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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447483/the-role-of-adhesions-between-homologous-cancer-cells-in-tumor-progression-and-targeted-therapy
#1
Jie Xia, Yuhao Cheng, Hang Zhang, Rutian Li, Yiqiao Hu, Baorui Liu
Adhesions between homologous cancer cells play an important role in promoting tumor progression and designing tumor-targeting methods. Known as "homologous adhesions" of cancerous cells, these are usually more specific than adhesions to normal cells and heterogenic cells, and they have been widely discovered both in vivo and in vitro. The aberrant expression of cell adhesion-related molecules (CARMs) on each species of cancer cells is mainly responsible for inducing more specific homologous adhesions. Based on the improvement of biomimetic technologies, such adhesion has been investigated and applied deeply in drug delivery systems recently...
April 27, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438066/angiogenesis-inhibitors-in-tackling-recurrent-glioblastoma
#2
Thomas Hundsberger, David A Reardon, Patrick Y Wen
Despite aggressive multimodality treatment of glioblastoma, outcome remains poor and patients mostly die of local recurrences. Besides reoperation and occasionally reirradiation, systemic treatment of recurrent glioblastoma consists of alkylating chemotherapy (lomustine, temozolomide), bevacizumab and combinations thereof. Unfortunately, antiangiogenic agents failed to improve survival either as a monotherapy or in combination treatments. This review provides current insights into tumor-derived escape mechanisms and other areas of treatment failure of antiangiogenic agents in glioblastoma...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425820/metastatic-soft-tissue-sarcoma-current-treatment-landscape-and-future-perspectives
#3
E Skafida, S Kokkali, M Nikolaou, A Digklia
The therapeutic armamentarium for advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has increased over the last few years. Doxorubicin monotherapy or in combination is now the established first line treatment. Beyond first line treatment, no standard therapy has been established. Novel drugs have reached the late-clinical stage development demonstrating to be effective in controlled studies. While these novel treatments can be beneficial to a subset of patients, even producing long lasting remissions, a significant fraction of the STS population derives limited benefit...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406334/the-need-for-active-surveillance-for-low-risk-prostate-cancer
#4
Frank-Jan H Drost, Monique J Roobol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403675/advances-in-the-use-of-surgery-and-multimodality-treatment-for-n2-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Paul E Van Schil, Krishan Yogeswaran, Jeroen M Hendriks, Patrick Lauwers, Corinne Faivre-Finn
stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a heterogeneous group of bronchogenic carcinomas with locoregional involvement. Different categories of N2 disease exist, ranging from unexpectedly encountered N2 involvement after detailed preoperative staging or "surprise" N2, to potentially resectable disease treated within a combined modality setting, and finally, bulky N2 involvement treated by chemoradiation. Areas covered: Large randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses on stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC have been published but their implications for treatment remain a matter of debate...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399672/targeting-adenosine-in-cancer-immunotherapy-a-review-of-recent-progress
#6
Theresa L Whiteside
The adenosine pathway plays a key role in modulating immune responses in health and in disease. In health, anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine balance pro-inflammatory ATP, limiting tissue destruction by activated immune cells. In disease, this balance is disturbed. Areas covered: This review focuses on cancer and explains how in the microenvironment, the ATP-adenosine balance shifts towards an excess of extracellular adenosine Expert commentary: The CD73-adenosine axis plays a key role in the inhibition of anti-tumor functions of immune effector cells...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142287/overview-and-recent-advances-in-the-treatment-of-neuroblastoma
#7
Sarah B Whittle, Valeria Smith, Erin Doherty, Sibo Zhao, Scott McCarty, Peter E Zage
Children with neuroblastoma have widely divergent outcomes, ranging from cure in >90% of patients with low risk disease to <50% for those with high risk disease. Recent research has shed light on the biology of neuroblastoma, allowing for more accurate risk stratification and treatment reduction in many cases, although newer treatment strategies for children with high-risk and relapsed neuroblastoma are needed to improve outcomes. Areas covered: Neuroblastoma epidemiology, diagnosis, risk stratification, and recent advances in treatment of both newly diagnosed and relapsed neuroblastoma...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271747/short-term-outcomes-of-neoadjuvant-hormonal-therapy-versus-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-breast-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Lei Huang, A-Man Xu
Estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)) breast cancer (BC) is highly hormonal therapy-responsive. The choice between neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) remains controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate benefits and safety of NHT compared with NCT for operable BC patients. Areas covered: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing NHT and NCT for treatment of invasive and immunohistochemically ER(+) BC. Major outcomes were clinical response rate, pathologic complete response (pCR), operation methods, recurrence, and adverse events...
