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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228378/cardioimmunology-the-immune-system-in-cardiac-homeostasis-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Filip K Swirski, Matthias Nahrendorf
The past few decades have generated growing recognition that the immune system makes an important contribution to cardiac development, composition and function. Immune cells infiltrate the heart at gestation and remain in the myocardium, where they participate in essential housekeeping functions throughout life. After myocardial infarction or in response to infection, large numbers of immune cells are recruited to the heart to remove dying tissue, scavenge pathogens and promote healing. Under some circumstances, immune cells can cause irreversible damage, contributing to heart failure...
September 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224770/t-cells-home-in-on-brain-cancer
#2
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209348/making-new-memories
#3
Laura K Mackay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209347/natural-killer-cells-and-other-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Laura Chiossone, Pierre-Yves Dumas, Margaux Vienne, Eric Vivier
Immuno-oncology is an emerging field that has revolutionized cancer treatment. Most immunomodulatory strategies focus on enhancing T cell responses, but there has been a recent surge of interest in harnessing the relatively underexplored natural killer (NK) cell compartment for therapeutic interventions. NK cells show cytotoxic activity against diverse tumour cell types, and some of the clinical approaches originally developed to increase T cell cytotoxicity may also activate NK cells. Moreover, increasing numbers of studies have identified novel methods for increasing NK cell antitumour immunity and expanding NK cell populations ex vivo, thereby paving the way for a new generation of anticancer immunotherapies...
September 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206315/t-cells-under-starter-s-orders
#5
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185929/bacteria-primed-t-cells-identified-as-culprit-in-glaucoma
#6
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177790/forkhead-box-transcription-factors-as-context-dependent-regulators-of-lymphocyte-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Dietmar M W Zaiss, Paul J Coffer
Lymphocytes have evolved to react rapidly and robustly to changes in their local environment by using transient adaptations and by regulating their terminal differentiation programmes. Forkhead box transcription factors (FTFs) can direct leukocyte-specific responses, and their functional diversification promotes a high degree of context-dependent specification. Many, often antagonistic, FTFs have overlapping expression patterns and can thereby compete for binding to the same chromosomal target sequences. Multiple molecular mechanisms also connect extracellular signals to the expression and functionality of specific FTFs and, in this way, fine-tune their activity...
September 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166618/baby-steps-for-the-immune-system
#8
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166617/publisher-correction-studying-tissue-macrophages-in-vitro-are-ipsc-derived-cells-the-answer
#9
Christopher Z W Lee, Tatsuya Kozaki, Florent Ginhoux
In the original Figure 1, an arrow was mistakenly added between the fetal liver monocytes and the short-term and long-term HSCs. This arrow has now been removed.
August 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143797/asthma-exacerbated-by-neutrophil-ghosts
#10
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30140052/studying-tissue-macrophages-in-vitro-are-ipsc-derived-cells-the-answer
#11
REVIEW
Christopher Z W Lee, Tatsuya Kozaki, Florent Ginhoux
Macrophages are immune cells with important roles in tissue homeostasis, inflammation and pathologies. Hence, macrophage populations represent promising targets for modern medicine. Exploiting the potential of macrophage-targeted therapies will require a thorough understanding of the mechanisms controlling their development, specialization and maintenance throughout their lifespan. Macrophages have been studied in vitro for many years, but recent advances in the field of macrophage biology have called into question the validity of traditional approaches...
August 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30140051/interplay-between-innate-immunity-and-alzheimer-disease-apoe-and-trem2-in-the-spotlight
#12
REVIEW
Yang Shi, David M Holtzman
Alzheimer disease is more than a pure proteopathy. Chronic neuroinflammation stands out during the pathogenesis of the disease and in turn modulates disease progression. The central nervous system (CNS) is separated from the blood circulation by the blood-brain barrier. In Alzheimer disease, neuroinflammation heavily relies on innate immune responses that are primarily mediated by CNS-resident microglia. APOE (which encodes apolipoprotein E) is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease, and APOE was recently shown to affect the disease in part through its immunomodulatory function...
August 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127389/perivascular-macrophages-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Antonio Lapenna, Michele De Palma, Claire E Lewis
Macrophages are a heterogeneous group of cells that are capable of carrying out distinct functions in different tissues, as well as in different locations within a given tissue. Some of these tissue macrophages lie on, or close to, the outer (abluminal) surface of blood vessels and perform several crucial activities at this interface between the tissue and the blood. In steady-state tissues, these perivascular macrophages maintain tight junctions between endothelial cells and limit vessel permeability, phagocytose potential pathogens before they enter tissues from the blood and restrict inappropriate inflammation...
August 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116005/studying-tumour-specific-t-cell-responses-in-3d
#14
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097638/an-avian-foundation-for-dominant-tolerance
#15
Adrian Liston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089912/biology-and-regulation-of-il-2-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-human-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Rosanne Spolski, Peng Li, Warren J Leonard
IL-2 was first identified as a growth factor capable of driving the expansion of activated human T cell populations. In the more than 40 years since its discovery, a tremendous amount has been learned regarding the mechanisms that regulate the expression of both IL-2 and its cell surface receptor, its mechanisms of signalling and its range of biological actions. More recently, the mechanisms by which IL-2 regulates CD4+ T cell differentiation and function have been elucidated. IL-2 also regulates the effector and memory responses of CD8+ T cells, and the loss of IL-2 or responsiveness to IL-2 at least in part explains the exhausted phenotype that occurs during chronic viral infections and in tumour responses...
August 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078033/from-the-human-cell-atlas-to-dynamic-immune-maps-in-human-disease
#17
Lorenz Adlung, Ido Amit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057419/cd4-t-cell-help-in-cancer-immunology-and-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Jannie Borst, Tomasz Ahrends, Nikolina Bąbała, Cornelis J M Melief, Wolfgang Kastenmüller
Cancer immunotherapy aims to promote the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) within a tumour, assist the priming of tumour-specific CTLs in lymphoid organs and establish efficient and durable antitumour immunity. During priming, help signals are relayed from CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells by specific dendritic cells to optimize the magnitude and quality of the CTL response. In this Review, we highlight the cellular dynamics and membrane receptors that mediate CD4+ T cell help and the molecular mechanisms of the enhanced antitumour activity of CTLs...
July 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046149/car-t-cells-for-infection-autoimmunity-and-allotransplantation
#19
REVIEW
Colby R Maldini, Gavin I Ellis, James L Riley
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have shown remarkable ability to re-direct T cells to target CD19-expressing tumours, resulting in remission rates of up to 90% in individuals with paediatric acute lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lessons learned from these clinical trials of adoptive T cell therapy for cancer, as well as investments made in manufacturing T cells at commercial scale, have inspired researchers to develop CARs for additional applications. Here, we explore the challenges and opportunities of using this technology to target infectious diseases such as with HIV and undesired immune responses such as autoimmunity and transplant rejection...
July 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022149/histone-deacetylase-function-in-cd4-t-cells
#20
REVIEW
Wilfried Ellmeier, Christian Seiser
The differentiation of T helper cell subsets and their acquisition of effector functions are accompanied by changes in gene expression programmes, which in part are regulated and maintained by epigenetic processes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are key epigenetic regulators that function by mediating dynamic changes in the acetylation of histones at lysine residues. In addition, many non-histone proteins are also acetylated, and reversible acetylation affects their functional properties, demonstrating that HDACs mediate effects beyond the epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
July 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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