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Nature Reviews. Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147025/sphingolipid-metabolism-in-cancer-signalling-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Besim Ogretmen
Sphingolipids, including the two central bioactive lipids ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have opposing roles in regulating cancer cell death and survival, respectively, and there have been exciting developments in understanding how sphingolipid metabolism and signalling regulate these processes in response to anticancer therapy. Recent studies have provided mechanistic details of the roles of sphingolipids and their downstream targets in the regulation of tumour growth and response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy using innovative molecular, genetic and pharmacological tools to target sphingolipid signalling nodes in cancer cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123247/tumour-angiogenesis-controlling-nerves
#2
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123246/transport-of-drugs-from-blood-vessels-to-tumour-tissue
#3
REVIEW
Mark W Dewhirst, Timothy W Secomb
The effectiveness of anticancer drugs in treating a solid tumour is dependent on delivery of the drug to virtually all cancer cells in the tumour. The distribution of drug in tumour tissue depends on the plasma pharmacokinetics, the structure and function of the tumour vasculature and the transport properties of the drug as it moves through microvessel walls and in the extravascular tissue. The aim of this Review is to provide a broad, balanced perspective on the current understanding of drug transport to tumour cells and on the progress in developing methods to enhance drug delivery...
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123245/small-cell-lung-cancer-what-we-know-what-we-need-to-know-and-the-path-forward
#4
Adi F Gazdar, Paul A Bunn, John D Minna
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrc.2017.87.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123244/tumour-suppressors-digging-deeper-into-p53-s-functions
#5
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077693/cancer-models-escaping-those-primitive-origins
#6
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077692/metabolism-more-lactate-please
#7
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077691/preclinical-mouse-solid-tumour-models-status-quo-challenges-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Nicolas Gengenbacher, Mahak Singhal, Hellmut G Augustin
Oncology research in humans is limited to analytical and observational studies for obvious ethical reasons, with therapy-focused clinical trials being the one exception to this rule. Preclinical mouse tumour models therefore serve as an indispensable intermediate experimental model system bridging more reductionist in vitro research with human studies. Based on a systematic survey of preclinical mouse tumour studies published in eight scientific journals in 2016, this Analysis provides an overview of how contemporary preclinical mouse tumour biology research is pursued...
October 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077690/small-cell-lung-cancer-what-we-know-what-we-need-to-know-and-the-path-forward
#9
REVIEW
Adi F Gazdar, Paul A Bunn, John D Minna
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a deadly tumour accounting for approximately 15% of lung cancers and is pathologically, molecularly, biologically and clinically very different from other lung cancers. While the majority of tumours express a neuroendocrine programme (integrating neural and endocrine properties), an important subset of tumours have low or absent expression of this programme. The probable initiating molecular events are inactivation of TP53 and RB1, as well as frequent disruption of several signalling networks, including Notch signalling...
October 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059149/targeting-immunosuppressive-adenosine-in-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Dipti Vijayan, Arabella Young, Michele W L Teng, Mark J Smyth
Despite the success of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), anti-PD1 ligand 1 (PDL1) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) therapies in advanced cancer, a considerable proportion of patients remain unresponsive to these treatments (known as innate resistance). In addition, one-third of patients relapse after initial response (known as adaptive resistance), which suggests that multiple non-redundant immunosuppressive mechanisms coexist within the tumour microenvironment. A major immunosuppressive mechanism is the adenosinergic pathway, which now represents an attractive new therapeutic target for cancer therapy...
October 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026205/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-where-there-s-smoke
#11
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026203/immunotherapy-when-viruses-attack
#12
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912576/interrogating-open-issues-in-cancer-medicine-with-patient-derived-xenografts
#13
Annette T Byrne, Denis G Alférez, Frédéric Amant, Daniela Annibali, Joaquín Arribas, Andrew V Biankin, Alejandra Bruna, Eva Budinská, Carlos Caldas, David K Chang, Robert B Clarke, Hans Clevers, George Coukos, Virginie Dangles-Marie, S Gail Eckhardt, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Els Hermans, Manuel Hidalgo, Monika A Jarzabek, Steven de Jong, Jos Jonkers, Kristel Kemper, Luisa Lanfrancone, Gunhild Mari Mælandsmo, Elisabetta Marangoni, Jean-Christophe Marine, Enzo Medico, Jens Henrik Norum, Héctor G Palmer, Daniel S Peeper, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Alejandro Piris-Gimenez, Sergio Roman-Roman, Oscar M Rueda, Joan Seoane, Violeta Serra, Laura Soucek, Dominique Vanhecke, Alberto Villanueva, Emilie Vinolo, Andrea Bertotti, Livio Trusolino
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrc.2016.140.
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026206/genome-wide-association-studies-of-cancer-current-insights-and-future-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Amit Sud, Ben Kinnersley, Richard S Houlston
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an agnostic approach for investigating the genetic basis of complex diseases. In oncology, GWAS of nearly all common malignancies have been performed, and over 450 genetic variants associated with increased risks have been identified. As well as revealing novel pathways important in carcinogenesis, these studies have shown that common genetic variation contributes substantially to the heritable risk of many common cancers. The clinical application of GWAS is starting to provide opportunities for drug discovery and repositioning as well as for cancer prevention...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026204/engineering-and-physical-sciences-in-oncology-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
REVIEW
Michael J Mitchell, Rakesh K Jain, Robert Langer
The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984292/immunotherapy-cd8-t-cells-burn-fat-get-fit
#16
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984291/new-perspectives-for-targeting-raf-kinase-in-human-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Zoi Karoulia, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Poulikos I Poulikakos
The discovery that a subset of human tumours is dependent on mutationally deregulated BRAF kinase intensified the development of RAF inhibitors to be used as potential therapeutics. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved second-generation RAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib have elicited remarkable responses and improved survival of patients with BRAF-V600E/K melanoma, but their effectiveness is limited by resistance. Beyond melanoma, current clinical RAF inhibitors show modest efficacy when used for colorectal and thyroid BRAF-V600E tumours or for tumours harbouring BRAF alterations other than the V600 mutation...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068004/targeted-therapies-understanding-tumour-drug-addiction
#18
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068003/understanding-and-targeting-resistance-mechanisms-in-nsclc
#19
REVIEW
Julia Rotow, Trever G Bivona
The expanding spectrum of both established and candidate oncogenic driver mutations identified in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), coupled with the increasing number of clinically available signal transduction pathway inhibitors targeting these driver mutations, offers a tremendous opportunity to enhance patient outcomes. Despite these molecular advances, advanced-stage NSCLC remains largely incurable due to therapeutic resistance. In this Review, we discuss alterations in the targeted oncogene ('on-target' resistance) and in other downstream and parallel pathways ('off-target' resistance) leading to resistance to targeted therapies in NSCLC, and we provide an overview of the current understanding of the bidirectional interactions with the tumour microenvironment that promote therapeutic resistance...
October 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912578/tumour-acidosis-from-the-passenger-to-the-driver-s-seat
#20
REVIEW
Cyril Corbet, Olivier Feron
The high metabolic demand of cancer cells leads to an accumulation of H(+) ions in the tumour microenvironment. The disorganized tumour vasculature prevents an efficient wash-out of H(+) ions released into the extracellular medium but also favours the development of tumour hypoxic regions associated with a shift towards glycolytic metabolism. Under hypoxia, the final balance of glycolysis, including breakdown of generated ATP, is the production of lactate and a stoichiometric amount of H(+) ions. Another major source of H(+) ions results from hydration of CO2 produced in the more oxidative tumour areas...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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