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Nature Reviews. Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348578/a-matter-of-life-and-death-stem-cell-survival-in-tissue-regeneration-and-tumour-formation
#1
REVIEW
Despina Soteriou, Yaron Fuchs
In recent years, great strides have been made in our understanding of how stem cells (SCs) govern tissue homeostasis and regeneration. The inherent longevity of SCs raises the possibility that the unique protective mechanisms in these cells might also be involved in tumorigenesis. In this Opinion article, we discuss how SCs are protected throughout their lifespan, focusing on quiescent behaviour, DNA damage response and programmed cell death. We briefly examine the roles of adult SCs and progenitors in tissue repair and tumorigenesis and explore how signals released from dying or dormant cells influence the function of healthy or aberrant SCs...
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348577/targeting-b-cell-receptor-signalling-in-cancer-preclinical-and-clinical-advances
#2
REVIEW
Jan A Burger, Adrian Wiestner
B cell receptor (BCR) signalling is crucial for normal B cell development and adaptive immunity. BCR signalling also supports the survival and growth of malignant B cells in patients with B cell leukaemias or lymphomas. The mechanism of BCR pathway activation in these diseases includes continuous BCR stimulation by microbial antigens or autoantigens present in the tissue microenvironment, activating mutations within the BCR complex or downstream signalling components and ligand-independent tonic BCR signalling...
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326431/impact-of-oncogenic-pathways-on-evasion-of-antitumour-immune-responses
#3
REVIEW
Stefani Spranger, Thomas F Gajewski
Immunotherapeutic interventions are showing effectiveness across a wide range of cancer types, but only a subset of patients shows clinical response to therapy. Responsiveness to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy is favoured by the presence of a local, CD8+ T cell-based immune response within the tumour microenvironment. As molecular analyses of tumours containing or lacking a productive CD8+ T cell infiltrate are being pursued, increasing evidence is indicating that activation of oncogenic pathways in tumour cells can impair induction or execution of a local antitumour immune response...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326430/emt-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Brabletz, Raghu Kalluri, M Angela Nieto, Robert A Weinberg
Similar to embryonic development, changes in cell phenotypes defined as an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been shown to play a role in the tumorigenic process. Although the first description of EMT in cancer was in cell cultures, evidence for its role in vivo is now widely reported but also actively debated. Moreover, current research has exemplified just how complex this phenomenon is in cancer, leaving many exciting, open questions for researchers to answer in the future. With these points in mind, we asked four scientists for their opinions on the role of EMT in cancer and the challenges faced by scientists working in this fast-moving field...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302068/autoimmunity-checkpoints-as-therapeutic-targets-in-b-cell-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Markus Müschen
Targeted therapy of cancer typically focuses on inhibitors (for example, tyrosine kinase inhibitors) that suppress oncogenic signalling below a minimum threshold required for survival and proliferation of cancer cells. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and B cell lymphomas originate from various stages of development of B cells, which, unlike other cell types, are under intense selective pressure. The vast majority of newly generated B cells are autoreactive and die by negative selection at autoimmunity checkpoints (AICs)...
January 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242642/targeting-mutant-p53-for-efficient-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Vladimir J N Bykov, Sofi E Eriksson, Julie Bianchi, Klas G Wiman
The tumour suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. Wild-type p53 can suppress tumour development by multiple pathways. However, mutation of TP53 and the resultant inactivation of p53 allow evasion of tumour cell death and rapid tumour progression. The high frequency of TP53 mutation in tumours has prompted efforts to restore normal function of mutant p53 and thereby trigger tumour cell death and tumour elimination. Small molecules that can reactivate missense-mutant p53 protein have been identified by different strategies, and two compounds are being tested in clinical trials...
December 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242641/ubiquitin-ligases-in-oncogenic-transformation-and-cancer-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Jianfei Qi, Ze'ev A Ronai
The cellular response to external stress signals and DNA damage depends on the activity of ubiquitin ligases (E3s), which regulate numerous cellular processes, including homeostasis, metabolism and cell cycle progression. E3s recognize, interact with and ubiquitylate protein substrates in a temporally and spatially regulated manner. The topology of the ubiquitin chains dictates the fate of the substrates, marking them for recognition and degradation by the proteasome or altering their subcellular localization or assembly into functional complexes...
