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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

David Dearnaley, Emma Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Thinzar M Lwin, Robert M Hoffman, Michael Bouvet
Surgeons face major challenges in achieving curative R0 resection for pancreatic cancers. When the lesion is localized, they must appropriately visualize the tumor, determine appropriate resection margins, and ensure complete tumor clearance. Real-time surgical navigation using fluorescence-guidance has enhanced the ability of surgeons to see the tumor and has the potential to assist in achieving more oncologically-complete resections. When there is metastatic disease, fluorescence enhancement can help detect these lesions and prevent unnecessary and futile surgeries...
May 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Giusy Cetani, Mario Boccadoro, Stefania Oliva
Multiple myeloma treatment considerably improved during the past decade, thanks to novel effective drugs, a better understanding of myeloma biology and clonal heterogeneity, and an improved management of toxicities. The choice of regimen at relapse is usually based on prior response, toxicities, age and comorbidities of relapsed patients. Areas covered: A review was performed of the most recent and effective therapeutic strategies for the relapsed myeloma setting, by documenting the latest clinical evidence from phase II and III clinical trials...
May 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Roopa Hariprasad, Ravi Mehrotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sophie A Blackburn, Ruth M Parks, Kwokleung Cheung
The current issues with endocrine therapy for treatment of advanced breast cancer include balance of efficacy of therapy versus tolerability as well as hormone resistance. The efficacy of fulvestrant, a selective oestrogen receptor degrader (SERD), has been demonstrated in hormone receptor positive patients previously untreated or treated with hormonal therapy. Areas covered: This article discusses the journey of fulvestrant licensing, its efficacy in combination with other endocrine therapies and the future role it may have within breast cancer treatment...
May 11, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Kavita N Manchikanti, Alan D Kaye, Adam M Kaye, Joshua A Hirsch
As a result of advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, two-thirds of individuals suffering with cancer survive more than 5 years after diagnosis, resulting in a large proportion of patients with chronic cancer pain alone or associated with chronic noncancer pain. There is a paucity of literature in reference to diagnosis and management of chronic cancer pain, specifically in relation to persistent opioid use, its effectiveness, and adverse consequences. Areas Covered: This review covers the prevalence of chronic cancer pain and its association with multiple comorbidities, persistent opioid use and related consequences, and challenges in managing persistent chronic cancer pain patients...
May 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
David D'Andrea, Melanie R Hassler, Mohammad Abufaraj, Francesco Soria, Iris E Ertl, Dafina Ilijazi, Andrea Mari, Beat Foerster, Gerda Egger, Shahrokh F Shariat
The recurrence rate of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is up to 60% within the first year of therapy. Accurate risk stratification is necessary for patient counselling, follow-up scheduling and individualized therapeutic decision making. Current prognostic models rely on clinicopathologic features, but their discrimination remains limited when in external cohorts. Despite intense efforts regarding the value of biomarkers in prognosticating outcomes in NMIBC, clinical utility remains suboptimal. It is clear that a single biomarker is not enough for the prediction of disease recurrence...
May 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Charles W Kimbrough, Jordan M Cloyd, Timothy M Pawlik
Since their initial description, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) has remained one of the more clinically challenging scenarios encountered by hepatobiliary surgeons. Surgery remains the only potentially curative therapy, but requires complex, technically demanding operations with high associated morbidity and mortality. Over the last several decades, advances in surgical technique and perioperative management have improved patient outcomes. Areas Covered: Achievement of optimal outcomes requires a multidisciplinary approach from a team of providers with expertise in hepatobiliary and oncologic surgery, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and advanced gastroenterology...
May 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Vanna Zanagnolo, Maria Teresa Achilarre, Matteo Maruccio, Annalisa Garbi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Matthew A Meissner, Barrett Z McCormick, Jose A Karam, Christopher G Wood
Locally advanced, non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is conventionally managed with surgery. However, patients are at a high risk of RCC recurrence and have poor survival outcomes. An effective adjuvant systemic treatment is needed to improve on these outcomes. Targeted molecular and immune-based therapies have been investigated, or are under investigation, but their role in this setting remains unclear. Areas covered: A comprehensive search of PubMed and was performed for relevant literature...
April 30, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Rodolfo Montironi, Alessia Cimadamore, Silvia Gasparrini, Roberta Mazzucchelli, Matteo Santoni, Francesco Massari, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Marina Scarpelli
The Gleason grading system is one of the most important prognostic factors in prostate cancer (PCa). From the 2005 to the 2014 conference organized by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP), the histological criteria for the Gleason patterns were improved, resulting in the shrinkage of the Gleason pattern (GP) 3 and expansion of the GP 4. Areas Covered: Cribriform, fused, ill-defined and glomeruloid glands are part of the morphologic spectrum of the current GP 4. Cribriform, derived from the Latin word cribrum (i...
