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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627521/regulatory-t-cells-subset-specific-suppression
#1
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627520/unique-aspects-of-the-perinatal-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Xiaoming Zhang, Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627519/tumour-immunology-lap-targeting-reduces-tolerogenic-cells-in-cancer
#3
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627518/the-unique-immunological-and-microbial-aspects-of-pregnancy
#4
REVIEW
Gil Mor, Paulomi Aldo, Ayesha B Alvero
The comparison of the immunological state of pregnancy to an immunosuppressed host-graft model continues to lead research and clinical practice to ill-defined approaches. This Review discusses recent evidence that supports the idea that immunological responses at the receptive maternal-fetal interface are not simply suppressed but are instead highly dynamic. We discuss the crucial role of trophoblast cells in shaping not only the way in which immune cells respond to the invading blastocyst but also how they collectively react to external stimuli...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604736/how-nutrition-and-the-maternal-microbiota-shape-the-neonatal-immune-system
#5
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604735/fungal-dysbiosis-immunity-and-interactions-at-mucosal-barriers
#6
REVIEW
Iliyan D Iliev, Irina Leonardi
Fungi and mammals share a co-evolutionary history and are involved in a complex web of interactions. Studies focused on commensal bacteria suggest that pathological changes in the microbiota, historically known as dysbiosis, are at the root of many inflammatory diseases of non-infectious origin. However, the importance of dysbiosis in the fungal community - the mycobiota - was only recently acknowledged to have a pathological role, as novel findings have suggested that mycobiota disruption can have detrimental effects on host immunity...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604734/adult-haematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#7
REVIEW
Genevieve M Crane, Elise Jeffery, Sean J Morrison
Stem cell niches are specialized microenvironments that promote the maintenance of stem cells and regulate their function. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the niches that maintain adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These advances include new markers for HSCs and niche cells, systematic analyses of the expression patterns of niche factors, genetic tools for functionally identifying niche cells in vivo, and improved imaging techniques. Together, they have shown that HSC niches are perivascular in the bone marrow and spleen...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580958/transcriptional-determination-and-functional-specificity-of-myeloid-cells-making-sense-of-diversity
#8
REVIEW
Silvia Monticelli, Gioacchino Natoli
Early responses to invading pathogens and to non-microbial danger signals are mediated by different innate immune and parenchymal tissue cells, which are able to respond to a variety of pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. In most if not all instances, innate immune responses to a given molecule are not uniquely confined to one responding cell type, but instead involve the engagement of different cells with intrinsically distinct properties. In this Review, we discuss the molecular basis of the differentiation of myeloid cells, which is controlled by transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators and post-transcriptional mechanisms, and examine how the functional specification of the resulting mature immune cells of the myeloid lineage affects their response to danger signals...
June 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580957/the-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-immunity-and-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Shao-Cong Sun
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors is activated by canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways, which differ in both signalling components and biological functions. Recent studies have revealed important roles for the non-canonical NF-κB pathway in regulating different aspects of immune functions. Defects in non-canonical NF-κB signalling are associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas dysregulated activation of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
June 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555674/nk-cell-allorecognition
#10
Ashley Moffett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555673/the-dichotomous-nature-of-t-helper-17-cells
#11
REVIEW
Brigitta Stockinger, Sara Omenetti
T helper 17 (TH17) cells have been extensively studied since their discovery 10 years ago, primarily because of their known pathogenic role in many inflammatory diseases. Substantial progress has been made in understanding their development, regulation and functional activities, and genome-wide transcriptomic analysis has identified regulatory networks, nodes and interactions that provide vital clues for further studies. In this Review, we describe recent studies that have revealed the dichotomous nature of TH17 cells, which on the one hand allows these cells to be pathogenic drivers of inflammatory disorders and on the other hand allows them to support the integrity of the intestinal barrier in a non-inflammatory manner...
