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Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy

Pol Specenier
The treatment of melanoma is evolving rapidly over the past few years. Areas covered: We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of nivolumab in melanoma Expert commentary: Nivolumab is approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Nivolumab is superior to chemotherapy and to ipilimumab in previously untreated patients and to chemotherapy in ipilimumab pre-treated patients. The addition ipilimumab to nivolumab is associated with a higher response rate and a better PFS, particularly in patients with PD-L1 negative tumors, albeit at the cost of an increase in grade 3-4 adverse event rate...
October 25, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Lindsey E Minion, Krishnansu S Tewari
Introduction Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (Avastin; Genetech, Inc, San Francisco, CA). Angiogenesis is blocked by the binding of bevacizumab to VEGF, inhibiting the binding of this ligand to the VEGF receptor. On August 14, 2014 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of bevacizumab in persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Areas Covered Herein we review pharmacodynamics and kinetics, clinical data and treatment-related toxicities of bevacizumab in the treatment of metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Gonzalo Tapia Rico, Amanda R Townsend, Myron Klevansky, Timothy J Price
Surgical resection of liver metastases from colorectal and neuroendocrine tumours has become a standard of care for resectable patients with isolated hepatic disease and good performance status, leading to extended survival in a carefully selected subgroup of these patients. However, the role of hepatic surgery in gastric and oesophageal liver metastases is controversial and not clearly defined. Areas covered: A systematic electronic literature search was performed to select the most representative evidence regarding hepatectomies in liver metastases from these two tumours...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Srividya Srinivasamaharaj, Bilal Khameze Salame, Jorge Rios-Perez, Goetz Kloecker, Cesar A Perez
The identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer patients has provided with unparalleled opportunities to hinder the progression of this disease through targeting the activity of these specific molecules. Unfortunately most patients develop disease progression in less than a year of treatment with crizotinib, the first-generation ALK-inhibitor. Areas covered: We review the resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors as well as an overview of the clinical activity of the alectinib, a second generation ALK inhibitor...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Axel Andres, Pietro Majno, Sylvain Terraz, Philippe Morel, Arnaud Roth, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Eduardo Schiffer, Frederic Ris, Christian Toso
Colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is the most frequent indication for liver resection in many centers. Recent improvements in oncology, surgery, interventional radiology, pathology and anesthesiology allow curative treatment in a larger proportion of patients with CRLM. Areas covered: We illustrate the various aspects of the management of CRLM through 11 questions that summarize the topic, from the current obtained survival to future perspectives such as transplantation. The limits of a curative treatment are also presented from different angles, such as the benefits of pathology, the surgical options for extreme resections, the available chemotherapies and their efficacy, or the non-surgical ablative treatments...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Anita Lavery, Clare Gilson, Simon Chowdhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Dimitrios Zardavas, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Theodora Goulioti, Martine Piccart
INTRODUCTION: The potential of molecular targeted therapy to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC) as adjuvant therapy has been first demonstrated through endocrine treatment. The introduction of HER2 blockade, through the successful clinical development of trastuzumab, changed the natural history of HER2-positive BC subtype. AREAS COVERED: There are ongoing efforts to augment further the use of targeted agents as adjuvant treatment in BC, hoping that early introduction of targeted therapy blocking key oncogenic drivers of micro-residual disease, will significantly improve clinical outcomes...
October 14, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Bhumsuk Keam, Hun Jung, Byung Ho Nam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Pawel Kawalec, Iwona Malinowska-Lipień, Tomasz Brzostek, Maria Kózka
Thyroid carcinoma is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence over the past decades. Treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer consists of surgery followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation of the thyroid remnant, and TSH suppression. Among new therapeutic solutions for patients with advanced RR-DTC stage, the most promising seem to be sorafenib and lenvatinib, up to now considered to be orphan drugs. Areas covered: We performed a systematic review of medical databases to collect all eligible clinical trials referring to the topic of our analysis...
