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Nature Reviews. Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784935/a-causal-mechanism-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#1
REVIEW
Mel Greaves
In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)+ ALL) drives conversion to overt leukaemia...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777175/artificial-intelligence-in-radiology
#2
REVIEW
Ahmed Hosny, Chintan Parmar, John Quackenbush, Lawrence H Schwartz, Hugo J W L Aerts
Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769632/early-detection-a-long-road-ahead
#3
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748602/author-correction-inflammatory-breast-cancer-biology-the-tumour-microenvironment-is-key
#4
Bora Lim, Wendy A Woodward, Xiaoping Wang, James M Reuben, Naoto T Ueno
The originally published article contained an error in Table 1, in which two neoadjuvant clinical trials (NCT02876107 and NCT03101748) were not included. This omission has been corrected in the online and print versions of the manuscript through the addition of these two trials and their relevant details (agents, cohort details, targeted biology, main targeted pathway or characteristic and phase) to Table 1.
May 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728690/publisher-correction-oncolytic-viruses-as-engineering-platforms-for-combination-immunotherapy
#5
Kwame Twumasi-Boateng, Jessica L Pettigrew, Y Y Eunice Kwok, John C Bell, Brad H Nelson
In the online html version of this article, the affiliations for Jessica L. Pettigrew and John C. Bell were not correct. Jessica L. Pettigrew is at the Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and John C. Bell is at the Center for Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. This is correct in the print and PDF versions of the article and has been corrected in the html version.
May 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713084/on-the-cutting-edge
#6
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703913/inflammatory-breast-cancer-biology-the-tumour-microenvironment-is-key
#7
REVIEW
Bora Lim, Wendy A Woodward, Xiaoping Wang, James M Reuben, Naoto T Ueno
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive disease that accounts for ~2-4% of all breast cancers. However, despite its low incidence rate, IBC is responsible for 7-10% of breast cancer-related mortality in Western countries. Thus, the discovery of robust biological targets and the development of more effective therapeutics in IBC are crucial. Despite major international efforts to understand IBC biology, genomic studies have not led to the discovery of distinct biological mechanisms in IBC that can be translated into novel therapeutic strategies...
April 27, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700397/organoid-diversity
#8
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700396/a-history-of-exploring-cancer-in-context
#9
REVIEW
Shelly Maman, Isaac P Witz
The concept that progression of cancer is regulated by interactions of cancer cells with their microenvironment was postulated by Stephen Paget over a century ago. Contemporary tumour microenvironment (TME) research focuses on the identification of tumour-interacting microenvironmental constituents, such as resident or infiltrating non-tumour cells, soluble factors and extracellular matrix components, and the large variety of mechanisms by which these constituents regulate and shape the malignant phenotype of tumour cells...
April 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695749/oncolytic-viruses-as-engineering-platforms-for-combination-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Kwame Twumasi-Boateng, Jessica L Pettigrew, Y Y Eunice Kwok, John C Bell, Brad H Nelson
To effectively build on the recent successes of immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell therapy and cancer vaccines, it is critical to rationally design combination strategies that will increase and extend efficacy to a larger proportion of patients. For example, the combination of anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) immune checkpoint inhibitors essentially doubles the response rate in certain patients with metastatic melanoma. However, given the heterogeneity of cancer, it seems likely that even more complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to obtain consistent, durable therapeutic responses against a broad spectrum of cancers...
April 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692418/cell-genesis
#11
Anna Dart
Han et al. have identified a new tumour-induced immune cell population in the spleen that can promote tumour growth through production of the neurotrophic factor artemin.
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692417/non-canonical-functions-of-the-rb-protein-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Frederick A Dick, David W Goodrich, Julien Sage, Nicholas J Dyson
The canonical model of RB-mediated tumour suppression developed over the past 30 years is based on the regulation of E2F transcription factors to restrict cell cycle progression. Several additional functions have been proposed for RB, on the basis of which a non-canonical RB pathway can be described. Mechanistically, the non-canonical RB pathway promotes histone modification and regulates chromosome structure in a manner distinct from cell cycle regulation. These functions have implications for chemotherapy response and resistance to targeted anticancer agents...
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692416/pap-seeking-new-challenges
#13
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692415/organoids-in-cancer-research
#14
REVIEW
Jarno Drost, Hans Clevers
The recent advances in in vitro 3D culture technologies, such as organoids, have opened new avenues for the development of novel, more physiological human cancer models. Such preclinical models are essential for more efficient translation of basic cancer research into novel treatment regimens for patients with cancer. Wild-type organoids can be grown from embryonic and adult stem cells and display self-organizing capacities, phenocopying essential aspects of the organs they are derived from. Genetic modification of organoids allows disease modelling in a setting that approaches the physiological environment...
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674709/known-and-novel-roles-of-the-met-oncogene-in-cancer-a-coherent-approach-to-targeted-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Paolo M Comoglio, Livio Trusolino, Carla Boccaccio
The MET oncogene encodes an unconventional receptor tyrosine kinase with pleiotropic functions: it initiates and sustains neoplastic transformation when genetically altered ('oncogene addiction') and fosters cancer cell survival and tumour dissemination when transcriptionally activated in the context of an adaptive response to adverse microenvironmental conditions ('oncogene expedience'). Moreover, MET is an intrinsic modulator of the self-renewal and clonogenic ability of cancer stem cells ('oncogene inherence')...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666433/stop-the-shedding
#16
Sarah Seton-Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662238/structural-underpinnings-of-oestrogen-receptor-mutations-in-endocrine-therapy-resistance
#17
REVIEW
John A Katzenellenbogen, Christopher G Mayne, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, Geoffrey L Greene, Sarat Chandarlapaty
Oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), a key driver of breast cancer, normally requires oestrogen for activation. Mutations that constitutively activate ERα without the need for hormone binding are frequently found in endocrine-therapy-resistant breast cancer metastases and are associated with poor patient outcomes. The location of these mutations in the ER ligand-binding domain and their impact on receptor conformation suggest that they subvert distinct mechanisms that normally maintain the low basal state of wild-type ERα in the absence of hormone...
April 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662237/take-a-left-here
#18
Anna Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643473/revisiting-the-role-of-abc-transporters-in-multidrug-resistant-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Robert W Robey, Kristen M Pluchino, Matthew D Hall, Antonio T Fojo, Susan E Bates, Michael M Gottesman
Most patients who die of cancer have disseminated disease that has become resistant to multiple therapeutic modalities. Ample evidence suggests that the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, especially the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1, also known as P-glycoprotein or P-gp), which is encoded by ABC subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), can confer resistance to cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapy. However, the development of MDR1 as a therapeutic target has been unsuccessful. At the time of its discovery, appropriate tools for the characterization and clinical development of MDR1 as a therapeutic target were lacking...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632319/too-many-targets-not-enough-patients-rethinking-neuroblastoma-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Jamie I Fletcher, David S Ziegler, Toby N Trahair, Glenn M Marshall, Michelle Haber, Murray D Norris
Neuroblastoma is a rare solid tumour of infancy and early childhood with a disproportionate contribution to paediatric cancer mortality and morbidity. Combination chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy remains the standard approach to treat high-risk disease, with few recurrent, actionable genetic aberrations identified at diagnosis. However, recent studies indicate that actionable aberrations are far more common in relapsed neuroblastoma, possibly as a result of clonal expansion. In addition, although the major validated disease driver, MYCN, is not currently directly targetable, multiple promising approaches to target MYCN indirectly are in development...
April 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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