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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

Mainul Haque, Judy McKimm, Brian Godman, Muhamad Abu Bakar, Massimo Sartelli
Surgery in patients with head and neck cancers is frequently complicated by multiple stages of procedure that includes significant surgical removal of all or part of an organ with cancer, tissue reconstruction, and extensive neck dissection. Postoperative wound infections, termed 'surgical site infections' (SSIs) are a significant impediment to head and neck cancer surgery and recovery, and need to be addressed. Areas Covered: Approximately 10-45% of patients undergoing head-and-neck cancers surgery develop SSIs...
November 5, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Per Pfeiffer, Claus-Henning Köhne, Camilla Qvortrup
Since late 1990's therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients has changed considerable, and the combination of doublet or triplet chemotherapy and a targeted agent are now routinely used. With the introduction of more intensified regimens it has become even more important to identify patients that will benefit from and that can tolerate therapy. Furthermore, the increasing understanding of the biology of mCRC has led to the discovery of new potential targets. Therefore, therapy of patients with mCRC has undergone considerable change from "one strategy fits all" towards a more personalized therapy...
November 1, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sebastian Manuel Milluzzo, Alessandra Bizzotto, Paola Cesaro, Cristiano Spada
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Though colonoscopy is the benchmark for CRC diagnosis and management, other alternatives have been proposed. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) was first introduced in 2006 as a non-invasive painless technology that utilizes an ingestible, wireless, and disposable capsule to explore the colon, without sedation or air insufflation. Areas covered: To date, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines consider CCE as an option for average-risk colorectal cancer screening patients and in patients with contraindications or unwilling to undergo colonoscopy and/or with an incomplete colonoscopy...
October 25, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Stephanie M De Boer, Remi A Nout, Tjalling Bosse, Carien L Creutzberg
Although the majority of women with endometrial cancer have a favorable prognosis due to early symptoms, 15-20% have high-risk disease features and are at increased risk of recurrence. In order to improve prognosis for these patients, several trials have compared chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT) or the combination of CTRT. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current evidence on adjuvant treatment for women with high-risk endometrial cancer and future perspectives. Expert commentary: For stage I-II high-risk endometrial cancer, external beam radiotherapy ensured good local control and no significant benefit in progression-free or overall survival was found with the addition of chemotherapy in 2 recent randomized trials...
October 24, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Carlo Fremd, Dirk Jaeger, Andreas Schneeweiss
Accounting for about 15% of breast cancer patients, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is responsible for 25% of disease related deaths, more frequent distant spread and visceral metastasis. However, improving survival in TNBC failed and primary resistance, immunological ignorance and tumor heterogeneity limit clinical activity of novel therapies. In view of recent molecular, genetic and immunologic insights, this review aims to describe the current status of immunological and targeted treatments from a hypothesis driven perspective...
October 23, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Theodore W Laetsch, Douglas S Hawkins
TRK fusions occur across a wide range of cancers in children and adults. These fusions drive constitutive expression and ligand-independent activation of the TRK kinase and are oncogenic. Larotrectinib is the first highly potent and selective small molecule ATP competitive inhibitor of all three TRK kinases to enter clinical development. Areas covered: This review covers the current preclinical and clinical evidence for TRK inhibitors for TRK fusion cancers, focusing on larotrectinib. Expert commentary: Larotrectinib has demonstrated a remarkable 75% centrally confirmed objective response rate in patients with TRK fusion cancers in phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials with generally mild side effects...
October 23, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Tommy Buchanan, David Mutch
Although a relatively uncommon disease, the treatment of vulvar cancer has changed considerably over the years and has been under considerable focus due to its past overtreatment and apparent increase in incidence. The purpose of this review is to describe the recommended management of the most commonly encountered vulvar carcinomas based on the most recent available literature. Areas covered: The clinical environment of squamous cell vulvar cancers are illustrated in order to describe the potential pitfalls and limitations of treatment...
October 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Joachim Mathes, Steffen Rausch, Tilman Todenhöfer, Arnulf Stenzl
Radical cystectomy is the standard therapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Organ-preserving surgical procedures have been established as alternatives to radical surgery for localized malignancies in other anatomic sites. Trimodal therapy consisting of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and either transurethral resection of the bladder or partial cystectomy is an effective treatment for selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer that allows for preservation of the urinary bladder. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the value of trimodal therapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer...
October 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Fabian Finkelmeier, Oliver Waidmann, Joerg Trojan
T-cell checkpoint inhibition as a cancer treatment approach has been the main breakthrough in cancer treatment during the last years. Since the approval of the first commercial CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab in 2011 for the treatment of melanoma, research and drug development in this field has accelerated massively. In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first PD-1 targeting agent, namely pembrolizumab, shortly followed by nivolumab. Areas covered: Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody which is approved for multiple advanced malignancies, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous head and neck cancer, and urothelial carcinoma...
October 10, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Gerardo Botti, Monica Cantile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Hiroto Matsui, Shoichi Hazama, Yoshitaro Shindo, Hiroaki Nagano
Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with high treatment resistance. Many patients are diagnosed in a very advanced state, and few patients can be curatively resected. With FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine, the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer has improved, yet many patients cannot survive longer than a year. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Cancer vaccine therapy is characterized by controlling cancer by a cancer-specific immune reaction with few adverse events...
