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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105863/the-role-of-mtor-inhibition-as-second-line-therapy-in-metastatic-renal-carcinoma-clinical-evidence-and-current-challenges
#1
José Luis González-Larriba, Pablo Maroto, Ignacio Durán, Julio Lambea, Luis Flores, Daniel Castellano
Sequential treatment with targeted agents is the standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Although first-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is recommended for most patients, eventually all patients become resistant to them. Therefore, optimal selection of second-line therapy is crucial. Areas covered: We have reviewed the recent literature through pubmed search and recent congress presentations to briefly describe the clinical evidence for mTOR inhibition as a valid strategy in the treatment of mRCC after progression during anti-VEGFR therapy...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103739/newer-medical-therapies-for-metastatic-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#2
Akash Tiwari, Vineet Govinda Gupta, Sameer Bakhshi
Metastatic/advanced soft tissue sarcoma has a poor prognosis and conventionally, treatment options have been limited. In recent years, this area has been a rich ground for research with many new drugs being approved and several more in the pipeline. With multiple new treatment options available, it is vital to keep up pace with this rapidly changing field. Areas covered: Recent data regarding use of novel agents in advanced soft tissue sarcoma is reviewed with a focus on clinical applicability. The goal is to guide the clinician into choosing appropriate lines of therapy for the individual patient in light of recent availability of multiple new treatment options...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103449/anatomical-templates-of-lymph-node-dissection-for-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
R Campi, A Minervini, A Mari, G Hatzichristodoulou, F Sessa, A Lapini, M Sessa, J E Gschwend, S Serni, M Roscigno, M Carini
Indications and techniques of lymph node dissection (LND) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) are still controversial. Areas Covered: In this study, a systematic review of the English-language literature was performed up to July 1, 2016 using the Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Sciences databases to provide a detailed overview of the most commonly dissected surgical templates of LND for UTUC according to laterality and location of the tumor. Overall, sixteen studies were analyzed. Based on the shared experiences in the scientific literature, the LND template typically included: for right-sided tumors of the renal pelvis, upper third and middle third of the ureter, the renal hilar, paracaval, precaval and retrocaval nodes, while for left-sided tumors the renal hilar, paraaortic and preaortic nodes...
January 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103445/factors-influencing-radiation-treatment-recommendations-in-early-stage-merkel-cell-carcinoma-a-survey-of-us-based-radiation-oncologists
#4
Yolanda D Tseng, Smith Apisarnthanarax, Jay J Liao, Shailender Bhatia, Paul T Nghiem, Upendra Parvathaneni
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear which subgroups of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patients benefit the most from radiation. We surveyed radiation oncologists (RO) that regularly see and treat MCC to understand how they approach the treatment of early-stage MCC. METHODS: A web-based survey was emailed to 63 ROs, who were identified through publications, guideline panel membership, and/or affiliation with institutions of high MCC volume. ROs provided treatment recommendations for two hypothetical case scenarios of early stage MCC...
January 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095263/chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Adam C Ehrlich, Shyam Patel, Andrew Mellier, Robin D Rothstein, Frank K Friedenberg
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at an increased risk of colorectal cancer when compared to the general population. Chronic inflammation is thought to be the underlying cause, and medications that reduce inflammation have the potential to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Areas covered: After conducting a PubMed search for relevant literature, we examined several classes of medications that have been studied as potential chemopreventive agents. These include 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, ursodeoxycholic acid, NSAIDs, and statins...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984919/from-chemotherapy-to-target-therapies-associated-with-radiation-in-the-treatment-of-nsclc-a-durable-marriage
#6
Filippo Alongi, Stefano Arcangeli, Sara Ramella, Niccolò Giaj-Levra, Paolo Borghetti, Rolando D'angelillo, Francesco Ricchetti, Marta Maddalo, Rosario Mazzola, Marco Trovò, Elvio Russi, Stefano Maria Magrini
The integration between radiotherapy and drugs, from chemotherapy to recently available target therapies, continues to have a relevant role in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aim of the present review is to evaluate the promising and emerging application of the best interaction between new drugs and new modalities of radiotherapy. Areas covered: We searched Medline, Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertation, and Theses databases for reports published in English...