October 13, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Vit Weinberger, Marketa Bednarikova, David Cibula, Michal Zikan
Introduction Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is most likely precursor lesion of the most part of high-grade serous pelvis carcinomas, carcinosarcoma and undifferentiated carcinoma with incidence of 0.6% to 7% in BRCA carriers or women with strong family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma. STIC is a pathomorphologically and immunohistochemically detectable lesion which biological significance and clinical relevance is unknown. Areas covered We investigate methods of STIC diagnostics and we present an overview of recent studies and available knowledge on surgical management, adjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent follow-up procedure in women with an isolated STIC...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Marcello Maida, Giuseppe Malizia, Andrea Affronti, Roberto Virdone, Carlo Maida, Vito Margherita, Gennaro D'Amico
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Early diagnosis of HCC is important since observational studies have reported that, in patients undergoing surveillance, cancer is diagnosed at an earlier stage with increased chances of curative therapies. Anyway, despite the extensive use of screening for HCC, its effectiveness is still a controversial topic since supporting evidence is not unequivocal and some issues need to be explored...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Alberto Di Martino, Antonio Caldaria, Vincenzo De Vivo, Vincenzo Denaro
Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESSC) is a frequent event in patients affected by solid tumor metastases. Current available approaches for MESCC include corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgery. In the last few years, surgery has evolved from decompression by laminectomy alone, with the introduction of instrumentation systems by metalware (screws and hooks), and this has been associated to an improvement of clinical results compared to radiotherapy alone. Areas covered: In this narrative review, we outline the phases of management of cancer patients affected by MESSC, and discuss the timing of treatments, their impact on the Quality of life (QoL), and the relative benefits and harms of surgery and radiotherapy...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Takashi Nakano, Kozo Kuribayashi, Koji Mikami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Valérie Paulus, Virginie Avrillon, Maurice Pérol
Angiogenesis is critical for tumor growth, proliferation and metastasis with the crucial role of Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the extracellular domain of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2. Areas covered: We performed a search on Medline to browse the current literature on Ramucirumab and anti-angiogenic agents, for the treatment of NSCLC. The REVEL study demonstrated a significant improvement of response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival by adding ramucirumab to docetaxel compared to docetaxel plus a placebo in second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer, irrespective of histology, with an acceptable safety profile...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Jean-Guy Belliveau, Glenn Bauman, David R Macdonald
The post-treatment monitoring of glioma patients remains an area of active research and development. Conventional imaging with MRI is a highly sensitive modality for detecting and monitoring primary and secondary brain tumors and includes multi-parametric sequences to better characterize the disease. Standardized schemes for measuring response to treatment are in wide clinical use; however, the introduction of new therapeutics have introduced new patterns of response that can confound interpretation of conventional MRI and can cause uncertainty in the proper management following therapy...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Bibhusal Thapa, D Neil Watkins, Tom John
Initial data of immune based therapy showed promise for improving malignant mesothelioma (MM) treatment. However, the results of such treatments have neither been predictable nor consistent and recent clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors in MM have dampened initial enthusiasm. Areas covered: We comprehensively discuss the basis, modalities and updated results of immunotherapy in MM. An online search was conducted for relevant literature and abstracts of recent meetings. Expert commentary: Although initial studies have demonstrated proof of principle that manipulating the immune checkpoint axis holds promise in MM, results of some recent large studies using checkpoint inhibitors have been disappointing...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Fable Zustovich, Davide Pastorelli
Bone metastases affect the majority of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. This review describes the current therapies available for the management of CRPC patients with bone metastases. Areas covered: Studies on the use of currently available therapeutic approaches for palliating pain, delaying skeletal-related events (SREs) and prolonging survival in CRPC patients with bone metastases have been examined. PubMed database was searched in May 2016 starting with the following keywords: ('castration-resistant prostate cancer' OR 'CRPC') AND 'bone metastases', and approximately 270 results were retrieved...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Musaddiq Awan, Neelesh Sharma, Christopher W Towe, Jimmy T Efird, Mitchell Machtay, Tithi Biswas
A third of patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) present with Stage III disease with mediastinal (N2) nodal involvement representing an extremely heterogeneous population with a generally poor prognosis. Areas covered: This article describes the complexity of Stage III-N2 patients reviewing the outcomes of key clinical trials while highlighting the trial designs and subtleties that have created controversy in management. Both bimodality approaches combining chemotherapy with either surgery or radiation and trimodality approaches combining chemotherapy with both local therapies are reviewed...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Puey Ling Chia, Prudence Russell, Andrew M Scott, Thomas John
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive malignancy of the pleura and other serosal membranes originating from mesothelial cells that, despite decades of research, continues to have limited therapeutic options and is associated with a poor prognosis. Areas covered: MMs induce a strong inflammatory response that is also associated with neoangiogenesis and activation of proangiogenic factors. Given this, several anti-angiogenic agents have been trialled in a variety of malignancies including mesothelioma...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Marta Penna, Nicolas C Buchs, Alexander L Bloemendaal, Roel Hompes
The surgical approach to total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer has undergone a substantial evolution with the adoption of more minimally invasive procedures. Transanal TME (taTME) is the latest advanced technique pioneered to tackle difficult pelvic dissections. Areas covered: The evolution of TME surgery from open to laparoscopic, robotic and transanal techniques was explored in this review. The outcomes to date on the latest approach, taTME, are reviewed and the future direction of rectal cancer surgery proposed...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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