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555672/t-cell-b-cell-collaboration
#12
Jonathan Sprent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555671/neuroendrocrine-effects-on-autoimmunity
#13
Anne Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555670/chemokines-in-the-cancer-microenvironment-and-their-relevance-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Nisha Nagarsheth, Max S Wicha, Weiping Zou
The tumour microenvironment is the primary location in which tumour cells and the host immune system interact. Different immune cell subsets are recruited into the tumour microenvironment via interactions between chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these populations have distinct effects on tumour progression and therapeutic outcomes. In this Review, we focus on the main chemokines that are found in the human tumour microenvironment; we elaborate on their patterns of expression, their regulation and their roles in immune cell recruitment and in cancer and stromal cell biology, and we consider how they affect cancer immunity and tumorigenesis...
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504257/early-life-factors-that-affect-allergy-development
#15
REVIEW
Lisa A Reynolds, B Brett Finlay
The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480895/immunological-implications-of-pregnancy-induced-microchimerism
#16
REVIEW
Jeremy M Kinder, Ina A Stelzer, Petra C Arck, Sing Sing Way
Immunological identity is traditionally defined by genetically encoded antigens, with equal maternal and paternal contributions as a result of Mendelian inheritance. However, vertically transferred maternal cells also persist in individuals at very low levels throughout postnatal development. Reciprocally, mothers are seeded during pregnancy with genetically foreign fetal cells that persist long after parturition. Recent findings suggest that these microchimeric cells expressing non-inherited, familially relevant antigenic traits are not accidental 'souvenirs' of pregnancy, but are purposefully retained within mothers and their offspring to promote genetic fitness by improving the outcome of future pregnancies...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461703/does-niche-competition-determine-the-origin-of-tissue-resident-macrophages
#17
REVIEW
Martin Guilliams, Charlotte L Scott
Most tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors but, under certain circumstances, circulating monocytes can differentiate into self-maintaining tissue-resident macrophages that resemble their embryonic counterparts. In this Opinion article, we propose that distinct macrophage precursors have an almost identical potential to develop into resident macrophages but they compete for a restricted number of niches. The tight regulation of the niche ensures that monocytes do not differentiate into macrophages when the niche is full but that these cells can differentiate efficiently into macrophages when the niche is available...
May 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461702/bach-transcription-factors-in-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Kazuhiko Igarashi, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Rahul Roychoudhuri
BTB and CNC homology (BACH) proteins are transcriptional repressors of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family. Recent studies indicate widespread roles of BACH proteins in controlling the development and function of the innate and adaptive immune systems, including the differentiation of effector and memory cells of the B and T cell lineages, CD4(+) regulatory T cells and macrophages. Here, we emphasize similarities at a molecular level in the cell-type-specific activities of BACH factors, proposing that competitive interactions of BACH proteins with transcriptional activators of the bZIP family form a common mechanistic theme underlying their diverse actions...
May 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436424/the-immunopathology-of-sepsis-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#19
REVIEW
Tom van der Poll, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Brendon P Scicluna, Mihai G Netea
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction that is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. In sepsis, the immune response that is initiated by an invading pathogen fails to return to homeostasis, thus culminating in a pathological syndrome that is characterized by sustained excessive inflammation and immune suppression. Our understanding of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis has increased tremendously, yet this still needs to be translated into novel targeted therapeutic strategies...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393923/altered-b-cell-signalling-in-autoimmunity
#20
REVIEW
David J Rawlings, Genita Metzler, Michelle Wray-Dutra, Shaun W Jackson
Recent work has provided new insights into how altered B cell-intrinsic signals - through the B cell receptor (BCR) and key co-receptors - function together to promote the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. These combined signals affect B cells at two distinct stages: first, in the selection of the naive repertoire; and second, during extrafollicular or germinal centre activation responses. Thus, dysregulated signalling can lead to both an altered naive BCR repertoire and the generation of autoantibody-producing B cells...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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