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Nature Reviews. Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524181/common-pitfalls-in-preclinical-cancer-target-validation
#1
REVIEW
William G Kaelin
An alarming number of papers from laboratories nominating new cancer drug targets contain findings that cannot be reproduced by others or are simply not robust enough to justify drug discovery efforts. This problem probably has many causes, including an underappreciation of the danger of being misled by off-target effects when using pharmacological or genetic perturbants in complex biological assays. This danger is particularly acute when, as is often the case in cancer pharmacology, the biological phenotype being measured is a 'down' readout (such as decreased proliferation, decreased viability or decreased tumour growth) that could simply reflect a nonspecific loss of cellular fitness...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450704/melanoma-a-global-perspective
#2
Raul Ossio, Rodrigo Roldán-Marín, Héctor Martínez-Said, David J Adams, Carla Daniela Robles-Espinoza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280269/cancer-therapy-induced-pafr-ligand-expression-any-role-for-caspase-activity
#3
Gabriel Ichim, Stephen W G Tait
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280268/oncogenic-effects-of-pafr-ligands-produced-in-tumours-upon-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#4
Roger Chammas, Luciana Nogueira de Sousa Andrade, Sonia Jancar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497812/metastasis-the-plastic-state
#5
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474690/tumorigenesis-cancer-as-a-symptom-of-evolution
#6
Gemma K Alderton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450705/the-ets-family-of-oncogenic-transcription-factors-in-solid-tumours
#7
REVIEW
Gina M Sizemore, Jason R Pitarresi, Subhasree Balakrishnan, Michael C Ostrowski
Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416802/rna-editing-dependent-epitranscriptome-diversity-in-cancer-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Qingfei Jiang, Leslie A Crews, Frida Holm, Catriona H M Jamieson
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can regenerate all facets of a tumour as a result of their stem cell-like capacity to self-renew, survive and become dormant in protective microenvironments. CSCs evolve during tumour progression in a manner that conforms to Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection. Although somatic DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations promote evolution, post-transcriptional RNA modifications together with RNA binding protein activity (the 'epitranscriptome') might also contribute to clonal evolution through dynamic determination of RNA function and gene expression diversity in response to environmental stimuli...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386091/the-calcium-cancer-signalling-nexus
#9
REVIEW
Gregory R Monteith, Natalia Prevarskaya, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson
The calcium signal is a powerful and multifaceted tool by which cells can achieve specific outcomes. Cellular machinery important in tumour progression is often driven or influenced by changes in calcium ions; in some cases this regulation occurs within spatially defined regions. Over the past decade there has been a deeper understanding of how calcium signalling is remodelled in some cancers and the consequences of calcium signalling on key events such as proliferation, invasion and sensitivity to cell death...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536455/immunotherapy-programming-t-cells-in-situ
#10
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536454/immunotherapy-t-cells-get-a-ride
#11
M Teresa Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536453/genetics-gender-specific-factors-in-cancer-susceptibility
#12
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536452/exploring-the-trails-less-travelled-trail-in-cancer-biology-and-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Silvia von Karstedt, Antonella Montinaro, Henning Walczak
The discovery that the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis of cancer cells without causing toxicity in mice has led to the in-depth study of pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) signalling and the development of biotherapeutic drug candidates that activate TRAIL-Rs. The outcome of clinical trials with these TRAIL-R agonists has, however, been disappointing so far. Recent evidence indicates that many cancers, in addition to being TRAIL resistant, use the endogenous TRAIL-TRAIL-R system to their own advantage...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386090/metastasis-breaching-barriers
#14
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338065/prospects-for-combining-targeted-and-conventional-cancer-therapy-with-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Philip Gotwals, Scott Cameron, Daniela Cipolletta, Viviana Cremasco, Adam Crystal, Becker Hewes, Britta Mueller, Sonia Quaratino, Catherine Sabatos-Peyton, Lilli Petruzzelli, Jeffrey A Engelman, Glenn Dranoff
Over the past 25 years, research in cancer therapeutics has largely focused on two distinct lines of enquiry. In one approach, efforts to understand the underlying cell-autonomous, genetic drivers of tumorigenesis have led to the development of clinically important targeted agents that result in profound, but often not durable, tumour responses in genetically defined patient populations. In the second parallel approach, exploration of the mechanisms of protective tumour immunity has provided several therapeutic strategies - most notably the 'immune checkpoint' antibodies that reverse the negative regulators of T cell function - that accomplish durable clinical responses in subsets of patients with various tumour types...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303906/advances-and-challenges-in-targeting-fgfr-signalling-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Irina S Babina, Nicholas C Turner
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) regulate numerous cellular processes. Deregulation of FGFR signalling is observed in a subset of many cancers, making activated FGFRs a highly promising potential therapeutic target supported by multiple preclinical studies. However, early-phase clinical trials have produced mixed results with FGFR-targeted cancer therapies, revealing substantial complexity to targeting aberrant FGFR signalling. In this Review, we discuss the increasing understanding of the differences between diverse mechanisms of oncogenic activation of FGFR, and the factors that determine response and resistance to FGFR targeting...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303905/pre-metastatic-niches-organ-specific-homes-for-metastases
#17
REVIEW
Héctor Peinado, Haiying Zhang, Irina R Matei, Bruno Costa-Silva, Ayuko Hoshino, Goncalo Rodrigues, Bethan Psaila, Rosandra N Kaplan, Jacqueline F Bromberg, Yibin Kang, Mina J Bissell, Thomas R Cox, Amato J Giaccia, Janine T Erler, Sachie Hiratsuka, Cyrus M Ghajar, David Lyden
It is well established that organs of future metastasis are not passive receivers of circulating tumour cells, but are instead selectively and actively modified by the primary tumour before metastatic spread has even occurred. Sowing the 'seeds' of metastasis requires the action of tumour-secreted factors and tumour-shed extracellular vesicles that enable the 'soil' at distant metastatic sites to encourage the outgrowth of incoming cancer cells. In this Review, we summarize the main processes and new mechanisms involved in the formation of the pre-metastatic niche...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303904/microbiota-a-key-orchestrator-of-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Soumen Roy, Giorgio Trinchieri
The microbiota is composed of commensal bacteria and other microorganisms that live on the epithelial barriers of the host. The commensal microbiota is important for the health and survival of the organism. Microbiota influences physiological functions from the maintenance of barrier homeostasis locally to the regulation of metabolism, haematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity and other functions systemically. The microbiota is also involved in the initiation, progression and dissemination of cancer both at epithelial barriers and in sterile tissues...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436472/leukaemia-gimme-shelter
#19
Nicola McCarthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436471/tumour-suppressors-following-the-clues-of-cancer-resistant-tissues
#20
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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