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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

Antonio Rossi, Rebecca Tay, Jaseela Chiramel, Arsela Prelaj, Raffaele Califano
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a very aggressive disease characterized by a high response rate to first-line chemotherapy, but most patients relapse within 1 year with disappointing results to second-line treatments. Chemotherapy has reached a plateau of effectiveness and new therapeutic strategies are needed to change the natural history of SCLC. Areas covered: This review will focus on the current results and the future development of the therapeutic approaches for the treatment of SCLC. Expert commentary: Immunotherapy is becoming a new frontier for the management of SCLC with preliminary interesting results...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Willem Oosterlinck, Karel Decaestecker
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a highly recurrent disease. Early bladder chemotherapy instillation (EBCI) after transurethral resection (TURB) is an efficient way to diminish recurrence. However, this method is often challenged. Areas covered: There was a recent publication of a large meta-analysis with the original patient data and the largest study ever on EBCI. Both brought new evidence on EBCI. Also the results of the 2 trials of EBCI with apaziquone appeared. EBCI is discussed among other methods to decrease recurrence...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Alejo Rodriguez-Vida, Joaquim Bellmunt
Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) remains an aggressive disease associated with limited treatment options and a reduced survival. In spite of this, the first-line treatment based on platinum-based combinations has remained virtually unchanged for the last 20-30 years. Similarly, before the advent of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, there were no FDA-approved drugs for second-line therapy. In the last few years, impressive signs of anti-tumor activity have been reported with several immunotherapy agents targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Wen-Tong Zhang, Wen-Wen Zhang, Zhen-Yu He, Jia-Yuan Sun, Lei Zhang, Qing Xia, San-Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: To investigate the optimal local treatment strategies for patients with non-metastatic Ewing sarcoma (ES) of bone. METHODS: Patients with ES of bone were identified using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression models were performed to assess the effect of the types of local treatment strategies on cause-specific survival and overall survival. RESULTS: 560 patients were included with a median age of 16 years...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Brooke L Prinzing, Stephen M Gottschalk, Giedre Krenciute
The outcome for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor, and there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic approaches. T cells genetically modified with chimeric antigen receptor (CARs) hold the promise to improve outcomes since they recognize and kill cells through different mechanisms than conventional therapeutics. Areas covered: This article reviews CAR design, tumor associated antigens expressed by GBMs that can be targeted with CAR T cells, preclinical and clinical studies conducted with CAR T cells, and genetic approaches to enhance their effector function...
March 13, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Danyang Shen, Xiaoming Yu, Yan Wu, Yuanlei Chen, Gonghui Li, Feng Cheng, Liqun Xia
Retinoic acid X receptors play key roles in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis via transcriptional regulation. Bexarotene is a specific RXRs agonist which has been granted by FDA approval for the clinical treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). Its cancer prevention and treatment potentials in various tumors have been under investigation over the past decade. Areas covered: This review summarizes the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of bexarotene for the treatment of multiple cancers based on the launched clinical trials as well as the basic studies...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Christoph Oing, Christoph Seidel, Carsten Bokemeyer
Most germ cell cancer patients with metastatic disease are cured by cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. 30% of metastatic patients will develop relapse or progress despite adequate first-line treatment and will require salvage therapy, with about 10% of metastasized patients ultimately developing platinum-resistant and fatal disease. Areas covered: Based on a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference proceedings of ESMO, ASCO and EAU meetings, this review provides an overview on current and potential future treatment options for platinum-refractory germ cell cancer patients including cytostatics and molecularly targeted therapies...
March 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Pernelle Lavaud, Zineb Hamilou, Yohann Loriot, Christophe Massard
Urothelial bladder cancer is one of the most predominant malignancies worldwide with a poor prognosis when presented at an advanced or metastatic stage. Improving the therapeutic landscape in this setting has been an unmet medical need. Palliative cisplatin-based chemotherapy is currently the standard of care in first line therapies, but many patients are ineligible and few alternative therapies exist. Moreover second-line chemotherapy has minimal activity. Recently, immune-checkpoint inhibitors have shifted the therapeutic armamentarium of bladder cancer and it is now necessary to redesign the therapeutic paradigm...
February 28, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Mairead Baker, Lisa Cordes, Isaac Brownell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer. Although MCC is chemosensitive, responses to traditional chemotherapeutic agents are not durable. Avelumab, a novel anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, recently became the first FDA-approved agent for the treatment of metastatic MCC and represents a new option to improve patient survival. Areas covered: This article presents an overview of MCC and summarizes the development of avelumab in the treatment of metastatic MCC. Preclinical studies, phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials, and the safety profile of avelumab are reviewed...
