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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

Taimur Tariq Shah, Wilson King Lim To, Hashim Uddin Ahmed
With level 1 evidence now available on the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we must now utilise this data in developing an MRI-stratified diagnostic pathway for the early detection of prostate cancer. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted and identified seven randomised control trials (RCT's) assessing the diagnostic accuracy of such a pathway against the previously accepted systematic/random trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) biopsy pathway. The studies were heterogeneous in their design...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Timothy Stockwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sudhir Isharwal, Andrew J Stephenson
Approximately 15-30% of men with localized prostate cancer will experience biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy. Postoperative radiation therapy is used in men with adverse pathological features to reduce the risk of BCR or with curative intent in men with known BCR. In this study, we review the evidence for the adjuvant and salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy. Areas covered: A literature review of the Medline and Embase databases was performed. The search strategy included the following terms: prostate cancer, adjuvant radiotherapy, salvage radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy, biochemical recurrence, and prostate cancer recurrence...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
XiangZhou Tan, QiaoCheng Wen, Ran Wang, ZhiKang Chen
INTRODUCTION: Recently, there has been a controversial discussion about the prognostic value of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) in colorectal cancer patients. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between CIN and the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases to identify studies evaluating the association between CIN and colorectal cancer prognosis. Pooled random/fixed effect models were used to calculate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Published data concerning primary mediastinal sarcomas are limited to small-sized retrospective series.  This study reviewed the clinical outcomes of these cases from the SEER (surveillance, epidemiology and end results) database. METHODS: Primary mediastinal sarcomas (1988 - 2013) were assembled from the SEER database. The incidence and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were compared to other primary mediastinal malignancies (thymic carcinoma, germ cell tumors, neurogenic tumors, Hodgkin / non Hodgkin lymphomas) as well as to non mediastinal sarcomas...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Paolo Dell'Oglio, Armando Stabile, Giorgio Gandaglia, Emanuele Zaffuto, Nicola Fossati, Marco Bandini, Nazareno Suardi, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Shahrokh F Shariat, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti
A considerable number of individuals with prostate cancer (PCa) still harbor locally-advanced and metastatic disease. Although such men were initially not considered eligible for local treatment, the role of radical prostatectomy (RP) has been recently reassessed. Areas covered: This review analyses currently published evidences regarding new surgical approaches for clinically high-risk PCa individuals, as well as the role of cytoreductive surgery in the metastatic setting. The role of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection will be evaluated with regards to perioperative, oncologic, as well as functional outcomes...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Raffaele Ratta, Paolo Grassi, Giovanni Fucà, Elena Verzoni, Giuseppe Procopio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Scott H Okuno, Avudaiappan Maran, Steven I Robinson
Olaratumab, a human monoclonal antibody against platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR- α), is the first drug that in combination with doxorubicin for the treatment of patients with advanced/metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that has showed an improved overall survival compared to doxorubicin alone. These initial results are exciting and have the potential to change the landscape of treatment for patients with STS. Areas covered: This article reviews the development of olaratumab for oncology use by reviewing articles in PubMed for 'platelet derived growth factor' and 'receptor' and 'soft tissue sarcoma'...
September 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Paola Queirolo, Francesco Spagnolo
Activating NRAS mutations occur in approximately 15-20% of melanomas and are the second most common oncogenic driver mutation in this disease, after BRAF mutations. There is an unmet medical need for new targeted therapy opportunities in metastatic patients whose tumors harbor an NRAS mutation. Binimetinib, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, has shown clinical activity in this group of patients. Areas covered: The purpose of this paper was to review the safety, activity and efficacy of the MEK inhibitor binimetinib for the treatment of NRAS-mutant melanoma, as well as to discuss future therapeutic perspectives such as multiple pathways, targeted therapy, and combinations with immunotherapy...
September 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Nathalie Baize, Isabelle Monnet, Laurent Greillier, Gilles Quere, Mallorie Kerjouan, Henri Janicot, Alain Vergnenegre, Jean Bernard Auliac, Christos Chouaid
Second-line therapies for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients remain a challenge, with limited clinical benefit because of rapid tumor growth, early dissemination and the development of drug resistance during the disease. Recent developments in genomic sequencing have provided further insight into the biology of the disease, identifying new targets and new pathways. Areas covered: This review details chemotherapy, targeted therapies and immune-checkpoint blockades that have been investigated as second-line treatments for SCLC patients using a PubMed search (period 1990 - 2016, terms used: SCLC, treatments, second line, therapy)...