October 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Suneel D Kamath, Aparna Kalyan, Al B Benson
Gastric cancer is one of a few gastrointestinal malignancies in which immunotherapy has shown meaningful activity. Pembrolizumab is the first and only immune checkpoint inhibitor to be FDA-approved in gastric cancer. Areas Covered: This review summarizes the current and emerging clinical evidence for immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced and metastatic gastric cancer, with a focus on pembrolizumab. Expert Commentary: Pembrolizumab has shown impressive activity in the third-line treatment of locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer...
October 3, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Radhamani Kannaiyan, Daruka Mahadevan
Protein kinases are involved in various cellular functions. About 2% of the human genome encodes for protein kinases. Dysregulation of protein kinases is implicated in various processes of carcinogenesis. The advent of protein kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy has led to a paradigm shift in cancer therapy. Several protein kinase inhibitors have been approved by FDA in the last few decades. Areas covered: This article provides a review of the FDA approved protein kinase inhibitors as of December 2017 for the well-known oncogenic protein kinases...
September 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Hani Oweira, Anwar Giryes
A systematic review was performed to explore the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes among cancer patients receiving PD-(L)1 inhibitors compared to those receiving traditional cytotoxic therapy. Areas covered: Citations from PubMed and the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting library were examined. Cross-references from original studies and review articles were also reviewed. Eligible trials included randomized controlled trials of cancer patients treated with one of the PD-(L)1 inhibitors and reporting HRQoL outcomes...
September 26, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Angela M Jarrett, Ernesto A B F Lima, David A Hormuth, Matthew T McKenna, Xinzeng Feng, David A Ekrut, Anna Claudia M Resende, Amy Brock, Thomas E Yankeelov
A defining hallmark of cancer is aberrant cell proliferation. Efforts to understand the generative properties of cancer cells span all biological scales: from genetic deviations and alterations of metabolic pathways to physical stresses due to overcrowding, as well as the effects of therapeutics and the immune system. While these factors have long been studied in the laboratory, mathematical and computational techniques are being increasingly applied to help understand and forecast tumor growth and treatment response...
September 25, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ho-Jae Lee, Young-Min Han, Jeong Min An, Eun A Kang, Yong Jin Park, Ji-Young Cha, Ki Baik Hahm
Although inflammation is defensive and healing process that maintains organ homeostasis, unresolved inflammation can lead to diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially n-6 PUFAs abundant in Western diet, are precursors of pro-inflammatory mediators, whereas n-3 PUFAs possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, interest in the cancer-preventive effect of n-3 PUFAs is increasing. Areas covered: We have observed significant reductions of gastrointestinal tumorigenesis in the Fat-1 transgenic mouse as evidenced that the decrease in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric tumorigenesis, colon, biliary, and pancreatic cancer was seen in Fat-1 mice producing n-3 PUFAs...
September 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Robin L Jones, Axel Le Cesne, Tony Ibrahim, Xavier Garcia Del Muro, Franka Menge
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a patient-reported outcome that addresses patients' perceptions of symptoms across physical, emotional, cognitive and social domains. As HRQoL is currently rarely measured outside clinical trials in oncology, it must be inferred from patients' everyday performance during treatment. To gain insight into the HRQoL of advanced STS patients receiving palliative treatment in clinical practice, three case studies of patients treated with trabectedin are examined. Areas covered: The patient in Case 1 has maintained complete remission for more than 8 years after receiving nine cycles of second-line trabectedin followed by secondary surgery for recurrent myxoid liposarcoma, and was able to resume normal activities during trabectedin treatment...
September 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Andrea Spallanzani, Giulia Orsi, Kalliopi Andrikou, Fabio Gelsomino, Margherita Rimini, Laura Riggi, Stefano Cascinu
Since 2007 Sorafenib has represented the only approved drug for first-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Lenvatinib, an orally active inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFR 1-3, FGFR 1-4, PDGFRa, RET and KIT), showed preclinical and clinical activity in the treatment of solid tumors, including HCC. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the current therapeutic paradigm for the systemic treatment of advanced HCC, focusing on Lenvatinib pre-clinical and clinical development...
November 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ronan J Kelly
BRAFV600E mutations occur in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas and act as oncogenic drivers via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. These mutations are mutually exclusive from the more common, epidermal growth factor receptor mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements and have been associated with poor outcomes and a lower response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Areas covered: Dabrafenib is a potent adenosine-triphosphate-competitive inhibitor of BRAF kinase and is selective for the BRAFV600E mutation in kinase panel screening, cell lines, and xenografts...
November 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Paweł Krawczyk, Renata Duchnowska, Marcin Nicoś, Dariusz Kowalski, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk
There are no effective central nervous system (CNS) metastases prevention methods in lung cancer patients. Prophylactic cranial irradiation has a limited effectiveness and relatively high toxicity. Systemic chemotherapy is not relevant in reducing the risk of CNS in lung cancer patients. The understanding of molecular background of brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients could contribute to the development of personalized treatments for such patients. Areas covered: This article summarizes the latest clinical trials concerning the use of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapies, and immunotherapy in lung cancer patients, with particular consideration of brain lung cancer metastasis prevention...
November 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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