January 5, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044472/how-clinical-practice-is-changing-the-rules-the-sunitinib-2-1-schedule-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
Sergio Bracarda, Sylvie Negrier, Jochen Casper, Camillo Porta, Manuela Schmidinger, James Larkin, Marine Gross Goupil, Bernard Escudier
Currently, sunitinib is a standard of care in first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, with the standard 4/2 schedule (sunitinib 50 mg/day; 4 consecutive weeks on treatment; 2 weeks' rest), 50% of patients require dose reductions to mitigate toxicity, highlighting the need to investigate alternative dosing schedules that improve tolerability without compromising efficacy. Areas covered: We present a concise critical review of published studies comparing the efficacy and safety of the 4/2 and 2/1 schedule (2 weeks on treatment; 1 week rest) for sunitinib...
January 3, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937057/radical-cystectomy-do-we-need-standardization
#8
Christian Ladurner, Evi Comploj, Emanuela Trenti, Salvatore Palermo, Alexander Pycha, Armin Pycha
The first series of radical cystectomy with a definition of surgical landmarks was published in 1949 and was characterized by a high perioperative mortality and a 5-year survival rate around 50%. Decades later, nevertheless many surgical progresses were made and the perioperative mortality dropped to 2,5%, this had not lead to an improvement of long term survival rates, also because a standardization of the procedure is still missing. Areas covered: Radical cystectomy is performed with different surgical techniques obmitting a standardization...
December 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983883/intra-arterial-therapies-for-liver-cancer-assessing-tumor-response
#9
Yasmin W Stroehl, Brian S Letzen, Johanna M M van Breugel, Jean-Francois Geschwind, Julius Chapiro
Intra-arterial therapies (IATs) play an integral role in the management of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The ability to accurately assess tumor response to intra-arterial therapies is crucial for clinical management. Several one- and two-dimensional manual imaging-based response assessment techniques, based both on tumor size or enhancement, have shown to be highly subjective and merely surrogate for the actual tumor as a whole. Areas covered: Given the currently existing literature, we will discuss all available tumor assessment techniques and criteria for liver cancer with a strong emphasis on 3D quantitative imaging biomarkers of tumor response in this review...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967249/sunitinib-in-kidney-cancer-10-years-of-experience-and-development
#10
Elise Nassif, Constance Thibault, Yann Vano, Laure Fournier, Laetitia Mauge, Virginie Verkarre, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Arnaud Mejean, Eric Tartour, Stéphane Oudard
Sunitinib is a multi-target, anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a key molecule in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Since it first demonstrated its efficacy ten years ago, overall survival of mRCC has more than doubled, in part due to sunitinib. In most recent years, progress has been made in the comprehension of its mechanism of action and resistance. Areas Covered: In this article, clinical trials involving sunitinib in kidney cancer have been reviewed, defining its different indications in metastatic and localized RCC...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967255/endocrine-therapy-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#11
Simon P Langdon, Charlie Gourley, Hani Gabra, Barbara Stanley
The estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed at high levels in many epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) and represents a potential target for endocrine therapy. Both anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors have been evaluated in phase II clinical trials. Areas covered: We present an overview of the phase II and phase III trials of anti-estrogens (tamoxifen and fulvestrant) and aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrazole and exemestane) undertaken in epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a Pubmed search. We describe predictive biomarkers that are being investigated to identify responsive cancers...