December 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217839/tumour-microenvironment-microbes-matter
#8
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217838/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-field-cancerization
#9
REVIEW
Kit Curtius, Nicholas A Wright, Trevor A Graham
Tumorigenesis begins long before the growth of a clinically detectable lesion and, indeed, even before any of the usual morphological correlates of pre-malignancy are recognizable. Field cancerization, which is the replacement of the normal cell population by a cancer-primed cell population that may show no morphological change, is now recognized to underlie the development of many types of cancer, including the common carcinomas of the lung, colon, skin, prostate and bladder. Field cancerization is the consequence of the evolution of somatic cells in the body that results in cells that carry some but not all phenotypes required for malignancy...
December 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192214/ribosome-biogenesis-in-cancer-new-players-and-therapeutic-avenues
#10
REVIEW
Joffrey Pelletier, George Thomas, Siniša Volarević
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine composed of numerous distinct proteins and nucleic acids and is responsible for protein synthesis in every living cell. Ribosome biogenesis is one of the most multifaceted and energy- demanding processes in biology, involving a large number of assembly and maturation factors, the functions of which are orchestrated by multiple cellular inputs, including mitogenic signals and nutrient availability. Although causal associations between inherited mutations affecting ribosome biogenesis and elevated cancer risk have been established over the past decade, mechanistic data have emerged suggesting a broader role for dysregulated ribosome biogenesis in the development and progression of most spontaneous cancers...
December 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192213/differentiation-therapy-revisited
#11
REVIEW
Hugues de Thé
The concept of differentiation therapy emerged from the fact that hormones or cytokines may promote differentiation ex vivo, thereby irreversibly changing the phenotype of cancer cells. Its hallmark success has been the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), a condition that is now highly curable by the combination of retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic. Recently, drugs that trigger differentiation in a variety of primary tumour cells have been identified, suggesting that they are clinically useful. This Opinion article analyses the basis for the clinical successes of RA or arsenic in APL by assessing the respective roles of terminal maturation and loss of self-renewal...
December 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170536/non-coding-rna-networks-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Eleni Anastasiadou, Leni S Jacob, Frank J Slack
Thousands of unique non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences exist within cells. Work from the past decade has altered our perception of ncRNAs from 'junk' transcriptional products to functional regulatory molecules that mediate cellular processes including chromatin remodelling, transcription, post-transcriptional modifications and signal transduction. The networks in which ncRNAs engage can influence numerous molecular targets to drive specific cell biological responses and fates. Consequently, ncRNAs act as key regulators of physiological programmes in developmental and disease contexts...
November 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147025/sphingolipid-metabolism-in-cancer-signalling-and-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Besim Ogretmen
Sphingolipids, including the two central bioactive lipids ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have opposing roles in regulating cancer cell death and survival, respectively, and there have been exciting developments in understanding how sphingolipid metabolism and signalling regulate these processes in response to anticancer therapy. Recent studies have provided mechanistic details of the roles of sphingolipids and their downstream targets in the regulation of tumour growth and response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy using innovative molecular, genetic and pharmacological tools to target sphingolipid signalling nodes in cancer cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123247/tumour-angiogenesis-controlling-nerves
#14
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123246/transport-of-drugs-from-blood-vessels-to-tumour-tissue
#15
REVIEW
Mark W Dewhirst, Timothy W Secomb
The effectiveness of anticancer drugs in treating a solid tumour is dependent on delivery of the drug to virtually all cancer cells in the tumour. The distribution of drug in tumour tissue depends on the plasma pharmacokinetics, the structure and function of the tumour vasculature and the transport properties of the drug as it moves through microvessel walls and in the extravascular tissue. The aim of this Review is to provide a broad, balanced perspective on the current understanding of drug transport to tumour cells and on the progress in developing methods to enhance drug delivery...
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123245/small-cell-lung-cancer-what-we-know-what-we-need-to-know-and-the-path-forward
#16
Adi F Gazdar, Paul A Bunn, John D Minna
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrc.2017.87.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123244/tumour-suppressors-digging-deeper-into-p53-s-functions
#17
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077690/small-cell-lung-cancer-what-we-know-what-we-need-to-know-and-the-path-forward
#18
REVIEW
Adi F Gazdar, Paul A Bunn, John D Minna
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a deadly tumour accounting for approximately 15% of lung cancers and is pathologically, molecularly, biologically and clinically very different from other lung cancers. While the majority of tumours express a neuroendocrine programme (integrating neural and endocrine properties), an important subset of tumours have low or absent expression of this programme. The probable initiating molecular events are inactivation of TP53 and RB1, as well as frequent disruption of several signalling networks, including Notch signalling...
October 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192212/immunotherapy-burning-fences
#19
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259345/metabolism-adapting-to-the-environment
#20
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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