September 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sherif Hassanien Ahmed, Noha Elbaghdady, Mohamed Alorabi
The approval of multiple biological therapies as a first line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the last decade have made the selection of the best treatment between these drugs, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), a great challenge to oncologists and patients. The four TKIs recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines in this setting have a relatively similar mechanism of action and analogical adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, the two published American Society of Clinical Oncology frameworks are applied to calculate the net health benefits of the four TKIs used as the first line in mRCC and this was balanced against their monthly cost...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Subotheni Thavaneswaran, Peey Sei Kok, Timothy Price
INTRODUCTION: Multimodality treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has significantly improved local disease control, however the unaltered overall survival (OS) implicates an inability to further control micrometastases, providing rationale for intensified systemic treatment. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adding oxaliplatin to a fluoropyrimidine (intervention) compared with fluoropyrimidine alone (control) in the treatment of LARC...
September 6, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Marios Bakogeorgos, Vassilis Georgoulias
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a common adverse effect of several chemotherapeutic agents, has a significant impact on quality of life and may even compromise treatment efficacy, requiring chemotherapy dose reduction or discontinuation. CIPN is predominantly related with sensory rather than motor symptoms and the most common related cytotoxic agents are platinum compounds, taxanes and vinca alkaloids. CIPN symptoms may resolve after treatment cessation, but they can also be permanent and continue for years...
September 3, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Robin Paterson, Kelly-Anne Phillips
Mutations in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are responsible for approximately 42,000 cases of breast cancer annually. Identifying these germline mutations in a woman with breast cancer is important because it can influence her immediate and long-term management and has important implications for other family members. Areas covered: This review highlights how treatment-focussed genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations can potentially influence cancer treatment and secondary prevention decisions in women with breast cancer...
August 30, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Eva Segelov, Florian Lordick, David Goldstein, Lorraine A Chantrill, Daniel Croagh, Ben Lawrence, Dirk Arnold, Ian Chau, Radka Obermannova, Timothy Jay Price
Despite recent progress, the outlook for most patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. There is variation in how patients are managed globally due to differing interpretations of the evidence, partly because studies in this disease are challenging to undertake. This article collates the evidence upon which current best practice is based and offers an expert opinion from an international faculty on how latest developments should influence current treatment paradigms. Areas covered: Optimal chemotherapy for first and subsequent lines of therapy; optimal management of locally advanced, non-metastatic cancer including the role of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy, current evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy, major advances in pancreatic cancer genomics and challenges in supportive care particularly relevant to patients with pancreatic cancer...
August 28, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Rosanna H Yeung, Tobias R Chapman, Stephen R Bowen, Smith Apisarnthanarax
Radiation therapy is an effective treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, radiotherapy for HCC still has limited recognition as a standard treatment option in international consensus guidelines due to a paucity of randomized controlled trials and the risk of hepatotoxicity, which is primarily mediated by baseline liver function and dose delivered to non-tumor liver cells. Proton beam therapy (PBT) may offer advantages over photon-based radiation treatments through its dosimetric characteristic of sparing more liver volume at low to moderate doses...
August 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
D Lipman, B R Pieters, Theo M De Reijke
Prostate cancer has one of the highest incidences in the world, with good curative treatment options like radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, about 30% of the patients initially treated with curative intent will develop a recurrence and need adjuvant treatment. Five randomized trials covered the role of postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy, but there is still a lot of debate about which patients should receive postoperative radiotherapy. Areas covered: This review will give an overview on the available literature concerning post-operative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy with an emphasis on the five randomized trials...
August 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sameer Sait, Shakeel Modak
Current therapeutic approaches for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) include high-dose chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy; interventions that are associated with long and short-term toxicities. Effective immunotherapy holds particular promise for improving survival and quality of life by reducing exposure to cytotoxic agents. GD2, a surface glycolipid is the most common target for immunotherapy. Areas covered: We review the status of anti-GD2 immunotherapies currently in clinical use for neuroblastomas and novel GD2-targeted strategies in preclinical development...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sarah N Hamilton, Eric Tran, Eric Berthelet, Jonn Wu
This review article explores the use of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in well differentiated thyroid cancer. Areas covered: The published literature on EBRT for advanced pT4 disease and macroscopic unresectable disease to improve locoregional control is reviewed. EBRT techniques, volumes and doses are discussed in detail. The potential acute and late toxicities of EBRT are discussed in the context of the published literature. The use of EBRT for patients with metastatic disease is also described. Expert commentary: There is good retrospective evidence for EBRT in the setting of unresectable gross residual well-differentiated thyroid cancer as this can result in long-term local control...
August 2, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sunil Parimi, Jenny J Ko
The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has changed dramatically over the past five years. As new discoveries are made and further novel therapies become available, there is a heightened urgency to develop biomarkers that can guide prognoses and predict therapy responses. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the blood have emerged as potential promising tumor avatars. Areas covered: In this review, we describe technological breakthroughs and clinical implementation of the CTCs and ctDNA...
July 31, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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