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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

Francesca Battaglin, Alberto Puccini, Rossana Intini, Marta Schirripa, Alessandra Ferro, Francesca Bergamo, Sara Lonardi, Vittorina Zagonel, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Fotios Loupakis
Angiogenesis is a complex process regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, thus the loss of its fine equilibrium plays a key role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. Therapeutic agents targeting VEGF/VEGFR signaling, the main regulator of this process, proved to be effective across different treatment lines in metastatic CRC (mCRC) and contributed greatly to improve patients' survival in recent years. Areas covered: This review aimed to summarize the actual body of knowledge available on the VEGF pathway in CRC, including currently available anti-angiogenic drugs and treatment challenges, mechanisms of resistance, promising predictive biomarkers and future perspectives...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Kim Klein, Valérie de Haas, Gertjan J L Kaspers
Although the prognosis of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (pAML) has improved, with current survival rates up to 75%, relapse rates remain high. Areas covered: The low number of patients, the heterogeneous genomic landscape of AML, novel diagnostic techniques, divergent available treatment protocols, and dose-limiting toxicity of conventional agents all contribute to the complexity of AML treatment. This review gives an overview of the current clinical challenges with respect to diagnostics, treatment, and supportive care in pAML...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ruediger Goess, Helmut Friess
Pancreatic cancer is known to be the deadliest of all common cancers. Despite all efforts in pancreatic cancer treatment, the five-year survival rates at diagnosis over the past 20 years have only increased from 5% to 8%. Assuming that pancreatic cancer is going to become the second most frequent cause of cancer related death in the next 20 years, we are all encouraged to treat patients in clinical trials to gain improvements in this devastating disease. Areas covered: This review will provide a summary of pancreatic cancer treatment over the last 20 years, starting with the pivotal study in 1997 which showed the superiority of gemcitabine over 5-FU in advanced pancreatic cancer and is marked as the beginning of a new era in pancreatic cancer treatment...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Joanne Kotsopoulos, Steven A Narod
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Nora Sundahl, Sylvie Rottey, Daan De Maeseneer, Piet Ost
Until recently, patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma after progression on cisplatin-containing chemotherapy had limited systemic treatment options with no significant survival benefit and poor tolerability. Advances in the field of immunotherapy with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors have led to paradigm shifts in the treatment of various malignancies. Areas covered: The current review will summarize the clinical evidence of checkpoint inhibitors in bladder cancer, with a focus on pembrolizumab...
December 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Teresa Amaral, Ioanna Tampouri, Claus Garbe
The aim of this work is to discuss the role of neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma patients, namely the potential to improve control and surgical resectability of locoregional disease. Moreover, potential survival benefits for high-risk stage III and IV melanoma patients will be addressed. Areas covered: In this review, the different available neoadjuvant treatments including chemotherapy, bio-chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and local therapy will be presented and discussed. The PubMed published articles were identified and searched using the following terms located in the publication title: neoadjuvant therapy and melanoma...
December 22, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Alessandro Antonelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi
Cancer immunotherapies were approved in recent years, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Experience with ipilimumab (CTLA-4 antagonist), nivolumab and pembrolizumab (PD-1 antagonists), and atezolizumab (PD-L1 antagonist) has shown that the impact on overall survival in cancer patients is paramount. Immune checkpoint inhibitors target the immune system and they can be applied across multiple cancers; the response rate is ranging from 20 to 40%. Many studies have shown that thyroid cancer (TC) cells produce cytokines and chemokines, inducing several tumor-promoting effects...
December 22, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Roberto Ferrara, Francesca Simionato, Chiara Ciccarese, Elisabetta Grego, Sara Cingarlini, Roberto Iacovelli, Emilio Bria, Giampaolo Tortora, Davide Melisi
PARP1 and BRCA genes are essential genome caretakers and their interaction has been the first example of synthetic lethality, a genetic concept proposed in the early 20th century, but deeply explored in cancer patients only in the last decade. Areas covered: This review describes PARP1 and BRCA main functions and different roles in genome protection. Furthermore, an overview of the principle mechanisms of action and resistance to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) is presented. This review illustrates the concept of BRCAness, and how this discovery has broadened the routes of PARPi to several different malignancies such as ovarian, breast and prostate cancer...
