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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920589/neuroimmunology-jak-in-the-itch
#1
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920588/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-homeostasis-and-host-defence-of-epithelial-barrier-tissues
#2
REVIEW
Morten M Nielsen, Deborah A Witherden, Wendy L Havran
Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body - namely, the epidermis and the intestine - and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity and repair, host homeostasis and protection in the context of the symbiotic relationship with the microbiome and during pathogen clearance...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920587/complement-in-cancer-untangling-an-intricate-relationship
#3
REVIEW
Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D Lambris
In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920586/neutrophils-interfering-with-intestinal-inflammation
#4
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891559/immune-homeostasis-regulatory-ilcs-don-t-rely-on-foxp3
#5
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891558/mucosal-immunology-probiotic-induction-of-tolerogenic-t-cells-in-the-gut
#6
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891557/functions-of-tissue-resident-eosinophils
#7
REVIEW
Peter F Weller, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are a prominent cell type in particular host responses such as the response to helminth infection and allergic disease. Their effector functions have been attributed to their capacity to release cationic proteins stored in cytoplasmic granules by degranulation. However, eosinophils are now being recognized for more varied functions in previously underappreciated diverse tissue sites, based on the ability of eosinophils to release cytokines (often preformed) that mediate a broad range of activities into the local environment...
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891556/t-cells-proteasome-dictates-cd8-t-cell-fate
#8
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869253/organ-specific-protection-mediated-by-cooperation-between-vascular-and-epithelial-barriers
#9
REVIEW
Ilaria Spadoni, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno
Immune privilege is a complex process that protects organs from immune-mediated attack and damage. It is accomplished by a series of cellular barriers that both control immune cell entry and promote the development of tolerogenic immune cells. In this Review, we describe the vascular endothelial and epithelial barriers in organs that are commonly considered to be immune privileged, such as the brain and the eye. We compare these classical barriers with barriers in the intestine, which share features with barriers of immune-privileged organs, such as the capacity to induce tolerance and to protect from external insults...
September 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853444/synthetic-immune-niches-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Jorieke Weiden, Jurjen Tel, Carl G Figdor
Cancer immunotherapy can successfully promote long-term anticancer immune responses, although there is still only a limited number of patients who benefit from such treatment, and it can sometimes have severe treatment-associated adverse events. Compared with systemic immunomodulation, local immunomodulation may enable more effective treatment at lower doses and, at the same time, prevent systemic toxicity. Local delivery of engineered three-dimensional scaffolds may fulfil this role by acting as synthetic immune niches that boost anticancer immunity...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853443/type-2-immunity-in-tissue-repair-and-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Richard L Gieseck, Mark S Wilson, Thomas A Wynn
Type 2 immunity is characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, and this immune response is commonly observed in tissues during allergic inflammation or infection with helminth parasites. However, many of the key cell types associated with type 2 immune responses - including T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages - also regulate tissue repair following injury. Indeed, these cell populations engage in crucial protective activity by reducing tissue inflammation and activating important tissue-regenerative mechanisms...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804130/innate-lymphoid-cells-major-players-in-inflammatory-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Mikaël Ebbo, Adeline Crinier, Frédéric Vély, Eric Vivier
Recent years have seen a marked increase in our understanding of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs can be classified into different groups based on their similarity to T cell subsets in terms of their expression of key transcription factors and cytokine production. Various immunological functions of ILCs have been described, and increasing numbers of studies have implicated these cells in inflammatory disorders. Here, we detail the roles of ILCs in inflammatory diseases; we cover type 2 inflammatory diseases (such as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and atopic dermatitis), as well as inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis and other systemic or organ-specific inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
August 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787399/single-cell-rna-sequencing-to-explore-immune-cell-heterogeneity
#13
REVIEW
Efthymia Papalexi, Rahul Satija
Advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) have allowed for comprehensive analysis of the immune system. In this Review, we briefly describe the available scRNA-seq technologies together with their corresponding strengths and weaknesses. We discuss in depth how scRNA-seq can be used to deconvolve immune system heterogeneity by identifying novel distinct immune cell subsets in health and disease, characterizing stochastic heterogeneity within a cell population and building developmental 'trajectories' for immune cells...
August 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787398/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-diversity-generating-immune-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Edze R Westra, David Sünderhauf, Mariann Landsberger, Angus Buckling
Species from all five kingdoms of life have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to generate diversity in genes that are involved in host-pathogen interactions, conferring reduced levels of parasitism to both individuals and populations. Here, we highlight unifying concepts that underpin these evolutionarily unrelated diversity-generating mechanisms (DGMs). We discuss the mechanisms of and selective forces acting on these diversity-generating immune strategies, as well as their epidemiological and co-evolutionary consequences...
August 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757606/turning-the-light-on
#15
Richard Locksley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757604/mechanical-forces-in-the-immune-system
#16
REVIEW
Morgan Huse
Leukocytes can completely reorganize their cytoskeletal architecture within minutes. This structural plasticity, which facilitates their migration and communicative function, also enables them to exert a substantial amount of mechanical force against the extracellular matrix and the surfaces of interacting cells. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that these forces have crucial roles in immune cell activation and subsequent effector responses. Here, I review our current understanding of how mechanical force regulates cell-surface receptor activation, cell migration, intracellular signalling and intercellular communication, highlighting the biological ramifications of these effects in various immune cell types...
July 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757603/the-regulation-of-immune-tolerance-by-foxp3
#17
REVIEW
Ling Lu, Joseph Barbi, Fan Pan
The proper restraint of the destructive potential of the immune system is essential for maintaining health. Regulatory T (Treg) cells ensure immune homeostasis through their defining ability to suppress the activation and function of other leukocytes. The expression of the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) is a well-recognized characteristic of Treg cells, and FOXP3 is centrally involved in the establishment and maintenance of the Treg cell phenotype. In this Review, we summarize how the expression and activity of FOXP3 are regulated across multiple layers by diverse factors...
July 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736436/heterogeneity-in-tuberculosis
#18
REVIEW
Anthony M Cadena, Sarah M Fortune, JoAnne L Flynn
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), results in a range of clinical presentations in humans. Most infections manifest as a clinically asymptomatic, contained state that is termed latent TB infection (LTBI); a smaller subset of infected individuals present with symptomatic, active TB. Within these two seemingly binary states, there is a spectrum of host outcomes that have varying symptoms, microbiologies, immune responses and pathologies. Recently, it has become apparent that there is diversity of infection even within a single individual...
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690317/cytoskeletal-control-of-b-cell-responses-to-antigens
#19
REVIEW
Pavel Tolar
The actin cytoskeleton is essential for cell mechanics and has increasingly been implicated in the regulation of cell signalling. In B cells, the actin cytoskeleton is extensively coupled to B cell receptor (BCR) signalling pathways, and defects of the actin cytoskeleton can either promote or suppress B cell activation. Recent insights from studies using single-cell imaging and biophysical techniques suggest that actin orchestrates BCR signalling at the plasma membrane through effects on protein diffusion and that it regulates antigen discrimination through the biomechanics of immune synapses...
July 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669986/mitochondrial-control-of-immunity-beyond-atp
#20
REVIEW
Manan M Mehta, Samuel E Weinberg, Navdeep S Chandel
Mitochondria are important signalling organelles, and they dictate immunological fate. From T cells to macrophages, mitochondria form the nexus of the various metabolic pathways that define each immune cell subset. In this central position, mitochondria help to control the various metabolic decision points that determine immune cell function. In this Review, we discuss how mitochondrial metabolism varies across different immune cell subsets, how metabolic signalling dictates cell fate and how this signalling could potentially be targeted therapeutically...
July 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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