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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898252/advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-with-activating-egfr-mutations-first-line-treatment-with-afatinib-and-other-egfr-tkis
#1
Wolfgang Brückl, Amanda Tufman, Rudolf Maria Huber
Based on the results of several randomised controlled trials, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have now replaced platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an activating EGFR mutation. Areas covered: This review describes the EGFR pathway and its abnormalities in NSCLC and discusses the differential molecular and clinical activity of first and next-generation EGFR TKIs in the first-line treatment of tumors with an activating EGFR mutation, with a special focus on the second-generation agent afatinib...
November 29, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894203/management-of-adverse-events-induced-by-next-generation-immunomodulatory-drug-and-proteasome-inhibitors-in-multiple-myeloma
#2
Marco Salvini, Francesca Bonello, Mario Boccadoro, Alessandra Larocca
In the last decade the introduction of novel agents has strongly improved multiple myeloma prognosis by doubling median overall survival. Unfortunately disease relapse is very common and patients may become refractory to previous drugs. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Areas covered. We have reviewed the available data on next generation novel agents, particularly immunomodulatory drug pomalidomide and proteasome inhibitors carfilzomib and ixazomib, the latter being the first-in-class orally available...
November 29, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893290/gene-alterations-and-epigenetic-changes-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#3
Shao-Bin Huang, Chao-Xu Zheng
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a highly malignant neoplasm. The incidence of ICC has been increasing world-wide over the past several decades. Areas covered: The pathogenesis of ICC is a complex process involving the alteration of specific genes and epigenetic changes. This review summarizes the advances in research of gene alterations and epigenetic changes in ICC; it also aims to promote the findings of new biomarkers that can be used to diagnose ICC and to provide novel ideas for the combination of molecular targeted therapies...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892774/further-insight-into-prognostic-factors-in-endometrial-cancer-the-new-serum-biomarker-he4
#4
Stella Capriglione, Francesco Plotti, Andrea Miranda, Salvatore Lopez, Giuseppe Scaletta, Michele Moncelli, Daniela Luvero, Carlo De Cicco Nardone, Corrado Terranova, Roberto Montera, Roberto Angioli
Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological cancer worldwide. To date, no good markers are routinely used in clinical practice for prognosis and monitoring. Areas covered: During the last years, an increasing interest in literature has been growing on HE4 (Human epididimis 4). Therefore, we aimed to gather all the evidence reported in literature analysing the potential prognostic value of HE4, compared to the well know tumor's features (histological type and grade, stage of disease, depth of myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space involvement and cervical involvement)...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892740/how-can-plasma-rna-be-used-to-diagnose-prostate-cancer
#5
Xiaolei Shi, Shancheng Ren, Yinghao Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883296/adjuvant-trastuzumab-a-10-year-overview-of-its-benefit
#6
Matteo Lambertini, Noam F Pondé, Cinzia Solinas, Evandro de Azambuja
Anti-HER2 targeted therapy is one of the key advances in the treatment of breast cancer that have occurred in the last 20 years. In the adjuvant setting, the use of trastuzumab has led to prolonged and sustained survival benefit with very little toxicity as also confirmed by the 10-year follow-up results from the pivotal trials. Despite the survival improvement, several key issues are not entirely resolved in this field. These issues have led to multiple research efforts in de-escalating or escalating the standard treatment with chemotherapy and 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab...
November 24, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841044/anti-pd-1-pd-l1-antibodies-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-era-of-immunotherapy
#7
Gautam Kishore Valecha, Adarsh Vennepureddy, Uroosa Ibrahim, Firas Safa, Bachar Samra, Jean Paul Atallah
Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been conventionally treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy with short-lived responses and significant toxicities. Monoclonal antibodies to programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown tremendous promise in the treatment of advanced NSCLC in various clinical trials. Areas covered: In this article, we will review the outcomes of various trials of anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 antibodies in the treatment of NSCLC. We will also discuss their mechanism of action and toxicities...
November 14, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841037/targeting-reactive-oxygen-species-in-development-and-progression-of-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Nisha Durand, Peter Storz
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by expression of oncogenic KRas which drives all aspects of tumorigenesis. Oncogenic KRas induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which have been implicated in initiation and progression of PDA. To facilitate tumor promoting levels and to avoid oncogene-induced senescence or cytotoxicity, ROS homeostasis in PDA cells is balanced by additional up-regulation of antioxidant systems. Areas Covered: We examine the sources of ROS in PDA, the mechanisms by which ROS homeostasis is maintained, and the biological consequences of ROS in PDA...
November 14, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838937/basis-for-molecular-diagnostics-and-immunotherapy-for-esophageal-cancer
#9
Joe Abdo, Devendra K Agrawal, Sumeet K Mittal
Esophageal cancer is an extremely aggressive neoplasm, diagnosed in about 17,000 Americans every year with a mortality rate of more than 80% within five years and a median overall survival of just 13 months. For decades, the go-to regimen for esophageal cancer patients has been the use of taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, which has yielded the field's most dire survival statistics. Areas covered: Combination immunotherapy and a more robust molecular diagnostic platform for esophageal tumors could improve patient management strategies and potentially extend lives beyond the current survival figures...