December 24, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937067/time-to-event-endpoints-in-operable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-randomized-clinical-trials
#12
Frédéric Fiteni, Marie-Justine Paillard, Virginie Westeel, Franck Bonnetain
No guideline for time-to-event endpoints (TTEE) definitions in lung cancer trials exists. Areas covered: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reporting of TTEE in operable non-small-cell lung cancer randomized clinical trials. Expert commentary: Sixty-two TTEE were recorded. In the Methods section, using four key points to define TTEE we observed that the 'starting point', 'events', 'information on censoring', 'assessment of events' were clearly defined for 43 (69.4%), 34 (54.8%), 6 (9.7%), 33 (53.2%) endpoints respectively...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927054/on-treatment-biomarkers-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-towards-individualization-of-prognosis
#13
Frede Donskov, Daniel Y C Heng, Brian I Rini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927088/cancer-immunotherapy-activating-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-through-cd40-agonists
#14
Gregory L Beatty, Yan Li, Kristen B Long
CD40 is a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. In patients with advanced solid malignancies, CD40 agonists have demonstrated some anti-tumor activity and a manageable toxicity profile. A 2(nd) generation of CD40 agonists has now been designed with optimized Fc receptor (FcR) binding based on preclinical evidence suggesting a critical role for FcR engagement in defining the potency of CD40 agonists in vivo. Areas covered: We provide a comprehensive review using PubMed and Google Patent databases on the current clinical status of CD40 agonists, strategies for applying CD40 agonists in cancer therapy, and the preclinical data that supports and is guiding the future development of CD40 agonists...
December 14, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898252/advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-with-activating-egfr-mutations-first-line-treatment-with-afatinib-and-other-egfr-tkis
#15
Wolfgang Brückl, Amanda Tufman, Rudolf Maria Huber
Based on the results of several randomised controlled trials, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have now replaced platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an activating EGFR mutation. Areas covered: This review describes the EGFR pathway and its abnormalities in NSCLC and discusses the differential molecular and clinical activity of first and next-generation EGFR TKIs in the first-line treatment of tumors with an activating EGFR mutation, with a special focus on the second-generation agent afatinib...
December 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776441/nivolumab-in-melanoma
#16
Pol Specenier
The treatment of melanoma is evolving rapidly over the past few years. Areas covered: We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of nivolumab in melanoma Expert commentary: Nivolumab is approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Nivolumab is superior to chemotherapy and to ipilimumab in previously untreated patients and to chemotherapy in ipilimumab pre-treated patients. The addition ipilimumab to nivolumab is associated with a higher response rate and a better PFS, particularly in patients with PD-L1 negative tumors, albeit at the cost of an increase in grade 3-4 adverse event rate...
November 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744726/the-role-of-alectinib-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-alk-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Srividya Srinivasamaharaj, Bilal Khameze Salame, Jorge Rios-Perez, Goetz Kloecker, Cesar A Perez
The identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer patients has provided with unparalleled opportunities to hinder the progression of this disease through targeting the activity of these specific molecules. Unfortunately most patients develop disease progression in less than a year of treatment with crizotinib, the first-generation ALK-inhibitor. Areas covered: We review the resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors as well as an overview of the clinical activity of the alectinib, a second generation ALK inhibitor...
November 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744727/liver-metastases-resection-for-gastric-and-esophageal-tumors-is-there-enough-evidence-to-go-down-this-path
#18
Gonzalo Tapia Rico, Amanda R Townsend, Myron Klevansky, Timothy J Price
Surgical resection of liver metastases from colorectal and neuroendocrine tumours has become a standard of care for resectable patients with isolated hepatic disease and good performance status, leading to extended survival in a carefully selected subgroup of these patients. However, the role of hepatic surgery in gastric and oesophageal liver metastases is controversial and not clearly defined. Areas covered:a systematic electronic literature search was performed to select the most representative evidence regarding hepatectomies in liver metastases from these two tumours...
October 31, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740862/optimal-design-and-endpoint-of-clinical-trials-using-immune-checkpoint-blocking-agents
#19
Bhumsuk Keam, Hun Jung, Byung Ho Nam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734713/lenvatinib-for-the-treatment-of-radioiodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-indirect-comparison-with-sorafenib
#20
Pawel Kawalec, Iwona Malinowska-Lipień, Tomasz Brzostek, Maria Kózka
Thyroid carcinoma is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence over the past decades. Treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer consists of surgery followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation of the thyroid remnant, and TSH suppression. Among new therapeutic solutions for patients with advanced RR-DTC stage, the most promising seem to be sorafenib and lenvatinib, up to now considered to be orphan drugs. Areas covered: We performed a systematic review of medical databases to collect all eligible clinical trials referring to the topic of our analysis...
October 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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