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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129915/mhc-molecules-immune-editing-shapes-the-cancer-landscape
#1
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129914/dendritic-cells-managing-migration
#2
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109542/how-poverty-affects-diet-to-shape-the-microbiota-and-chronic-disease
#3
REVIEW
Christy A Harrison, Douglas Taren
Here, we discuss the link between nutrition, non-communicable chronic diseases and socio-economic standing, with a special focus on the microbiota. We provide a theoretical framework and several lines of evidence from both animal and human studies that support the idea that income inequality is an underlying factor for the maladaptive changes seen in the microbiota in certain populations. We propose that this contributes to the health disparities that are seen between lower-income and higher-income populations in high-income countries...
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109541/immunometabolism-t-cells-activate-the-fear
#4
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109540/inflammation-inflammatory-memory-is-skin-deep
#5
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082916/new-beginnings
#6
Florent Ginhoux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082915/th2-cell-development-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer A Walker, Andrew N J McKenzie
T helper 2 (TH2) cells orchestrate protective type 2 immune responses, such as those that target helminths and facilitate tissue repair, but also contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and allergy. Here, we review recent insights into how diverse molecular signals from cellular sources, including dendritic cells, innate lymphoid cells and the epithelium, are integrated by T cells to guide the transcriptional and epigenetic changes necessary for TH2 cell differentiation. Our improved understanding of these pathways has opened new avenues for therapeutically targeting TH2 cells in asthma and allergy...
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063907/beyond-binding-antibody-effector-functions-in-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Lenette L Lu, Todd J Suscovich, Sarah M Fortune, Galit Alter
Antibodies play an essential role in host defence against pathogens by recognizing microorganisms or infected cells. Although preventing pathogen entry is one potential mechanism of protection, antibodies can control and eradicate infections through a variety of other mechanisms. In addition to binding and directly neutralizing pathogens, antibodies drive the clearance of bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites via their interaction with the innate and adaptive immune systems, leveraging a remarkable diversity of antimicrobial processes locked within our immune system...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034905/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-autoimmunity-the-role-of-pathogens-and-commensals
#9
REVIEW
Jean-François Bach
The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been steadily rising. Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, which postulates that a reduction in the frequency of infections contributes directly to the increase in the frequency of autoimmune and allergic diseases. This hypothesis is supported by robust epidemiological data, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Pathogens are known to be important, as autoimmune disease is prevented in various experimental models by infection with different bacteria, viruses and parasites...
October 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990587/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-immunity-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Venizelos Papayannopoulos
Neutrophils are innate immune phagocytes that have a central role in immune defence. Our understanding of the role of neutrophils in pathogen clearance, immune regulation and disease pathology has advanced dramatically in recent years. Web-like chromatin structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been at the forefront of this renewed interest in neutrophil biology. The identification of molecules that modulate the release of NETs has helped to refine our view of the role of NETs in immune protection, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990586/immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Michelle N Wykes, Sharon R Lewin
The upregulation of immune checkpoint molecules, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), on immune cells occurs during acute infections, such as malaria, as well as during chronic persistent viral infections, including HIV and hepatitis B virus. These pathways are important for preventing immune-driven pathology but can also limit immune-mediated clearance of the infection. The recent success of immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy suggests that targeting these pathways would also be effective for preventing and treating a range of infectious diseases...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990585/the-diverse-functions-of-the-pd1-inhibitory-pathway
#12
REVIEW
Arlene H Sharpe, Kristen E Pauken
T cell activation is a highly regulated process involving peptide-MHC engagement of the T cell receptor and positive costimulatory signals. Upon activation, coinhibitory 'checkpoints', including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), become induced to regulate T cells. PD1 has an essential role in balancing protective immunity and immunopathology, homeostasis and tolerance. However, during responses to chronic pathogens and tumours, PD1 expression can limit protective immunity. Recently developed PD1 pathway inhibitors have revolutionized cancer treatment for some patients, but the majority of patients do not show complete responses, and adverse events have been noted...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972206/regulation-of-immunity-and-inflammation-by-hypoxia-in-immunological-niches
#13
REVIEW
Cormac T Taylor, Sean P Colgan
Immunological niches are focal sites of immune activity that can have varying microenvironmental features. Hypoxia is a feature of physiological and pathological immunological niches. The impact of hypoxia on immunity and inflammation can vary depending on the microenvironment and immune processes occurring in a given niche. In physiological immunological niches, such as the bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, placenta and intestinal mucosa, physiological hypoxia controls innate and adaptive immunity by modulating immune cell proliferation, development and effector function, largely via transcriptional changes driven by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)...
October 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944771/the-spectrum-of-t-cell-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Glenn R Bantug, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Christoph Hess
In healthy individuals, metabolically quiescent T cells survey lymph nodes and peripheral tissues in search of cognate antigens. During infection, T cells that encounter cognate antigens are activated and - in a context-specific manner - proliferate and/or differentiate to become effector T cells. This process is accompanied by important changes in cellular metabolism (known as metabolic reprogramming). The magnitude and spectrum of metabolic reprogramming as it occurs in T cells in the context of acute infection ensure host survival...
September 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920588/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-homeostasis-and-host-defence-of-epithelial-barrier-tissues
#15
REVIEW
Morten M Nielsen, Deborah A Witherden, Wendy L Havran
Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body - namely, the epidermis and the intestine - and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity and repair, host homeostasis and protection in the context of the symbiotic relationship with the microbiome and during pathogen clearance...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920587/complement-in-cancer-untangling-an-intricate-relationship
#16
REVIEW
Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D Lambris
In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891557/functions-of-tissue-resident-eosinophils
#17
REVIEW
Peter F Weller, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are a prominent cell type in particular host responses such as the response to helminth infection and allergic disease. Their effector functions have been attributed to their capacity to release cationic proteins stored in cytoplasmic granules by degranulation. However, eosinophils are now being recognized for more varied functions in previously underappreciated diverse tissue sites, based on the ability of eosinophils to release cytokines (often preformed) that mediate a broad range of activities into the local environment...
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869253/organ-specific-protection-mediated-by-cooperation-between-vascular-and-epithelial-barriers
#18
REVIEW
Ilaria Spadoni, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno
Immune privilege is a complex process that protects organs from immune-mediated attack and damage. It is accomplished by a series of cellular barriers that both control immune cell entry and promote the development of tolerogenic immune cells. In this Review, we describe the vascular endothelial and epithelial barriers in organs that are commonly considered to be immune privileged, such as the brain and the eye. We compare these classical barriers with barriers in the intestine, which share features with barriers of immune-privileged organs, such as the capacity to induce tolerance and to protect from external insults...
September 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853444/synthetic-immune-niches-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Jorieke Weiden, Jurjen Tel, Carl G Figdor
Cancer immunotherapy can successfully promote long-term anticancer immune responses, although there is still only a limited number of patients who benefit from such treatment, and it can sometimes have severe treatment-associated adverse events. Compared with systemic immunomodulation, local immunomodulation may enable more effective treatment at lower doses and, at the same time, prevent systemic toxicity. Local delivery of engineered three-dimensional scaffolds may fulfil this role by acting as synthetic immune niches that boost anticancer immunity...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853443/type-2-immunity-in-tissue-repair-and-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Richard L Gieseck, Mark S Wilson, Thomas A Wynn
Type 2 immunity is characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, and this immune response is commonly observed in tissues during allergic inflammation or infection with helminth parasites. However, many of the key cell types associated with type 2 immune responses - including T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages - also regulate tissue repair following injury. Indeed, these cell populations engage in crucial protective activity by reducing tissue inflammation and activating important tissue-regenerative mechanisms...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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