March 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271737/could-nampt-inhibition-become-a-potential-treatment-option-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Antje Garten, Susanne Schuster, Melanie Penke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277100/statistical-approaches-for-evaluating-body-composition-markers-in-clinical-cancer-research
#10
Mohamed Amine Bayar, Sami Antoun, Emilie Lanoy
The term 'morphomics' stands for the markers of body composition in muscle and adipose tissues. in recent years, as part of clinical cancer research, several associations between morphomics and outcome or toxicity were found in different treatment settings leading to a growing interest. we aim to review statistical approaches used to evaluate these markers and suggest practical statistical recommendations. Area covered: We identified statistical methods used recently to take into account properties of morphomics measurements...
March 2, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277101/radiosurgery-stereotactic-radiotherapy-in-combination-with-immunotherapy-and-targeted-agents-for-melanoma-brain-metastases
#11
Elisabetta Trino, Cristina Mantovani, Serena Badellino, Umberto Ricardi, Andrea Riccardo Filippi
The clinical landscape of advanced melanoma drastically changed after the introduction of both targeted therapies and immunotherapy. This rapid development in systemic therapies led to a change in the management of patients with brain metastases, with the subsequent need to re-assess the role of local therapies, in particular stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Areas covered: In this non-systematic review, we report on the current knowledge on the use of SRS in combination with immunotherapy and BRAF/MEK inhibitors for patients with melanoma brain metastases, as well as ongoing trials in this field...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277102/immune-related-ocular-toxicities-in-solid-tumor-patients-treated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-systematic-review
#12
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Hani Oweira, Ulf Petrausch, Daniel Helbling, Jan Schmidt, Meinrad Mannhart, Arianeb Mehrabi, Othmar Schöb, Anwar Giryes
Immune-related ocular toxicities are uncommon but serious adverse events that may be associated with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The objective of this review is to assess the incidence and risk of ocular toxicities which are potentially immune-related and occur with immune checkpoint treatment of solid tumors. Areas covered: PubMed database has been searched till June 2016. Prospective clinical trials reporting the occurrence of immune-related ocular toxicities in solid tumor patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors were included...
February 24, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162024/immunotherapeutic-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-where-will-we-go
#13
Inês Anselmo Da Costa, Steffen Rausch, Stephan Kruck, Tilman Todenhöfer, Arnulf Stenzl, Jens Bedke
Historically, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered a chemotherapy-resistant tumor. The cornerstone of systemic therapy included mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Currently, a new era is enteres with promising immunotherapeutic treatments, which are becoming commercially available. Areas covered: We provide a comprehensive review using PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov about the following immunotherapies in RCC: i) vaccine therapy, ii) adoptive T Cell Transfer and CAR T cells, iii) nonspecific immunotherapy - IL-2 (new formulations), iv) Checkpoint inhibitors, v) other checkpoint-molecules...
