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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162024/immunotherapeutic-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-where-will-we-go
#1
Inês Anselmo da Costa, Steffen Rausch, Stephan Kruck, Tilman Todenhöfer, Arnulf Stenzl, Jens Bedke
Historically, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered a chemotherapy-resistant tumor. The cornerstone of systemic therapy included mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Currently, a new era is enteres with promising immunotherapeutic treatments, which are becoming commercially available. Areas covered: We provide a comprehensive review using PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov about the following immunotherapies in RCC: i) vaccine therapy, ii) adoptive T Cell Transfer and CAR T cells, iii) nonspecific immunotherapy-IL-2 (new formulations), iv) Checkpoint inhibitors, v) other checkpoint-molecules...
February 4, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142287/overview-and-recent-advances-in-the-treatment-of-neuroblastoma
#2
Sarah B Whittle, Valeria Smith, Erin Doherty, Sibo Zhao, Scott McCarty, Peter E Zage
Children with neuroblastoma have widely divergent outcomes, ranging from cure in >90% of patients with low risk disease to <50% for those with high risk disease. Recent research has shed light on the biology of neuroblastoma, allowing for more accurate risk stratification and treatment reduction in many cases, although newer treatment strategies for children with high-risk and relapsed neuroblastoma are needed to improve outcomes. Areas Covered: Neuroblastoma epidemiology, diagnosis, risk stratification, and recent advances in treatment of both newly diagnosed and relapsed neuroblastoma...
February 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129003/beyond-platinum-treatment-for-nsclc-what-does-the-future-hold
#3
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
For the majority of patients without oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line platinum-based chemotherapy represented until recently the standard treatment approach. The recent understanding of the interactions between immune system and tumor growth has prompted the development of a new class of immunotherapeutic agents, the immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically directed against the pathways exploited by tumor cells to suppress and evade the immune system. Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity, with durable clinical responses and manageable toxicities...
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128984/implementing-neoadjuvant-endocrine-strategies-in-er-positive-her2-negative-breast-cancer
#4
Alexios Matikas, Theodoros Foukakis, Ilias Michalakis, Vassilis Georgoulias
Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely adopted as it increases breast conservation rates, permits the in vivo testing of the activity of chemotherapeutics and offers the opportunity to conduct translational research based on longitudinal assessments of tumor tissue, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy has been met with skepticism owing to slow regression rates and a low chance for pathologic remission. Areas Covered: Herein, the results of clinical trials comparing different endocrine agents as neoadjuvant treatment, endocrine therapy with chemotherapy, treatment duration, novel combinations and putative biomarkers are reviewed, with the aim to better understand the current and future role of this modality in clinical practice...
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984919/from-chemotherapy-to-target-therapies-associated-with-radiation-in-the-treatment-of-nsclc-a-durable-marriage
#5
Filippo Alongi, Stefano Arcangeli, Sara Ramella, Niccolò Giaj-Levra, Paolo Borghetti, Rolando D'angelillo, Francesco Ricchetti, Marta Maddalo, Rosario Mazzola, Marco Trovò, Elvio Russi, Stefano Maria Magrini
The integration between radiotherapy and drugs, from chemotherapy to recently available target therapies, continues to have a relevant role in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aim of the present review is to evaluate the promising and emerging application of the best interaction between new drugs and new modalities of radiotherapy. Areas covered: We searched Medline, Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertation, and Theses databases for reports published in English...
January 5, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937057/radical-cystectomy-do-we-need-standardization
#6
Christian Ladurner, Evi Comploj, Emanuela Trenti, Salvatore Palermo, Alexander Pycha, Armin Pycha
The first series of radical cystectomy with a definition of surgical landmarks was published in 1949 and was characterized by a high perioperative mortality and a 5-year survival rate around 50%. Decades later, nevertheless many surgical progresses were made and the perioperative mortality dropped to 2,5%, this had not lead to an improvement of long term survival rates, also because a standardization of the procedure is still missing. Areas covered: Radical cystectomy is performed with different surgical techniques obmitting a standardization...