February 28, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Rosario Mazzola, Alba Fiorentino, Francesco Ricchetti, Fabiana Gregucci, Stefanie Corradini, Filippo Alongi
Technological and technical improvements allowed for significant advances in the field of radiation therapy (RT) of head and neck cancer (HNC). Several organ-sparing strategies have been investigated with the objective to decrease acute and long-term adverse effects and, subsequently, to assure a better quality of life in patients affected by HNC. In this context, intensity modulated irradiation and the use of multimodality-imaging could help clinicians to obtain a rapid dose fall off towards surrounding healthy tissues and a better delineation of targets volumes and organs at risk...
February 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sebastiano Mercadante
Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is an episode of severe intensity in patients receiving an adequate treatment with opioids able to provide at least mild analgesia. BTcP is a heterogeneous condition as episodes vary between individuals. The aim of this article is to review the pharmacologic options for the management of BTcP. Areas covered: Recent reviews revealed that transmucosal preparations of fentanyl provided superior and more rapid pain relief as compared to placebo and oral morphine within the first 30 minutes after dosing...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Monica Tang, Timothy Jay Price, Jeremy Shapiro, Peter Gibbs, Daniel G Haller, Dirk Arnold, Marc Peeters, Eva Segelov, Amitesh Roy, Niall Tebbutt, Nick Pavlakis, Chris Karapetis, Matthew Burge
Oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy has been the standard of care for resected early colon cancer for over a decade. Recent results from the IDEA meta-analysis attempt to address the question of whether 3 or 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy is preferable in stage III colon cancer. Areas covered: A review of the literature and recent conference presentations was undertaken on the topic of adjuvant therapy for resected early colon cancers. This article reviews the current evidence for adjuvant treatment of stage II and III colon cancer, as well as up-to-date data regarding optimal duration of therapy...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Marcelo Nazário Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Pereira de Lima, Francesca Paolini, Alanne Rayssa da Silva Melo, Ana Paula Ferreira Campos, Aldo Venuti, Antonio Carlos de Freitas
Cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are well-known outcomes of a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Viral oncogenes expressions like E6, E7, and, recently recognized E5, lead to HPV-related malignant progression. Although HPV prevention by powerful vaccines against most frequent and oncogenic genotypes is feasible, current treatment against cervical neoplasia is distant from an ideal one. In addition, late diagnosis is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. On top of that, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are less effective in high-grade lesions...
February 23, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Marcello Maida, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Calogero Cammà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
John T Miura, Jonathan S Zager
The emergence of novel intralesional therapies have dramatically changed the treatment landscape for melanoma. The heterogeneous presentation of melanoma continues to pose challenges for clinicians, especially when dealing with advanced locoregional disease. Intralesional therapies have the benefit of causing local tumor destruction, while minimizing systemic toxicity. Moreover, the integration of immunotherapeutic agents into intralesional compounds has resulted in the additional benefit of a bystander effect, whereby untreated distant lesions also derive a benefit from treatment...
February 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Seung Yoon Yang, Min Soo Cho, Nam Kyu Kim
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and it exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways, and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. Differences in the microbiome, clinical characteristics, and chromosomal and molecular characteristics have been reported between the right and left side of the colon. Areas covered: This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and chromosomal and molecular studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunological differences between the right-sided colon and the left-sided colorectum in metastatic colorectal cancer...
February 19, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Michele Marchioni, Sebastiano Nazzani, Felix Preisser, Marco Bandini, Pierre I Karakiewicz
In patients with muscle invasive or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin refractory urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) radical cystectomy represents the standard of care. However, a proportion of patients experience disease progression, local recurrence and/or metastatic disease. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of available therapeutic strategies after radical cystectomy and examines ongoing clinical trials including cytotoxic chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Expert commentary: Cytotoxic chemotherapy offers limited benefit in UCUB patients...
February 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Michelle Jacobson, Steven A Narod
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Michael Davidson, Ian Chau
Treatment patterns for locally advanced operable gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinoma vary, with the optimal approach an area of debate within oncology. Strategies for treatment include a variety of neo-adjuvant, adjuvant and peri-operative regimens involving differing chemotherapy and radiotherapy combinations. Areas covered: This review will critically appraise the evidence base underpinning the main treatment approaches in operable oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma, highlighting variations in treatment by factors such as geographical area and primary tumor site...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Javier González, Jeffrey J Gaynor, Mahmoud Alameddine, Manuel Esteban, Gaetano Ciancio
Surgery may set the basis for a potential cure or would provide the best achievable quality of life in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, survival extension with this approach would be scarce and not exempt from adverse events, thus preventing its recommendation in an already frail patient. An evidence based analysis on the role of surgery in each of the possible clinical scenarios involved under this heading may provide a clear picture on this issue and would be of value in the decision making process...
January 25, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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