February 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277103/hematologic-toxicity-in-anal-cancer-patients-during-combined-chemo-radiation-a-radiation-oncologist-perspective
#14
Pierfrancesco Franco, Francesca Arcadipane, Riccardo Ragona, Massimiliano Mistrangelo, Paola Cassoni, Patrizia Racca, Mario Morino, Gianmauro Numico, Umberto Ricardi
Hematologic toxicity is an important side effect occurring in patients affected with anal cancer, undergoing combined radio-chemotherapy, with consistent clinical meaningfulness. Areas covered: Since more than a half of bone marrow is comprised within the pelvic region, the radiation dose received by this functional compartment is crucial. Modern imaging modalities may provide a useful tool to identify bone marrow and new delivery technology may enhance the radiation oncologist's possibility to selectively spare these structures, potentially decreasing acute hematologic toxicity profile in this setting...
February 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128984/implementing-neoadjuvant-endocrine-strategies-in-er-positive-her2-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Alexios Matikas, Theodoros Foukakis, Ilias Michalakis, Vassilis Georgoulias
Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely adopted as it increases breast conservation rates, permits the in vivo testing of the activity of chemotherapeutics and offers the opportunity to conduct translational research based on longitudinal assessments of tumor tissue, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy has been met with skepticism owing to slow regression rates and a low chance for pathologic remission. Areas covered: Herein, the results of clinical trials comparing different endocrine agents as neoadjuvant treatment, endocrine therapy with chemotherapy, treatment duration, novel combinations and putative biomarkers are reviewed, with the aim to better understand the current and future role of this modality in clinical practice...
February 9, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129003/beyond-platinum-treatment-for-nsclc-what-does-the-future-hold
#16
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399678/surrogate-endpoints-for-overall-survival-in-lung-cancer-trials-a-review
#17
Frédéric Fiteni, Virginie Westeel, Franck Bonnetain
Intermediate endpoints are often used as primary endpoints instead of overall survival (OS) in lung cancer trials but they are not systematically validated as surrogate endpoints for OS. Areas covered: The aim of the study was to review the studies which assessed potential surrogate endpoints for OS in lung cancer trials. Expert commentary: Twenty studies were identified. In operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (adjuvant trials) and locally advanced NSCLC (radiotherapy trials), one individual-patient data meta-analysis found a high correlation of disease-free survival (DFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with OS at patient and trial level...
May 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395560/fertility-preservation-in-women-with-cns-tumors
#18
Alicia Tosoni, Damiano Balestrini, Alba A Brandes
Fertility impairment due to treatments is a major concern for adolescents and young adult patients who survived cancer. Areas covered: Chemotherapy may determine a detrimental effect on ovary function, leading to infertility, and premature ovarian failure. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation is a standard strategy for fertility preservation; other strategies, such as gonadal tissue cryopreservation and the use of gonadotropin - releasing hormone agonist, are still considered experimental. There are few data available regarding the effect of pregnancy on glioma, which indicates tumor progression during pregnancy in 33-45% of patients...
May 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359179/tackling-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-in-the-clinic
#19
Solomon L Woldu, Öner Şanli, Yair Lotan
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a common disease process with a high propensity for recurrence and risk of progression to muscle-invasive or systemic disease. Optimal management of NMIBC depends on appropriate resection and staging, risk-based use of intravesical therapy and tailored surveillance. Current challenges include compliance with guideline recommendations and cancers which are refractory to standard therapies. Areas covered: This review summarizes the conventional management of NMIBC - which relies on strict cystoscopic surveillance and intravesical therapies with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy in the form of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)...
May 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338376/pembrolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Mirte Muller, Robert D Schouten, Cornedine J De Gooijer, Paul Baas
In the last years, a spectacular development of immunotherapeutic agents aimed at the PD-1/PD-L1 axis has taken place. This development of these checkpoint inhibitors has greatly influenced our approach to the treatment of lung cancer in first and second line. The limited toxicity profile and the ability to treat for prolonged periods, even in smokers, is a welcome expansion of the therapeutic arsenal of the oncologist. Areas covered: This review highlights the results of recent clinical trials on pembrolizumab for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer...
May 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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