December 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983883/intra-arterial-therapies-for-liver-cancer-assessing-tumor-response
#7
Yasmin W Stroehl, Brian S Letzen, Johanna M M van Breugel, Jean-Francois Geschwind, Julius Chapiro
Intra-arterial therapies (IATs) play an integral role in the management of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The ability to accurately assess tumor response to intra-arterial therapies is crucial for clinical management. Several one- and two-dimensional manual imaging-based response assessment techniques, based both on tumor size or enhancement, have shown to be highly subjective and merely surrogate for the actual tumor as a whole. Areas covered: Given the currently existing literature, we will discuss all available tumor assessment techniques and criteria for liver cancer with a strong emphasis on 3D quantitative imaging biomarkers of tumor response in this review...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967249/sunitinib-in-kidney-cancer-10-years-of-experience-and-development
#8
Elise Nassif, Constance Thibault, Yann Vano, Laure Fournier, Laetitia Mauge, Virginie Verkarre, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Arnaud Mejean, Eric Tartour, Stéphane Oudard
Sunitinib is a multi-target, anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a key molecule in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Since it first demonstrated its efficacy ten years ago, overall survival of mRCC has more than doubled, in part due to sunitinib. In most recent years, progress has been made in the comprehension of its mechanism of action and resistance. Areas Covered: In this article, clinical trials involving sunitinib in kidney cancer have been reviewed, defining its different indications in metastatic and localized RCC...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937067/time-to-event-endpoints-in-operable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-randomized-clinical-trials
#9
Frédéric Fiteni, Marie-Justine Paillard, Virginie Westeel, Franck Bonnetain
No guideline for time-to-event endpoints (TTEE) definitions in lung cancer trials exists. Areas covered: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reporting of TTEE in operable non-small-cell lung cancer randomized clinical trials. Expert commentary: Sixty-two TTEE were recorded. In the Methods section, using four key points to define TTEE we observed that the 'starting point', 'events', 'information on censoring', 'assessment of events' were clearly defined for 43 (69.4%), 34 (54.8%), 6 (9.7%), 33 (53.2%) endpoints respectively...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927054/on-treatment-biomarkers-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-towards-individualization-of-prognosis
#10
Frede Donskov, Daniel Y C Heng, Brian I Rini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927088/cancer-immunotherapy-activating-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-through-cd40-agonists
#11
Gregory L Beatty, Yan Li, Kristen B Long
CD40 is a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. In patients with advanced solid malignancies, CD40 agonists have demonstrated some anti-tumor activity and a manageable toxicity profile. A 2(nd) generation of CD40 agonists has now been designed with optimized Fc receptor (FcR) binding based on preclinical evidence suggesting a critical role for FcR engagement in defining the potency of CD40 agonists in vivo. Areas covered: We provide a comprehensive review using PubMed and Google Patent databases on the current clinical status of CD40 agonists, strategies for applying CD40 agonists in cancer therapy, and the preclinical data that supports and is guiding the future development of CD40 agonists...
December 14, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129007/a-new-frontier-for-targeted-therapy-in-nsclc-clinical-efficacy-of-pembrolizumab-in-the-inhibition-of-programmed-cell-death-1-pd-1
#12
Raffaele Addeo
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main pathological type among lung cancers, and it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease when it is no longer amenable to curative treatments. During recent decades, the survival rate for lung cancer patients has improved significantly in only those whose tumours harbour a driver mutation. Immune checkpoint inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. The Keynote 024 is randomized, open-label, international, phase III study to evaluate the efficacy of pembrolizumab, an antibody directed to programmed death 1 (PD-1), an immune checkpoint inhibitor, compared with platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC and PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of the tumour cells...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116915/non-visible-asymptomatic-haematuria-a-review-of-the-guidelines-from-the-urologist-s-perspective
#13
Petros Sountoulides, Ioannis Mykoniatis, Linda Metaxa
Non-visible hematuria, also referred to as 'microscopic hematuria' or 'dipstick positive hematuria' is a common reason for urology referrals with prevalence rates that range from 13% to 20%. The main concern for investigating non-visible hematuria, especially in the absence of lower urinary tract symptoms, is its potential relation to urinary tract malignancy, which however does not exceed 5%. The pathway of investigation of non-visible hematuria is impeded by the lack of clarity over definitions, diagnosis and specialist referral criteria...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112970/clinical-use-of-pi3k-inhibitors-in-b-cell-lymphoid-malignancies-today-and-tomorrow
