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Nature Reviews. Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303906/advances-and-challenges-in-targeting-fgfr-signalling-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Irina S Babina, Nicholas C Turner
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) regulate numerous cellular processes. Deregulation of FGFR signalling is observed in a subset of many cancers, making activated FGFRs a highly promising potential therapeutic target supported by multiple preclinical studies. However, early-phase clinical trials have produced mixed results with FGFR-targeted cancer therapies, revealing substantial complexity to targeting aberrant FGFR signalling. In this Review, we discuss the increasing understanding of the differences between diverse mechanisms of oncogenic activation of FGFR, and the factors that determine response and resistance to FGFR targeting...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303905/pre-metastatic-niches-organ-specific-homes-for-metastases
#2
REVIEW
Héctor Peinado, Haiying Zhang, Irina R Matei, Bruno Costa-Silva, Ayuko Hoshino, Goncalo Rodrigues, Bethan Psaila, Rosandra N Kaplan, Jacqueline F Bromberg, Yibin Kang, Mina J Bissell, Thomas R Cox, Amato J Giaccia, Janine T Erler, Sachie Hiratsuka, Cyrus M Ghajar, David Lyden
It is well established that organs of future metastasis are not passive receivers of circulating tumour cells, but are instead selectively and actively modified by the primary tumour before metastatic spread has even occurred. Sowing the 'seeds' of metastasis requires the action of tumour-secreted factors and tumour-shed extracellular vesicles that enable the 'soil' at distant metastatic sites to encourage the outgrowth of incoming cancer cells. In this Review, we summarize the main processes and new mechanisms involved in the formation of the pre-metastatic niche...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303904/microbiota-a-key-orchestrator-of-cancer-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Soumen Roy, Giorgio Trinchieri
The microbiota is composed of commensal bacteria and other microorganisms that live on the epithelial barriers of the host. The commensal microbiota is important for the health and survival of the organism. Microbiota influences physiological functions from the maintenance of barrier homeostasis locally to the regulation of metabolism, haematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity and other functions systemically. The microbiota is also involved in the initiation, progression and dissemination of cancer both at epithelial barriers and in sterile tissues...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280269/cancer-therapy-induced-pafr-ligand-expression-any-role-for-caspase-activity
#4
Gabriel Ichim, Stephen W G Tait
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280268/oncogenic-effects-of-pafr-ligands-produced-in-tumours-upon-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#5
Roger Chammas, Luciana Nogueira de Sousa Andrade, Sonia Jancar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280267/cell-migration-shall-we-travel-together
#6
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280266/genomics-a-different-view-of-the-landscape
#7
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256575/immunotherapy-engineered-t-cells-for-all
#8
Gemma K Alderton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256574/tissue-specific-tumorigenesis-context-matters
#9
REVIEW
Günter Schneider, Marc Schmidt-Supprian, Roland Rad, Dieter Saur
How can we treat cancer more effectively? Traditionally, tumours from the same anatomical site are treated as one tumour entity. This concept has been challenged by recent breakthroughs in cancer genomics and translational research that have enabled molecular tumour profiling. The identification and validation of cancer drivers that are shared between different tumour types, spurred the new paradigm to target driver pathways across anatomical sites by off-label drug use, or within so-called basket or umbrella trials which are designed to test whether molecular alterations in one tumour entity can be extrapolated to all others...
March 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233803/liquid-biopsies-come-of-age-towards-implementation-of-circulating-tumour-dna
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan C M Wan, Charles Massie, Javier Garcia-Corbacho, Florent Mouliere, James D Brenton, Carlos Caldas, Simon Pacey, Richard Baird, Nitzan Rosenfeld
Improvements in genomic and molecular methods are expanding the range of potential applications for circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), both in a research setting and as a 'liquid biopsy' for cancer management. Proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated the translational potential of ctDNA for prognostication, molecular profiling and monitoring. The field is now in an exciting transitional period in which ctDNA analysis is beginning to be applied clinically, although there is still much to learn about the biology of cell-free DNA...
February 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233802/targeting-neoantigens-to-augment-antitumour-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Mark Yarchoan, Burles A Johnson, Eric R Lutz, Daniel A Laheru, Elizabeth M Jaffee
The past decade of cancer research has been marked by a growing appreciation of the role of immunity in cancer. Mutations in the tumour genome can cause tumours to express mutant proteins that are tumour specific and not expressed on normal cells (neoantigens). These neoantigens are an attractive immune target because their selective expression on tumours may minimize immune tolerance as well as the risk of autoimmunity. In this Review we discuss the emerging evidence that neoantigens are recognized by the immune system and can be targeted to increase antitumour immunity...
