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Nature Reviews. Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912578/tumour-acidosis-from-the-passenger-to-the-driver-s-seat
#1
REVIEW
Cyril Corbet, Olivier Feron
The high metabolic demand of cancer cells leads to an accumulation of H(+) ions in the tumour microenvironment. The disorganized tumour vasculature prevents an efficient wash-out of H(+) ions released into the extracellular medium but also favours the development of tumour hypoxic regions associated with a shift towards glycolytic metabolism. Under hypoxia, the final balance of glycolysis, including breakdown of generated ATP, is the production of lactate and a stoichiometric amount of H(+) ions. Another major source of H(+) ions results from hydration of CO2 produced in the more oxidative tumour areas...
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912577/classifying-the-evolutionary-and-ecological-features-of-neoplasms
#2
REVIEW
Carlo C Maley, Athena Aktipis, Trevor A Graham, Andrea Sottoriva, Amy M Boddy, Michalina Janiszewska, Ariosto S Silva, Marco Gerlinger, Yinyin Yuan, Kenneth J Pienta, Karen S Anderson, Robert Gatenby, Charles Swanton, David Posada, Chung-I Wu, Joshua D Schiffman, E Shelley Hwang, Kornelia Polyak, Alexander R A Anderson, Joel S Brown, Mel Greaves, Darryl Shibata
Neoplasms change over time through a process of cell-level evolution, driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the ecology of the microenvironment of a neoplastic cell determines which changes provide adaptive benefits. There is widespread recognition of the importance of these evolutionary and ecological processes in cancer, but to date, no system has been proposed for drawing clinically relevant distinctions between how different tumours are evolving. On the basis of a consensus conference of experts in the fields of cancer evolution and cancer ecology, we propose a framework for classifying tumours that is based on four relevant components...
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912576/interrogating-open-issues-in-cancer-medicine-with-patient-derived-xenografts
#3
Annette T Byrne, Denis G Alférez, Frédéric Amant, Daniela Annibali, Joaquín Arribas, Andrew V Biankin, Alejandra Bruna, Eva Budinská, Carlos Caldas, David K Chang, Robert B Clarke, Hans Clevers, George Coukos, Virginie Dangles-Marie, S Gail Eckhardt, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Els Hermans, Manuel Hidalgo, Monika A Jarzabek, Steven de Jong, Jos Jonkers, Kristel Kemper, Luisa Lanfrancone, Gunhild Mari Mælandsmo, Elisabetta Marangoni, Jean-Christophe Marine, Enzo Medico, Jens Henrik Norum, Héctor G Palmer, Daniel S Peeper, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Alejandro Piris-Gimenez, Sergio Roman-Roman, Oscar M Rueda, Joan Seoane, Violeta Serra, Laura Soucek, Dominique Vanhecke, Alberto Villanueva, Emilie Vinolo, Andrea Bertotti, Livio Trusolino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883513/prostate-cancer-bet-inhibitors-spop-right-there
#4
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883512/leukaemia-beyond-the-c
#5
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860646/metaplasia-tissue-injury-adaptation-and-a-precursor-to-the-dysplasia-cancer-sequence
#6
REVIEW
Veronique Giroux, Anil K Rustgi
Metaplasia is the replacement of one differentiated somatic cell type with another differentiated somatic cell type in the same tissue. Typically, metaplasia is triggered by environmental stimuli, which may act in concert with the deleterious effects of microorganisms and inflammation. The cell of origin for intestinal metaplasia in the oesophagus and stomach and for pancreatic acinar-ductal metaplasia has been posited through genetic mouse models and lineage tracing but has not been identified in other types of metaplasia, such as squamous metaplasia...