#14
I B Greenwell, C R Flowers, K A Blum, J B Cohen
PI3K inhibitors are an important new therapeutic option for the treatment of relapsed and refractory B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Idelalisib is a PI3Kδ inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the relapsed/refractory setting, and several other PI3K inhibitors are being developed targeting other isoforms of the PI3K enzyme, which results in distinct toxicities and variable efficacy in the clinical setting. Areas covered: We provide a general overview of PI3K inhibitors, recommended applications, and the mechanism and management of toxicities...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110574/minimizing-toxicity-in-breast-irradiation
#15
Chirag Shah, Bhanu Banda, Rohit Chandra, Frank Vicini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105863/the-role-of-mtor-inhibition-as-second-line-therapy-in-metastatic-renal-carcinoma-clinical-evidence-and-current-challenges
#16
José Luis González-Larriba, Pablo Maroto, Ignacio Durán, Julio Lambea, Luis Flores, Daniel Castellano, The Changing Group
Sequential treatment with targeted agents is the standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Although first-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is recommended for most patients, eventually all patients become resistant to them. Therefore, optimal selection of second-line therapy is crucial. Areas covered: We have reviewed the recent literature through pubmed search and recent congress presentations to briefly describe the clinical evidence for mTOR inhibition as a valid strategy in the treatment of mRCC after progression during anti-VEGFR therapy...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103739/newer-medical-therapies-for-metastatic-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#17
Akash Tiwari, Vineet Govinda Gupta, Sameer Bakhshi
Metastatic/advanced soft tissue sarcoma has a poor prognosis conventionally, treatment options have been limited. In recent years, this area has been a rich ground for research with many new drugs being approved and several more in the pipeline. With multiple new treatment options available, it is vital to keep up pace with this rapidly changing field. Areas covered: Recent data regarding use of novel agents in advanced soft tissue sarcoma is reviewed with a focus on clinical applicability. The goal is to guide the clinician into choosing appropriate lines of therapy for the individual patient in light of recent availability of multiple new treatment options...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103449/anatomical-templates-of-lymph-node-dissection-for-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
Riccardo Campi, Andrea Minervini, Andrea Mari, Georgios Hatzichristodoulou, Francesco Sessa, Albero Lapini, Maurizio Sessa, Jurgen Erich Gschwend, Sergio Serni, Marco Roscigno, Marco Carini
Indications and techniques of lymph node dissection (LND) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) are still controversial. Areas covered: In this study, a systematic review of the English-language literature was performed up to 1 July 2016 using the Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Sciences databases to provide a detailed overview of the most commonly dissected surgical templates of LND for UTUC according to laterality and location of the tumor. Overall, sixteen studies were analyzed. Based on the shared experiences in the scientific literature, the LND template typically included: for right-sided tumors of the renal pelvis, upper third and middle third of the ureter, the renal hilar, paracaval, precaval and retrocaval nodes, while for left-sided tumors the renal hilar, paraaortic and preaortic nodes...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103445/factors-influencing-radiation-treatment-recommendations-in-early-stage-merkel-cell-carcinoma-a-survey-of-us-based-radiation-oncologists
#19
Yolanda D Tseng, Smith Apisarnthanarax, Jay J Liao, Shailender Bhatia, Paul T Nghiem, Upendra Parvathaneni
BACKGROUND: It is unclear which subgroups of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patients benefit the most from radiation. We surveyed radiation oncologists (RO) that regularly see and treat MCC to understand how they approach the treatment of early-stage MCC. METHODS: A web-based survey was emailed to 63 ROs, who were identified through publications, guideline panel membership, and/or affiliation with institutions of high MCC volume. ROs provided treatment recommendations for two hypothetical case scenarios of early stage MCC...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095263/chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Adam C Ehrlich, Shyam Patel, Andrew Meillier, Robin D Rothstein, Frank K Friedenberg
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at an increased risk of colorectal cancer when compared to the general population. Chronic inflammation is thought to be the underlying cause, and medications that reduce inflammation have the potential to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Areas covered: After conducting a PubMed search for relevant literature, we examined several classes of medications that have been studied as potential chemopreventive agents. These include 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, ursodeoxycholic acid, NSAIDs, and statins...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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