November 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776441/nivolumab-in-melanoma
#10
Pol Specenier
The treatment of melanoma is evolving rapidly over the past few years. Areas covered: We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of nivolumab in melanoma Expert commentary: Nivolumab is approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Nivolumab is superior to chemotherapy and to ipilimumab in previously untreated patients and to chemotherapy in ipilimumab pre-treated patients. The addition ipilimumab to nivolumab is associated with a higher response rate and a better PFS, particularly in patients with PD-L1 negative tumors, albeit at the cost of an increase in grade 3-4 adverse event rate...
November 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744725/management-of-patients-with-colorectal-liver-metastasis-in-eleven-questions-and-answers
#11
Axel Andres, Pietro Majno, Sylvain Terraz, Philippe Morel, Arnaud Roth, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Eduardo Schiffer, Frederic Ris, Christian Toso
Colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is the most frequent indication for liver resection in many centers. Recent improvements in oncology, surgery, interventional radiology, pathology and anesthesiology allow curative treatment in a larger proportion of patients with CRLM. Areas covered: We illustrate the various aspects of the management of CRLM through 11 questions that summarize the topic, from the current obtained survival to future perspectives such as transplantation. The limits of a curative treatment are also presented from different angles, such as the benefits of pathology, the surgical options for extreme resections, the available chemotherapies and their efficacy, or the non-surgical ablative treatments...
November 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819171/targeting-swi-snf-mutant-cancers-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy
#12
Paul H Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744726/the-role-of-alectinib-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-alk-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Srividya Srinivasamaharaj, Bilal Khameze Salame, Jorge Rios-Perez, Goetz Kloecker, Cesar A Perez
The identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer patients has provided with unparalleled opportunities to hinder the progression of this disease through targeting the activity of these specific molecules. Unfortunately most patients develop disease progression in less than a year of treatment with crizotinib, the first-generation ALK-inhibitor. Areas covered: We review the resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors as well as an overview of the clinical activity of the alectinib, a second generation ALK inhibitor...
November 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744727/liver-metastases-resection-for-gastric-and-esophageal-tumors-is-there-enough-evidence-to-go-down-this-path
#14
Gonzalo Tapia Rico, Amanda R Townsend, Myron Klevansky, Timothy J Price
Surgical resection of liver metastases from colorectal and neuroendocrine tumours has become a standard of care for resectable patients with isolated hepatic disease and good performance status, leading to extended survival in a carefully selected subgroup of these patients. However, the role of hepatic surgery in gastric and oesophageal liver metastases is controversial and not clearly defined. Areas covered:a systematic electronic literature search was performed to select the most representative evidence regarding hepatectomies in liver metastases from these two tumours...
October 31, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740862/optimal-design-and-endpoint-of-clinical-trials-using-immune-checkpoint-blocking-agents
#15
Bhumsuk Keam, Hun Jung, Byung Ho Nam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734713/lenvatinib-for-the-treatment-of-radioiodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-indirect-comparison-with-sorafenib
#16
Pawel Kawalec, Iwona Malinowska-Lipień, Tomasz Brzostek, Maria Kózka
Thyroid carcinoma is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence over the past decades. Treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer consists of surgery followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation of the thyroid remnant, and TSH suppression. Among new therapeutic solutions for patients with advanced RR-DTC stage, the most promising seem to be sorafenib and lenvatinib, up to now considered to be orphan drugs. Areas covered: We performed a systematic review of medical databases to collect all eligible clinical trials referring to the topic of our analysis...
October 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748633/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-bevacizumab-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-recurrent-or-metastatic-cervical-cancer
#17
Lindsey E Minion, Krishnansu S Tewari
Introduction Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (Avastin; Genetech, Inc, San Francisco, CA). Angiogenesis is blocked by the binding of bevacizumab to VEGF, inhibiting the binding of this ligand to the VEGF receptor. On August 14, 2014 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of bevacizumab in persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Areas Covered Herein we review pharmacodynamics and kinetics, clinical data and treatment-related toxicities of bevacizumab in the treatment of metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686597/parp-inhibitors-and-stratified-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#18
Anita Lavery, Clare Gilson, Simon Chowdhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741402/targeted-adjuvant-therapy-in-breast-cancer
#19
Dimitrios Zardavas, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Theodora Goulioti, Martine Piccart
INTRODUCTION: The potential of molecular targeted therapy to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC) as adjuvant therapy has been first demonstrated through endocrine treatment. The introduction of HER2 blockade, through the successful clinical development of trastuzumab, changed the natural history of HER2-positive BC subtype. AREAS COVERED: There are ongoing efforts to augment further the use of targeted agents as adjuvant treatment in BC, hoping that early introduction of targeted therapy blocking key oncogenic drivers of micro-residual disease, will significantly improve clinical outcomes...
October 14, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732120/serous-tubal-intraepithelial-carcinoma-stic-clinical-impact-and-management
#20
Vit Weinberger, Marketa Bednarikova, David Cibula, Michal Zikan
Introduction Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is most likely precursor lesion of the most part of high-grade serous pelvis carcinomas, carcinosarcoma and undifferentiated carcinoma with incidence of 0.6% to 7% in BRCA carriers or women with strong family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma. STIC is a pathomorphologically and immunohistochemically detectable lesion which biological significance and clinical relevance is unknown. Areas covered We investigate methods of STIC diagnostics and we present an overview of recent studies and available knowledge on surgical management, adjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent follow-up procedure in women with an isolated STIC...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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