April 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Charupong Saengboonmee, Kanlayanee Sawanyawisuth, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Sopit Wongkham
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a poorly prognostic cancer with limited treatment options. Most patients have unresectable tumors when they are diagnosed and the chemotherapies provided are of limited benefit. Prognostic markers are therefore necessary to predict the disease outcome, risk of relapse, or to suggest the best treatment option. Areas covered: This article provides an up-to-date review of biomarkers with promising characteristics to be prognostic markers for CCA reported in the past 5 years. The biomarkers are sub-classified into tissue and serum markers...
April 26, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Gaia Griguolo, Maria Vittoria Dieci, Valentina Guarneri, PierFranco Conte
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for around 2-3% of breast cancer events and more than 10% of triple negative breast cancers. Olaparib (Lynparza®), an orally administered PARP inhibitor, demonstrated clinical benefit in a phase III trial for mutated BRCA-positive HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer. Areas covered: This review gives an overview of available preclinical and clinical data regarding olaparib, including its chemistry, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and evidence supporting antitumor efficacy and safety profile in breast cancer patients...
March 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Paolo Tini, Valerio Nardone, Pierpaolo Pastina, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale, Antonio Giordano
Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer mortality across the worlds. At present, less than 30% of the patients can undergo curative surgery, while the majority of them (65%) are diagnosed with metastatic disease and directed to systemic treatments whose effects on the outcome of these patients depends by their performance status, disease-stage, histology, targetable-driving-mutation, and susceptibility to immunotherapy. In this context there is a subset of patients (25%) with locally advanced stage disease whose outcome might be greatly improved by using combined strategies of treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery...
March 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Justin Stebbing, Yauheni Baranau, Alexey Manikhas, Sang Joon Lee, Paul Thiruchelvam, Daniel Leff, Francisco J Esteva
Trastuzumab is a key drug in the neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Pathological complete response (pCR) is commonly used as an endpoint in neoadjuvant clinical trials of trastuzumab as evidence suggests it may be a surrogate for long-term survival. Several biosimilar candidates of originator or 'reference' trastuzumab are in development and have used pCR as a primary endpoint to assess therapeutic equivalence between treatments. The exact definition of pCR has varied across studies...
March 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Takamichi Ito, Yumiko Kaku-Ito, Masutaka Furue
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplastic condition that commonly affects the anogenital area in the elderly. Owing to its low incidence, limited data regarding EMPD's diagnosis and treatment have been available. This review article aims to explore the current knowledge of EMPD to improve the management of this disease. Areas covered: This review outlines the diagnosis and management of EMPD. Articles on this issue that had been published in PubMed were identified and surveyed. We provide an overview of the reported studies, focusing on the recent advances in this field...
March 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Michael Galgano, Jared Fridley, Adetokunbo Oyelese, Albert Telfian, Thomas Kosztowski, David Choi, Ziya L Gokaslan
Metastatic spinal disease is a source of significant morbidity in patients with cancer. Recent advancements in adjuvant oncologic therapy has led to increased survival for many patients who harbor neoplastic disease. As a result of this, the chance of developing metastatic spinal disease over the course of a cancer patient's lifespan has increased. Symptomatic metastatic spinal disease can cause significant morbidity including severe pain, neurologic deficit, and loss of ambulation. Current treatment of these patients typically involves the use of multiple modalities, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Kenrick Ng, Sarah Duncan, Jonathan Shamash, Constantine Alifrangis
The treatment of poor prognosis chemotherapy naïve or relapsed testicular cancer is challenging. In poor prognosis treatment naïve disease, the outlook for patients with standard approaches utilising three weekly cisplatin based regimens, most commonly bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) is suboptimal, and one can expect more than half of patients to relapse or progress and need salvage treatment. Recent randomised studies have lent weight to the use of dose intensified treatments in these selected patient groups...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Antonio Rossi, Rebecca Tay, Jaseela Chiramel, Arsela Prelaj, Raffaele Califano
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a very aggressive disease characterized by a high response rate to first-line chemotherapy, but most patients relapse within 1 year with disappointing results to second-line treatments. Chemotherapy has reached a plateau of effectiveness and new therapeutic strategies are needed to change the natural history of SCLC. Areas covered: This review will focus on the current results and the future development of the therapeutic approaches for the treatment of SCLC. Expert commentary: Immunotherapy is becoming a new frontier for the management of SCLC with preliminary interesting results...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Alejo Rodriguez-Vida, Joaquim Bellmunt
Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) remains an aggressive disease associated with limited treatment options and a reduced survival. In spite of this, the first-line treatment based on platinum-based combinations has remained virtually unchanged for the last 20-30 years. Similarly, before the advent of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, there were no FDA-approved drugs for second-line therapy. In the last few years, impressive signs of anti-tumor activity have been reported with several immunotherapy agents targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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