September 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835721/immunotherapy-searching-in-the-immune-checkpoint-black-box
#7
M Teresa Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798486/tumour-evolution-metastasis-takes-a-different-route
#8
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798485/therapeutic-resistance-ironing-it-out
#9
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751651/targeting-autophagy-in-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Christina G Towers, Andrew Thorburn
Autophagy is a mechanism by which cellular material is delivered to lysosomes for degradation, leading to the basal turnover of cell components and providing energy and macromolecular precursors. Autophagy has opposing, context-dependent roles in cancer, and interventions to both stimulate and inhibit autophagy have been proposed as cancer therapies. This has led to the therapeutic targeting of autophagy in cancer to be sometimes viewed as controversial. In this Review, we suggest a way forwards for the effective targeting of autophagy by understanding the context-dependent roles of autophagy and by capitalizing on modern approaches to clinical trial design...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835723/targeting-neoantigens-to-augment-antitumour-immunity
#11
Mark Yarchoan, Burles A Johnson, Eric R Lutz, Daniel A Laheru, Elizabeth M Jaffee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835722/evolutionary-biology-of-high-risk-multiple-myeloma
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte Pawlyn, Gareth J Morgan
The outcomes for the majority of patients with myeloma have improved over recent decades, driven by treatment advances. However, there is a subset of patients considered to have high-risk disease who have not benefited. Understanding how high-risk disease evolves from more therapeutically tractable stages is crucial if we are to improve outcomes. This can be accomplished by identifying the genetic mechanisms and mutations driving the transition of a normal plasma cell to one with the features of the following disease stages: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma, myeloma and plasma cell leukaemia...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835720/therapy-related-myeloid-neoplasms-when-genetics-and-environment-collide
#13
REVIEW
Megan E McNerney, Lucy A Godley, Michelle M Le Beau
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) arise as a late effect of chemotherapy and/or radiation administered for a primary condition, typically a malignant disease, solid organ transplant or autoimmune disease. Survival is measured in months, not years, making t-MN one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers. In this Review, we discuss recent developments that reframe our understanding of the genetic and environmental aetiology of t-MN. Emerging data are illuminating who is at highest risk of developing t-MN, why t-MN are chemoresistant and how we may use this information to treat and ultimately prevent this lethal disease...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835719/unravelling-biology-and-shifting-paradigms-in-cancer-with-single-cell-sequencing
#14
REVIEW
Timour Baslan, James Hicks
The fundamental operative unit of a cancer is the genetically and epigenetically innovative single cell. Whether proliferating or quiescent, in the primary tumour mass or disseminated elsewhere, single cells govern the parameters that dictate all facets of the biology of cancer. Thus, single-cell analyses provide the ultimate level of resolution in our quest for a fundamental understanding of this disease. Historically, this quest has been hampered by technological shortcomings. In this Opinion article, we argue that the rapidly evolving field of single-cell sequencing has unshackled the cancer research community of these shortcomings...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835718/metastasis-throwing-oil-into-the-flames
#15
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706266/microenvironmental-regulation-of-tumour-angiogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Michele De Palma, Daniela Biziato, Tatiana V Petrova
Tumours display considerable variation in the patterning and properties of angiogenic blood vessels, as well as in their responses to anti-angiogenic therapy. Angiogenic programming of neoplastic tissue is a multidimensional process regulated by cancer cells in concert with a variety of tumour-associated stromal cells and their bioactive products, which encompass cytokines and growth factors, the extracellular matrix and secreted microvesicles. In this Review, we discuss the extrinsic regulation of angiogenesis by the tumour microenvironment, highlighting potential vulnerabilities that could be targeted to improve the applicability and reach of anti-angiogenic cancer therapies...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706265/epigenetics-therapy-induced-transcription-is-cryptically-widespread
#17
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684877/immunotherapy-keeping-breast-cancer-in-check
#18
Liesbet Lieben
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663589/pancreatic-cancer-iexosomes-target-the-undruggable
#19
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643779/drugging-the-undruggable-cancer-targets
#20
REVIEW
Chi V Dang, E Premkumar Reddy, Kevan M Shokat, Laura Soucek
The term 'undruggable' was coined to describe proteins that could not be targeted pharmacologically. However, progress is being made to 'drug' many of these targets, and therefore more appropriate terms might be 'difficult to drug' or 'yet to be drugged'. Many desirable targets in cancer fall into this category, including the RAS and MYC oncogenes, and pharmacologically targeting these intractable proteins is now a key challenge in cancer research that requires innovation and the development of new technologies...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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