February 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104906/interrogating-open-issues-in-cancer-precision-medicine-with-patient-derived-xenografts
#12
REVIEW
Annette T Byrne, Denis G Alférez, Frédéric Amant, Daniela Annibali, Joaquín Arribas, Andrew V Biankin, Alejandra Bruna, Eva Budinská, Carlos Caldas, David K Chang, Robert B Clarke, Hans Clevers, George Coukos, Virginie Dangles-Marie, S Gail Eckhardt, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Els Hermans, Manuel Hidalgo, Monika A Jarzabek, Steven de Jong, Jos Jonkers, Kristel Kemper, Luisa Lanfrancone, Gunhild Mari Mælandsmo, Elisabetta Marangoni, Jean-Christophe Marine, Enzo Medico, Jens Henrik Norum, Héctor G Palmer, Daniel S Peeper, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Alejandro Piris-Gimenez, Sergio Roman-Roman, Oscar M Rueda, Joan Seoane, Violeta Serra, Laura Soucek, Dominique Vanhecke, Alberto Villanueva, Emilie Vinolo, Andrea Bertotti, Livio Trusolino
Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have emerged as an important platform to elucidate new treatments and biomarkers in oncology. PDX models are used to address clinically relevant questions, including the contribution of tumour heterogeneity to therapeutic responsiveness, the patterns of cancer evolutionary dynamics during tumour progression and under drug pressure, and the mechanisms of resistance to treatment. The ability of PDX models to predict clinical outcomes is being improved through mouse humanization strategies and the implementation of co-clinical trials, within which patients and PDXs reciprocally inform therapeutic decisions...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184043/early-detection-the-algorithm-will-see-you-now
#13
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184042/tumorigenesis-fitness-penalties-of-aneuploidy
#14
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154375/notch-as-a-tumour-suppressor
#15
REVIEW
Craig S Nowell, Freddy Radtke
The Notch signalling cascade is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that has a crucial role in regulating development and homeostasis in various tissues. The cellular processes and events that it controls are diverse, and continued investigation over recent decades has revealed how the role of Notch signalling is multifaceted and highly context dependent. Consistent with the far-reaching impact that Notch has on development and homeostasis, aberrant activity of the pathway is also linked to the initiation and progression of several malignancies, and Notch can in fact be either oncogenic or tumour suppressive depending on the tissue and cellular context...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154374/precision-diagnostics-moving-towards-protein-biomarker-signatures-of-clinical-utility-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Carl A K Borrebaeck
Interest in precision diagnostics has been fuelled by the concept that early detection of cancer would benefit patients; that is, if detected early, more tumours should be resectable and treatment more efficacious. Serum contains massive amounts of potentially diagnostic information, and affinity proteomics has risen as an accurate approach to decipher this, to generate actionable information that should result in more precise and evidence-based options to manage cancer. To achieve this, we need to move from single to multiplex biomarkers, a so-called signature, that can provide significantly increased diagnostic accuracy...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134258/sumo-and-the-robustness-of-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Jacob-Sebastian Seeler, Anne Dejean
Post-translational protein modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), termed sumoylation, is an important mechanism in cellular responses to stress and one that appears to be upregulated in many cancers. Here, we examine the role of sumoylation in tumorigenesis as a possibly necessary safeguard that protects the stability and functionality of otherwise easily misregulated gene expression programmes and signalling pathways of cancer cells.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228644/tumour-evolution-epigenetic-and-genetic-heterogeneity-in-metastasis
#18
Gemma K Alderton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228643/a-chemical-probe-toolbox-for-dissecting-the-cancer-epigenome
#19
REVIEW
Jake Shortt, Christopher J Ott, Ricky W Johnstone, James E Bradner
Cancer cell hallmarks are underpinned by transcriptional programmes operating in the context of a dynamic and complicit epigenomic environment. Somatic alterations of chromatin modifiers are among the most prevalent cancer perturbations. There is a pressing need for targeted chemical probes to dissect these complex, interconnected gene regulatory circuits. Validated chemical probes empower mechanistic research while providing the pharmacological proof of concept that is required to translate drug-like derivatives into therapy for cancer patients...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228642/tumorigenesis-extra-extra-read-all-about-it
#20
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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