December 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Anteneh A Tesfaye, Mandana Kamgar, Asfar Azmi, Philip A Philip
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is projected to be the second leading cause of cancer related mortality in the United States in 2030, with a 5-year overall survival of less than 10% despite decades of extensive research. Pancreatic cancer is marked by the accumulation of complex molecular changes, complex tumor-stroma interaction, and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. PDAC has proven to be resistant to many cytotoxic, targeted and immunologic treatment approaches. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the major areas of research in PDAC, with highlights on the challenges and areas of opportunity for personalized treatment approaches...
December 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ricardo Coelho, Lara Marcos-Silva, Sara Ricardo, Filipa Ponte, Antonia Costa, Jose Manuel Lopes, Leonor David
Peritoneal dissemination is a particular form of malignant progression in ovarian cancer, preceding hematogenic or lymphatic dissemination. Thus, prevention of peritoneal implantation of cancer cells is envisioned to inhibit neoplastic dissemination and therefore prolong disease remission and patient's survival. Areas covered: An extended review on the role of MUC16 (CA125) and mesothelin (MSLN), expressed in a high percentage of ovarian carcinomas, indicate that this duet is relevant for the contact between cancer cells and mesothelial cells in homotypic (cancer cell-cancer cell) and heterotypic (cancer cell-mesothelial cell) interactions...
December 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
Ensuring quality of life for increasing numbers of women surviving cancer has become a key challenge. Patients need to be counseled on potential fertility loss resulting from gonadotoxic treatments, and referred to fertility specialists to discuss existing options and available results. Areas covered: Fertility preservation options have existed for over twenty years. The proposed fertility preservation approach depends on patient age, the urgency of required chemotherapy, and psychosocial factors such as financial concerns, especially in countries where techniques are not covered by social security...
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Anthony Lopez, Kazuto Harada, Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Xiaochuan Dong, Shumei Song, Jaffer A Ajani
Tumor tissue sample is currently the gold standard for diagnosing gastrointestinal cancers, but also for genomic/immune component analyses that can help in the selection of therapy. However, this approach of studying a 'representative' sample of the tumor does not address inherent heterogeneity. Liquid biopsies, mainly represented by circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, tumor exosomes, and microRNAs, have the potential to assess various biomarkers for early detection of cancer, carrying out genomic/immune profiling for not only selection of appropriate therapy but also to monitor effect of therapy...
December 4, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Mohamed Gomaa Kamel, Amr Ehab El-Qushayri, Tran Quang Thach, Nguyen Tien Huy
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) survivors are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). METHODS: A population-based study was conducted to investigate the cardiovascular mortality trends to identify NHL survivors at the highest risk. RESULTS: The CVDs mortality was the second most common cause of death (13.07%) after NHL. There were more patients ≥ 60 years old in the cardiovascular group (87.2%), P < 0.001. Patients who died from CVDs had the best survival while patients who died from NHL had a significantly lower mean survival...
December 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Neelima Vidula, Hope S Rugo
Hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer represents the most common subtype of breast cancer. Metastatic HR+ breast cancer may develop resistance to standard hormone therapies, arising from genomic alterations in the estrogen receptor and/or upregulation of other signal transduction pathways. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss hormone resistance and strategies to overcome it, from the pre-clinical and clinical perspectives. This review includes a discussion of inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, CDK 4/6, histone deacetylation, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and immune pathways, based on review of relevant literature...
December 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current study tried to evaluate the factors affecting 10- to 20- years' survival among long term survivors (>5 years) of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2008) was queried through SEER*Stat program.Univariate probability of overall and cancer-specific survival was determined and the difference between groups was examined. Multivariate analysis for factors affecting overall and cancer-specific survival was also conducted...
November 26, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Misako Nagasaka, Shirish M Gadgeel
Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of chemotherapy as well as ongoing trials on targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed...
November 26, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Zhi-Dong Xuan, Li Zhou, Yu Wang, Xue Zheng
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the combination of serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-reactive protein (CRP), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). METHODS: Overall, 287 PLC patients who had undergone TACE were allocated into recurrence and non-recurrence groups. One day before and seven days after TACE, CEUS was performed, and serum VEGF and CRP levels were determined...
November 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Yusuf Karakas, Sahin Lacin, Suayib Yalcin
Pancreatic cancer (PC) demonstrates very poor prognosis and its incidence continues to increase, despite developments in chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapies. Surgical resection is currently the only curative approach for PC. The role of radiotherapy in adjuvant and locally advanced PC continues to be increasingly controversial. This review article aims to explore the current knowledge of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, focusing on diagnosis, treatment strategies, and the best supportive care. Areas covered: The current literature on pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment modalities has been summarized, with a focus on clinical trials and reviews...
November 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Richard A Anderson, W Hamish B Wallace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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