-with-dcs
#16
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216612/macrophages-mtorc1-drives-granulomas
#17
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192416/mucosal-immunology-rationing-ahr-ligands
#18
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163303/regulation-of-muscle-growth-and-regeneration-by-the-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
James G Tidball
Diseases of muscle that are caused by pathological interactions between muscle and the immune system are devastating, but rare. However, muscle injuries that involve trauma and regeneration are fairly common, and inflammation is a clear feature of the regenerative process. Investigations of the inflammatory response to muscle injury have now revealed that the apparently nonspecific inflammatory response to trauma is actually a complex and coordinated interaction between muscle and the immune system that determines the success or failure of tissue regeneration...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163301/homeostasis-altering-molecular-processes-as-mechanisms-of-inflammasome-activation
#20
REVIEW
Adrian Liston, Seth L Masters
The innate immune system uses a distinct set of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate downstream inflammatory cascades. This recognition system is in stark contrast to the adaptive immune system, which relies on highly variable, randomly generated antigen receptors. A key limitation of the innate immune system's reliance on fixed PRRs is its inflexibility in responding to rapidly evolving pathogens. Recent advances in our understanding of inflammasome activation suggest that the innate immune system also has sophisticated mechanisms for responding to pathogens for which there is no fixed PRR...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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